Sociology

About this Collection

How do human societies constitute themselves? How do they interact with one another? How do they preserve and change themselves? The study of sociology is the exploration of these questions.

Key People

Titles & Essays

A – Z List

America

Loading...

Auxiliary Sciences Of History

Loading...

Communities. Classes. Races

Loading...

Economic History And Conditions

Loading...

Economic Theory. Demography

Loading...

Ethics

Loading...

France Andorra Monaco

Loading...

Great Britain

Loading...

History Of Scholarship And Learning. The Humanities

Loading...

Philosophy, Psychology, And Religion

Loading...

Political Institutions And Public Administration (United States)

Loading...

Political Science

Loading...

Political Theory

Loading...

Social History And Conditions. Social Problems. Social Reform

Loading...

Social Sciences

Loading...

Socialism. Communism. Anarchism

Loading...

Sociology

Loading...

United States

Loading...

World History

Loading...

Not Categorized

David M. Hart, “Classical Liberalism and the Problem of Class” (Nov. 2016)

David M. Hart (author)

This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.”

Liberty Matters: Herbert Spencer’s Sociology of the State (Nov. 2014)

George H. Smith (author)

The English sociologist and individualist political philosopher Herbert Spencer has been either completely neglected or badly misinterpreted by scholars for over one hundred years. In this discussion George Smith explores an…

Quotes

War & Peace

Herbert Spencer argued that in a militant type of society the state would become more centralised and administrative, as compulsory education clearly showed (1882)

Herbert Spencer

Natural Rights

Herbert Spencer concludes from his principle of equal freedom that individuals have the Right to Ignore the State (1851)

Herbert Spencer

Origin of Government

Herbert Spencer makes a distinction between the “militant type of society” based upon violence and the “industrial type of society” based upon peaceful economic activity (1882)

Herbert Spencer

The State

Herbert Spencer notes that traditionally the growth in government revenue has come about because of war (1882)

Herbert Spencer

Class

Herbert Spencer observes that class structures emerge in societies as a result of war and violence (1882)

Herbert Spencer

Society

Herbert Spencer on customs which are the result of human action but not of deliberate design (1876)

Herbert Spencer

Property Rights

Herbert Spencer on human nature and the right to property (1851)

Herbert Spencer

Liberty

Herbert Spencer on the prospects for liberty (1882)

Herbert Spencer

Natural Rights

Herbert Spencer on the right of political and economic “dissenters” to have their different beliefs and practices respected by the state (1842)

Herbert Spencer

Economics

Spencer on spontaneous order produced by “the beneficent working of social forces” (1879)

Herbert Spencer

Parties & Elections

Spencer on voting as a poor instrument for protecting our rights to life, liberty, and property (1879)

Herbert Spencer

Parties & Elections

Spencer on voting in elections as a screen behind which the wirepullers turn the sovereign people into a puppet (1882)

Herbert Spencer

War & Peace

Sumner and the Conquest of the United States by Spain (1898)

William Graham Sumner

Socialism & Interventionism

Sumner criticizes the competing vested interests and the role of legislators in the “new democratic State” (1887)

William Graham Sumner

Economics

Sumner on the industrial system as an example of social co-operation (c. 1900)

William Graham Sumner

The State

Sumner on the legalization of robbery by the State (1883)

William Graham Sumner

Politics & Liberty

Tocqueville on centralization as the natural form of government for democracies (1835)

Alexis de Tocqueville

The State

Tocqueville on the absence of government in America (1835)

Alexis de Tocqueville

Presidents, Kings, Tyrants, & Despots

Tocqueville on the form of despotism the government would assume in democratic America (1840)

Alexis de Tocqueville

Politics & Liberty

Tocqueville on the spirit of association (1835)

Alexis de Tocqueville

War & Peace

William Graham Sumner denounced America’s war against Spain and thought that “war, debt, taxation, diplomacy, a grand governmental system, pomp, glory, a big army and navy, lavish expenditures, political jobbery” would result in imperialsm (1898)

William Graham Sumner

Food & Drink

William Graham Sumner on how “society” helps the drunkard in the gutter (1883)

William Graham Sumner

Class

William Graham Sumner on the political corruption which is “jobbery” (1884)

William Graham Sumner

War & Peace

William Graham Sumner on the racism which lies behind Imperialism (1898)

William Graham Sumner

Taxation

William Graham Sumner reminds us never to forget the “Forgotten Man”, the ordinary working man and woman who pays the taxes and suffers under government regulation (1883)

William Graham Sumner

Notes About This Collection

See also the extracts, chapters, and introductions in the Sociology section of the Ideas page.