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Samuel von Pufendorf, An Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe [1695]

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Samuel von Pufendorf, An Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe. Translated by Jodocus Crull (1695). Edited and with an Introduction by Michael J. Seidler (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2013).

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Table of Contents:

Edition: current; Page: [i]
an introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of europe
Edition: current; Page: [ii]

natural law and enlightenment classics

Knud Haakonssen

General Editor

Edition: current; Page: [iii]

Samuel Pufendorf

Edition: current; Page: [iv] Edition: current; Page: [v]
natural law and enlightenment classics
An Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe
Samuel Pufendorf
Translated by Jodocus Crull (1695)
Edited and with an Introduction by Michael J. Seidler
The Works of Samuel Pufendorf
liberty fund
Edition: current; Page: [vi]

This book is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a foundation established to encourage study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.


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Frontispiece: The portrait of Samuel Pufendorf is to be found at the Law Faculty of the University of Lund, Sweden, and is based on a photoreproduction by Leopoldo Iorizzo. Reprinted by permission.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pufendorf, Samuel, Freiherr von, 1632–1694

[Einleitung zu der Historie der vornehmsten Reiche und Staaten so itziger Zeit in Europa sich befinden. English]

An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe

Samuel Pufendorf; translated by Jodocus Crull (1695); edited and with an introduction by Michael J. Seidler. page cm. (Natural law and Enlightenment classics)

Includes bibliographical references and index.

isbn 978-0-86597-512-5 (hardcover: alk. paper)

isbn 978-0-86597-513-2 (pbk.: alk. paper)

1. Europe—History. I. Crull, Jodocus, –1713? translator. II. Seidler, Michael J., 1950–editor. III. Title.

d103.p97 2013



liberty fund, inc.

8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300

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Edition: current; Page: [vii]


  • Editor’s Introduction ix
  • A Note on the Text xli
  • Acknowledgments xlvii
  • Dedicatory Epistle (by Jodocus Crull) 3
  • Preface to the Reader (by Samuel Pufendorf) 5
  • List of Chapters 11
  • an introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of europe 13
  • Appendix 1. A Brief Publication History of the Introduction and Its Descendants 603
  • Appendix 2. A List of Early Modern Editions and Translations 615
  • Appendix 3. Editions and Translations: Specific Publication Dates (Chart 1) 629
  • Appendix 4. Editions and Translations: Temporal Overview (Chart 2) 635
  • Bibliography 641
  • The Original “Table” of Contents Index 661
  • Index to the Modern Edition 677
Edition: current; Page: [viii] Edition: current; Page: [ix]


In the early twentieth century when his main natural law works were reissued in the Carnegie Classics series,1 Samuel Pufendorf was known as a theorist of international law; toward the latter end of the century, when he became more familiar to the Anglo-American world, he was studied mainly as a moral and political theorist.2 However, in his own time in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Pufendorf was known and respected primarily as a historian.3 Though these roles may now seem distinct and the subject of different professional literatures, they intersected or coincided in that earlier period. Thus, contrary to interpretations that segment Pufendorf’s life and thought in either topical or temporal ways, or that seek to prioritize one or another function,4 his roles as international jurist, natural lawyer, and historian must be seen in active relation to one another. They are present at all stages of his career.

Samuel Pufendorf was born in 1632, at the height of the Thirty Years’ War, to a Lutheran pastor in Lower Saxony whose family experienced firsthand some of the terrors of that formative period in European history. When he died in 1694, he was royal historian to both Sweden and Brandenburg, an ennobled international figure whose services were also desired in Vienna to record the history of the empire and its Turkish Edition: current; Page: [x] wars.5 His older brother, Esaias (1628–87), who often furthered his career and remained close despite eventual political differences, was an experienced and well-connected European diplomat; and Samuel himself held the posts of secretary to Hedwig Eleonora—widow of Charles Gustav, dowager queen of Sweden, and mother of Charles XI—and of privy councillor in Berlin. Throughout his career, he maintained close ties to members of the Swedish ruling class, whose sons he taught during his university periods at Heidelberg (1660–68) and Lund (1668–76). Indeed, as a historian who emphasized the importance of modern history, Pufendorf was throughout his life appropriately in the thick of things.

Like Esaias before him, Samuel began his formal education in 1645 at the ducal school at Grimma, where his studies included the Greek and Latin classics, especially the ancient historians. This was also a personal passion that he indulged voraciously on the side and that would provide a basis for his broad historical and political understanding. He continued his study of classics, or philology, at the University of Leipzig (1650–58) where, an early biographer reports, his favorite subjects were “divine and natural law” and the associated study of “history, politics, and civil law.”6 Equally important at the time was his membership in the Collegium Anthologicum, an extracurricular academic society where he gave many lectures on historical topics, including church history and the Holy Roman Empire.7 In 1658 Samuel followed Esaias into Swedish service by becoming tutor to the household of Peter Ju lius Coyet, Sweden’s envoy to Denmark. The renewed war between these countries led to an eight months’ long imprisonment in Copenhagen, during which Pufendorf composed the Elements of Universal Jurisprudence (1660), his first and structurally most formal natural law Edition: current; Page: [xi] work. Notably, that same experience also led to a lesser-known political tract, Gundaeus Baubator Danicus (1659), which explored the status and rights of ambassadors in the context of international law.8

The Elements was published in the Netherlands, where Pufendorf was secretary to Coyet while also studying at Leiden University and editing several classical texts. Its dedication to Karl Ludwig, the reinstated Elector Palatine, soon secured for him a chair at Heidelberg in philology and international law (ius gentium).9 There he cultivated close ties with a number of young Swedish aristocrats,10 in part through a series of important theses (written by himself and defended by students), which were later included in his Select Academic Dissertations [Dissertationes academicae selectiores] (1675). These early pieces focused on topics (for example, patriotism, systems of states, irregular states) that remained central to his thought and elaborated the bare theoretical framework of the Elements through a rich analysis of historical examples, thereby creating the foundation for his main natural law treatise, On the Law of Nature and of Nations (1672). At Heidelberg, Pufendorf also composed a historically based justification of the Elector’s disputed population politics (the Wildfangstreit),11 he wrote a short history of the fifteenth-century Albanian folk hero George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (who had led a successful resistance against the Turks),12 and he produced (under the pseudonym Severinus de Monzambano) his notoriously irreverent, or Edition: current; Page: [xii] realistic, account of the Holy Roman Empire, The Present State of Germany (1667), which also foreshadowed many of his later works, including the Introduction.

In 1668 Pufendorf left Heidelberg for a chair in natural law at the newly established University of Lund, in Sweden. There he completed On the Law of Nature and of Nations and its shorter pedagogical compendium, The Whole Duty of Man (1673), vigorously defending them against the fierce attacks of Lutheran and Neo-Aristotelian critics in both Sweden and Germany. When renewed hostilities with Denmark forced the closure of the university in 1676, he became royal Swedish historian in Stockholm. In that capacity he produced two long histories of Sweden, including Twenty-six Books of Commentary on Swedish Affairs, from the Expedition of Gustavus Adolphus into Germany to the Abdication of Christina (1686), and its sequel, Eight Books of Commentary on the Achievements of Charles Gustav, King of Sweden, which appeared posthumously in 1696 even though it was essentially completed when Pufendorf was loaned to Brandenburg in 1688. In Berlin he quickly completed his Nineteen Books on the Achievements of Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg (1695) and then turned to the unfinished (and, until 1784, unpublished) fragment, Three Books of Commentary on the Achievements of Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, which is notable for its detailed account of the English Revolution of 1688.13

While still in Sweden, Pufendorf collected the lectures on European history that he had given at Lund, and perhaps Heidelberg, and issued them in 1682 as An Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe. Ironically in view of its immediate success, this was a forced publication. Because an unauthorized Swedish translation based on circulating student manuscripts had appeared in 1680, Pufendorf was compelled to publish an official version in order to assert his authorship (“than to suffer that another should rob me of it”).14 To remedy the absence of a separate chapter on Sweden in Edition: current; Page: [xiii] the manuscript version—whose pedagogical aim had been to educate young Swedes about the rest of Europe—Pufendorf followed up with his Continued Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe, Wherein the History of the Kingdom of Sweden and Its Wars with Foreign Crowns Are Especially Described (1686), a work as long as the much wider ranging original. That same year, before leaving Sweden for Brandenburg, Pufendorf also issued his Scandinavian Quarrel (Eris Scandica), a collection of polemical essays defending his natural law theory against a variety of critics. And in Berlin, before his death in 1694, he published two important works on religion that addressed church-state relations, religious unification, and toleration.15 At the same time he was preparing the second edition of The Present State of Germany, which he had substantially revised to reflect current European conditions.

The Introduction—Background, Content, and Reaction

Pufendorf’s original Introduction consisted of a preface and twelve chapters, each devoted to a different European state. The relatively short chapter I pays tribute to the ancient historians as “equally usefull and pleasant,”16 and continues to adhere formally to the traditional four-monarchies scheme (Assyria, Persia, Macedonia, and Rome) associated with Daniel 2:31–44. However, that framework is not employed in the unified, millenarian fashion of universal history, and Pufendorf subjects each ancient empire (especially Rome) to the same realistic, reason-of-state analysis as the rest of the work. Subsequent chapters Edition: current; Page: [xiv] all focus on the supposedly neglected but more useful study of modern history (i.e., the recent history of modern states), where the fourth monarchy—the Holy Roman or German Empire (chapter VIII)—appears merely as one political entity among others. The twelfth chapter, which is devoted to the papacy or the court of Rome, had appeared separately already in 1679 under the pseudonym of Basileus Hypereta and was neatly folded into the larger work.17 The missing thirteenth chapter, as it were, as found in the later English and Latin versions, was not by Pufendorf himself but is most likely Crull’s condensation of the Continued Introduction.18

According to the Preface, Pufendorf’s respective accounts of individual states were based on their own historians, which made for some differing perspectives that he explicitly chose not to “reconcile or decide.”19 Moreover, as literary historians report, he relied mainly on one main source in each case,20 including the following authors: Mariana (Spain), Vasconcellus (Portugal), Vergilius (England), Aemylius (France), Grotius (United Provinces), Simler (Switzerland), Lehmann (Germany), Pontanus (Denmark), Neugebauer (Poland), Herbsteiner (Russia), and Messenius (Sweden—in the Continued Introduction).21 Edition: current; Page: [xv] The controversial account of the papacy relied on “an anonymous Frenchman” and, perhaps, a student manual on church history by the Lutheran theologian Hieronymus Kromayer, who had taught the subject at Leipzig during Pufendorf’s residency there.22 Basileus Hypereta’s preface (1679)—not transferred to the Introduction—also refers to church histories by M. Antonius de Dominis and Petrus Suavis but deems these unhelpful because of their focus on doctrinal disputes and clerical matters of little interest to politicians.23 In general, the Introduction Edition: current; Page: [xvi] relies on other authors mainly for the older, distant histories of individual states, but as the respective accounts approached his own time Pufendorf made more use of his own experience and research; for here, according to Ludwig, he held “the chief place.”24

The final sections of each chapter, which were termed “politick remarks” or “politische Anmerckungen” by later authors, are of special note. Comprising Pufendorf’s “Observations . . . concerning the good and bad Qualifications of each Nation, . . . as also what concerns the Nature, Strength and Weakness of each Country, and its form of Government”25—a kind of political commentary already found in The Present State of Germany26—they applied the Preface’s distinctions about different types of state’s interest (ratio status) to the peculiar form and condition of each country. Pufendorf was not the first to offer a history of individual European states as such, and others had lectured on the topic before, including Hermann Conring (1606–81) at Helmstedt and Johann Andreas Bose (1626–74), professor of history at Jena (since 1656) with whom Pufendorf was personally acquainted.27 There Edition: current; Page: [xvii] were also contemporary analyses of Europe in terms of state’s interest, such as Petrus Valckenier’s Das verwirrte Europa (1677) and Christian Widemann’s Academia status (1681).28 The “new moment” in Pufendorf’s approach was the emphasis on modern history and, especially in these sections, the concrete assessment of individual states and their external relations in terms of a normative notion of interest rooted in his natural law theory.29 That is, it was the unusual combination of Pufendorf’s philosophical theory of the state with his practical observations of contemporary political affairs that gave the work its pull.

Like many of Pufendorf’s other works, the Introduction was well received and soon translated into other European languages (see Appendix 1, Publication History, p. 603). According to Ludwig (1695/1700), it gained many adherents (Liebhaber) and served as a “manual in history” for almost everyone.30 Siebenkäs (1790) also referred to its popular, handbook status and noted its “important influence on the teaching of history,” to which it had given “a new direction.”31 Brockwell (1702) considered it one of Pufendorf’s “most Compleat and Perfect Pieces” and called him a “prophet” on the basis of its political analyses.32 The Dedication of Etienne de la Chambre’s (Bruzen de la Martinière’s) grand 1721 French revision of the Introduction describes it as “the chief Edition: current; Page: [xviii] work of a wise man who is regarded as the oracle of politicians.”33 These and other estimations were not confined to those with a vested interest in the work, such as its translators, editors, and commentators, but they also issued from the new scholarly journals in which Pufendorf’s works, including his histories, were often reviewed.34 Two such reviews are of particular note since Pufendorf replied to them in print—with his fictive “Two Letters . . . to Adam Rechenberg” (Epistolae duae . . . ad Adamum Rechenbergium, 1688).35 The first appeared in the Journal des Savants, where the Abbé de La Rocque made minor corrections to Pufendorf’s account—in Twenty-six Books of Commentary on Swedish Affairs (1686)—of France’s role during the Thirty Years’ War, evoking from the latter (in his first “letter”) not only a complaint about La Rocque’s pro-French and pro-Catholic bias36 but also some valuable observations on the writing of history. The second, by Jean Le Clerc in the Bibliotheque universelle et historique, focused directly (via Cramer’s 1688 Latin translation) on Pufendorf’s Introduction, particularly its comments about religious freedom in the United Provinces (chapter VI).37 This initial exchange with Le Clerc about the appropriate degree of religious toleration in a state continued with the latter’s response to Pufendorf’s “Two Letters,” and with Pufendorf’s The Divine Feudal Law (1695), which Le Clerc also reviewed some years later.38

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Pufendorf as Historiographer

What reviewers like Le Clerc, Rechenberg, Bayle, and (Henri) Basnage de Beauval appreciated about Pufendorf’s historical writing matched his own assessment of what mattered.39 Most important was the reliance on documentation and first-hand reports, rather than hearsay or speculation. As royal historiographer in Stockholm and Berlin, Pufendorf made thorough use of the archives to which he had privileged access. He also travelled in Europe to obtain source materials, and he attempted sometimes to obtain important records through personal connections—even from parties otherwise unlikely to provide them, such as the court of Rome.40 Indeed, Pufendorf’s principled reliance on archival materials—that is, his writing of “public” rather than “private” history41—sometimes provoked complaints that he had revealed state secrets and led to censorship of certain works for this reason.42 Other commendations of Pufendorf’s historiographical method noted his avoidance of speculation about the motives of historical actors, and his self-limitation to what he took to be the implications of the documentary evidence. Moreover, it was said, he did not ascribe malicious motives to the adversaries of those who had commissioned his works, Edition: current; Page: [xx] and he left moral judgment about events to the reader. In Tacitean fashion (sine studio et ira: “without bias or malice,” Annals I.1), he sought explicitly to avoid interpolating personal emotion or prejudice into his accounts.43

By avoiding both “the writing of falsehoods and the concealment of truths” the historian is distinguished, so Pufendorf, from a fabulist and a flatterer. His role also differs from those of an advocate (lawyer) and a judge. The former is essentially a special pleader or propagandist for his clients, seeking in every way to advance their cause, even by distorting the record; while the latter presumes to render verdicts from an acontextual or disinterested meta-perspective, a view from nowhere, as it were. The historian, instead, should describe things as he finds them and leave judgment to the reader. However, this does not preclude the expression of a particular view. On the contrary, as Pufendorf somewhat misleadingly observed, a historian also plays the tune of the one who pays or feeds him, and so (the former) Queen Christina’s complaint (at Rome) that his account of Sweden’s involvement in the Thirty Years’ War had displeased Catholics was to him “ridiculous.” What he meant by such statements was better expressed, perhaps, by two other similes: the historian as secretary or architect who fashions a literary or physical edifice for a ruler by using the latter’s own materials and plans. Thus, two historians can write “. . . the history of two hostile princes . . . with the same appearance of truth [pari specie], as long as each adjusts him self to the opinions, impressions, and interests of his own prince.” Indeed, Pufendorf remarked, waxing autobiographical, the same skillful individual can write both histories, build the same information into both accounts, and even have one borrow from the other, as long as the general perspectives are different. In fact, this describes his own histories of Frederick William and Charles Gustav, respectively, and to some Edition: current; Page: [xxi] extent the various accounts in the Introduction, where the same events are treated in the context of differing national histories.44

Historically, the early modern historiographer was situated between two more general or (apparently) less partial roles: that of the so-called universal (or salvation) historian and that of later, more disaffiliated historians purporting to work only for the party of humanity.45 Despite clear continuities with the classical, “rhetorical” tradition that highlighted virtuous exemplars and ideal types,46 his own accounts were “pragmatic” in the sense of focusing on the concrete interconnectedness of actual events.47 In fact, the historiographer’s role evolved along with its subject matter, which was the early modern states and rulers in need of legitimating narratives to maintain their internal sovereignty, external independence, and relative claims upon one another. Arising in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, in Iberia and Italy, the formal office of royal historiographer moved gradually from there into northern Europe, where it culminated in the seventeenth century together with the process of state-building.48 Despite or perhaps because of its overt nationalistic function, the role was international in character. That is, not only was it shared or iterated in many states, which had their own historiographers, but it also became professionalized or bureaucratized, with the individuals filling it often switching their employ like diplomats, soldiers, and other state officers.49 Most significantly, historiographers’ works were mainly aimed at an international audience, including a state’s or ruler’s antagonists. In Pufendorf’s terms, the Edition: current; Page: [xxii] historiographer was a kind of “public interpreter”50 whose task it was to lay before the world the case of the political actors he represented and to defend their claims and policies in terms of rational and moral criteria. The crucial and, perhaps, paradoxical assumption was that this could be done without sacrificing truth.

History, Natural Law, and Interest

By recording, portraying, and analyzing political agency as such (as exhibited in the diplomacy, negotiations, treaties, alliances, and other strategic decision-making that were Pufendorf’s main concern), history facilitated the extension of natural law reasoning from individuals to the collectives that they comprised or represented. And by articulating the concrete interests of competing states, it allowed their association with the obligations of rulers, thereby linking international to natural law, and politics to morality. This seems to be the meaning of the statement in the “Eloge historique” prefixed to the 1753 French edition of the Introduction: that without history, On the Law of Nature and of Nations would have been nothing but “abstract speculation,” and that Pufendorf composed the Introduction as a guide for young people so that they would not be misled by the theoretical treatise.51 Of course, the Introduction and other works were not simple, textbook applications of the latter’s principles. Still, they were presumed to be consistent with these in the same way that Pufendorf’s historical knowledge about political affairs, both ancient and modern, gave substance and intelligibility to the natural law theory that it in a sense generated. That is, the theory not only emerged from practice as depicted in history, but it also guided it in turn.

The prime directive of Pufendorf’s natural law theory, the law of sociality, enjoins humans “inasmuch as [they] can, [to] cultivate and maintain toward others a peacable sociality that is consistent with the Edition: current; Page: [xxiii] native character and end of humankind in general.”52 It is dictated by the realities of humans’ so-called natural state or condition, which reveals them to be self-interested, imperfect, vulnerable, and, accordingly, insecure beings. To escape from this undesirable condition, which also impedes further enculturation and moralization, the sociality law compels humans to establish states, namely, composite moral persons, which so unify their members’ disparate wills that a common peace and security can be achieved.53 However, states can be effective vehicles for individual self-preservation only if they meet certain formal requirements, specifically if they are “regular” in the sense of having clearly defined, undivided, and supreme or inexorable command structures, or sovereignty, toward those that establish and compose them. Furthermore, to realize their purpose, states (or their rulers) must correctly identify and pursue their own interests, as determined by their particular characteristics and also their relation to other states with whom they interact.54 For this they require accurate historical knowledge (especially of recent affairs) and acute political analysis, such as is provided by Pufendorf’s Introduction and other historical works, which are in effect governing “manuals” for rulers.

The Introduction’s Preface55 provides a brief anatomy of state’s interests that underlies Pufendorf’s analytical historiography in general, and also his natural law assessment of particular states’ concretely conditioned obligations toward their own citizens and competing powers. There are three basic distinctions, the first between real and imaginary interests. The latter are self-defeating in that, if pursued, they damage the state. To exemplify this, Pufendorf refers to the striving for hegemonic superiority or “universal monarchy,” which other states are both inclined and compelled (given their obligations to their own citizens) to oppose with all their might, thus producing a counterproductive, Edition: current; Page: [xxiv] international state of war. The former are subdivided into perpetual and temporary interests, the first of which depend on internal characteristics of states such as their location, geography, natural resources, type of people, and the like; the second are determined by a state’s relation to its neighbors and their relative strengths and weaknesses. It is clear from these descriptions that a state’s real and imaginary interests may change depending on its current international setting, and that such changes may warrant shifts in its internal and external policies, including alliances and treaty obligations. A third distinction, between private and public interest, is equally significant, and it applies both to in-state factions seeking to undermine the state’s authority and to sovereigns who put their personal concerns above the civic welfare.

The long historical accounts that constitute the bulk of the Introduction (and the Continued Introduction) actually make scant formal use of these distinctions but consist instead, as Meinecke put it, of “a rather primitive and conventional treatment of materials.”56 Still, the varying fortunes of the different historical personae encountered there, both individual and collective, clearly invite such analysis. Moreover, the cumulative impact of the political opportunism, treachery, organized violence, and other contingencies reviewed—that is, the actual history of European states—facilitates Pufendorf’s comparative assessment of each state’s current interests at the end of the respective chapters. These final sections, which were a major reason for the popularity of the work, follow a general pattern in each case, addressing things like the following: the peculiar characteristics (negative as well as positive) of a state’s people; its natural resources, geographical advantages and disadvantages, and form of government; and its external relations to other states whose actions could affect its own.57 Here one clearly Edition: current; Page: [xxv] sees the distinctions among interests at work, particularly permanent and temporary ones. As noted before, the great attraction of the Introduction for all sides was its move beyond a general and even stylized reason-of-state analysis to a detailed examination of specific states’ concrete interests,58 for this not only gave everyone a better sense of how the game was played but also allowed them to tailor their policies so as to avoid conflict and reap (mutual) advantage. The separate end-of-chapter accounts amounted, in short, to a kind of political advice in each case, if not on how to alter or improve a particular state’s international situation then certainly how best to maneuver and survive in it.

These features of the Introduction also link it with Pufendorf’s activities as political advisor and apologist—a role inevitably involving the consideration of different types of interest. Since early modern territorial and dynastic claims were often historical in nature—besides searching for deeper or broader justifications like those provided by natural law—broadly competent scholars like Pufendorf were regularly entrusted with this role.59 Thus, the latter produced a number of political tracts justifying the policies of his current employers, both at Heidelberg and at Stockholm. These include the aforementioned Prodromus and the piece on Skanderbeg, which exhibit the different levels on which such arguments were offered: the former tract defended the particular claims of Karl Ludwig’s Palatinate against other powers within the empire, while the latter represented the interests of Christian Europe as a whole against the Turks.

More instructive here, however, are two later pieces produced by Edition: current; Page: [xxvi] Pufendorf for Charles XI of Sweden.60 The Discussion of Certain Writers of Brandenburg (1675), written while he was professor of natural law at Lund, defends Sweden’s attack (in December 1674) on Brandenburg, then allied with the emperor against France (Sweden’s ally). It argued that Brandenburg (which banned the tract in 1677) was acting against its own interests by maintaining its imperial alliance, pursuing, in a word, an imaginary or “chimerical” rather than a real interest.61

In 1681, when the situation in Europe and Sweden alike had changed, with France supplanting Austria as the most likely threat of a “universal monarchy,” Pufendorf (now royal historiographer in Stockholm) published another political pamphlet, On the Occasions When Sweden and France Have Been Allied, which once again defended Sweden, though now for its more recent, anti-French policy. Significantly, the latter work was commissioned by the new chancellor, Bengt Oxenstierna, who had supplanted the pro-French Magnus de la Gardie at the Swedish Court and whose policy differences with Pufendorf’s brother, Esaias, led eventually to the latter’s resignation from Swedish service and his condemnation (in absentia) to death for treason. Pufendorf himself left Sweden for Brandenburg in 1688, albeit only temporarily (on loan) and on friendlier terms.62

The upshot of these difficult and complicated affairs was, as Pufendorf expressly repeated in the Discussion, that states’ interests are not immutable but depend rather on “the change of events . . . and alterations in one’s own and one’s neighbors’ affairs.”63 This meant that rulers had to orient themselves by current realities and not maintain policies Edition: current; Page: [xxvii] and alliances that might endanger their state.64 Moreover, given the layers of human identification and commitment, the interests of historians themselves could change, raising difficult questions about loyalty or patriotism, and about personal versus public interest.65

Finally, it is worth noting that Pufendorf’s end-of-chapter discussions are genuinely interesting and informative, not only about the respective states canvassed but also his general view of Europe. Judgments—or, as he might say, observations—abound. Thus France (chapter V) is said to be swarming with people who are collectively characterized as warlike, good at fortifications, of a merry disposition, lecherous, and economically savvy at attracting others’ wealth. Its military power is land-based, its government an absolutist monarchy, and its clergy in possession of half the nation and relatively independent of Rome. As the most powerful state in Europe, France need fear no one except Germany, although only hypothetically because of the latter’s irregularity or divided sovereignty.66 In contrast, the United Provinces (chapter VI) is also populous for its size, is a sea power, and is generally incapable of land service and thus dependent on mercenaries in this respect. Its people are open-hearted and honest, parsimonious and punctual, and both eager and fit for trade. Magistrates there are generally merchants, and commoners are prone to become a dangerous rabble. The different provinces are divided by jealousies and rivalries, and thus are but imperfectly joined into a loose confederacy or system held together by necessity and interest. The irregularity and instability of this form of government are further increased by the role of the Prince of Orange, though it remains in his interest as well to maintain the status quo. The latter includes a toleration of many religions, which Pufendorf (disagreeing with Le Clerc) regards as a political weakness, Edition: current; Page: [xxviii] even though he also mentions positively that the Dutch rarely hate and persecute one another on account of their beliefs. As for security, the Dutch must maintain their naval strength and keep France at bay by supporting Spain’s claims to the Spanish Netherlands. They have a strong interest in maintaining freedom of commerce around the globe, where they have a growing commercial empire.67 These and the other accounts are detailed, piquant, and bold (reminding readers of Monzambano’s unabashed account of Germany), albeit according to the general rules of historiography described earlier. They offered readers a compelling primer of European power politics at the time.

The Popish Monarchy

The challenge of organized religion to early modern statecraft explains the inclusion of the long chapter on the papacy. The Protestant Reformation had loosed many bonds within Christendom, dissolving former wholes and turning internal into external conflicts in both the religious and the secular spheres. Protestants, while politically liberated from Rome in some areas, remained threatened by Catholic powers in and out of the empire, well through the end of the seventeenth century. Pufendorf traced the problem—at least in its latest configuration—to the election of Charles V, whose combined roles as king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor had given the pope and ecclesiastical princes inordinate power in the empire.68 This remained so at the Westphalian negotiations (1648), which the papacy could not prevent but nonetheless obstructed.69 At the heart of the conflict was the issue of secular sovereignty in increasingly complex and pluralistic societies over which the papacy still claimed a spiritual dominion, and the associated question of concrete control over so-called ecclesiastical benefices or goods, which had important fiscal and political ramifications. Unlike Luther, Edition: current; Page: [xxix] whose opposition to Catholicism had been mainly doctrinal, Pufendorf worried more about the papacy’s worldly ambitions and interpreted its spiritual claims largely as a front for these.70 In his view, “. . . since the beginning of the World, there has not been set up a more artificial Fabrick than the Popish Monarchy,” whose maintenance has required all the more craftiness and deception as its ends have differed from those of other states, namely the security and peace of subjects.71 Indeed, because its claims challenged secular sovereignty and thereby endangered both intra- and international peace, which were divinely sanctioned,72 political Catholicism was for Pufendorf a false religion.73 Like the Introduction’s other chapters, his historical and political account of the papacy was intended as an instructive exposé. Even if it did not succeed in getting the pope to recognize his own state’s true interest, the account could help secular (Protestant) rulers to protect their states and fulfill their natural law duties toward their subjects.

Unsurprisingly, the papacy chapter earned (in 1692) the Introduction a place on the Index of Forbidden Books, and an earlier ban in Vienna, though everyone there read it anyway.74 This was because the tide had already begun to turn, and people recognized the truth of Pufendorf’s Edition: current; Page: [xxx] concluding observation about the divergence of political and religious interests: just as two states of the same religion could be opposed because of their respective secular interests, the latter could also make allies of states with different religious colorations. The former situation was exhibited by the rivalry between France and Spain and that between England and the United Provinces; and something like the latter obtained when emperor and pope alike allowed William of Orange and his Protestant allies to overthrow the Catholic James II of England because of fears about his French alliance and its possible disturbance of the European balance of power.75 Second, various elements of Pufendorf’s case had already been rehearsed in several earlier works and were therefore not unfamiliar to his European audience. One source of its ideas was the eighth chapter (titled “On the German Empire’s Reason of State”) of The Present State of Germany where, in the 1667 edition, Pufendorf had first a Catholic and then a Protestant speaker offer trenchant criticisms of the Catholic church in terms later iterated by the Introduction.76 Another precedent was Pufendorf’s “Brief Commentary on the Bull of Clement IX on the Suppression of Religious Orders,” which appeared (along with the already rare bull itself) in Pufendorf’s Dissertations (1675). Clement’s bull (issued on December 6, 1668) had dissolved—because their founding missions were supposedly no longer served—the religious orders of the Jesuates (sic) and Hieronymites, so that their confiscated resources could be used to assist the Venetian defense of Crete against the Turks. Although the bull was quickly suppressed upon the belated realization that it might also justify Protestant attempts to appropriate church goods for secular purposes, Pufendorf used the opening to reject papal claims of authority and to criticize clerical interference in state affairs.77 Another work in the Dissertations volume, “On the Agreement of True Politics with Religion” (1673) also helped lay the basic groundwork for Pufendorf’s analysis in the papacy chapter.

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Two decades after Pufendorf’s death the work was deconfessionalized by Christian Thomasius in his commented edition of 1714. The latter did not hesitate to criticize his friend and mentor in the extensive notes and introduction accompanying the text, where he argued that Lutherans labored under the same kinds of prejudices or “remnants of the papacy” as the Catholics whom Pufendorf so mistrusted. Specifically, he claimed that Lutherans also permitted useless speculation and excessive abstraction to occlude the true doctrine of salvation; they considered themselves to have the only true religion and condemned Catholics and other Protestants as heretical and wicked; and they used the power of secular authorities to suppress revelations of religious error and impropriety in their own case.78 After Thomasius, the work was often reprinted in the eighteenth century as part of the Introduction, albeit with strategic omissions and alterations to appease Catholic sensibilities.79 Its final appearance (before the present edition)—again as an independent tract—came in mid-nineteenth-century Germany (1840), ironically amid the revived confessional conflicts following the Napoleonic era, which were induced in part by a redrawing of territorial boundaries that created religiously more mixed populations.80 The irony is compounded by the fact that one of the key disputes that led to the so-called crisis year of 1837 was the increasing number of mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics—an issue that had evoked one of Thomasius’ early essays81 and one into which the papacy Edition: current; Page: [xxxii] again inserted itself. Thus Weise’s thematically appropriate resurrection of Pufendorf as a supporter of the “friends of truth,” whose work might still be useful in opposing the growing “system of darkness.”82 The conflict between confessions continued into the latter part of the century, including Bismarck’s Kulturkampf, which sought the cultural assimilation of Catholics into a Protestant Prussia. However, despite Pufendorf’s resonance with the strongly antipapalist tenor of that debate, there is no further evidence of Weise’s edition, nor of any other subsequent reprint of the work.

History, Natural Law, and International Law (Ius Gentium)

As noted above, the consideration of states’ interests is continuous with the analysis of their natural law foundation. The latter is an internal, constitutive matter involving a state’s legitimate claim to sovereign authority over its members, while the former is externally oriented and concerns the effective performance of its natural law obligations (particularly security) in an international context, on which the claim to internal sovereignty rests. In short, a state’s raison d’état is rooted in its raison d’etre. To be sure, the reality of separate states pursuing their own interests presents an interstate coordination problem, as it were, in the same way that the so-called state of nature did or does for individuals.83 And its resolution depends in both instances on how the natural law is conceived (for example, as compatible with or antithetical to selfishness) Edition: current; Page: [xxxiii] and on the kind of (real or apparent, permanent or temporary) and the manner in which self-interest is pursued.

Conflicts of interest among states are regulated by international law (the law of nations, ius gentium), which Pufendorf conceives and designates, following Hobbes, as “the natural law of states.”84 It rests like natural law in general on “considerations of our need [indigentiae nostrae], which is relieved, as much as can be, by sociality,” and it straddles Pufendorf’s distinction between absolute and hypothetical precepts of the natural law, where the former applies to all humans as such while the latter presupposes certain human institutions like speech, property, or civil society.85 Hypothetical natural laws are no less constraining than absolute ones, but are merely contingent upon the prior establishment of certain institutions under or within which the natural law’s general dictates are instantiated. Thus, there are broad, strategic absolutes in international law such as the prohibition on unnecessary wars, as well as other, equally stringent hypothetical rules like those pertaining to the manner in which wars are waged (they may not make peace impossible). Both of these differ from other, tactical requirements originating in the legislation of particular states, from custom, or from tacit agreements: such as specific methods of property acquisition, types of contract, and conflict etiquette. These Pufendorf calls the “voluntary or positive law of nations”—which falls outside of what is required for “the security, interest, and safety of nations” and, more important, is not really a “law” at all because there is no (human) superior to enforce it.86

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Likewise excluded from international (and thus natural) law as such, says Pufendorf, are “special agreements of two or more peoples, usually defined by leagues and agreements of peace,”87 for these are infinite in number and usually temporary. By contrast (and, no doubt, mindful here of Gundaeus Baubator Danicus), the law of embassies or the inviolability of ambassadors clearly is an instance of international law, for “such persons are necessary, in order to negotiate, preserve, and strengthen by treaties and agreements that peace which the law of nature itself commands men to embrace by all honourable means.” The final condition points to the duties of ambassadors (and their hosts) and limits their activities, preventing them, for instance, from spying on one another—unless this is typically assumed or mutually accepted by the parties involved.88 Just as natural law commands humans only to form states as such rather than particular kinds of states, a similar, justified flexibility applies to interstate arrangements. And just as citizens are not perpetually bound to particular states in many instances, so states themselves need not always continue their associations or honor their commitments, at least within certain limits (typically procedural, involving notification requirements and such). The concrete interests of states, both permanent and temporary, depend on many real-world factors such as those described in the Introduction’s “political remarks,” and it is the duty of rulers, for their citizens’ sake, to adapt to these. This has some controversial consequences in areas like immigration policy, the duty of hospitality, freedom of religion, the right of transit, trade policy, and preemptive war—in each of which Pufendorf seeks to develop a qualified position that privileges a state’s own security and Edition: current; Page: [xxxv] welfare while seeking also to respect that of others, as well as the absolute, universal, and humanitarian dictates of natural law.89

In a dangerous world of imperfect and self-interested states, one duty of rulers or governments is to equip their states with “innocent means of defense” (such as geographical advantages like ports and passes, and resources for possible wars); others are to get themselves appropriate and timely allies and “carefully [to] observe the undertakings of others.”90 The latter is Pufendorf’s final recommendation in the chapter on the duty of supreme sovereigns in On the Law of Nature and of Nations: “. . . the plans and undertakings of neighboring nations should be carefully ascertained and observed (an end which is served to-day by permanent representatives at their courts . . .), while friendships should be assiduously cultivated, and prudent alliances contracted.”91 Of course, such friendships and alliances are always conditional and must yield to the primary interests of one’s own subjects, and one who thinks otherwise does so at his peril.92 That is why, precisely, the role of observers is so important. The early modern historiographer was, like ambassadors and other legates, a reporter of the affairs of others, past and present, and thus a servant of his own state’s interests. This is clearly true of the Introduction itself, which usefully mapped the political geography of Europe. However, in this work Pufendorf also contributed to a more general interest by sharing his relative assessment of states’ disparate histories and current conditions with all the major Edition: current; Page: [xxxvi] parties. In this way, the work might be said to transcend—albeit not undermine—its partisan purpose. Perhaps this was so because it began life as a pedagogical instrument rather than a formal monument of statist historical remembrance.

Shared knowledge can create a more-even playing field, it can restrain hegemonic aspirations and encourage political caution, and by describing the actual complexities of human affairs it can support a general balance of power. This, along with an emphasis on alliances and state systems,93 was Pufendorf’s preferred solution to the opposed problems of international anarchy and universal monarchy—not some kind of inclusive international counterpart to the sovereign state. For as he noted in the early Elements of Universal Jurisprudence, “. . . that one body, in such huge dimensions, would be threatened through internal disturbances by the same inconveniences as those which exercise the human race, and almost greater ones, divided, as the race is, into a larger number of smaller sovereignties.”94 That is, a de facto cosmopolis in the human sphere would only transform external conflicts into internal ones less amenable to solution. The continued appeal of the Introduction in the eighteenth century was due precisely to such considerations rather than the details of its rough and annalistic historical accounts. And the many corrections, continuations, additions, deletions, and other alterations made to the work by others merely sought to ensure its utility for a changing Europe.95 It would have been easy Edition: current; Page: [xxxvii] to let the work lapse gradually into historical irrelevance if its purpose had been a purely historical one. However, its continual adaptation to new circumstances indicates that it was also a sort of political treatise, a scholarly intervention into real states’ affairs that sought to make history and not merely to report it.

On J.C.M.D.

Jodocus Crull (d. 1713) was born in Hamburg, earned a medical degree at Leiden (1679), and soon after emigrated to England, where he became a fellow of the Royal Society (1681) and a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (1692).96 His absence from the rolls of the Royal Society suggests that he could not pay the dues, a fact that may help to explain his busy literary career as translator, compiler, and author—a role sometimes difficult to trace because his books were often anonymous or attributed only by initials (such as J.C.M.D.). Crull translated two of Pufendorf’s works: the present Introduction, which appeared in 1695 and saw ten more editions through 1753, and Of the Nature and Qualification of Religion in Reference to Civil Society (1698), whose original had appeared in 1687 shortly after Louis XIV’s revocation (1685) of the Edict of Nantes.

Other translations include Dellon’s Voyage to the East-Indies (London, 1698), and The Present Condition of the Muscovite Empire . . . in Two Letters . . . with the Life of the Present Emperor of China, by Father J. Bouvet (London, 1699). Among works composed by Crull himself are The Antient and Present State of Muscovy, Containing an Account of All the Nations and Territories under the Jurisdiction of the Present Czar (London, 1698), The Jewish History . . . Being an Abridgment of Sr. Roger l’Estrange’s Edition: current; Page: [xxxviii] Josephus (London, 1702), With a Continuation (1708), and The Complete History of the Affairs of Spain (London, 1707). This listing is significant because its mention of the East-Indies, Muscovy (Russia), China, [Israel], and Spain support the attribution to Crull of another work associated with Pufendorf’s Introduction, namely An Introduction to the History of the Kingdoms and States of Asia, Africa and America, both Ancient and Modern, According to the Method of Samuel Puffendorf . . . (London, 1705). That work became the official Part 4 of Pufendorf’s (wider) Introduction in the eighteenth century, when it was also reprinted a number of times.97

While Crull was a competent translator of Pufendorf,98 other estimations of his literary work have been more dismissive, perhaps unfairly and anachronistically so. These include designations like “wretched composition” for Crull’s The Antiquities of St. Peter’s, or the Abbey Church of Westminster . . . (London, 1711), and “crypto-pornographer” for his detailing of Ivan the Terrible’s cruelty and sexual deviancy in The Antient and Present State of Muscovy. Crull is also described as a “hack” for “plunder[ing]” other authors and opportunistically “catching the market,” as after Czar Peter the Great’s visit to London in 1698. Some of these practices might be expected of an “impecunious émigré” with a “primary and overriding need to produce a vendible book,” while others seem less objectionable than they might today, given the early modern activity of “cultural translation,” where notions of literary ownership and intellectual property were less stringent, and perhaps more realistic, than in later periods.99

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Early English readers and translators of Pufendorf were of various political leanings, making it difficult to maintain that the latter was drafted by one side or the other. For instance, Edmund Bohun (translator of The Present State of Germany, 1696) was a Tory who attacked Algernon Sidney (in A Defense of Sir Robert Filmer, 1684) and edited Filmer’s Patriarcha (1685),100 while Locke’s friend, James Tyrrell, included significant portions of Pufendorf’s Of the Law of Nature and of Nations in his Patriarcha non Monarcha (1681) as an example of a nonabsolutist position that rejected divine right (being in turn criticized for this by Bohun).101 Crull’s situation is more ambiguous. To be sure, his translation of Pufendorf’s Of the Nature and Qualification of Religion was dedicated to William, Lord Craven, a Royalist and financial supporter of both Charles I and Charles II, and a member of James II’s privy council. However, in the 1690s Craven was also a patron of letters who received many dedications from a variety of authors desperate for employment. Moreover, although Crull’s political sympathies in The Antient and Present State of Muscovy may have differed from Milton’s, whose A Brief History of Moscovia (1682) he excerpted, he notes in the same Dedication to Lord Craven Pufendorf’s caution to young lawyers—in the appendix to that work, which criticized the monarchical absolutism espoused by the Dutch Hobbesian, Adrian Houtuyn—that “under the Pretense of maintaining the Prerogatives of Princes, they should not be prodigal of their Liberty and Property,” adding his own assurances that Pufendorf’s aim was “very remote from maintaining an Arbitrary Power in the State.”102

Crull also wrote two works on Denmark: Denmark Vindicated . . . (London, 1694), and Memoirs of Denmark . . . (London, 1700).103 Neither Edition: current; Page: [xl] was as such of particular note, but the former is significant as a spontaneously offered rebuttal to Robert Molesworth’s An Account of Denmark as It Was in 1692 (London, 1694), a flamboyant Whiggish critique of Denmark’s monarchical institutions and national characteristics that greatly irritated the Danes.104 Whether Crull’s reply to Molesworth indicates his own political leanings or, again, only another attempt to “catch the market” (he seems to have expected some reward from the Danish delegation in London) is unclear. Either way, the work also links him to the Danish playwright, essayist, and composer Ludvig Holberg, who later responded to Molesworth by way of Pufendorf. Holberg’s Introduction to the Histories of the Foremost European States (1711) was essentially a Danish version of Pufendorf’s Introduction that served as a general preparation for his Description of Denmark and Norway (1729). This latter work offered a systematic, subtle, and detailed defense of Danish institutions against Molesworth’s critique, situated within a larger historical and philosophical context. Holberg returned (through Danish history) to Pufendorf’s natural law theory and its rationale of common security as the basic purpose of states—rejecting the divine right justification that Molesworth had attributed to the Danes—and he defended the limited sovereignty of the Danish monarchy in comparison to other forms of government.105 This was essentially Tyrrell’s position, and it may also have been Crull’s.

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The text of this Liberty Fund edition reproduces An Introduction to the History of the Principal Kingdoms and States of Europe, by Samuel Puffendorf, Counsellor of State to the Present King of Sweden, Made English from the Original (London: Printed for M. Gilliflower at the Spread-Eagle in Westminster-Hall, and T. Newborough at the Golden Ball in St. Paul’s Church-Yard, 1695). It has been checked against the first (1682) and second (1684) German editions (see Appendix 1 at the end of this volume), mainly to detect omissions and additions but also, especially in the chapter on the papacy (chapter XII), for the accuracy and consistency of Crull’s translation, whose variations are indicated in the text or notes.

In Crull’s original, Pufendorf’s Preface is followed by an alphabetical index called “The Table.” This has been moved to the rear as “Index I” (see p. 661), followed there by the modern “Index II.” In its place at the front of the work I have inserted a “List of Chapters” referenced to the pagination of the present, Liberty Fund edition. Thus, the page numbers in Index I refer to Crull’s original—shown in the text by horizontal angle brackets <. . .>—while those in Index II refer to the pagination of the current, edited reprint. Also, Crull’s original enumeration contains some errors, the most serious at p. 292, which is followed by p. 273 instead of p. 293, thus repeating the sequence 273–92. This error is negotiated in the angle bracket enumeration, and in Index I, by marking the repeated page numbers with a lowercase “r”: thus one finds both <275> and <r275> (= <repeated p. 275>) in the text.

Like+ Pufendorf’s German original, Crull’s translation contains relatively few paragraph divisions within the numbered sections of each chapter. Since those sections are often quite long and dense, I have Edition: current; Page: [xlii] inserted many additional breaks in order to make the narrative more accessible and to give relief to contemporary readers. Given their quantity, these breaks are inserted without notice. However, Crull’s original divisions are also retained, and identified by a superscripted “plus” sign after the first word, as at the beginning of this paragraph.

The marginal dates in Crull’s shoulder notes mostly overlap with Pufendorf’s, except that the latter inserted his dates into the text itself, preceded by A., An., or Anno (“in the year”). Since Pufendorf’s dates are more accurately associated with the events to which they refer, I have used them as my guide, instead of following Crull’s (or his typesetter’s) often vague and sometimes erroneous marginal placements. Indeed, for reasons of accuracy, consistency, and fluidity, I have also followed Pufendorf’s practice by placing all marginal dates back into the text itself. There, Crull’s marginal dates are enclosed in backslashes, such as \A. xxxx\. Where Crull omits a date found in Pufendorf, I have inserted it by using the standard designators for such additions from Pufendorf’s text, for example, {A. xxx}. In those few instances where Crull inserts a marginal date not reflected in Pufendorf’s text, I have not distinguished it from Crull’s other marginal dates: that is, it too appears as \A. xxxx\.

In the case of discrepancies between Crull’s and Pufendorf’s dates, especially where the difference is slight, I have followed the latter. However, in the case of more significant divergences, and where Crull is more obviously correct, I have followed his dates instead. I have not checked all of the dates against the historical record, and so they should be used with caution. Moreover, as will be obvious, there are many other dates in the manuscript besides the reinserted marginal dates; these remain without special indication. That is, backslashes \A. . . .\ and braces {A. . . .} are used exclusively for marginal dates in Crull and their in-text counterparts in Pufendorf.

Crull’s translation is accurate and reliable on the whole: as a native of Hamburg he had no difficulty with Pufendorf’s German, including its many colloquialisms (which he sometimes converted into English counterparts and more often ignored, thus losing some of the flavor of Pufendorf’s text). Still, he worked quickly, and this sometimes gives his Edition: current; Page: [xliii] translation a run-on character, especially when compared with Pufendorf’s stylistically more measured German. Such awkwardness is most noticeable when Crull bridges or conflates two or more of Pufendorf’s sentences—where, it seems, he is in too much of a rush to search for a more suitable accommodation for the varying periodicities of English and German, and where, occasionally, he loses the thread or actually misunderstands Pufendorf’s meaning. Such passages are merely identified and clarified in the notes, and I have not otherwise altered or rearranged the translation. The archaic punctuation and capitalization are also retained, except where (as also indicated) it has been necessary to divide sentences (in accord with Pufendorf’s original) in order to accommodate newly introduced paragraph divisions. In such instances, the change typically involves no more than different end-of-sentence punctuation and capitalization of the next word.

More generally, I have as a rule (with some exceptions) not corrected, modernized, or standardized Crull’s language. The latter was often careless with the spelling of names, and even when he hit upon suitable equivalents in English, he did not use them consistently. Sometimes he pronominally personified or depersonified referents in Pufendorf’s German (for example, “France” for “the Frenchman,” or the reverse), which makes for some awkward passages that are difficult to clarify. Moreover, his vocabulary is typically less colorful than Pufendorf’s, sometimes more opinionated, and often not as technical or philosophically self-conscious. Thus Crull freely interchanged terms like “papacy,” “papal chair,” “popish monarchy,” “the pope,” and “church of Rome,” as well as political terms like “sovereignty,” “state,” and “common-wealth”—either as he pleased or to suit his adoptive English audience.1 Specifically, he substituted “ecclesiastical” for Pufendorf’s “spiritual,” “civil” for “worldly,” and “monarchy” for “sovereignty.” Since all these reflect significant distinctions in Pufendorf, I have inserted bracketed in-text substitutions and clarifications throughout and have added explanatory footnotes in the case of longer expressions. Brackets Edition: current; Page: [xliv] are also utilized in places where Crull’s translation seems clearly off the mark; there, the expression being corrected is enclosed within single quotation marks. Occasionally, too, where Crull’s expressions may be misleading or obscure (albeit technically not wrong), I have added more-apt or contemporary English terms. Finally, where it may seem to a current reader that Crull’s text is lacking a word, I have inserted it to preserve continuity in thought or style. That is, despite seeking to respect Crull’s text as such, I have treated it mainly as a vehicle to Pufendorf rather than a work in its own right.

The following in-text symbols are used:

+ = Crull’s own paragraph divisions
{. . .} = text omitted by Crull, including marginal dates
<. . .> = text added by Crull (including pleonasm, periphrasis, elaboration)
|[. . .]| = text changed by Crull from the original (intentionally or not)
[. . .] = editorial substitutions, clarifications, insertions, or corrections
‘. . .’ = translated text corrected in the subsequent [. . .]
\A. . . .\ = marginal or shoulder dates reinserted into the text

It may be noted here that John Chamberlayne translated Pufendorf’s chapter XII (on the papacy) as a separate work in 1691. This translation also seems reliable, though I have not made a complete or systematic comparison with Crull. As there is no translator’s preface to Chamberlayne’s text, it remains unknown whether he translated Pufendorf’s long essay in its earlier, separately issued form (1679), or the basically identical chapter XII of the Introduction (1682). Christian Thomasius’s annotated German text (1714) of the same chapter matches Pufendorf’s original. However, Weise’s nineteenth-century preface (1839) to the Edition: current; Page: [xlv] same work admits that, for the sake of readability, he has “softened” (gemildert) some of Pufendorf’s terms (Formen), replaced antiquated expressions and constructions, and substituted German equivalents for foreign usages.2

Finally, Pufendorf’s works are listed by title in a special subsection (“Works by Pufendorf”) of the Bibliography, ordered there by date of publication. Thus, Pufendorf (1995) refers to Kleine Vorträge und Schriften . . ., and so on. Other bibliographical entries are listed separately by their authors’ names.

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For access to their collections and/or providing copies/microforms of original works, I am grateful to the following libraries: British Library, Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel, Kungliga Biblioteket (National Library of Sweden), Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt (Martin Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg), Staatsbibliothek Berlin (SBB) Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Württembergische Landesbibliothek Stuttgart, University of Helsinki Library, Library of Congress, Northwestern University Library, Syracuse University Library, University of Virginia Library, and University of Florida Library.

In addition, I would like to thank the following persons for various kinds of assistance: Kari Saastamoinen (University of Helsinki) for procuring copies of texts from the Helsinki University Library; Petter Korkman (formerly, University of Helsinki) for Swedish translation and reminding me of Le Clerc’s review of the Einleitung; Pärtel Piirimäe (University of Tartu) for introducing me to the Hamburgische Bibliotheca in the reading room at Wolfenbüttel, and for additions to the Publication History; Hugh Phillips (Western Kentucky University) for translating Russian bibliographical entries; Åsa Soderman for obtaining microfilms in Stockholm; Fiammetta Palladini (Berlin) and Peter Schröder (University College London) for comments on my introductory essay and the publication history; Mark Somos (University of Sussex), Hans Blom (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Blake Landor and Matthew Loving (University of Florida) for help with references and biography; and Knud Haakonssen for checking Brask’s version of the Einleitung, for inviting my participation in this series, and for his editorial support throughout the project. Finally, I am grateful to the Edition: current; Page: [xlviii] careful Liberty Fund editors for making helpful suggestions and, of course, corrections. All these individuals have improved the work and made it easier for me, alone, to accept responsibility for any remaining deficiencies.

Edition: current; Page: [1]





Of the Principal

Kingdoms and States




Counsellor of State to the present King of Sweden.1

Made English from the Original.


Printed for M. Gilliflower at the Spread-Eagle in

Westminster-Hall, and T. Newborough at the Golden

Ball in St. Paul’s Church-Yard. MDCXCV.

Edition: current; Page: [2] Edition: current; Page: [3]

To His EXCELLENCY, CHARLES Duke of Shrewsbury: His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State; Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, &c. And one of the Lords Justices of England.2


I Should scarce have had the boldness to prefix your great Name to this Book: had I not been fully persuaded that the extraordinary worth of my Author would strongly plead for me to your Excellencies Generosity. For, since my intention was, that the Sieur Puffendorf’s Introduction to the History of Europe should appear in no less Lustre in this Kingdom, than it has heretofore done in most parts of Europe;3 I could not, without injuring a Person so famous for his Learning, and the rank Edition: current; Page: [4] he bears in one of the Northern Kingdoms,4 submit his Treatise to the Protection of any other Person, than your Excellency, whose judging Power is so universally acknowledged: If it endures this Test, it must pass current [be accepted] in this Nation. The high Station in which you are now plac’d by the choice of the wisest and bravest of Kings,5 having put your Merits above the Praises of a private Person; I shall rather admire than pretend to enumerate them, wishing, that as your Actions have hitherto been most effectual in preserving your Country’s Liberty, so your Counsels may for the future prove as fatal to the French, as the Swords of your glorious Ancestor’s in former Ages.6 Thus recommending my self to your Excellencies Protection, I beg leave to subscribe my self,

Your Excellencies,
Most devoted Servant,
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That History is the most pleasant and usefull Study for Persons of Quality, and more particularly for those who design for Employments in the State, is well known to all Men of Learning.1 It is therefore requisite, that young Gentlemen should be exhorted early to apply themselves to this Study, not only because their Memory is vigorous, and more capable to retain what they then learn, but also because it may be concluded, that he who has no Relish for History is very unlikely to make any Advantage of Learning or Books.2

It is a common Custom as well in Publick as Private Schools, to read to their Scholars some ancient Historians; and there are a great many who employ several Years in reading of Cornelius Nepos, Curtius, Justin[us] and Livy, but never as much as take into their Consideration the History of later Times. ’Tis true, and it cannot be deny’d, but that we ought to begin with the ancient Historians, they being equally usefull and pleasant; but that the History of later Times is so much neglected is a great Mistake and want of Understanding in those to whom the Education of Youth is committed; for I lay down this as a Principle, That we are to study those Things in our Youth, which may prove usefull to us hereafter, when we come to riper Years, and apply our selves to Business. Now I cannot for my life apprehend, what great Benefit we can expect to receive from Cornelius Nepos, Curtius, and the first Decad of Livy,3 as to our Modern Affairs, tho’ we had learn’d them Edition: current; Page: [6] by Heart, and had, besides this, made a perfect Index of all the Phrases and Sentences that are to be found in them: Or if we were so well vers’d in them, as to be able to give a most exact account, how many Cows and Sheep the Romans led in Triumph when they had conquer’d the Aequi, the Volsci, and the Hernici.4 But what a considerable Advantage it is to understand the Modern History as well of our Native Country, as also its neighbouring Nations, is sufficiently known to such as are employ’d in States Affairs.

But it is not so easie a matter to acquire this Knowledge, partly because those Histories are comprehended in large and various Volumes; partly because they are generally publish’d in the native Language of each Country; so that he who intends to apply himself to this Study must be well vers’d in Foreign Languages.5 To remove in some measure this Difficulty, I did some Years ago, for the Benefit of some young Gentlemen in Swedeland, compile a Compendium, in which was comprehended the History of such States as seem’d to have any Reference unto this Kingdom, with an Intention only to give them the first tast [e] of those Histories fitted chiefly for their Improvement. But after this rough Draught had fallen into other Hands, I had some reason to fear, lest some covetous Bookseller or another might publish it imperfect, as I have known it has happen’d to others, whose Discourses scarce premeditated, have been publish’d against their Will and Knowledge. Wherefore I saw my self oblig’d, notwithstanding I had but little Leisure, to revise the said Work, and after I had render’d it somewhat more perfect, rather to publish it, such as it is, than to suffer that another should rob me of it.6 I hope therefore, that the Discreet Reader will look favourably upon this Work, not as a Piece design’d for Men of great Learning, but adapted Edition: current; Page: [7] to the Apprehensions and Capacities of young Men, whom I was willing to shew the Way, and, as it were, to give them a tast [e] , whereby they might be encouraged to make a further search into this Study.

I must here also advertise the Reader, That because I have taken the History of each Kingdom from its own Historians, a great Difference is to be found in those several Relations, which concern the Transactions of some Nations that were at Enmity, it being a common Observation, That their Historians have magnify’d those Factions which have prov’d Favourable to their Native Country, as they have lessen’d those that prov’d Unfortunate. To reconcile and decide these Differences was not my Business, but to give a clearer insight into its History. I have added also such Observations as are generally made concerning the good and bad Qualifications of each Nation, nevertheless, without any Intention either to Flatter or Undervalue any; as also what concerns the Nature, Strength and Weakness of each Country, and its form of Government:7 All which I thought might be an Inducement to young Gentlemen when they Travel or Converse with Men of greater Experience in the Affairs of the World, to be more inquisitive into those Matters. What I have related concerning the Interest of each State, is to be consider’d as relating chiefly to that Time when I compos’d this Work. And, tho’ I must confess, that this is a Matter more suitable to the Capacity of Men of Understanding than young People, yet I could not pass it by in Silence, since this is to be esteemed the Principle, from whence must be concluded, whether State-Affairs are either well or ill managed.8

I must also mention one thing more, which may serve as an Instruction to young Men, viz. That this Interest may be divided into an Imaginary and Real Interest. By the first I understand, when a Prince judges the Welfare of his State to consist in such things as cannot be perform’d without disquieting and being injurious to a great many other States, and which these are oblig’d to oppose with all their Power: As for Example, The Monarchy Edition: current; Page: [8] of Europe, or the universal Monopoly, this being the Fuel with which the whole World may be put into a Flame. Num si vos omnibus imperare vultis, sequitur ut omnes servitutem accipiant? If you would be the only Masters of the World, doth it thence follow, that all others should lay their Necks under your Yoke?9 The Real Interest may be subdivided into a Perpetual and Temporary. The former depends chiefly on the Situation and Constitution of the Country, and the natural Inclinations of the People; the latter, on the Condition, Strength and Weakness of the neighbouring Nations; for as those vary, the Interest must also vary. Whence it often happens, that whereas we are, for our own Security, sometimes oblig’d to assist a neighbouring Nation, which is likely to be oppress’d by a more potent Enemy; we at another time are forc’d to oppose the Designs of those we before assisted; when we find they have recover’d themselves to that degree, as that they may prove Formidable and Troublesome to us.10

But seeing this Interest is so manifest to those who are vers’d in State-Affairs, that they can’t be ignorant of it; one might ask, How it often times happens, that great Errors are committed in this kind against the Interest of the State. To this may be answer’d, That those who have the Supream Administration of Affairs, are oftentimes not sufficiently instructed concerning Edition: current; Page: [9] the Interest both of their own State, as also that of their Neighbours; and yet being fond of their own Sentiments, will not follow the Advice of understanding and faithfull Ministers. Sometimes they are misguided by their Passions, or by Time-serving Ministers and Favourites. But where the Administration of the Government is committed to the Care of Ministers of State, it may happen, that these are not capable of discerning it, or else are led away by a private Interest, which is opposite to that of the State; or else, being divided into Factions, they are more concern’d to ruin their Rivals, than to follow the Dictates of Reason. Therefore some of the most exquisite parts of Modern History consists [sic] in this, that one knows the Person who is the Sovereign, or the Ministers, which rule a State, their Capacity, Inclinations, Caprices, Private Interests, manner of proceeding, and the like: Since upon this depends, in a great measure, the good and ill management of a State. For it frequently happens, That a State, which in it self consider’d, is but weak, is made to become very considerable by the good Conduct and Valour of its Governours; whereas a powerfull State, by the ill management of those that sit at the Helm, oftentimes suffers considerably. But as the Knowledge of these Matters appertains properly to those who are employ’d in the management of Foreign Affairs, so it is mutable, considering how often the Scene is chang’d at Court. Wherefore it is better learn’d from Experience and the Conversation of Men well vers’d in these Matters, than from any Books whatsoever.11 And this is what I thought my self oblig’d to touch upon in a few Words in this Preface.

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  • chap. i. Of the Ancient Monarchies, and more especially of the Roman, out of whose Ruines arose several Kingdoms and States. p. 13
  • chap. ii. Of the Kingdom of Spain. p. 41
  • chap. iii. Of Portugal. p. 97
  • chap. iv. Of England. p. 115
  • chap. v. Of France. p. 191
  • chap. vi. Of the United Provinces. p. 273
  • chap. vii. Of the Switzers. p. 313
  • chap. viii. Of the German Empire. p. 323
  • chap. ix. Of Denmark. p. 359
  • chap. x. Of Poland. p. 377
  • chap. xi. Of Moscovy. p. 407
  • chap. xii. Of the Spiritual Monarchy of Rome: or, of the Pope. p. 415
  • chap. xiii. Of the Kingdom of Sweden. p. 525
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An Introduction to the History of the Chief Kingdoms and States now in EUROPE.

CHAPTER I: Of the Ancient Monarchies, and more especially of the Roman, out of whose Ruines arose several Kingdoms and States.

§1. No Man of Common Sense,The most ancient State of Mankind. imagines, that at the first Propagation of Mankind, there were such Governments as are among us at this time. But in those Times each Father, without being Subject to any Superiour Power, governed his Wife, Children and Servants, as a Sovereign. Nay, it seems very probable to me, that even to the time of the Deluge, there was no Magistracy, or any Civil Constitution; but that the Government was lodged only in each Father of his Family. For it is scarce to be imagined, that such abominable Disorders could have been introduced, where the Power of Magistrates and Laws was exercised: And it is observable, that after once the Rules of Government were Constituted, we do not find that Mankind in general did run into the same Enormities, of which God Almighty was obliged to purge the World by an Universal Punishment, though the Root of the Evil was remaining as well after as before the Deluge. It seems also, that for a Considerable time after the Deluge this Paternal Government continued in the World. Edition: orig; Page: [2]

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The Original of Civil Societies. §2. But the reason why the Fathers of Families left this Separate way of living, and joyned in a Mutual civil Society, seems to be, That among the Neighbouring Families, sometimes Quarrels used to arise, which being often decided by Force, drew along with them very great Inconveniencies, to prevent which, it was thought necessary for the Preservation of Peace and Quietness among Neighbours, to referr the Decision of such Matters to the Judgment of some of the wisest and most Considerable among them. After the increase of Mankind, it was also easily to be observed, how difficult it would prove for a Single Family to defend itself against the Joint Conspiracy of a malicious Party, to Oppose which, the Neighbours living so near, as to be able to assist one another in case of Necessity, did enter into a Society Mutually to defend themselves against their Common Enemies. That they might do this with the better Success, the Administration of the whole Society was committed to him, who appeared most Considerable for his Wisdom and Valour. It is also very Probable that such as by Common Consent sought out new Habitations, chose a Leader, who both in their Journey, and in the Country, which they possessed themselves of, had the chief Direction of Affairs: And this office of a Judge, Head, or Leader by degrees degenerated [changed] into that sort of Government, which Aristotle calls Heroical, which is nothing else but a Democracy under the Authority of one of the Citizens, who has a Power rather to Advise than to Command the rest. And this seems to be the most ancient Form of Republicks: for the Fathers and Rulers of their Families could not so soon forget their Liberty, as not to Reserve to themselves a share in the Government by which their Consent was required to be given unto all Matters, which were to be decreed in the Name of the whole Society.

At what time the first States were constituted. §3. But at what time precisely these Societies were first Instituted, and which of them is to be esteemed the most Ancient, is not easie to be determined; for though commonly the Assyrian Empire is taken for the first Monarchy,1 yet it is not from hence to be con-Edition: orig; Page: [3]cluded, that Edition: current; Page: [15] the same was the first civil Society; since it is evident that this Empire acquired its Greatness by swallowing up Lesser States. And those Wars which the Assyrian Kings waged against other States, do abundantly testifie, that besides the Assyrian, there were also other Civil Societies even at that time in the World. And here is to be observed, that as all human Affairs do not come immediately to Perfection,The first States were very small and imperfect. so were the first Institutions of Civil Society very simple and imperfect, till by degrees the Supreme Civil Power, together with such Laws and Constitutions as were requisite for the maintaining of a Civil Society, were instituted. The first Common-wealths also were very small, and their Territories of a very little extent, so that it was easie for the Citizens to assemble, either to Consult or to Defend themselves against a Foreign Power. It is evident out of History, that the deeper you search into the most ancient Times, the more Separate small Common-wealths [Staaten] you will meet withal, out of the Union of which great Empires in Process of time did arise, some of those Uniting themselves by common Consent, others being Subdued by the more Powerfull.

The Assyrian Empire. §4. Among these great Empires, the Assyrian is commonly reckoned the most Ancient, the reason of which may probably be, That those Parts were Sooner, and More Inhabited than other places, which being later possessed had Fewer Inhabitants. Wherefore the Assyrians might without much difficulty overcome one small Common-wealth after an other, and by Subduing some, make way for an Entire Conquest over the rest, that had not then learned the advantage of a joint Power and Confederacy. The vast Armies with which Ninus and Semiramis (the first Founders of this Monarchy) did over-power far distant Nations, make the common Chronologies very doubtfull: But to settle this is not to our present purpose. But by what means the Kings of this vast Empire did bridle the Conquered Nations, ought to be remembred, Two of them being most remarkable.2

By what means this Empire was maintained. The First was, That they intending to imprint an Extraordinary Character of their Persons into the Minds of the People, they always Edition: current; Page: [16] kept them-Edition: orig; Page: [4]selves very close in their Palaces, and being seldom to be seen by any but their nearest Servants, they never gave Answer to their Subjects Petitions but by them. Whereby they possessed [persuaded] the People that they were much above the Common Rank of Mankind. The Second was, That every Year they used to draw a certain number of Souldiers out of each Province, and these being Quartered in and about the place of their Residence, and Commanded by such a one as was thought most faithfull, these Forces struck Terrour both into the Subjects at Home and the neighbouring Nations Abroad. This Army was again Disbanded every year, and another drawn out of the Provinces, that the General by the Authority he had with the Soldiers, might not be in a condition to Invade the Empire.Its Fall. The Ruin of this Empire under Sardanapalus, is not so much to be ascribed to his Effeminacy, as to this, That the Kings allowed too much Power to the Governours of Provinces of so vast an extent. These grew at last too Powerfull for the Kings themselves, who being lull’d asleep by Voluptuousness (the effects of Peace and Plenty) did not, as they used to do formerly, by great Actions endeavour to maintain their Authority among the People.

Out of the Ruins of the Assyrian Empire two new Kingdoms were erected; Arbactes taking upon himself the Sovereignty of Media, where he was Governour, as the Lord Lieutenant of Babylon did the same in his Province, both which were afterwards re-united under the Persian Monarchy.

The Persian Empire. §5. Cyrus the first Founder of the Persian Empire, did, besides what formerly belonged to Media and Babylon, also Conquer a great part of the Lesser Asia. This Prince, besides other remarkable Constitutions, did wisely institute this, as a most necessary one to preserve the Peace of his Empire; That in all Provinces, where he sent his Lords Lieutenants, he Constituted Governours of the Fortresses chosen out of the Commons, who being not under the Jurisdiction of the Lords Lieutenants, had their dependence immediately on the King.By what means it was maintained. These therefore living in continual Jealousies, served as a Bridle Edition: orig; Page: [5] to one another. The Lords Lieutenants, without the Assistance of the Governours of the Fortresses, were not in a Capacity to Mutiny against the King, who not only Observed Edition: current; Page: [17] all their Actions, but also frequently Informed the King concerning their Behaviour. From the Governours of the Fortresses nothing was to be feared, because, being of Mean Condition and a very Limited Power, they were not capable of making any great Factions, or drawing any considerable Party after them.

Cambyses annex’d Egypt to the Persian Empire. But whenever the Kings of Persia did undertake to extend their Conquests further, it always proved fruitless. Cambyses did in vain Attack the Aethiopians, as Darius Hydaspes did the Scythians. And Xerxes was shamefully beaten by the Greeks: But the following Kings, Artaxerxes Longimanus, Darius Nothus, and Artaxerxes Mnemon, did Manage their Affairs with more Wisdom against the Greeks, whom they did not Attack; but leaving them at rest, they quickly saw Intestine Wars kindled amongst themselves [the Greeks]; wherein they so well knew how to play their Game, that by always affording Assistance to the weaker Side, they rather protracted than finished these intestine Wars, till the Greeks, quite tired and exhausted, were obliged to accept of such Conditions of Peace as were projected by the Persians, whereby each City being declared free and independent of one another, Greece was disabled hereafter to undertake any thing of Moment.3 Notwithstanding Macedon, an obscure Nation of Greece, proved the Ruin of the Persian Monarchy, through a defect of Policy in their Kings, in not early Opposing the Growing Power of Philip, by raising Powerfull Enemies in Greece, against him and his Son Alexander, (which for great Summs of Money they might easily have done,) and thus have cut out so much Work for these two Warlike Princes at Home, that they could not have had leisure so much as to have entred on the thoughts of Invading Persia:4 In the same manner, Edition: current; Page: [18] as formerly the Persians had obliged Agesilaus quickly to return into Greece.5 But being over secure in their own Strength, and despising Others, they drew upon themselves their own Destruction. Edition: orig; Page: [6]

Greece. §6. Greece was in ancient times divided into a great many petty Common-wealths, every one of these being governed by its own Laws. Among those in Process of time, Athens grew most famous, whose Citizens for Ingenuity, Eloquence, and the knowledge of Arts and Sciences, surpassed all the rest; their Glory increased exceedingly after they had signalized themselves so bravely against the Persians. After this, by adding of the Harbour of Pyreum [Piraeus] to their City, they made it very commodious for Shipping, and acquired such vast Riches, that by their naval Strength they subdued the Isles of the Aegean Sea and the Coasts of the Lesser Asia. But being puffed up with their good Success, they drew upon themselves the hatred of their Allies: and after they once attempted to be sole Masters of Greece, the Peloponnesians, headed by the Spartans (who especially envied the Athenians) united together to chastise the insolence of Athens. Yet the Athenians behaved themselves so bravely, that the War was carried on for a considerable time with near equal Success, till at last being vanquished in a Battle in Sicily, they also lost their whole Fleet on the Coast of Thrace; then the Lacedaemonians becoming Masters of Athens constituted thirty Governours, who tyrannized most cruelly over such of the Citizens of Athens as survived the Storming of their City; yet Thrasibulus having expelled the same with the assistance of some of the banished Athenians, restored the City to its former Liberty. After this, though the Athenians did recover themselves a little, yet were they never able to arrive at the former Grandeur of their Common-wealth, and being afterwards too forward in making head against Philip, they were severely chastised by him.

It was therefore the immoderate Ambition of the Athenians, and their desire of conquering more than they were able to defend, which occasioned their Ruin. For the number of the Citizens of Athens did not Edition: current; Page: [19] exceed ten thousand, and they rarely receiving others as Citizens among them, great Cities and Provinces, could not be kept in obedience by such a number, and with one unfortunate Blow their whole power was struck down without Recovery. And consider-Edition: orig; Page: [7]ing that such Cities are better fitted for their own Defence, than making Conquests upon others, it is more adviseable for them to mind the advantage of their own Trade, than to inter-meddle too much in foreign Affairs, and rather to keep safe their own Walls, than to invade their Neighbours.

Next to Athens, Lacedaemon was famous in Greece, whose Citizens by the constitutions and rigorous Discipline introduced by Lycurgus, seem’d to be most fitly qualified for warlike Achievements. This City having not any powerfull Neighbour to contest withall, was strong enough to defend its Liberty against the Neighbouring Common-wealths. And the Spartans, as long as they, according to their Laws and Institution, despised Riches, had no great occasion to invade others: But as soon as they began to aim at higher matters,6 they found by experience, that it was a quite different case to conquer Kingdoms, than to defend their own City. For having had the good Fortune of subduing Athens, they fell into the same folly which had been the Ruin of the Athenians, and were not only for conquering the Asiatick Sea Coasts, but also under the Conduct of Agesilaus they invaded Persia. But it was easie for the King of Persia to find out means to chastise their Insolence, who caused a diversion to be made by the {other} Greeks, that envied the Success of the Spartans, so that they were quickly obliged to recall Agesilaus to defend themselves at home. Not long after their Fleet being beaten by Conon, Epaminondas defeated their Army by Land in the Battle of Leuctra, whereby they were so weakened, that they were scarce able to defend their own Walls.

Sparta. Next to these two Cities, Thebes was for a while famous, through the Valour and Wisdom of Epaminondas, who so well knew how to head his Countrymen, that they humbled the Spartans, and as long as he lived, were the most flourishing State of Greece. But after his death, this City Edition: current; Page: [20] returned to its former State, and making head against Philip, was severely chastised by him, and quite destroyed by his Son Alexander. Edition: orig; Page: [8]

Macedon. §7. Macedon was before the times of Philip an inconsiderable Kingdom, and so exposed to the Incursions of its Neighbours, that it was scarce able to defend it self, this Nation being then esteemed the most despicable of Greece. But by the Military Virtue of two Kings, this Nation did show it self so considerable, that it conquered a great part of the World. The circumstances wherein the neighbouring Nations of Macedon were at that time, and the good Conduct of Philip, whereby he so settled the Kingdom at home, that it quickly became the chiefest in all Greece, gave the first opportunity to lay the Foundation of this Monarchy.The Politick Conduct and great Actions of Philip. For on one side it had for its Neighbours the Thracians, Triballians, and Illyrians, very barbarous Nations; these were easily kept in awe by a neighbouring, wise and brave King. On the other side, was Greece and its Cities, which, though they were much fallen from their ancient Glory, yet, were all together still too hard for the Macedonians. Against those he made use of this Artifice, That by setting them together by the Ears among themselves, he so weakened them with intestine Wars, that they were afterwards not able to hold out long against him. And because Philip used only to attack one of those Cities at a time, and the rest were not forward enough unanimously to hinder his growing Greatness, he was upon a sudden, before they were aware of it grown too strong and potent for them all.

Philip seemed particularly endowed with great qualifications for this enterprize: For besides the Vivacity of his Spirit, he was push’d on by an extraordinary Ambition to make himself famous by great Actions. What real Vertues were wanting in him, he endeavoured to supply with pretending to the same; wherefore tho’ he did nothing without a fair Pretence; yet did he never stick at any thing, provided he could obtain his ends, and was never sparing in Promises or Oaths, if he thought he could thereby deceive such as he intended to overcome. He was an absolute Master of his Passions, and knew how to keep his Counsels secret, how to set Friends together by the Ears, and by pretending Friendships to both Parties, to deceive them by vain hopes. He being al-Edition: orig; Page: [9]so very Eloquent, knew how to insinuate himself with every body; and as for Edition: current; Page: [21] Money, he made no other use of it, than to advance his designs. He was a most experienced Warriour, and had made the Macedonians so excellent Souldiers, that the Macedonian Phalanx, first invented by him, was terrible, even to the Romans. And, because he was always at the Head of his Armies, continually exercised his Souldiers, and punctually paid them, there were no better Souldiers, in his days, than the Macedonians. Being arrived to this Greatness, so that he was chosen by the common consent of Greece their General against the Persians; and being busie in making preparations for this expedition, he was barbarously murthered, leaving his Son Alexander the glory of pursuing it.

Alexander the Great. §8. There is scarce in all History to be read of an Expedition more famous than that of Alexander the Great, wherein he, with thirty odd thousand Men, conquer’d so vast and potent Kingdoms, and by his victorious Arms extended his Empire from the Hellespont to the Indies. If we enquire into the causes of so uncommon and happy progresses; it is undeniable that, besides the Providence of God Almighty, who has put bounds to all Kingdoms upon Earth, the incomparable Valour of Alexander himself had a great share in the same; who having an Army of chosen Men, fell upon his Enemy’s Army with such swiftness and vigour, that it was impossible for any new levied Forces, though never so numerous, to resist him. Yet Darius committed a grand mistake, when he offered Battel to Alexander; it being evident, that the Persians never were equal to the Greeks in Pitch’d Battels. Besides this, the Persians having lived for a considerable time in Peace, had few experienced Souldiers among them; so that the greater the number was of such undisciplined Souldiers, the sooner were they brought into disorder at the time of Battel. Darius was ignorant of that great Art of protracting the War, and by posting himself advantageously, and cutting off the Provisions from his Enemies, to take off the edge of fierce Alexander. And because he had neg-Edition: orig; Page: [10]lected to give him a diversion at home with the assistance of the Greeks, who envied his Greatness, no other Event could reasonably be expected, than what afterwards followed.

He dies young. §9. But the untimely Death of Alexander robb’d both him and his young Children of the fruits of his Victories. For these, being young, Edition: current; Page: [22] lost not only their Father’s Kingdom, but also the fatal Wars carried on after his Death betwixt his Generals, brought the conquer’d Nations under great Calamities, who else would have been in hopes to have changed their {former} Kings for a much better and greater Prince. But that it seem’d was next to an impossibility, that these so suddenly conquered Countries should so soon be united in one Kingdom. Since a firm Union betwixt so many Nations could not be established without a singular Prudence of their supream Head, and a considerable time. We find also that a sudden Greatness is rarely lasting, there being no less ability required to maintain, than to acquire a thing of this nature.

The Conquests therefore of Alexander being of so vast an extent, that the small number of his Macedonians was by no means sufficient to keep them in awe; and to make those Provinces dependent on the Macedonian Empire, there was no other way to maintain such vast Conquests, than to treat the conquered Nations in the same manner with his native Subjects, and not to oblige them to recede from their ancient Laws and Customs, or to turn Macedonians, but rather for him to turn Persian, that the conquered might not be sensible of any other change, but what they found in the Person of their King. Alexander understood this very well; wherefore he not only used [accustomed] himself to the Persian Customs and Habit, but also married the deceased King’s Daughter, and had a Persian Guard about him. Those Writers, who reprehend Alexander’s Conduct in this matter, only discover their own indiscretion. But to settle a right understanding betwixt the Conquerours and Conquered, did require a considerable time; to effect which, Alexander seemed to be the fittest Man in the World, as being endowed with a more than Edition: orig; Page: [11] ordinary Valour, Magnanimity, Liberality and Authority. If he had left a Son behind him not unworthy of so great a Father, the Persian Throne would questionless have been entailed upon his Family.

Great Troubles after the Death of Alexander. §10. The Death of Alexander the Great was the occasion of long and bloody Wars; For the Army, puff’d up with the Glory of its great Actions, esteemed no body worthy of the supream Command; And the Generals refusing to obey one another, were grown too potent to live as private persons. ’Tis time Arideus had the name of King; but this poor Edition: current; Page: [23] Man wanted both Authority and7 Power to bridle the Ambition of so many proud and great Men. Wherefore all spurr’d on by their hopes, some of obtaining the whole Empire, some of getting a considerable share, they waged a most bloody and long War among themselves, till their number was reduced to a few, from a great many, who first pretended to the Empire. Five of them took upon themselves the Title of Kings, and the Sovereign Dominion of their Provinces, viz. Cassander, Lysimachus, Antigonus, Seleucus and Ptolemy. But only the three last transmitted their Kingdoms to their Families. There were then no more than three Kingdoms remaining in the power of the Macedonians; viz. That of Syria, Egypt and Macedon; That part of the Persian Empire which lay Easterly beyond the River Euphrates, being become a vast new Kingdom under the name of the Parthian Empire.

The Fall of the Macedonian Empire. The above-mentioned three Kingdoms were afterwards swallowed up by the Romans, and the Kingdom of Macedon was the first, as lying nearest unto Italy. For the Romans, after having subdued all Italy, began to extend their Conquests beyond the Seas; and perceiving that Philip, an active King,8 bid fair for the Conquest of all Greece; they did not think it advisable to let him grow more Powerfull, he being so near to them, that in time he might easily prove troublesome to Italy. They entring therefore into a League with the same Cities of Greece, which were Attack’d by Philip, under that pretence made War upon Philip; and having driven him back into Mace-Edition: orig; Page: [12]don, restored Liberty to all Greece. By which means the Romans at the same time divided their [the Greeks’] Strength, and gain’d their Affections; at length they Conquer’d Perseus, and with him the Kingdom of Macedon: Then they turn’d their Arms against Syria, and took from Antiochus the Great, all that part of Asia which extends as far as Mount Taurus.9 And though this Kingdom did hold out for a while after, yet being miserably torn to pieces by the Edition: current; Page: [24] Dissentions, which were risen in the Royal Family, it Surrendred it self to Tigranes, King of Armenia. But he being Conquered by Pompey, the Whole was made a Province of the Roman Empire. Egypt at last could not escape the Hands of the Romans, after the Emperour Augustus had defeated Cleopatra and her Galant Mark Antony.

Carthage. §11. Before we come to Rome, we must say something of Carthage. This City having long contested with Rome for the Superiority, so that ‘the Roman Government’ [Rome] did not think it self well secured, as long as this City was in Being. This City, though it was rather fitted for Trade than War; yet having acquired vast Riches by its Traffick, and being vastly encreased in Power and Inhabitants, forced not only the next adjacent Countries in Africa to pay them Tribute, but also sent vast Armies into Sicily, Sardinia and Spain. This occasioned the Wars betwixt them and the Romans; the two First they maintain’d with extraordinary Resolution and Valour, but in the Third they were brought to utter Destruction. If they had avoided to meddle with the Roman Affairs, they might in all probability have been able for a great while to defend their Liberty.

Ambition therefore was the chief Cause of their Ruin, since the Constitution of their Government was such, as being Adapted for Trade, did not require any great Possessions, except a few Lands for the use of their Citizens, and some Sea-Ports in Spain and Sicily, for conveniency of Commerce and Shipping. But the Conquests of large Countries were more hurtfull than profitable to them. For those Generals who Commanded their Armies abroad, proved at last dangerous to them, thinking it Edition: orig; Page: [13] below themselves after so much Glory and vast Riches obtained, to be put in the same Rank with their Fellow Citizens. The Inhabitants besides, of this City, were not so well fitted for Land-service; so that they being obliged to fill up their Armies with Mercenary Souldiers, collected out of several Nations, these were a vast and certain Charge to them, the hopes of the Benefit remaining uncertain. And besides this, their Faith was very inconstant, and the Conquered places could scarce be trusted to those, whose Faith might easily be bought by Money. After their first War with the Romans, they Edition: current; Page: [25] Experienced almost to their utter Ruin, how dangerous it is to wage War altogether with Foreign and Mercenary Souldiers. And therefore they could not possibly hold out against the Romans, who fought with a much greater Constancy for their Native Country, than these Foreign Mercenaries did for their Pay.10

’Twas a Capital Errour in the Carthaginians, that they did not take care in time, so to Establish their Power at Sea, that they needed not to have feared any thing from the Romans that way: But after they had once let the Romans become Masters at Sea, they could not but expect them one time or another at their City-gates. At the time when Hannibal had such prodigious Success against the Romans, it proved also a fatal Neglect in them, that they did not timely send fresh Supplies to Reinforce him so that he might have prosecuted the War to the Destruction of Rome. For after they had once given leisure to the Romans, to recollect themselves, they, conscious of their former danger, never rested till they had rased Carthage to the ground.

Rome a War-like City. §12. It is worth the while to trace the Common-wealth of Rome back to its Original, because none ever yet Equall’d it in Power and Greatness, and because young Students are first Entred and best Read in the Roman History. This City was perfectly made for War, from whence she first had her Rise, and afterwards her Fall. Its first Inhabitants were a sorry Rabble of Indigent People, <the very Dregs of Italy,> being ignorant of what belonged to Commerce, and Edition: orig; Page: [14] not expert in any Handy-craft’s Trade. For the carrying on of the first, Rome was not Commodiously Situated; and the Latter was at that time unknown in Italy. That small parcel of Ground which at first they had possess’d themselves of, was not sufficient to maintain a considerable Number of People; nor was there any vacant Ground in the Neighbourhood, which could be Tilled for their use. If therefore they would not always remain Beggars, nothing was left them but their Swords, wherewith to cut out Edition: current; Page: [26] their Fortune. And truly Rome was nothing else but a Den of Wolves, and its Inhabitants, like Wolves, always thirsting after their Neighbour’s Goods and Blood, living by continual Robberies.

By what means Rome became so populous. It was then necessary for a City, under these Circumstances, to keep up a constant Stock of Valiant Citizens. To effect this the better, Romulus commanded, that no Child should be kill’d, except such as were very Deformed; which barbarous Custom was also then very common among the Grecians. Besides this, he ordered that all Slaves at Rome, together with their Liberty, should have the Privilege of the City, from whom afterwards descended great Families, their Posterity being ambitious by great Deeds, to Efface the Memory of their base Original. But above all, one thing did mightily contribute towards the Increase of Rome, that Romulus did not suffer the Men to be put to the Sword, in such places, as were taken by force by the Romans, nor would let them be sold for Slaves; but receiving them into Rome, granted them the same Privileges with the rest of the Citizens. The Roman Writers give this for one reason, why Athens and Sparta could not so long maintain their Conquests, as Rome did; since they seldom Naturalized Strangers; whereas Romulus frequently used to receive the same as Citizens of Rome in the Evening, with whom he had fought in the Morning. For War cannot be carried on without a good Stock of Men; nor can Conquests be maintain’d without a considerable Number of Valiant Souldiers, upon whose Faith the Government can rely in case of an Attack. But that the Conquered places might not be left destitute of Inhabitants, and Rome might not Edition: orig; Page: [15] be fill’d up with too much Rabble, they used only to Transplant the best and richest Men of the Conquered places to Rome, filling up their places with the poorest of the Roman Citizens; who setling a continual good Correspondence betwixt the Conquered and the Romans,11 served also for a Garrison in these places. By these means the most Valiant and Richest Inhabitants of the Neighbouring Countries were drawn to Rome, and the poorest among the Romans obtained thereby, in those places, large Possessions.

But although Necessity gave an Edge to the Roman Valour, ’twas not that alone that made them so War-like a People; for the Courage of Edition: current; Page: [27] their Kings, who instructed them in Military Affairs, and hardned them to Dangers, had a great share in it; though, the thing rightly considered, it is not always adviseable, to lay the Foundation of a State upon Military Constitutions; since the Changes of War are uncertain, and then it is not for the Quiet of any State that Martial Tempers should prevail too much in it. Wherefore Peaceable times did never agree with the Romans; and as soon as they were freed from the Danger of Foreign Enemies, they sheath’d their Swords in each other’s Bowels.12

Several other Military Institutions. §13. There ‘were’ [are] also other things worth our Observation, which did greatly advance the Military Affairs of Rome. One of the chiefest was, That their King Servius Tullius had ordered, that only the most able and wealthy Citizens should do Service as Souldiers, and Equip themselves either with light Arms or compleat Armour, according to their Ability: And, whereas formerly every body, without distinction, was obliged to serve the Publick in the Wars at his own Charge; the poorer sort afterwards were never made use of, but upon Extraordinary Occasions. And though Riches do not make a Man the more Valiant, yet was it but reasonable, since every body was obliged to serve without Pay, that those, who were scarce able to maintain themselves, should be spared as much as could be: But besides this, their Wealth was a Pledge of their Fidelity. For he that has nothing to lose but his Life, carries all along with him, and has Edition: orig; Page: [16] no such strict Obligation to face Death; besides, that he may easily be brought to desert his own Party, if he meets with a prospect of a better fortune among the Enemies. On the contrary, a wealthy Man fights with more Zeal for the Publick Interest, because in defending That, he secures his own, and is not likely to betray his Trust; For if he deserts, he leaves his Possessions behind him, with uncertain hopes of a recompence of his Treachery from the Enemy. And, though this Custom grew out of fashion under the Emperours, yet, in lieu of that, they always kept part of their Arrears [soldiers’ wages] behind, to assure themselves of their Fidelity; and these {being stored in camp near the flags,}13 were never paid, till they were dismiss’d.

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It is also remarkable, that, though the Romans have been often Signally beaten in the Field, yet did they never despair or accept of any disadvantageous Conditions of Peace, except what they did with Porsena, and [with] the {Senonian} Gauls <call’d the Terrour>; to the first they were fain to give Hostages, upon condition, that they should not make any Iron-work, except what was requisite for Tilling the Ground. Of which shamefull Peace, the Roman Historians have cautiously avoided to speak in their Writings. And the Gauls were within an Inch of having put a period to the very Being of Rome, if they had not been bought off with Money, to Raise the Siege of the Capitol, reduced to the utmost extremity by Famine. For what is related, that Camillus coming up just at the time of the weighing out of the Gold, and drove the Gauls from the Capitol, some look upon as a fabulous Relation.14 Upon all other occasions they have always born their publick Misfortunes with an extraordinary Constancy. For, notwithstanding that Hannibal in the second Punick War had reduced them to the last Extremity, yet was not a word of Peace mentioned at Rome. And when their Generals by Claudius and Numantia had agreed upon shamefull Conditions with the Enemies, they chose rather to deliver up the Generals to the Enemies, than Ratifie the Treaty. They used also commonly to have but a small regard, and rarely to redeem such as were made Prisoners among them, to teach thereby the Roman Souldiers, to Edition: orig; Page: [17] expect no deliverance but from their own Swords. As this Custom did oblige the Souldiers to fight till the last, so did their Constancy stand them in great stead among other Nations. For he that shows himself once fearfull of his Enemy, must expect to be Attackt by him, as often as opportunity presents it self.

Of the Religion of the Romans. §14. It is also worth the while to touch a little upon the Religion of the Ancient Romans, which, though it was derived from the Greeks, yet the Romans knew much better how to Accommodate it to the advantage of their State. It was therefore from the very beginning a constant Rule at Edition: current; Page: [29] Rome, not to begin any publick Affairs of moment, without good Indications or Presages: Because that the Event [Ausgang] of things is commonly supposed to happen according to the Approbation of God. And therefore such as think themselves assured of the good Will of God, undertake and effect things with a greater Courage. These Indications were commonly taken from Birds. Which being a very ancient Superstition, which took its Rise from an Opinion of the Heathens, that the Gods having their place of Residence immediately above the Region of the Air, did make use of the Creatures of the next adjoyning Element for their Interpreters. These Indications also were thought particularly usefull, because the same were at hand at all times, and the Motions and Chirpings of the Birds might be variously interpreted according to the Exigency of the Times, and the Affairs of the State. The cunning Augurs or Sooth-sayers made use of these Predictions from the flight of Birds, to inspire the ignorant Multitude either with Hopes or Despair, Valour or Fear, according as it seem’d most suitable and convenient to the publick Affairs. Wherefore Cato the Elder, who was an Augur himself, did not stick to say; He did wonder, how one Augur, meeting another, could forbear laughing, because their Science was built upon so slight a foundation.15

What the Romans did call Religion, was chiefly instituted for the benefit of the State, that thereby they might the better be able to Rule the Minds of the People, according to the Conveniencies Edition: orig; Page: [18] and Exigencies of the State; quite in another manner, than the Christian Religion does, which is instituted for the benefit of the Soul, and the future Happiness of Mankind.16 Wherefore there were no certain Heads or Articles of Religion among the Romans, whence the People might be instructed concerning the Being and Will of God, or how they might regulate their Passions and Actions so as to please God: But all was involved in outward Ceremonies; viz. What sort of Sacrifices was to be made, what Holy-days and Publick Games were to be kept, &c. Edition: current; Page: [30] For the rest, the Priests were unconcerned, as to what the People did believe or not believe of Divine Matters; or, whether after this Life the Vertuous and Wicked were to expect Rewards according to their several deserts; or, whether the Souls perish’d together with the Bodies. For we see, that the Heathens have spoken very dubiously concerning these Matters, and the wisest of them have taken these things for Inventions wherewith to keep the People in awe. But in their Ceremonies they were most exact, performing the same with great pomp and outward show, and rarely admitting of the least alteration to be made in the same.

All this was instituted to please the humour of the Multitude, which is most moved with those things, which dazle the Eyes, and strike strongly on the Senses. Wherefore their Temples and Sacrifices were not only extraordinary Magnificent, but the Priests also were chosen out of the most Noble Families, which served to increase the Reverence of the People, that commonly judges of the Value of things, according to the quality of such as are employed about them. Yet besides this, there was another Mystery in it. For, because they made use of their Religion only as an Instrument of State, to make the People pliable to the Intentions of their Rulers; it was by all means necessary, that such Priests were made use of, as understood the Interest of the State, and did themselves also sit at the Helm of the Common-wealth. On the contrary, if the meaner sort had been employed as Priests, they might easily, out of Ambition, have, with the assistance of the People, raised a Faction contrary to the Governours, since Edition: orig; Page: [19] the Multitude commonly depends on those of whose Sanctity they have an Opinion; or else out of ignorance of the publick Affairs and the present Exigencies they might chance to influence the People in another manner, than was consistent with the present state of Affairs. They prevented also by this way, that the Priests could not form a particular Estate in the Common-wealth, and thereby either cause a mischievous Division, or else strive to get the Power into their own hands.17

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The Expulsion of their Kings and the Erection of a new Form of Government. §15. After Rome had been governed for Two hundred forty and two Years by Kings, another Form of Government was introduced, Sextus Tarquin having at that time ravish’d Lucretia. Whether Junius Brutus had sufficient reason, upon this account, to expell the King, may very well admit of Dispute. For on one side the Fact was most abominable, and of such a nature, that a brave Man would rather venture at any thing, than bear such an affront. And there are a great many Examples, that Princes, who, to satisfie their brutish Lusts, have Violated the Chastity of their Subject’s Wives and Daughters, and thereby lost both their Lives and Crowns. But on the other hand, it is to be considered, that a Fact, though never so Criminal, committed by a Son, without the Knowledge and Consent of his Father, ought not to be prejudicial to the Father and Family; much less could it be a pretence to depose a King from a Throne, which he lawfully possessed; Especially, since to take Vengeance of Criminals does belong only to the King, and not the Subjects. And Brutus and Collatinus would have had reason to complain, after the King had denied them just satisfaction for the Fact [rape] committed by his Son, or if he had in any ways approved of the same. But it is commonly observed, that in Revolutions things are seldom carried according to the ‘New’ [exact] form of the Rules of Justice. And as there is commonly some injustice committed at the first Settlement of a new Form of Government;18 so Ambition and Envy, covered with Pretences of the Faults and Male-Administration19 of the Prince, are the true Motives of Dethro-Edition: orig; Page: [20]ning the same.

But not to insist further upon this, it is certain that Kingly Government could not be durable at Rome; For such States as are comprehended in one great City are more fit for an Aristocratical or Democratical Form of Government; whereas a Monarchy is fittest to be erected in Kingdoms, where the Subjects are dispersed in a considerable Tract and Extent of Land.20 The true Reason of this is, That Mankind in general, politically considered, is like wild unruly Creatures, ready upon all occasions Edition: current; Page: [32] to shake off the Bridle of Civil Obedience, as often as Matters do not suit with its humours. Besides, this Man cannot be kept in Obedience without the assistance of Men. From whence it may rationally be concluded, why a King, who Commands only over one great populous City, is immediately in danger of losing all, as soon as his Subjects are disgusted at him, or another can insinuate himself into their favour, except he is fortified with a strong Guard of Foreigners, and a considerable Fort; though these Remedies are very odious, and oftentimes very uncertain. For when in such a Government the Prince comes to be odious, the Hatred is quickly communicated to all his Subjects, as living close together, and having consequently an opportunity of uniting themselves easily against him. But where the Subjects of a Prince live at a distance from one another, it is easie for him to keep so many of them inclined to his side, as are sufficient to suppress the mutinous Party. Wherefore also they are not so much to be feared, as being not able to meet so soon, and to unite themselves in one Body. But it is more especially very dangerous to Command over Subjects living in one place, of a fiery Temper, and exercised in Arms. For Common sense tells us, that he who will controul another, ought to have more force than him.

In the mean while, this is most certain, that this Alteration of the Government mainly contributed towards the Encrease of Rome; it being not credible, that under the Monarchical Government it could have arrived to that Greatness; partly, because the Kings would have been obliged for their own security to suppress, in some measure, the Martial Spi-Edition: orig; Page: [21]rit of their Citizens; partly, because the Negligence or Unskilfulness of some Kings must needs have proved disadvantageous to the Common-wealth.

Reasons of the fall of the Roman Greatness. §16. Above all, it is worth our Consideration, by what means the Roman Empire, which extended it self over so considerable a part of the World, was destroyed, and became a prey to the Northern Nations, after it had been broken by its own Intestine Troubles. The Causes of which we will enquire into from their first beginning. The People of Rome then being naturally of a fierce and martial Spirit, and enclosed together within the Walls of one City, their Kings had no way left to secure their Edition: current; Page: [33] Obedience, but by gaining their Affections with the gentleness and moderation of their Government, since they had not sufficient Power to balance the Forces of so vast a City. Wherefore the six first Kings kept the People in Obedience, rather by their good Inclinations than Fear. But as soon as Tarquin the Proud began to oppress the People with new Impositions, whereby he had so alienated the Hearts of his Subjects from him; it was easie for Brutus, under pretext of the Fact committed upon Lucretia, to stir up the discontented People, and to shut the City-gates against the King.

The Defects of the Roman Common-wealth. But as all sudden Changes of Government, that are carried on before things have been maturely considered, and all Emergencies provided against, are commonly accompanied with great Defects: So also was this at Rome, where some things were admitted, and others left undone; not so much because they conduced to the advantage and safety of the State, but because the present Juncture of Affairs would not suffer them to be otherwise. There were also many Over sights committed in the beginning, which left a Gap open for future Evils and Troubles. It seems to be evident, that Brutus and his Associates, after they had expell’d Tarquin, did intend to introduce an Aristocratical Form of Government: For it is scarce credible that they, being Noble-men, with the peril of their Lives should have expelled Tarquin on purpose to subject themselves to the Government of the Common people; but because no Wise man is willing to exchange his Edition: orig; Page: [22] present condition with another, without hopes of amending the same: Therefore the chief Authors of this Revolution were obliged, not only to render the Kingly Government odious to the People, but also by Mildness and Concessions to make the People in love with the New Government. For if the Common people had not been made sensible of the benefit they received from the Government of the Nobility, they might easily have opened the Gates again to Tarquin. Wherefore Valerius Papicola did strive to please the People, especially in letting down the Rods or Fasces (the En signs of Authority) before them, and allowing Appeals to the People, as a tacit Confession that the Supreme Power of Rome did belong to them.

It was by all means requisite, if the Noble-men did intend to maintain the newly acquired Authority, to have a particular care of these two Edition: current; Page: [34] things. First, To take heed that they did not exasperate the Common people with their Pride; And, Secondly, To find Means to maintain the poorer sort, that they might not be forced to seek for Remedies against their Poverty and Debts by disturbing the Publick. But neither of them were sufficiently regarded by the Nobility. There being at that time no written Laws at Rome, and the Nobility being in possession of all publick Offices, Justice was oftentimes administered according to Favour and Affection, the poorer sort being often, though unjustly, oppressed by the more Powerfull. And because the Citizens were obliged to serve in the Wars at their own Charge at that time, when little was to be got, they were thereby miserably exhausted; so that they had no other remedy left them but to borrow Money from the Richer sort. These used such as were not able to satisfie their Creditors in so barbarous a manner, by Imprisoning, laying of them in Chains, and other Cruelties, that the Commons, quite put into despair, unanimously retired out of the City; neither could they be persuaded to return, before the Senate had agreed to constitute Magistrates, called Tribunes of the People, who were to protect the Commons against the Power of the Nobility. Edition: orig; Page: [23]

Two distinct Bodies in Rome. §17. This was the Original and Cause of the Division of the Romans into two ‘Factions’ [bodies]; viz. One of the Nobility, and the Other <two Parties> of the Common people: The continual Jealousies of which did afterwards minister [furnish] perpetual fewel [fuel] for Civil Dissentions. It seem’d at first sight but equitable and of no great consequence, that the Commons might have for their Heads some, who could upon all occasions protect them against the Nobility: But in this the Nobles did commit a grand Errour, that they allowed to the Common people, which made the major part of the City, a protection independent of the Senate; making thereby the Body of the Common-wealth as it were double-headed.21 For the Tribunes, spurr’d on by Ambition,Factious Tribunes. and the Hatred, which is common in the Plebeians against the Nobility, were not satisfied with affording their Protection to the People against the Edition: current; Page: [35] Nobility; but also were always endeavouring to be equal in Power, nay even to surpass the Senate in Authority. And first by their continual Contests they obtained a Privilege for the Commons to intermarry with the Nobles; Afterwards they forced also the Nobility to consent that one of the Consuls should be chosen out of the Commonalty. They took upon themselves the Power of a Negative Voice, so as that no Decree of the Senate could pass into a Law without their consent, nay and even without the consent of the Senate to make Laws, and to exercise the other Acts of Sovereign Authority.

The Senate, ’tis true, to divert and employ the People, continually engaged them in one War or another, that they might not have leisure to contrive any thing against the Government. This, though it did very well for a while, and the Power and Territories of Rome were mightily thereby encreased, yet did arise from thence some other inconveniencies, which did not a little contribute towards the indisposition of the State. For whereas the conquered Lands ought to have been given to the poorer sort of the people, whereby the City would have been freed from a great many needy Citizens; the Nobles, under pretence of Farming the same, took them into their own possessi-Edition: orig; Page: [24]on; and what with these Revenues, and the great Booty which fell in the Wars almost all to their share, as being Commanders in Chief, the Riches of the Nobles encreased prodigiously; whereas a great many of the Plebeians had scarce wherewithall to maintain themselves. The Commonalty being for these Reasons extreamly dissatisfied with the Senate, there were not wanting some of the Nobility, and others, of an ambitious Spirit, who having taken distaste at some Transactions of the Senate, did, under pretence of maintaining the Liberties of the People, make a considerable Party among them, though, in effect, their chief aim was, with the assistance of the Plebeians, to carry on their ambitious designs. Those being by force opposed by the Senate, it came quickly to a Civil War, and they sheath’d their Swords in each other’s Bowels.22

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Citizens too powerfull. §18. In the mean time, partly by the vast Increase of the Roman Empire, partly by Inadvertency of the Senate, another Evil had taken root; viz. That vast and rich Provinces, together with great Armies, were committed to the Government of some of the Roman Citizens, and that for several years. From which, as it created in them an aversion to a private life, so it gave an opportunity to have whole Armies at their Devotion [service]. It is not adviseable for any State whatsoever to let any of its Citizens mount to that degree of Power. For he that has a potent Army at his Devotion, will scarce be able to resist the temptation, but will be apt to attempt to make himself Sovereign. It is evident that the Ambition and great Power of Marius, Sulla, Pompey and Caesar did spur them on, by Intestine Wars, to suppress the Liberty of their native Country; and after Rome was quite broken by them, to introduce an alteration in its Government. There was scarce any remedy left against this Evil, after the Citizens had once laid aside the respect due to the Senate, and the Souldiers had tasted the Sweets of the Booty got by Civil Commotions. Wherefore this Common-wealth at the very time when it was arrived to the pitch of its Greatness, it return’d a-Edition: orig; Page: [25]gain to a Monarchy, but not of the best kind, where the Army exercised Sovereign Authority.

The Constitution of the Roman Monarchy. Augustus was the first Founder of this Monarchy, which he by his wise and long Reign, seem’d to have establish’d pretty well: And truly this new introduc’d form of Government, did for a while promise very fair, since Augustus assum’d only the Title of Prince, and maintaining the Senate and the rest of the great Officers in their Stations, took upon himself no more than the administration of Military Affairs. But in effect, this Monarchy was not founded so much upon the consent of the Senate and People, as upon the Power of the Souldiery, by whose assistance it was introduc’d and maintain’d. And because the ancient Nobility could not brook to be commanded by one single person, and was always for recovering its former Liberty, the Emperours left no Stone unturn’d either to diminish, or quite to extinguish the Splendour of the ancient Nobility; so that within the space of 200 Years, very few were left, in whose places new Favourites of the Emperours were created, who were willing to submit themselves to their Commands.

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The Roman Monarchy could not be of a long continuance. §19. But this Monarchy being founded upon the Souldiery, could not be of a long continuance; for as soon as the Souldiers had once learn’d this Secret, that they being the Supporters of the Monarchy, could dispose of the Empire at pleasure, and that the Senate and People were now empty Names; the Emperours were not only oblig’d with double Pay and great Presents to purchase their Favour; but they also began to kill such Emperours as were not pleasing to them, and to fill up their room with such as could obtain their Favour. And because one Army did claim the same Prerogative as well as the other, not only the Pretorian Bands, but also other Armies, which were on the Frontiers, undertook to do the same. Hence came nothing but Misery and Confusion in the Roman Empire, the Life of each Emperour depending on the Will of the covetous and unruly Souldiers, so that no Emperour was assur’d to leave the Empire to his Posterity. Oftentimes the bravest Princes were Edition: orig; Page: [26] murther’d, and in their room others set up of the meanest Rank and Capacity. Oftentimes two or more were declared Emperours, who used to make horrid slaughters among the Citizens in deciding their Titles to the Empire. And this was the reason why not only very few of the ancient Emperours died a natural death, but also the Power of this vast Empire, was diminish’d to that degree by these intestine Wars, that it did appear no otherwise than a Body without its Nerves.23

Constantine the Great did also hasten its fall, when he transferr’d the Imperial Court from Rome to Constantinople, and sent away the Veterane Legions which guarded the Frontiers of the Empire, along the Danube and the Rhine, to the Easterly Parts, whereby the Western Provinces, destitute of their Guards, became a prey to other Nations. Besides this, Theodosius divided the Empire betwixt his two Sons, giving to Arcadius the Eastern, to Honorius the Western parts; which division did not a little contribute towards the destruction of the Empire. The Western Parts became a prey to the Germans and Goths, who about that Edition: current; Page: [38] time came in prodigious numbers, to change their poor Habitations for the pleasant and rich Provinces of the Romans. England the Romans left of their own accord, as being not in a capacity to defend it against the Scots, and having occasion for their Troops to defend France. Spain fell to the share of the West-Goths. The Vandals settled themselves in Africa. The Goths, Burgundians and Francks divided France betwixt them. Rhaetia and Noricum was conquer’d by the Suevians and Bavarians. A great part of Pannonia and Illyricum was possessed by the Huns.24 The Goths settled a Kingdom in Italy, and did not think Rome worthy to make it the place of Residence of the Gothick Kings.

The Imperial Seat in Constantinople. §20. Though the Western parts of the Roman Empire fell to the share of Foreign Nations, yet the Eastern Provinces, whose Capital City was Constantinople, remain’d for a great many hundred years after. But this Eastern Empire was neither in Power nor Splendour to be compar’d to the Ancient Roman Edition: orig; Page: [27] Empire. And Agathias the Vth. says, That whereas heretofore the Roman Forces consisted of 645.000 Men, the same did amount in the times of Justinian scarce to 150.000.25 ’Tis true, under the Reign of this Justinian, the Empire began to recover something of its former Power, Belisarius having destroyed the Empire of the Vandals in Africa, as Narses did that of the Goths in Italy, because these Nations were grown Effeminate, and overcome with the deliciousness of a plentifull Country: Yet did it again decrease by degrees, the neighbouring Nations taking away one piece after another, the Emperours were partly in fault themselves, some of them being sunk in pleasures, and grown quite effeminate; others in continual Divisions, destroying each other.

One part was subdu’d by the Bulgarians. The Saracens conquer’d Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Cilicia, and other neighbouring Countries, and Edition: current; Page: [39] ravaging the rest, besieged Constantinople; which City was once taken by Count Baldwin of Flanders, but his Forces were obliged to quit it not long after.26 The City also of Trebisond, with the neighbouring Countries withdrawing from the Obedience of the rest of the Empire, set up an Emperour of their own choosing.27 At last the Turks entirely subdu’d this Empire, who did not only conquer the Saracens, but also afterwards swallow’d up the Remnants of the Eastern Empire of Constantinople; Greece having before withdrawn it self from the Obedience of the Emperours, was govern’d by its own petty Princes; making, thereby, the Conquest of the Turks over them the easier; till, at last, the City of Constantinople being taken by Storm by the Turks \A. 1453\, was afterwards made the place of Residence of the Ottoman Emperours. Edition: orig; Page: [28]

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CHAPTER II: Of the Kingdom of Spain.

The ancient State of Spain. §1. Spain was in ancient Times divided into a great many States, independent of one another, which was at that time the condition of most other Countries of Europe. But, by reason of this Division, this otherwise War-like Nation was very instrumental to its being conquer’d by foreign Enemies. To this may be added, That the Spaniards did want good and understanding Generals, under whose Conduct they might easily have resisted the Power of their Enemies. For not to mention how the Celts pass’d out of Gaul into the next adjacent parts of Spain, who being mixt with the Iberians, were from thenceforward call’d Celtiberians;1 neither how the Rhodians built Roses, the Citizens of Zante Saguntum, the Phoenicians Cadiz, Malaga and other Cities,2 the Carthaginians, above the rest, immediately after the first Punick War with the Romans, began to conquer a great part of Spain. Wherefore in the second Punick War the Romans did at first send their Forces into Spain, where they fought so long with the Carthaginians, till at last, Scipio, afterwards sir-nam’d the African, made a great part of it a Roman Province; the other parts were subdu’d by degrees, till Augustus at last entirely subduing the Cantabrians, who live next to the Pyrenean Mountains, joined all Spain to the Roman Empire, under whose Protection it was peaceably govern’d for a considerable time, except that the Spaniards now and then were drawn in to take a part in the Civil Wars among the Romans.

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West Goths Conquer Spain. §2. But the Western parts of the Roman Empire declining, the Vandals, Suevians, Alani and Silingi made an inrode into Spain, and after many bloody Battels fought, divided it betwixt them; which Conquests nevertheless they did not enjoy long; for the Vandals passing over into Africa, the Alani were quite Edition: orig; Page: [29] routed by the Suevians, who having also subdu’d the Silingi, were in a fair way of becoming Masters of all Spain, if they had not been prevented by the West Goths; who, after they had under the Conduct of their King Alarick, ransack’d Italy and Rome it self, settled themselves {under King Araulff} upon the Borders lying betwixt Spain and France, making Narbonne the Seat of their Kings, who at first had under their Jurisdiction Catalonia and Languedock, but soon after extended their Power over other Provinces of Spain. Among these was particularly renown’d their King Euric, who took from the Romans all what was left them in Spain, except Gallicia, which remained under the Power of the Suevians: He also conquer’d several Provinces in France. But Clodoveus, King of the Francks, having defeated the Son of Euric, retook from the Goths, what they had conquer’d before in France, under the Reign of Agila and Athanagildas \A. 554\; the Romans, who had before rescu’d Africa from the hands of the Vandals, retook a part of Spain, but were chac’d from thence, for the most part, under the Reign of Levigildis \A. 572\, who also did quite root out the Suevians in Gallicia \A. 586\.3 Under the Reign of his Son Recaredus, the Empire of the Goths was arriv’d to its highest pitch of greatness, as comprehending not only some neighbouring Provinces of France, and a part of Mauritania, but also all Spain, except a small part possess’d as yet by the Romans; from whence they were quite chased afterwards by King Suinthila. King Wamba subdu’d the Gothick Rebels in France \A. 646\ with great success, and beat the Fleet of the Saracens \A. 677\, who much infested those Seas; but under Witiza the Gothick Empire began to decline from their ancient Valour, the Goths being much degenerated, till under the Reign of Roderic it was quite extinguish’d.

The Ruine of the Gothick Empire in Spain. The King himself contributed greatly to its sudden downfall; for Edition: current; Page: [43] having ravish’d a certain Court Lady call’d Cava, the Daughter of Count Julian, Governour of that part of Mauritania which belong’d to the Goths, as also over that tract of Spain which lies near the Streights of Gibraltar; he to revenge himself for this affront, first stirr’d up a great many of the King’s Edition: orig; Page: [30] Subjects against him, and afterwards persuaded the Saracens to pass out of Africa over into Spain. These to try their Fortune, first pass’d over with a small number, but quickly encreasing by continual Supplies of Men sent from home, they vanquish’d such Forces as Roderic sent in hast against them \A. 713\. After this Success the treacherous Julian understanding that Roderic did intend to bring into the Field the whole Forces of his Kingdom, which consisted of 100.000 Men, brought more Saracens over into Spain, who being joined with the rest, did in a most memorable Battle intirely rout this Multitude of unexercised and ill arm’d Souldiers, who were surpriz’d to see one of their own party call’d Oppas, with the Troops under his Command, went over to the Enemy, and fell into their Flanck, together with the Forces of Julian. Thus all was given over for lost, and in this one Battle fell the whole Power and Splendour of the Goths, which had been famous in Spain for three hundred Years,The Saracens conquer Spain. Roderic himself being kill’d in the flight \A. 714\, so that the Goths being without a Head were quite dispers’d, and all the great Cities, partly by force of Arms, partly upon Articles, fell into the Hands of the Enemy within the space of three Years. Only Asturia, Biscay, a part of Gallicia and some Countries next adjacent to the Pyrenean Mountains remain’d under the Goths, rather, because the Enemies did not think it worth their while to drive them from these Mountainous places, than that the Goths trusted to their own Strength to defend themselves against them. Into these parts also retir’d such Christians as had escap’d the Sword of the Enemies. But all the rest of Spain was inhabited by the Saracens and Jews.

Kings in Oviedo. §3. To free Spain from this Tyranny, was first undertaken by Pelagius, who (as ’twas said) was descended from the Race of the Gothick Kings. This Man being chosen King {A. 726}, did recollect the remaining Forces of this unfortunate Nation;Pelagius. and having brought together an Army, obtained a signal Victory against the Moors; and in the mean Edition: current; Page: [44] while that the Saracens were weakening their Strength in France, took from them Edition: orig; Page: [31] the City of Leon, and several others. His Son Favila,Favila. who succeeded him, did nothing worth mentioning. But Alfonso the Catholick re-took several Places from the Moors \A. 737\, and reigned till the Year 757.Alfonso I. Whose Son ‘Favila’ [Froila] also Valiantly defended his Kingdom, vanquishing the Moors in a great Battle.Favila. He was killed in the Year 768: But his Successor Aurelius made a shamefull Peace with the Moors, by virtue of which he was obliged to give them a yearly Tribute of a certain Number of Virgins. He died in the Year 774. His Successor Silo did also nothing worth mentioning, and died in the Year 783. After him reigned Alfonso, the Son of ‘Favila’ [Froila],Aurelius. against whom Mauregatus taking up Arms, forced him out of the Kingdom; who,Silo. to settle himself the better in the Empire, craved assistance from the Moors, promising them a yearly Tribute of 50 Noble Virgins, and as many others {of common status}. He died in the Year 788. His Successor Veremundus did nothing Praise-worthy, except that he recalled Alfonso [son of Froila],Alfonsus II. Sir-named the Chaste \A. 791\; who refusing to pay the Tribute of the Virgins to the Moors, gave them several signal Defeats: But having no Children, he made an agreement with Charles the Great, that he should assist him in driving the Moors out of Spain; in recompence of which, he was to be his Heir in the Kingdom of Spain. Charles therefore sent his Son Bernard with a Puissant Army into Spain, but the Spaniards not liking the agreement,Veremundus. as being not willing to be under the Command of the French, arose unanimously, and falling upon the French near Ronceval; just as they were entring into Spain, entirely routed them; in which Battle the famous Rowland was slain. Thus it is related by the Spanish Historians, but the French do not agree with them in the relation.4

Ramirus. Alfonso died in the Year 844, whose Successor Ramirus most gloriously usher’d the Spanish Liberty. For the Moors demanding the Tribute according to the agreement made with Mauregatus, he defeated them Edition: current; Page: [45] in a great Battle, but could not take from them many of their strong Holds, being with-held partly by Intestine Commotions, partly by an Inrode the Normans made upon him. He died in the Year 851. Edition: orig; Page: [32] After him succeeded his Son Ordonius,Ordonius I. who reigned with great applause; he obtain’d a Victory over the Moors, and took some of their strong Holds. He died in the Year 862, whose Son and Successor Alfonso,Alfonso III. Sir-named the Great, fortunately overcame the Rebels at home, and the Moors abroad. But by laying too heavy Impositions upon the People, he drew the hatred of a great many upon himself, and was therefore robb’d of the Crown by his Son Garsias.Garsias. This King Valiantly attackt the Moors \A. 910\, but died soon after. His Brother {Ordonius} also was Victorious against the Moors \A. 913\; transferring the Seat of the Spanish Kings from Oviedo to Leon. He died in the Year 923.

The Origin of the Kingdom of Navarre and Arragon. But besides this Kingdom of Oviedo, there arose several other Governments in Spain. For Garsias Semenus erected a new Kingdom in Navarre; and Aznar, Son of Eudo, Duke of Aquitain, having taken several Places from the Moors, took upon himself, with consent of the before-mentioned Garsias, the Title of Earl of Arragon. Lewis also, Son of Charles the Great, taking Barcelona, constituted a Governour there, whose Name was Bernard, a Frenchman, from whom descended the Earls of Barcelona. About the time also of the above-mentioned Kings there were several Earls or Governours of Old Castile, who acknowledged the foresaid Kings for their Soveraigns. These Earls being once suspected by King Ordonius, he call’d them together; who appearing {and anticipating nothing bad}, were all kill’d by his Order. Wherefore the Old Castilians, under the Reign of his Son ‘Favila’ [Froila],Favila II. a cruel Tyrant, with-drawing themselves from the Kingdom of Leon, chose two Governours, under the Name of Judges, who were to administer all Civil and Military Affairs. But this Form of Government did not last long among them.

Alfonso IV. §4. After ‘Favila’ [Froila] Alphonso the IVth. obtained the Kingdom {of Leon}, under whose Reign Ferdinand Gonsalvo, Earl of Castile, perform’d great things both against the Moors, and Sanctius Abarcus, and his Son Garsias, Kings of Navarre, whom he vanquish’d. But Alfonso himself being Edition: current; Page: [46] unfit to Govern the Kingdom, surrendred it \A. 931\ to his Brother Ramirus;Ramirus II. who, with the assistance of the before-mentioned Ferdinand, beat the Edition: orig; Page: [33] Moors in several Places. He died in the Year 950, and was succeeded by his Son Ordonius,Ordonius III. [who was] a Valiant Prince, but did not Reign long, leaving the Kingdom [Reich] to his Brother Sanctius [Sancho] Crassus {A. 955}. He [the latter] was Banish’d by Ordonius,Sanctius. Sir-named the Wicked \A. 955\; but soon restored by the help of the Moors. It is said that by certain Articles made betwixt Sanctius and Ferdinand, Earl of Castile, it was agreed \A. 965\, that Castile after that time should not be obliged to acknowledge any dependance on [subjection to] the Kings of Leon. He [Sanctius] was succeeded by Ramirus \A. 967\,Ramirus III. who, in his Minority, was under Womens tuition; and {also} when grown up {and on his own}, proved very useless to the Publick.5 For, under his Reign, partly by civil Commotions, partly by the In-roads made by the Moors, the Kingdom was considerably weakened, and in great danger of losing more, several Places being taken from the Christians. Under Veremund [Bermudo] II.Veremund II. also {who acquired the kingdom A. 982}, the Moors did considerable mischief <in those Parts>, taking and plundering, besides a great many others, the City of Leon; to which Misfortunes the civil Commotions did greatly contribute. But at last Veremund [Bermudo] entring into a Confederacy with the King of Navarre, and [with] Garsias, Earl of Castile, forced the Moors out of his Kingdom. Him [Bermudo] succeeded his Son Alfonso V.Alfonso V. \A. 999\ under whose Reign there were great Intestine Commotions in Castile, whereby the Moors were encouraged to attack it with such vigour, that they over-threw Garsias, and took him Prisoner, whose Son Sanctius [Sancho] revenged himself afterwards upon the Moors.

After this, great Dissentions being arisen among the Moors, their Empire was divided into several Parts, each Governour of its Province assuming the Name of King. Alfonso succeeded his Son Veremund III.Veremund III.6 \A. 1025\ under whose Reign there happened a great Revolution in Edition: current; Page: [47] Spain. For Garsias, Earl of Castile, being upon the point of being married to the King’s Sister at Leon, was there ‘barbarously’ [treacherously] murthered by some of his Vassals. Castile therefore falling to Sanctius, King of Navarre, who had married the Sister of Garsias, |[he took upon him the Title of King of Castile.]|7 This Sanctius,Castile made a Kingdom. Sir-named Major, also waged War against Veremund, who had no Children, taking from him, by force of Arms, a considera-Edition: orig; Page: [34]ble part of the Kingdom. Whereupon a Peace was concluded, whereby it was agreed, that Sanctius should keep what he had taken before, but that his Son Ferdinand should Marry Sanctia, the Sister of Veremund, she being Heiress to her Brother, and to succeed him in the Kingdom of Leon. In this manner was Leon, Navarre and Castile, United in one House:

Sanctius II. Major. But in the mean while that Sanctius Major was in the Field against the Moors, a great Misfortune happened at Home. He had particularly recommended to the Care of his Queen a very fine Horse, which Garsias, her Eldest Son, had a mind to have, and would have obtained it from the Mother, if the Master of the Horse had not opposed it, telling them, that his Father would be greatly displeased at it. This denial wrought so upon the Son, that he accused his Mother of committing Adultery with the Master of the Horse. The Matter being examined, the King’s Natural8 Son, Ramirus, profered to justifie the Innocency of the Queen in a Duel with Garsias, and the King being uncertain what to do, a Priest did at last enforce the Confession of the Calumny cast upon the Queen from Garsias; whereupon Garsias being declared incapable of succeeding his Father in Castile, which did belong to him by his Mother’s side, and Ramirus obtained the Succession in the Kingdom of Arragon as a recompence of his Fidelity. This Sanctius Major died in the Year 1035.

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The pernicious Division of Spain. §5. Thus all the Provinces of Spain, which were possess’d by the Christians, being joined in one House, it seem’d an easie matter to root out the Moors, divided among themselves, and to restore Spain to its former state, if the same had remained under one ‘Head’ [king]. But the division made by Sanctius Major occasion’d most bloody and pernicious Wars. This before-mentioned Sanctius had four Sons: To the Eldest Garsias, he left Navarre and Biscay; to Ferdinand, Castile; to Gonsalvo, Suprarbe and Ripagorsa; and to Ramirus his Natural Son, Arragon, giving to each of them the Title of King. These being all ambitious to be equal in Power and Greatness to their Father, and thinking their Bounds too narrow, fell quickly together by the Edition: orig; Page: [35] Ears. For whilest Garsias was gone in Pilgrimage to Rome, Ramirus endeavoured to make himself Master of Navarre; but the other returning home, chased him out of Arragon. There arose also a War betwixt Ferdinand of Castile and his Brother-in-law Veremund, King of Leon; wherein the latter being slain in Battle \A. 1038\, Ferdinand became Master of Leon, which did by Right of Succession belong to him {in any case}. He also took from the Moors a great part of Portugal. After the Death of Gonsalvo, the Third Son of Sanctius Major, Ramirus made himself Master of his Territories, and endeavoured also to recover, by force of Arms, Arragon from the King of Navarre \A. 1045\. Not long after Ferdinand of Castile, and Garsias of Navarre, waged War together about a certain Tract of Ground, wherein Garsias was slain in a Battle \A. 1053\. By his Death Ramirus got an opportunity of recovering Arragon.

Ferdinand, Sir-named the Great, died in the Year 1065, dividing the Empire, to the great detriment of Spain, among his three Sons.Sanctius III. The Eldest Sanctius had Castile, Alfonso, Leon, Garsias Gallicia, and a part of Portugal, with the Titles of Kings. Sanctius waged War with Ramirus of Arragon, whom he slew in a Battle \A. 1067\, but was beaten back again by Sanctius, Son of Ramirus, and the King of Navarre. Afterward having driven Alfonso out of his Territories, and taken Garsias Prisoner, he took possession of the Territories belonging to his Brothers,Alfonso VI. but was slain in the Siege of Camora, which City he endeavour’d to take from his Sister. Then Alfonso his Brother, who had hitherto dwelt with the Moorish King of Toledo, made himself Master of Castile and Leon \A. 1073\. And Edition: current; Page: [49] took from the Moors \A. 1085\, besides some other Places, the City of Toledo, which was in those days esteemed impregnable. But the Moors in Spain having received fresh Re-inforcements out of Africa, got new Courage, and falling upon the Christians, defeated them in two Battles, till Alfonso got an entire Victory over them, obliging the Moorish King of Corduba to pay him a yearly Tribute. Nevertheless he was afterwards again over-thrown in a Battle <sought> with the Moors, where he lost his only Son, Sanctius, whose Death he revenged soon after Edition: orig; Page: [36] upon them. He died in the Year 1109.

Urraca his Daughter was Heiress to the Kingdom, she being Married to Alfonso King of Arragon;Alfonso VII. Which Marriage, under pretence of too near a Consanguinity and Adultery committed by the Queen, was afterwards dissolved again. But, because Alfonso would nevertheless keep Castile as the Dowry of the Queen, it caused great Intestine Wars and Divisions. For Alfonso VIII. Son of Urraca by Raymond of Burgundy,Alfonso VIII. her first Husband, who was come out of France to assist her Father in the Wars against the Moors, was proclaimed King of Castile, in the mean while that Alfonso of Arragon was busied in taking, besides some other Places, the City of Saragossa from the Moors \A. 1118\. At last a Peace was concluded betwixt Arragon and Castile \A. 1122\. Afterwards Alfonso of Castile made War against the Moors with great Success, taking from them divers Places of Note.

But \A. 1134\ Alfonso of Arragon being slain in a Battle, <sought> with the Moors, and leaving no Children behind him, those of Navarre chose for their King Garsias, who was of the Race of their former Kings: But the Arragonians conferr’d the Crown upon Ramirus, Brother to the deceased King, who had been a Monk. Alfonso of Castile, in Opposition to both, pretending to have a Right to these Kingdoms, conquered a great part of them, causing himself, with consent of Pope Innocent II. who was supposed to do it in spite to the German Emperours, to be proclaimed Emperour of Spain. But this difference was also at last composed, it being agreed that Ramirus should give his only Daughter, together with the Kingdom, to Raymond Earl of Barcelona, by which means Catalonia and Arragon were United \A. 1137\; then Alfonso entring into a Confederacy with the Kings of Navarre and Arragon, Edition: current; Page: [50] Attack’d again the Moors, taking from them the City of Almeria, which in those days was a great Sea-port and Harbour for Privateers. Raymond {also} took from the Moors Tortosa, Lerida, and other strong Holds. Alfonso died in the Year 1157.

Sanctius IV. §6. The same Alfonso (though Spain had suffered sufficiently by its being divided into so many Govern-Edition: orig; Page: [37]ments) left to his Son Sanctius, Castile; to Ferdinand, Leon and Gallicia. Sanctius, who did nothing, that is remarkable, except that he beat twice those of Navarre, died in the Year 1158, leaving his Son Alfonso IX.Alfonso IX. a Child of four years of Age. During the time of his Minority, there were great Disturbances in Castile, occasioned partly by the Divisions among the Nobility, partly by the Wars with Ferdinando of Leon, and Sanctius of Navarre, who took several Places from the Castilians. But coming to his riper years, he did extricate himself, though not without great difficulty, out of those Troubles. In the War against the Moors, who always kept the Spanish Kings in Exercise, he suffered extreamly, so that he was obliged to make a Truce with them, because the Kings of Navarre and Leon at the same time fell upon him. At last there was a Confederacy made betwixt these Kings, with a certain agreement, how such Places should be disposed of as should be taken from the Moors. In the Year 1210, a most Memorable Expedition was undertaken against the Moors, where presented themselves a great many Foreigners, who came to Signalize themselves; but a great many of them being soon tired out, returned home. At that time was fought the famous Battle of Lasa,9 where 200.000 Moors being slain, they lost all their Strength. In this Battle Sanctius King of Navarre, breaking first through a Chain which surrounded the Moorish Army, he afterwards bore a Chain with an Emerald in his Shield. In this War was taken from the Moors, besides other Places, the City of Calatrava. The King of Leon took Alcantara.

Henry. Alfonso died in the Year 1214, leaving behind him his Son Henry, whose Minority occasioned great disturbances in the Kingdom; he died Edition: current; Page: [51] without Issue in the Year 1217. He had two Sisters, the Eldest Blanch was Married to Lewis VIII. Son of Philip Augustus, King of France: The second, Berengaria, was Married to Alfonso, King of Leon. The Crown, by Right of Succession, did belong to the Eldest, and her Heirs: But out of a hatred the States [estates] bore to Strangers, they conferr’d the Kingdom upon Ferdinand, Sir-named the Holy, Son of Berengaria, who Edition: orig; Page: [38] with all speed imaginable,Ferdinandus Sanctus. possess’d himself of it, before he could be prevented by his Father {Alfonso}, surmounting all the difficulties which were rais’d against him, partly by his Father, partly by some of the Nobility. It is related by some, That Blanch was not the eldest Sister, but that some of the Castilian Noblemen did dispute the right of Berengaria to the Crown, because the Pope had declar’d her marriage with Alfonso void, and their Children illegitimate, as being too near in Bloud.

By the death of Alfonso \A. 1230\, Leon and Castile were reunited under Ferdinand, at what time the Moors suffer’d extreamly in their Affairs. King James of Arragon took from them Majorca, in the Year 1232. Minorca in the Year 1234. Yvica in the Year 1238. The City and Kingdom of Valencia, Ferdinand took from them {A. 1238}, besides other places, in the Year 1230, Merida and Badajoz. In the Year 1236, the City and Kingdom of Corduba: Murcia surrender’d it self to the protection of Castile \A. 1240\. In the Year 1248, Jaen, Sevile, and the greatest part of Andalusia. But whilst he was making Preparations to carry the War into Africa, he died in the Year 1252.

Alfonso X. §7. The History of the next following Years is full of Troubles and Divisions. Alfonso {X.}, ’tis true, was famous in foreign Countries for his Wisdom and great skill in Astronomy, so that it is reported of him, that he used to say, That if God would have advised with him at the time of the Creation of the World, the World should have been made more uniform; yet he was unfortunate at home, and hated by his Subjects.10 The first occasion of which was, that he being desirous to fill his Treasury, which was exhausted, he caus’d the current Coin to be diminish’d, Edition: current; Page: [52] which enhanc’d the price of every thing, and whilst to prevent this, he set certain rates on all Commodities, which occasion’d a general scarcity of all things, the people not being willing to sell at his rates. He was by some of the Electors chosen Roman Emperour \A. 1256\, but because his Children were then very young, and great Divisions arose among his Nobles, he delay’d for a great many Years Edition: orig; Page: [39] to go thither, and to receive the Imperial Crown, till in the Year 1275, a fancy took him all on a sudden, to go and take possession of the Empire, though Rudolf of Habsburgh was already got into the Imperial Throne.11 But his Journey was ended in Provence, he returning from thence home by the persuasion of the Pope, who afterwards excommunicated him, and obliged him also to renounce the Title of Emperour. After the death of Ferdinand, his eldest Son, Sanctius {V.}, the younger Brother, did aim at {and receive} the Succession, tho Ferdinand had left Children behind him. This rais’d a Jealousie betwixt the Father and Son, who rose in open Rebellion against his Father, being assisted by the major part of the States [estates], which Commotion however ceas’d with the death of Alfonso \A. 1284\.Sanctius V. Under the Reign of this King many Battels were fought against the Moors with various success.

The Sicilian Vespers. In the Year also 1282 happened the Sicilian Vespers, by which means Peter [III.] King of Arragon obtain’d the Kingdom of Sicily, he having before a pretence to it, as having married Constantia the Daughter of Manfred.12 Against this Sanctius [V.] the Son{s} of Ferdinand, his el der Brother, rais’d several disturbances, which he overcame all by his Wisdom: he dyed in the Year 1295. During the time of the Minority of his Son Ferdinand IV.Ferdinand IV. the Kingdom of Castile was overwhelm’d with trouble. After he came to Age, he undertook an Expedition against the Edition: current; Page: [53] Moors, taking from them Gibraltar, and died in the flower of his Age \A. 1312\. Under the Reign of this King \A. 1297\ James King of Arragon was presented with the Kingdom of Sardinia, by the Pope, who pretended to have a right of disposing of it;13 and those of Pisa being then in possession of the same, were afterwards \A. 1324\ beaten out by the Arragonians.

Alfonso XI. The Minority also of Alfonso XI. was full of troubles. At that time the Moors had again received a great Reinforcement out of Africa, the Castilians nevertheless obtain’d a most signal Victory over them in the Year 1340 {near Tarissa}, in which Battel, ’tis said 200.000 were slain on the side of the Moors, and but only 25.00014 Spaniards. At that time Al {gi} zira was taken, and a Peace concluded with the King of Granada, under condition that he should be tributa-Edition: orig; Page: [40]ry to Castile. This King died \A. 1350\ in the Siege of Gibraltar, which he had lost before. His Son Pieter, sir-named The Cruel, reigned very tyrannically.Peter the Cruel. He drew the hatred of most of his Subjects upon himself by parting from his Queen Blanch, whom he afterwards, tho Innocent, for the sake of a Concubine, caus’d to be murther’d. This occasion’d a Plot against him, which he suppress’d with a great deal of Bloudshed. In the mean while a War arose betwixt him and Pieter IV. King of Arragon, who assisted the Rebels in Castile, who had set up for their King, Henry the King’s Brother, begotten on a Concubine call’d Eleonora Gusman: With him also join’d a great many French Voluntiers; so that falling upon Pieter of Castile \A. 1366\, {where many of the cities fell to him,} he forc’d him to flee into Aquitain. But he [the latter] having rais’d there a considerable Army, return’d into Spain, defeated Henry, and obliged him to flee into France, but did not desist from his Tyranny, whereby he quite lost the Affection of his Subjects: And Henry having gather’d another Army in France return’d into Castile; where being assisted by the Castilians he vanquish’d Pieter, and in the flight kill’d him with his own Hands \A. 1369\.

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Henry II. §8. Out of the Race of this Henry II. sirnam’d The Bastard, sprang afterwards Princes who prov’d very mischievous to Spain. Henry himself did at first labour under great difficulties, the neighbouring Nations attacking him every where, yet he surmounted them, and at last made Peace with them all. But the Favour of his Nobles he bought with Money.John II. He died in the Year 1379. His Son John endeavour’d to obtain the Crown of Portugal, of Ferdinand its King, whose Daughter he had married. But the Portugueses, out of a hatred against the Castilians, set up for their King, John natural Son to Pieter King of Portugal, who maintained himself against the Castilians, routing them near to Aliunbaret; which Victory the Portugueses mightily boast of in their Histories. Castile was at that time in great danger, the English siding with the Portugueses, under the Duke of Lancaster, who having married Constantia, the Daughter Edition: orig; Page: [41] of Pieter sirnamed The Cruel, pretended to the right of that Crown, bearing also the Title and Arms: But the business was at last compos’d, by marrying the Daughter of the English Duke to the Prince of Castile; after which also a Peace was concluded with Portugal.

Henry III. John died by a fall from his Horse \A. 1390\. His Son Henry III. was a sickly Prince, under whose Minority great Divisions arose in the Kingdom. During the time of his Reign he did nothing remarkable, except that he restor’d the Revenues which the Nobles had alienated from the Crown. He died in the Year 1407, leaving behind him John II.John II. a Child of two Months old. The tuition of this Prince was, besides his Mother, committed to Ferdinand his Uncle, to whom the States [estates] did offer the Kingdom, which he generously refusing to accept of, he obtain’d afterwards the Crown of Arragon. This King [John II.] being under the tuition of his Mother grown very Effeminate, only addicted to Voluptuousness, having no Genius nor inclination for publick Business, committed the whole management to his Favourite Alvarez de Luna, an ambitious Man, which occasion’d great Jealousies in his Nobles against him. This King taking his Favourite’s part against the Nobility, an open War ensu’d betwixt them, the Rebels being headed by his own Son, and the City of Toledo declar’d against the King. At last the King being tir’d with the many Inconveniencies, cut this Favourite’s Head off \A. 1453\; Edition: current; Page: [55] but died himself in the Year next following. Under the Reign of this King a War broke out betwixt the Spaniards and those of Granada, wherein the first signaliz’d themselves to their advantage.

In the Year 1420 King Alfonso {V.} of Arragon was adopted by Joan Queen of Naples {as her son}; but a difference arising betwixt Joan and Alfonso, she declar’d the said Adoption void and null, receiving in his stead Lewis Duke of Anjou; which afterwards occasion’d bloody Wars betwixt France and Spain: Yet Alfonso at last kept the upper hand, making himself Master of Naples \A. 1442\, and leaving the same to his natural Son Ferdinand.

Henry IV. In the Kingdom of Castile succeeded John {II.} his Son Henry IV. the scandal to the Spanish Nation. He being incapable of be-Edition: orig; Page: [42]getting Children, to take away this suspicion, hired one Bertrand Corva, who for this service was made Earl of Ledesma, to lie with the Queen, who having brought forth a Daughter call’d Joan, Henry caus’d her to be proclaim’d Heiress to the Crown. What confirm’d this the more was, that the Queen afterwards had another Bastard begotten by another person. To remove this shame, and to exclude Joan from the succession of the Crown, the Nobles of Spain enter’d into an Association; and putting the Image of Henry upon a Scaffold, they there formally accus’d him, and afterwards, having taken off his Ornaments, threw it from the Scaffold, at the same time proclaiming Alfonso, Brother of Henry, their King. From hence arose most pernicious intestine Wars which ended in bloudy Battels. During these troubles Alfonso died \A. 1468\: About the same time, Ferdinand Son of John II. King of Arragon, whom his Father had declar’d King of Sicily, propos’d a Marriage with Isabella, Henry’s Sister, to whom the rebellious Castilians had offer’d the Crown, and forc’d Henry to confirm the right of Isabella to the Crown; whereupon the Nuptials were celebrated, but privately \A. 1469\: Yet would Henry, by making this Concession void, have afterwards set up again the Title of Joan, whom he had promis’d in marriage to Charles Duke of Aquitain, Brother to Lewis XI. King of France; but he dying suddenly, Henry at last was reconcil’d to Ferdinand and Isabella, and died in the Year 1472.

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Ferdinand the Catholick and Isabella. §9. From this match of Ferdinand (whom the Castilians call The V. or The Catholick) with Isabella, sprang the great Fortune and Power of Spain, it under his Reign arriving to that pitch of Greatness, which ever since has made it both the Terrour and the Envy of Europe. This Ferdinand also met with some obstacles at the beginning of his Reign, the States of Castile having limited his Power within too narrow Bounds: And Joan, the late King Henry’s suppos’d Daughter, having contracted a match with Alfonso King of Portugal, who entring Castile with a puissant Army,The Kingdom of Castile and Arragon united. caus’d her to be proclaim’d Queen; but the Edition: orig; Page: [43] Portugueses being soundly beaten, the whole design vanish’d, and Joan retiring into a Monastery, the civil Commotions were totally suppress’d. The next care of Ferdinand was to regulate such Disorders as were crept into the Government in the former Reigns; wherefore he caus’d that Law-book to be compil’d, which from the City of Toro, where it first was publish’d, is call’d Leges Tauri.15

The first beginning of the Spanish Inquisition. In the Year also 1478, the famous Spanish Inquisition was first instituted by him against the Moors and Jews, who having once profess’d themselves Christians, did afterwards return to their Idolatry and Superstitious Worship.16 This Court of Inquisition is esteemed an inhuman and execrable Tribunal among other Nations, and carries the greatest Injustice with it, in ordering the Children to bear the Guilt of their Parents, nor permitting any body to know his Accusers to clear himself against them: But the Spaniards ascribe to this Inquisition, the benefit which they enjoy of one Religion, the variety of which has brought great Inconveniencies upon other States: ’Tis true, by those means you may make Hypocrites, not sincere Christians.17 After he had order’d his Affairs at home, and after the death of his Father \A. 1479\, taken upon him the Government of Arragon, he undertook an Expedition against the Moors of Granada \A. 1481\, which Edition: current; Page: [57] lasted ten Years, wherein the Spaniards were routed near Mallaga \A. 1483\, but quickly reveng’d themselves upon their Enemies, taking from them one place after another, till they at last besieg’d the City of Granada with 50.000 Foot and 12.000 Horse,Granada taken. and having forc’d the King Boabdiles to a surrender \A. 1492\, they put an end to the Kingdom of the Moors in Spain, after it had stood there for above 700 Years: And to prevent the possibility of their ever encreasing again in Spain, he banish’d 170.000 Families of Jews and Moors out of Spain, by which means, the Kingdom nevertheless was despoil’d of vast Riches, and of a great number of Inhabitants. After this he took from them Mazalquivir, Oran, Pennon de Velez and Mellilla, situated upon the Coast of Barbary. Ferdinand also made use of this opportunity to teach his Nobles, who were grown overpowerfull, their due Edition: orig; Page: [44] Respect and Obedience to the King, and took upon himself the Sovereign Disposal of all the Spanish Orders of Knighthood, which were grown to that excess of Riches and Power in Spain, that they were formidable to its Kings.

America discover’d. Much about the same time \A. 1494\ Christopher Columbus, a Genouese, discover’d America, after his Offers had been refus’d by the Kings of Portugal and England; and after he had been seven Years solliciting at the Court of Castile for a supply to undertake the Voyage: At last 17.000 Ducats were employed in equipping three Vessels, out of which Stock such prodigious Conquests and Riches have accru’d to Spain, that ever since it has aim’d at the Universal Monarchy of Europe. How easily the Spaniards did conquer these vast Countries, and with what Barbarity they us’d the Inhabitants, is too long to be related here.18

The first rise of the War betwixt France and Spain. Not long after a War was kindl’d betwixt Spain and France, which has been the occasion of inspeakable Miseries in Europe;19 after these two Warlike Nations were freed from that Evil which had hitherto diverted them from medling with Foreign Affairs, the French having rid themselves from the English, and the Spaniards from the Moors. For, when Charles VIII. King of France, undertook an Expedition against the Kingdom Edition: current; Page: [58] of Naples {A. 1494}, Ferdinand did not judge it for his Interest, to let the French, by conquering this Kingdom, to become Masters of Italy; especially, since by marrying his Daughters he was in aliance with England, Portugal and the Netherlands, and besides the then Kings of Naples descended from the House of Arragon: And tho France lately enter’d with him into a Confederacy, by vertue of which the French gave up Roussilion to Spain, hoping thereby to bring over Ferdinand to their Party; nevertheless, when he perceiv’d, That by all his Intercessions he could not disswade him [the French] from undertaking of this Expedition, he enter’d into a Confederacy with the Pope, Emperour, Venice and Milan against France. He also sent to the assistance of the Neapolitans, Gonsalvus Ferdinand de Cordua, afterwards sirnam’d The Grand Captain,20 under whose Conduct the French were beaten out of the Neapolitan Edition: orig; Page: [45] Territories, whilst he himself made an inrode into Languedock.

In the Year 1500 the Moors living in the Mountains near Granada rebell’d, and were not without great difficulty appeas’d. Afterwards an Agreement was made betwixt Ferdinand and Lewis XII. King of France, concerning the Kingdom of Naples, under pretence, to make War from thence against the Turks; which being soon conquer’d by their joint Power, they divided it according to their Agreement. But because each of them would have had this delicious Morsel for himself, they fell at variance concerning the Limits and some other matters which interven’d betwixt two Nations that had an animosity against one another: Wherefore they came quickly to Blows, and Gonsalvus routed the French near Ceriniola, took the City of Naples, beat them again near the River Liris or Garigliano, and taking Cajeta, drove the French a second time out of the Kingdom of Naples: But Gonsalvus was not rewarded by Ferdinand according to his Deserts, for he not only lessen’d his Authority at Naples, but also being suspicious, that he either intended to keep that Kingdom for Philip, Son-in-law to Ferdinand, or else for himself, Ferdinand undertook a Journey in Person to Naples, on purpose to bring Gonsalvus handsomly away from thence; and taking him along with him into Spain, he treated him ill for his great deserts.

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Philip. In the mean time died the Queen Isabella \A. 1504\, which occasion’d some Differences betwixt Ferdinand and his Son-in-law Philip the Netherlander, Ferdinand pretending, according to the last Will of Isabella, to take upon him the Administration of Castile. And to maintain his Claim the better, he enter’d into a Confederacy with France, by marrying Germana de Foix, Sister to Lewis XII. hoping thereby to obtain a powerfull Assistance, in case Philip should come to attack him: But Philip coming into Spain, and taking upon him the Administration of the Government in the name of his Lady Joan, Ferdinand retir’d into Arragon. But Philip died soon after \A. 1506\, whose Queen Joan being not in her right Wits, yet undertook the Administration of the Government, not without the opposition of some Edition: orig; Page: [46] of the chief of the Nobility; wherefore, the Administration of the Government was by common consent committed to Ferdinand after his return from Naples, notwithstanding the Emperour Maximilian did pretend to it, in the right of his Grandson Charles.21

In the Year 1508 Ferdinand enter’d into a Confederacy against the Venetians, whereby he regain’d the Cities of Calabria, Brindisi, Otranto, Trazo, Mola and Polignano, which the Venetians had formerly obtain’d for some Services done to the Neapolitans. But as soon as Ferdinand perceiv’d that the Venetians were like to be swallow’d up by the Emperour and France, the Pope and he left the Confederacy, thinking it more convenient to preserve the State of Venice; since by adding the Territories of Venice to those of Milan, which were then possess’d by the French, they would have grown too powerfull in Italy. Hence arose a War, in which John d’ Albert, King of Navarre, taking part with the French, was upon instigation of Ferdinand excommunicated by the Pope; under which pretext Ferdinand took an opportunity \A. 1512\ to possess himself of that part of the Kingdom,Ferdinand conquer’d Navarre. which lies on the Spanish side of the Pyrenean Mountains; which since that time the French have in vain indeavour’d to recover. In the Year 1510 the Spaniards took Bugia Edition: current; Page: [60] and Tripolis upon the Coast of Barbary; but were routed in the Island of Gerbis. This wise King died in the Year 1516.22

Charles. §10. Him succeeded his Grandson by his Daughter, Charles, the fifth Emperour of that Name, who, with the assistance of the Cardinal Ximenes, immediately took upon himself the {complete} Administration of the Government, his Mother, {Joanna,} to whom the same [the empire] did belong, being incapable of Administring it. This Prince, who, since Charles the Great, was the most Potent Prince that hath been in Europe, spent the greatest part of his Life in Travels and Wars. In the very beginning of his Reign, there were some Commotions in Spain, which were soon appeased. John D’ Albert also made an Inrode into the Kingdom of Navarre, in hopes to recover it, but was quickly repul-Edition: orig; Page: [47]sed. But with the French, during his whole Life, he waged continual Wars. For, though in the Year 1516, he made a League with King Francis I. whereby the Daughter of Francis was promised to him in Marriage; yet was this Tie not strong enough to withhold the Animosity of these two ‘courageous’ [ambitious] Princes. Charles, who was flush’d up with the great Success of his House, had always in his Mind his Motto, Plus ultra [still further]. But Francis, who was surrounded every-where by so potent a Prince, did oppose his Designs with all his Might, fearing, lest his Power should grow too strong both for him and all the rest of Europe.

Charles obtain’d a most particular advantage, when the Imperial Dignity23 was conferr’d upon him \A. 1519\; to obtain which for himself, or some-body else, Francis had labour’d with all his Might, but in vain. Edition: current; Page: [61] Robert de Mare [von der Marck], Lord of Sedan, withdrawing himself from the Emperour, and putting himself under the Protection of France,Wars betwixt Charles and France. with whose assistance he attack’d the Lord of Emmerick, who was under the Emperour’s protection, administer’d new matter of jealousie, which quickly broke out into an open flame in the Netherlands. In which War the French lost Tournay and St. Amant, but beat the Imperialists from before Meziores. Charles also did intend to drive the French out of Milan upon instigation of Pope Leo X. Charles pretending that Francis had neglected to receive this Dutchy in fief of the Empire, beat the French near Bicoque. Fonterabie also, which they had taken by surprize, was re-taken by force from the French. It proved also very disadvantageous to them, that the Constable Charles of Bourbon, sided with the Emperour; and entring Provence \A. 1524\, besieged Marseilles; Which nevertheless he was forced to quit, as soon as Francis march’d with all his Forces that way into Italy to recover the Milaneze. Where he took the City of Milan, but at the Siege of Pavia was Attack’d by the Imperial Generals, who totally routed his Army; and having taken him Prisoner, carried him into Spain \A. 1525\.

The King himself was in part the occasion of this loss, he having sent a great part of his Army towards Naples and Savona; and those that remained with him, Edition: orig; Page: [48] were most Italians, Swiss and Grisons,24 who did not perform their Duty in the Battle; and most of his Generals were of opinion, to avoid the hazard of a Battle, by retiring under the City of Milan. The French also succeeded ill in the Diversion, which they endeavour’d to give the Emperour; <for> by the help of Charles Duke of Geldres, and the Friselanders, for they were at that time worsted by Charles’s Forces. There were some that advised Charles, to set Francis at liberty without any Ransome, and by this Act of Generosity to oblige him for ever: But he followed the Counsels of such as did advise to make advantage of so great a Prisoner. He therefore imposed very hard Conditions upon him, which Francis refusing to accept of, out of dis content fell into a dangerous Sickness, so that Charles himself went to visit and comfort him; Though he was advised to the contrary by his Edition: current; Page: [62] Chancellour Gallinaca, who alledged that such a Visit, where he did not intend to promise the Prisoner his liberty, would rather seem to proceed from Covetousness, and fear of losing the advantage of his Ransome, than from any civility or good inclination towards him. And this Sickness was the real cause, why at last the Treaty, concerning his Liberty, which had been so long on foot, was finish’d, the Emperour fearing that his Discontent might plunge him into another Sickness, or Death itself.

In the mean time, the prodigious Success which attended the Emperour, did raise no small jealousie among other Princes; and by instigation of Pope Clement VII. three Armies were raised to maintain the Liberty of Italy. To prevent this Storm, and especially to withdraw the Pope from the Confederacy, the Emperour’s Generals marched directly against Rome, which they took by Storm, (where Charles of Bourbon was slain,) and for several days together plunder’d the City, and committed great Out-rages. The Pope himself was besieged in the Castle of St. Angelo; and Charles, at the same time that the Pope was enclosed {by} his own Forces[,] caused {public} Prayers to be made {in Spain} for 40 days together,Rome taken by Charles V. for his deliverance;25 at last \A. 1527\, forced by Famine, he was forced to Surrender, and to renounce the above-men-Edition: orig; Page: [49]tion’d League.

The Conditions, on which Francis had obtain’d his Liberty, were, That Francis should surrender the Dukedom of Burgundy; to renounce the Sovereignty over Flanders and Artois; quit all his pretences upon Naples and Milan; to marry the Emperour’s Sister Eleonora, and to give his two Sons as Pledges for the performance of these Articles. But as soon as he got into his own Kingdom he protested against the Treaty, which was extorted from him during his Imprisonment: And making a League with the Pope, England, Venice, the Suiss and Florence, sent an Army into Italy under the Command of Odet de Foix, Lord of Lautree. This occasion’d not only that very gross words pass’d betwixt these two Edition: current; Page: [63] Princes, but they also gave one another the lye, and a Challenge pass’d betwixt them: But Lautree, who had at first great success, being destroy’d with his Army by Sickness in the Siege of Naples, a Peace was at last concluded at Cambray,A Peace made at Cambray. in the Year 1529, by virtue of which Francis paid for his Sons 2.550.000 Rixdollars [Reichsthaler], renounc’d his Pretensions to Flanders, Artois, Milan, and Naples, and marry’d Eleonora, Sister to the Emperour; out of which Marriage, if a Son should be born, he was to be put into the possession of the Dukedom of Burgundy.

In the Year 1530, Charles ‘was’ [had himself] Crowned by Pope Clement VII. at Bononia [Bologna], whereby he obtained from the Emperour, that the Common-wealth of Florence should be made a Principality, and the said City was by force obliged to admit this Change. Alexander de Medicis being constituted Duke, to whom the Emperour married his natural Daughter Margaret. In the same Year the Bishop of Utrecht resign’d the Soveraignty of that City, and the Province of Over-yssel, into the Hands of Charles, and the Provinces of Geldren, Zutphen, Groningen; the Twente and Drente also fell into his Hands. In the Year 1535, he went with a puissant Army into Africa, took Tunis and Goletta, restoring the Kingdom of Tunis to Muleassa, who was banished before by Haradin Barbarossa, but in Goletta he left a Garrison.

In the Year 1537, another War broke out betwixt Charles and Francis: For the latter could not digest the loss of Milan; and being advised Edition: orig; Page: [50] by the Pope, that when-ever he intended to Attack Milan, he should first make himself Master of Savoy; and Francis Sforzia dying at the same time, he fell upon Charles Duke of Savoy; and under pretence, that he defrauded his Mother of her Dowry, drove him quite out of Savoy, and conquered a great part of Piedmont. But the Emperour, who was resolved to annex the Dutchy of Milan to his Family, came to the assistance of the Duke of Savoy, and at the Head of his Army, entring Provence, took Aix, and some other Places; but his Army being much weakned with Sickness, for want of Provisions, he was forced to retire again. In the Netherlands, the Imperialists took St. Paul and Monstrevil, killing great Numbers of the French. Through Mediation of the Pope, Paul III. a Truce of 10 Years was concluded at Nissa in Provence \A. 1538\; after which these two Princes had a friendly Interview at Aigues Mortes. Edition: current; Page: [64] And in the next following Year, the Emperour, against the advice of his friends, ventured to take his way through the very heart of France, being desirous with all possible speed to compose the Disorders, which were arisen at Ghent. Yet had he before by the Connestable Anna {n} Mont-morancy, cajolled Francis into a belief, that he would restore to him the Dutchy of Milan, which however he never intended to perform.

In the Year 1541, he undertook an Expedition against Algiers in Africa, at the latter end of the Year, against the advice of the Pope and others <of his friends>, who ‘persuaded’ [advised] him to stay [wait] till next Spring. He there Landed his Army with good success; but a few days after such prodigious Storms and Rains did fall, which dispersed his Ships, and spoiled the Fire-locks of the {foot}Souldiers, that the Emperour was obliged, with the loss of one half of his Army, to return into Spain. In the Year next following \A. 1542\, Francis broke with him again, under pretence that his Ambassadours Caesar Fregosus and Anthony Rinco, which he had sent through the Milanese, by the way of Venice, to go to the Ottoman Port, were upon the River Po Murthered by Orders of the Governour of Milan. Wherefore William Duke of Cleves entring Brabant on one side, the Duke of Orleans on Edition: orig; Page: [51] the other side, took Luxemburgh and some other places. The Dauphin besieg’d Perpignan, but was oblig’d to raise the Siege: The famous Pirate Barbarossa, did by the instigation of Francis, great mischief on the Seacoasts of Calabria, destroying Nissa in Provence by Fire.

Charles seeing himself at once attack’d in so many places, setting aside the Differences which were arisen about the Divorce betwixt Henry and his Aunt Catherine,26 made a League with Henry King of England, wherein it was agreed, That the Emperour should force his way through Champaigne, whilst Henry enter’d into Picardy, that so they might, by joining their Forces, ruine the whole Power of France. The Emperour therefore, with an Army of 50.000 men, beat the Duke of Cleves in the Netherlands, forcing him to surrender Guelderland; and after having recover’d the places in Luxemburgh, taken before by the French, Edition: current; Page: [65] enter’d into Campaigne, taking by force Lygny and Disier: Francis kept with his Army on the other side of the River Marne, and not daring to fight the Imperialists, contented himself to ravage the Country which they were to march through, to endeavour to cut off their Provisions: Nevertheless the Imperial Army found a sufficient quantity at Espernay and Chasteau Thierry. This occasion’d such a Terrour and Confusion in Paris, that the Citizens were for leaving the City, if the King, by his Presence, had not encourag’d them to stay. And if, on the other side, King Henry had acted according to the Agreement, they might easily have got the French Army betwixt them, and in all likelyhood, would have put a period to the French Greatness. But Henry being detain’d at the Sieges of Bologne and Monstrevil, sent word to the Emperour, That he would not stir further, till he had made himself Master of these two places. Charles then began to suspect the King of England, whom he perceived meerly to be for his own Interest, and did not think fit to trust any longer;Peace made at Crespy. considering also with himself what vast charges he was at in this War, and how thereby his Designs were retarded which he had projected against the Protestants in Germany; as also, that his Forces had receiv’d a considerable overthrow Edition: orig; Page: [52] in Italy, near Carizola, from the French, he made thereupon a Peace with Francis at Crespy in the County of Valois {A. 1544}.

Charles wages War against the Protestants in Germany. Then Charles undertook to subdue the Protestants, entring, for that purpose, into a League with Pope Paul III. which War he carried on with such success, that without great trouble he overthrew them \A. 1547\, making their chief Heads, the Elector of Saxony and Landsgrave of Hesse, Prisoners: The Emperour made use of this Policy, in fomenting Divisions betwixt Duke Maurice and his Cousin, the Elector of Saxony;27 and refusing to fight with them at first, he thereby protracted the War, foreseeing, that a Confederacy under so many Heads would not last long, and that the Cities, which contributed the most towards it, would grow quickly weary of the Charges of the War. Francis also, Edition: current; Page: [66] and Henry VIII. were both of them lately dead, who else, questionless, with all their Power, would have oppos’d his designs of oppressing the Protestants, thereby to make himself absolute Master in Germany. The Heads also of the Protestant League did greatly contribute to their own Misfortune, they having let slip several opportunities, especially, at first, before the Emperour had rightly settled his Matters, when they might have done him considerable mischief; nevertheless Charles was no great gainer by these Victories, because he used the Conquer’d, whom he was not able to keep in Obedience by force, with too much rigour, keeping the Captive Princes in too close an Imprisonment. He also disobliged Maurice Elector of Saxony, after his Father-in-law the Landtgrave of Hesse, had by his persuasions surrender’d himself to the Emperour. The Elector therefore being persuaded by the Prayers of his Children and others, who objected to him, That by his Assistance their Religion and Liberty were in danger of being lost, he fell unawares upon Charles \A. 1550\, whom, under favour of the Night and a Fogg, he forc’d to retire from Inspruck. After this exploit a Peace was concluded by the Mediation of King Ferdinand,Treaty at Passaw. where, in the Treaty at Passaw, the Protestant Religion was establish’d. In the mean while Henry II. King of France, coming to the assistance of Edition: orig; Page: [53] the Protestants, had taken Metz, Toul and Verdun. The Emperour attackt Metz again with great fury, but having been fain to leave it after a considerable loss sustain’d, he discharg’d his Fury upon Hesdin and Tervanne, which he levell’d with the Ground. In Italy the Imperialists took Siena \A. 1554\, which afterwards Philip II. gave to Cosmus Duke of Tuscany, reserving to himself the Sovereignty and some Sea-ports.

At last, Charles tir’d with the Toils of the Empire, and the Infirmities of his Body, resigned the Imperial Crown to his Brother Ferdinand, who would not consent that the same should come to his Son Philip. But to Philip he gave all his Kingdoms and Territories, except those in Germany (which fell to Ferdinand’s share) reserving to himself only a yearly allowance of 100.000 Ducats.Abdication of Charles. He had made a little before, a Truce of five Years with France, which was soon broke by the persuasions of the Pope, who endeavouring to drive the Family of Colonna out Edition: current; Page: [67] of their Possessions; and they being upheld by the Spaniards, the French sided with the Pope. But this War prov’d very unfortunate to the French, they being routed at St. Quintins, lost that City, and the Mareschal de Thermes was also soundly beaten near Gravelin. At last \A. 1559\ a Peace was again concluded at Chateau en Chambrasis,Peace betwixt Spain and France. by virtue of which, the French were obliged to restore all what they had taken in Italy, which had been the occasion of some Blood-shed by Francis and Henry. But under-hand it was agreed, That both the King of Spain and France should endeavour to root out the Hereticks (as they call’d them) which succeeded afterwards very ill both in Spain and France. In the Year before this, viz. 1558,Charles dies. died Charles in the Convent of St. Justus in Spain, where he spent his last days in quiet. His last Will and Testament (tho never so rational) was so far from being pleasing to the Inquisition, that it wanted but little of having been burnt as Heretical. But his Father Confessour and the rest of the Monks in that Convent, who had been present, were forc’d to undergo the severe Judgment of this Court. Edition: orig; Page: [54]

Philip II. §11. Under the Reign of Philip II. the {extraordinary} greatness of the Spanish Monarchy began to be at a stand; neither had its Kings the same success, as formerly, to get vast Kingdoms by Marriages. For from the match of Philip with Mary Queen of England, came no Children. And truly, in my Opinion, the Spanish Greatness receiv’d the first shock at that time, when Charles V. surrender’d his Dominions in Germany to his Brother Ferdinand [of Austria], and afterwards had him elected King of the Romans;28 by which means the Power of this House was divided, and the Imperial Crown separated from the Spanish Monarchy. Charles would fain have afterwards persuaded Ferdinand to transfer the Succession of the Imperial Crown upon Philip; but he being persuaded by his Son Maximilian to keep what he had got, would in no ways part with it. He was also much belov’d by the Germans, whereas they had an aversion against Philip; who being a meer Spaniard, did not as much as understand the German Tongue: And Ferdinand and his Successours Edition: current; Page: [68] |[prov’d very good Princes, who were not fond of the Spanish methods of Governing.29]|

But that which gave the greatest shock to the Spanish Greatness, were the Troubles arisen in the Netherlands. The reason why this ‘Evil’ [cancer] grew incurable, was, because Philip being over fond of his ease, would rather sit still in Spain, than by his Presence endeavour to stop the current before it ran too violent, tho’ his Father did not think it too much, to venture himself at the Discretion of Francis his {greatest} Rival, to appease the Tumults arisen only in the City of Ghent.30 Another reason was, That he took the most violent course, by sending the Duke of Alva, a cruel Man, among the Netherlanders, who being us’d to a mild sort of Government, were thereby put into despair; especially when they were inform’d, That the Inquisition had declar’d Criminal, not only those who were guilty of the Rebellion, and pulling down the Images, but also all such Catholicks as had not made resistance against them. The Saying of Anthony Vargas, a Spanish Minister, is as famous as ridiculous; Haeretici diruerunt templa, boni nihil fecerunt contra, ergo omnes debent patibulari; i.e. The Here-Edition: orig; Page: [55]ticks demolish’d the Churches, the Catholicks [boni] did not oppose them, wherefore they ought all to be hang’d. Besides this, the Spaniards were much hated by the Netherlanders, not only because of the great differences there was betwixt the Manners of these Nations, but also, because these latter had been in great esteem with Charles V. who was very like them in all his Behaviour: On the contrary, Philip |[only encourag’d the Spaniards]|,31 who having an extraordinary conceit of their own Abilities, and taking the Netherlanders for Cowards, did not think they had Courage enough to oppose their Designs. The Spaniards also were well pleas’d to see the Netherlanders to begin first, hoping the King would thereby take an opportunity to clip their Privileges, and by making them all alike obtain an absolute Dominion over them: This done, they hoped to make these Countries their Armory and Store-house, from whence they Edition: current; Page: [69] might with more ease invade France and England, and raise the Spanish Monarchy to the highest degree of Greatness. But the Netherlanders, on the other side, were resolv’d not to part with their Liberty, nor to be treated as a conquer’d Nation. And when Philip, at his departure, would leave Spanish Garrisons in the Netherlands, and to soften the matter, constituted the Prince of Orange and Earl of Egmont, Generals over them, yet could they not be persuaded to accept of the same, alledging, That the Netherlanders had got but very small Advantages by the Peace with France, which they had procur’d by their own Valour, if they now should be in danger of being subdu’d themselves by a foreign Power.

The neighbouring Princes also, but especially Elizabeth, Queen of England, took an opportunity by these troubles to empty the vast Treasures of Spain, and to exhaust its Strength. The Protestant Princes also of Germany, who hated the Spaniards, were glad of this opportunity, and assisted the Prince of Orange upon all occasions. And the Emperours thought it more convenient to be at quiet and to please the Germans, than to be too forward to assist their Cousins. These Commotions in the Netherlands did also occasion the War betwixt Philip and Elizabeth,War with England. Queen of Edition: orig; Page: [56] England, she not only affording assistance to the Netherlanders, but also the English Privateers doing considerable mischief to the Spanish West-India Ships; and the famous Francis Drake plunder’d the very Southern Coast of America. On the other side, Philip, by supporting the Rebels in Ireland, proved very troublesome to Queen Elizabeth. At last Philip did resolve with one stroke to put down the whole Strength of England; to which purpose he was equipping a great Fleet for several Years together, which he call’d The Invincible, the like never had been seen before those times. The Fleet consisted of 150 Sail of Ships, which carried 1600 great pieces of Brass Cannon, and 1050 of Iron; 8000 Seamen, 20.000 Souldiers, besides Volunteers; the Charge amounted daily to 30.000 Ducats, but the whole Preparations to twelve Millions of Ducats. The Pope Sixtus V. also excommunicated Queen Elizabeth, assigning her Kingdom to Philip. But all these Prepa rations came to nothing,The Spanish Armada destroyed. the greatest part of this Fleet being destroy’d, partly by the English and Dutch, partly by Tempests, few return’d home, and that in a most miserable condition, so that there was scarce a Noble Edition: current; Page: [70] Family in Spain but went into Mourning for the loss of some Friend or another. But the evenness of Temper is much to be admir’d in Philip, who receiv’d this bad news \A. 1588\ without the least alteration, giving only this Answer, I did not send them out to fight against the Winds and Seas. Afterwards the English and Dutch Fleets being joined, beat the Spanish Fleet near Cadiz, taking from the Spaniards, not only a great many Ships richly laden, but also the City of Cadiz it self; which nevertheless was again left by the English General, the Earl of Essex, after he had plunder’d it, to the great dishonour of the English, who might from thence have done a great deal of mischief to the Spaniards.

Neither did Spain get any advantage by having entangled it self \A. 1596\ in |[the Troubles, and (as it was call’d) the holy League, made in France.]|32 Philip, ’tis true, propos’d to himself to have met with a fair opportunity, by excluding the Bourbon Family[,] to annex the Crown of France to his House, or by raising Edition: orig; Page: [57] Divisions in this Kingdom to swallow up one piece or another, or to assist one of his Creatures in obtaining that Crown; or, at least, by dividing it into so many Factions, so to weaken its Strength, as that it should not be able to recover it self for a considerable time. But by the Courage and good Fortune of Henry IV.33 all these Measures were broke, and he declaring himself a Catholick, took away the Foundation whereupon the League was built. Thus Philip lost his vast Expences; and besides this, suffer’d extreamly in his Affairs; for in the mean time that he sent the Duke of Parma, Governour of the Netherlands, to the assistance of the League in France, the Confederate Netherlanders had leisure given them to put themselves and their Affairs into a good posture: Philip acted in this business according to the old proverb; That he who hunts two Hares at once, commonly catches neither of them: Besides, Henry IV. after he had restor’d his Affairs in France, declar’d War against Philip \A. 1594\; which was nevertheless carried on in the Netherlands with ‘various’ [dubious] success, Edition: current; Page: [71] the Count de Fuentes taking Cambray in the Year 1595, and in the Year next following, the Archduke Albert, Calais. On the other side, Henry recover’d Fere from the Spaniards. In the Year 1597, the Spaniards took Amiens by surprise, which Henry recover’d not without great difficulty. At last,Peace made at Vervin. a Peace was concluded in the same Year betwixt France and Spain at Vervin, because Philip was unwilling to leave his Son, who was but young,34 entangl’d in a War with so great a Captain as Henry was; and Henry was sensible, that the Kingdom of France being enervated did greatly want a Peace.

Philip also waged several Wars against the Turks; for the Pyrate Dragutes had taken from the Spaniards Tripoli \A. 1551\, after they had been in possession of it for forty Years. To retake this, Philip sent a strong Army \A. 1560\, which took the Isle of Gerbis; but being afterwards beaten by the Turkish Fleet, he lost, together with the Island, 18.000 Men and 42 Ships. In the Year 1564 Philip retook Pegnon de Velez. In the Year 1566 Maltha was besieg’d by the Turks during the space of four Months, which was reliev’d by Philip, he forcing the Turks to raise the Siege with great loss. Edition: orig; Page: [58] In the Year 1571 the Confederate Fleet of Spain, Venice, and other Italian States, under the Command of Don John of Austria, did obtain a most signal Victory over the Turkish Fleet near Lepanto, whereby the Turkish Naval Strength was weaken’d to that degree, that they were never afterwards so formidable in those Seas, as they were before. But else the Spaniards had got no great Reputation in this War; for by their delays that considerable Island of ‘Rhodes’ [Cyprus] was lost <before>. In the Year 1573 Don John of Austria pass’d with an Army into Africa, to retake Tunis, which succeeded so well, that he forc’d the City, and added a new Fortification to it. But in the Year next following, the Turks sent a puissant Army thither, and retook the City, its Fortifications being not quite perfected, as also Goletta which being not very well provided with all Necessaries, was lost by the unskilfulness and Cowardice of the Governour; so that the whole Kingdom of Tunis, to the great prejudice of the Christians, fell into the Hands of the Turks.

Edition: current; Page: [72]

At home Philip had a War with the Marans of Granada,35 who rebelling against him, were supported by the Algerines, and could not be subdu’d but with great difficulty; and if the Turks had been quick enough in giving them timely assistance, it might have prov’d very dangerous to Spain. This Rebellion did not end till the Year 1570, after it had continued for three years. There were also some Commotions among the Arragonians \A. 1592\; who ‘pretended to take part with’ [took the side of] Anthony Perez, who |[standing upon his privilege against the Process that was made]|36 him for having upon the King’s Orders, ‘murther’d’ [executed] Escovedo, an intimate Friend of Don John of Austria. Philip, by this intended to purge himself of the Infamy of the fact, and at once to revenge himself upon Perez, who had been unfaithfull to him in some Love Intrigue, aiming at that himself which he had undertaken to procure for the King. And tho this did not much redound to the honour of Philip, yet by this he took an opportunity to retrench the Privileges of the Arragonians. In the Year 1568, Philip caus’d his Son Charles to be ‘kill’d’ [executed], under pretence that he had endeavour’d to kill his Father; and not long after, the Edition: orig; Page: [59] Queen Isabella also, Charles’s Step-mother, died, not without suspicion of having been poison’d. But a great many are of opinion, that some Love Intrigues were the occasion of their death, which is the more probable, because the said Isabella being intended for the Bride of Charles, had been taken by the Father in spite of his Son.37

Portugal falls to Spain. Henry King of Portugal dying \A. 1579\, there were several pretenders to that Crown, among whom was Philip, as being born of Isabella, Emanuel King of Portugal’s Daughter, who maintain’d his Right by the Sword; and under the Conduct of the Duke of Alva conquer’d the Edition: current; Page: [73] Kingdom, forcing Anthony, the Bastard, who had caus’d himself to be proclaim’d King, to fly into England, and from thence into France, where he died {miserably} an Exile in Paris \A. 1595\: Only the Island of Tercera held out for some time longer, which the French intending to relieve, were totally routed by the Spaniards. And thus Philip became Master, both of the East and West Indies, the two greatest Mines of Riches in the World. Nevertheless, the French, English and Hollanders had found out a way to ease him of these prodigious Revenues. For Philip, just before his death, did confess, That the War with the Netherlands only, had cost him 564 Millions of Ducats. And truly, it is very probable, that trusting to his vast Riches he was thereby prompted to his ambitious Designs and to undertake more than prov’d beneficial to him. He died in the Year 1598.

Philip III. §12. Philip the IIId’s Father had left him the Kingdom in Peace with France, but the Dutch War grew every day the heavier upon the Spaniards. The Spaniards did hope, that after Philip II. in his latter days had married his Daughter Clara Eugenia to Albert Archduke of Austria, giving her the Netherlands for a Dowry, the Dutch would become more pliable, and reunite themselves with the rest of the Provinces in the Netherlands, as having now a Prince of their own, and not liable to the Spanish Government. But because the Hollanders did by no means like this bait, and at the Siege of Ostend gave a tast to the Spani-Edition: orig; Page: [60]ards, both of their Strength and firm Resolution, that they were resolv’d to stand it out with them, the Spaniards resolv’d to make Peace with them; especially since the Hollanders had found out the way to the East Indies, where they made great progress; France also enjoying a peaceable Government under Henry IV. and encreasing in Power, it was fear’d, That if the French should fall upon Spain with fresh Forces, which had been tir’d out by this tedious War, it might prove fatal to Spain. They were also in hopes, that the fear of a foreign Enemy ceasing, the Hollanders in time of Peace might fall into Divisions among themselves; or at least, that Peace and Plenty might abate their Courage. The Spaniards did sufficiently shew their eagerness for a Peace with Holland, by setting the Treaty on foot in the Hague, by sending Ambrosius Spinola Edition: current; Page: [74] himself,38 among others, thither as Ambassadour, and by granting and allowing them the East India Trade. Whereas the Hollanders ‘carried it very high’ [were tough and arrogant during the negotiations], and would not abate an ace of their Proposals.Truce with Holland. At last \A. 1609\, a Truce for twelve Years was concluded with Holland.

In the Year next following, Philip banish’d 900.000 Marans (the Off-spring of the ancient Moors, who had profess’d themselves Christians only for a shew) out of Spain, because they intended to raise a Rebellion, and had underhand crav’d Assistance from Henry IV. In the same Year the Spaniards took the Fortress of Arache, situated on the Coast of Africa; as they had likewise possess’d themselves before of the Harbour of Final, near Genoua, in the Year 1619. Those of the Valtelins did withdraw themselves from the Grisons. The Spaniards sided with the former, in hopes to unite them with the Dukedom of Milan. But France taking part with the Grisons, the business was protracted for a great many years, till at last matters were restor’d to their former state. This difference did rouse up all Italy, and the Pope himself took part with the Grisons, tho Protestants, assisting them in the recovery of the Valtelins. The War being broken out in Germany, the Spaniards sent Ambrose Spinola out of the Netherlands into the Palatinate, part of which was subdu’d by them. Philip III. died in the Year 1621. Edition: orig; Page: [61]

Philip IV. §13. His Son Philip IV. at the very beginning of his Reign made great alterations in the Court, sending away the Creatures of the Duke de Lerma, the Favourite of his Father: He himself foreseeing what was likely to befall him, did timely obtain a Cardinal’s Cap, fearing the King should aim at his Head. With the beginning of the Reign of this King, the Truce with Holland being expir’d, the War was rekindled, in which Spinola was forc’d \A. 1622\ to raise the Siege of Bergen op Zoom, because Christian Duke of Brunswick, and General Mansfeld, having before routed the Spaniards near Fleury, came to the assistance of the Edition: current; Page: [75] Hollanders. Pieter Heyn surpris’d the Spanish Silver Fleet39 \A. 1628\, with a Booty of 12 Millions of Gilders. At the same time the Hollanders did settle themselves in Brasile, taking the City of Olinda. In the Year 1629, the Spaniards being in hopes to make a considerable Diversion, and to put the Dutch hard to it, made an Inrode into the Velaw, and took Amersfort, whilst the Hollanders were busied in the Siege of Hertogenbusk Bois le Duc, but the Hollanders taking Wesel by surprise, they were oblig’d to retreat with all speed over the River Yssel, for fear, that their retreat should be cut off by the Dutch.

In the Year 1639, a great Fleet was sent out of Spain into the Channel, under the Command of Don Oquendo, which was destroy’d by Martin Tromp, in the Downs, in the very sight of the English. What the Intention was of sending so great a Fleet this way, was not generally known at that time; but afterwards it was divulged, that the same was intended against Sweden, and that there were 20.000 Men ready in Denmark, which, as soon as this Fleet should have appear’d before Gothenburg, were to have join’d them and enter’d Swedeland. Afterwards the War was protracted, but most to the disadvantage of the Spaniards, till the Year 1648, when the Spaniards concluded a Peace with the Hollanders at Munster,40 declaring them a free People, renouncing all their pretences over them, and leaving to them all the places which they had taken from them. And notwithstanding France did its utmost to hinder the conclusion of this Peace, at least so long, till that Kingdom might also make a Peace Edition: orig; Page: [62] with Spain; but the Hollanders did not think it adviseable to stay their leisure, fearing, that if Spain was brought too low, the French would thereby be enabled to swallow up the [Spanish] Netherlands, and become their immediate Neighbours, which they foresaw would prove fatal to their State. It was also alledged, and that with good reason, That it was time to put up the Sword, when all those things might be obtained by fair means for which it was drawn at first; Edition: current; Page: [76] and that the Province of Holland had contracted considerable Debts. Spain also perceiving, that the Dutch were not to be overcome by force, was willing to agree to those Conditions, being glad to be rid once [and for all] of so troublesome an Enemy, that they might |[have the more leisure to be even with]|41 France and Portugal. It is reported, that this War cost the Spaniards <above> One thousand five hundred Millions of Ducats.

In the Year 1628, Vincent II. Duke of Mantua, dying, the Emperour endeavour’d to exclude Charles Duke of Nevers, he being a Frenchman born, from the succession of that Dukedom, under pretence of having neglected some Matters appertaining to it, as being a Fief of the Empire. The Savoyards also took this opportunity to renew their Pretensions upon Montserrat, and the Spaniards, in hopes of getting something in the Fray, besieged Casal. On the other side, the French took part with the Duke of Nevers, raised the Siege of Casal, and put the Duke of Nevers into possession of the Dukedom of Mantua, which did much weaken the Reputation of the Spaniards in Italy.

In the Year 1635, the French denounced War against Spain, under pretence, that they had taken prisoner Philip Christopher Elector of Treves, he being under the protection of the King of France, and that they had driven the French Garrison out of Treves, and possess’d themselves of that City; but the true reason was, that it was thought high time to bridle the Ambition and Power of the House of Austria, which after the Battel of Nordlingen, and the Peace concluded at Prague,42 was grown very formidable, and France being well settled at home, began to be in a very flourishing condition. The French therefore, af-Edition: orig; Page: [63]ter they had beat the Prince Tomaso near Avennes, enter’d the Netherlands with a great Army, but the Success did not answer Expectation; the Dutch especially being unwilling, that France should make any considerable Conquests on that side: Neither did the French gain any thing in Italy. In the Year next following the Prince of Conde was forc’d to raise the Edition: current; Page: [77] Siege of Dole; and the Spaniards entring Picardy fill’d Paris it self with Terrour and Confusion. Gallas also, the Imperial General, endeavoured to enter Burgundy with his Army, but did not advance much.

In the Year 1637 the Spaniards lost Landresi. In the next Year they were forced to retire from before Leucate with great loss; but the Prince of Conde, on the other hand, had the same ill fortune before Fonterabia; \A. 1639\ the Spaniards beat the French soundly near Thionville, but lost Hesdin, Salses and Satins; and in the Year following, the strong City of Arras, they being besides this, routed near Casal: Nor could they with all their Strength force the Earl of Harcourt from before Turin.Catalonia rebels. In the same Year also the Catalonians did revolt, they being first dissatisfy’d at the Pride of the Duke d’Olivarez, the King’s Favourite, against whom they had made great complaints, but were nevertheless sorely oppress’d by him. These discontents encreased after the Catalonians, endeavouring the relief of Salses, were beaten, they pretending that they were not duely assisted by the Castilians, and therefore left the Army and march’d home. Conte Duca taking this opportunity, represented them very ill to the King, and caused their Privileges to be considerably diminished, and their Country to be oppress’d with their quartering of Souldiers. This put them in open Rebellion, and Barcellona beginning first, they drove the Spaniards out of Catalonia. Then seeking Aid from France, they at last, after the Spaniards had cut off by their Cruelty, all hopes of Mercy, put themselves under the Protection of that Kingdom: And it was eleven Years before the Spaniards could quite recover Catalonia, the intestine Commotions in France presenting them with a fair opportunity; for Barcellona, being not timely reliev’d, was forc’d to surrender {again} to Edition: orig; Page: [64] the Spaniards \A. 1651\.

Portugal falls off from Spain. But the Portugueses withdrawing themselves from the Obedience of the Spaniards \A. 1640\, gave a great shock to the Spaniards. Philip II. tho he had conquered this Kingdom, yet had always endeavour’d by mildness, and by preserving their Privileges, to mitigate the hatred which the Portugueses bore to the Castilians, which were grown to that height, that the Priests used to insert it in their Prayers, That God would be pleased to deliver them from the Castilian Yoak: But after his death the Spanish Ministers had not been so carefull by maintaining their Privileges, Edition: current; Page: [78] to keep the affection of the Portugueses, but rather had treated them as a conquered Nation; which so exasperated the Portugueses, that as soon as they saw Spain begin to decline, immediately \A. 1636\ some places in Portugal did rebel, but were soon after reduced to their former Obedience. The Spaniards therefore thought it adviseable, that to bridle this People, nothing could be more proper, than by employing the [Portuguese] Nobles as well as the Commoners in the [Spanish] Wars, to purge the superfluous ill Humours of this Nation. In the mean while the Catalonians falling into Rebellion, the Portuguese Nobles were ordered to go into the Field, which they did not relish well; having besides this, some other reasons to be dissatisfy’d with the Spaniards: And, because the Portugueses had a great affection for the Duke of Braganza, the Spaniards try’d all ways to entice him to come to Court, and supposing that they had cajoll’d him sufficiently with fair promises, invited him very courteously to go in person with the King into the Field; which invitation, nevertheless he knew how to decline very dexterously.The Portugueses. At last the Portuguese Nobility being hard press’d to serve in the Expedition against the Catalonians, which they would in no ways consent to, unanimously agreed to shake off the Castilian Yoak, and secretly sounded the Inclinations of the Duke of Braganza. As soon as he, upon the persuasions of his Lady, had resolv’d to accept of the Crown, they broke loose, and surprising the Garrison in the City, Palace and Fort, seiz’d the Ships, kill’d the Secretary of State Vasconcello, who had carried himself very proudly a-Edition: orig; Page: [65]mong them,Duke of Braganza proclaimed King of Portugal. and proclaimed the Duke of Braganza King, under the Name of John IV. purging the whole Kingdom within eight days of the Castilians, and that with the loss only of two or three persons. Which may serve as a remarkable instance to convince the World, how easily a Kingdom is lost, where the Peoples Inclination is averse to the supream Head.

Thus the Spanish Monarchy received a great blow, and its Power being distracted, it could not act effectually on all sides. They also lost Perpignan \A. 1642\; tho the French could not go further into Spain, for the Prince of Conde besieged Lerida in vain \A. 1647\. In the Year 1641 {, as well}, the Prince [of] Monaco driving the Spanish Garrisons out of his Territories, put himself under the protection of France. There Edition: current; Page: [79] also happen’d {A. 1647} a most dangerous Rebellion at Naples,Massanello’s Rebellion at Naples. the Head of which was a poor Fisherman, whose Name was Massanello; who might have put the whole Kingdom into a flame, if the French had been at hand to give him timely assistance; but by the prudent management of the Governour, the Earl of Ognato, the Tumult was appeased. Spain then being forc’d to quench the flames on all sides, it could not be so mindfull of Holland, as the most remote, having all hands full, to resist the dangers threatning them nearer home. And the Spaniards had the good fortune to reduce, as we said before, Catalonia, under their Subjection, and \A. 1650\ to chase the French out of Piombino and Porto Longone; but the English took from them the Island of Jamaica in the West Indies. At last France being re-established in its former Tranquility, the Spaniards thought it most convenient to make Peace with that Crown: Which was concluded betwixt the two great Ministers of State, the Cardinal Mazarini and Don Lewis de Haro,The Pyrenean Treaty. in the Pyrenean Mountains {A. 1659}:43 By vertue of which France got Roussilion, and several considerable places in the [Spanish] Netherlands.

Spain having thus concluded a Peace with all the rest of its Neighbours, it began in earnest to make War against Portugal. The Spaniards therefore enter’d Portugal with a great Force, taking from the Portugueses several places, but were also at several places soundly beaten. The Battel near Edition: orig; Page: [66] Entremos \A. 1662\, where Don Juan, and that near Ville Viciosa \A. 1665\, where Cavacena received a fatal Defeat, are most famous: The obtaining of which two Victories on the Portuguese side is chiefly ascribed to the French General Schamberg.44 Philip IV. died in the Year 1665.

Charles II. §14. He had for his Successour his Son Charles II. a Child of four years of age, who under the Tuition of his Mother, negligently prosecuted the War against Portugal, and at last \A. 1668\, by the Mediation of England,Peace with Portugal. was forc’d to make Peace with that Crown, renouncing his right Edition: current; Page: [80] to the same; because the French at that time made a grievous havock in the Netherlands. For tho’ Mary Teresia, Daughter of Philip IV. at the time when she was married to the King of France had renounc’d all her right of Succession to her paternal Inheritance, yet the French taking the opportunity of their flourishing condition, and the decay’d state of Spain, England also and Holland being engaged in a War with one another, who would else not have left the Netherlands to be devoured by them; they enter’d Flanders with a vast Army, using among other things, for a pretence, that which in Brabant is called, Jus devolutionis, by which the real Estates of private persons, fall to the Children born during the time of the first marriage, as soon as the Father marries again. The French took in this War, without much resistance, a great many considerable Cities and Forts, viz. Charleroy, Tournay, Lisle, Donay, Oxdenarde, and some others; they conquer’d also the whole Franche Compte, which hastened the Peace betwixt England and Holland, and occasioned the Tripple Alliance, as it is called,The Tripple Alliance. made {A. 1667} betwixt England, Sweden and Holland, for the preservation of the Spanish Netherlands. In the following Year France made a Peace with Spain at Aix la Chapelle, restoring to Spain the Franche Compte, but keeping what places ‘he’ [it]45 had taken in Flanders. But when Holland, in the Year 1672, was attack’d by the French, Spain sided with the Dutch,Peace made at Aix la Chapelle. knowing that the loss of the United Provinces must draw after it that of the Spanish Netherlands: So it came again to an open War, wherein, at first, Edition: orig; Page: [67] Spain lost Burgundy. The rebellious Messineses threw themselves under the protection of France, but were afterwards deserted by them. France also got Limburgh, Conde, Valencienne, Cambray, Ypres, St. Omer, Aeth and Ghent: But \A. 1679\ a Peace was concluded at Nimmegen, by virtue of which France kept the Franche Compte,Peace made at Nimmegen. and most places taken in the Netherlands, restoring only to Spain, Limburgh, Ghent, Cortryck, Oudenarde, Aeth and Charleroy.

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The Nature of the Spaniards. §15. Having thus given a brief History of the Kingdom of Spain, we will also add something concerning the Genius of the Spaniards, and the extent of their Territories, as also of the Strength and Weakness of this Kingdom, and its Condition in reference to its Neighbours: The Spanish Nation therefore is commonly esteem’d to be very ‘wise’ [sensible], and to take remote prospects, throughly weighing a thing before it undertakes it. Whereby, nevertheless the Spaniards, being overcautious and exact in their Counsels, do often lose the opportunities of action. Besides this, the Spaniards are very constant to their Resolutions; and tho’ they fail once in an Attempt, they will try their Fortune again, endeavouring to overcome its frowns by their Constancy. They are very fit for War, and not only brave at the first attack, but also will hold out till the last; their sober way of living, and spare Bodies make them fit to bear Hunger and Thirst, and to be very watchfull: But this the Spaniards are extreamly blamed for, that they maintain their Gravity by high-flown Words and a proud Behaviour. Tho’ those that converse with them, do declare, that this Gravity which appears so odious, is not so much the effect of their Pride, as of a melancholy Constitution and an ill Custom, they never being fond to converse much with Foreign Nations.

They are in general, very zealous for the Roman Catholick Religion, and abominate all others. They are seldom fit for any Trade or Business where any hard labour is required; such as Husbandry, or any Handycraft Trades; wherefore these are chiefly managed among them by Foreigners. It is credibly reported, That in Madrid alone, there Edition: orig; Page: [68] are above 40.000 Frenchmen, being for the most part, Merchants, Artists, Handycrafts men and Labourers, who go under the Name of Burgundians, thereby to avoid the hatred, which the Spaniards naturally bear against the French. And such is the Spanish pride, that tho’ they think it below themselves to meddle with those trifles, yet they do not think much to be a poor Centinel in some Fort or another all their life time, the honour of the Sword, and hopes of becoming in time an Officer, making them amends for what hardship they endure. Their Pride, ‘Covetousness’ [miserliness] and ‘rigorous proceedings’ [severity] make Edition: current; Page: [82] them hatefull to all such as are under their Command; which are very unfit Qualifications for the maintaining of great Conquests. For no body is willing to be despised by Foreign Governours.

Spain being mightily exhausted of Men, and therefore incapable of raising great Armies within it self, is very unfit to maintain vast Countries, for which several reasons may be given. For the Women here are not so fruitfull as in the Northern parts, which is to be attributed to the heat of the Climate, and the constitution of their ‘spare’ [dry] Bodies. Those parts also which are remote from the Sea-shore, are not well peopled, some of these Grounds being very barren, not producing any thing for the subsistance of Mankind. Whoring also being publickly allowed of here; a great many of them will rather make shift with a Whore than to maintain a Wife and Children. These also, who have taken upon them holy Orders, of whom there is a great number, are obliged not to marry. The Wars which they have waged against so many Nations, but especially in Italy and the Netherlands, have devoured a great many Spaniards. A vast number have transplanted themselves into ‘America’ [the West Indies] {and have filled that land with new domiciles [Wohnstädten]}, being glad to go to a place where they may with a small beginning come to live very plentifully. {On the other hand,} before the discovery was made of ‘America’ [the West Indies], Ferdinand the Catholick, had <at> once before the City of Granada, an Army of 50.000 Foot and 20.000 Horse, tho’ Arragon did not concern it self in that War, and Portugal and Navarre were at that time not united with Castile. At last this Country was mightily dispeopled, Edition: orig; Page: [69] when Ferdinand, after the taking of Granada, and Philip III. banished a great many thousands of Jews and Marans, who could not be kept in obedience in Spain; these settling themselves in Africa, retain to this day their hatred against the Christians, robbing their Ships in those Seas.46 But this is evident enough, that the Spaniards could never have made a Conquest of those vast Countries, by force of Arms, if the greatest part of them had not fallen into their Hands by easier ways.

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The Constitution of the Spanish Countries. §16. Concerning those ‘Countries’ [regions, Landschafften] which are under the Jurisdiction of this Nation; Spain is large enough in extent for the number of its Inhabitants, but it is not fertile alike in all places; for the most remote parts from the Sea-coasts are many of them barren, not producing any thing for the subsistance of Men or Beasts: But for the most part, nearer to the Sea-side, it is very fine and fruitfull. There is abundance of Sheep here. They have also very fine Horses, but not in very great quantities, having scarce enough for their own use. This Kingdom is very well situated for Trade, having on the one side the Ocean, and on the other side, being almost surrounded by the Mediterranean, where they have most excellent Harbours. The product of their Grounds and Commodities fit for Exportation, are especially Wooll, Silk, Wine, Oyl, Raisons, Almonds, Figs, Citrons, Rice, Soap, Iron, Salt, and such like. In former times the Spanish Gold-mines were most famous, but now-a-days, neither Gold nor Silver, as far as I know, is digged out in Spain: Some will alledge for a reason, That it is forbidden under severe penalties, to keep it as a reserve in case of a great extremity. But I am rather apt to believe, That those Gold-mines have been long a-goe quite exhausted by the Avarice of the Spaniards.

The Spanish West Indies. §17. The greatest Revenue of Spain comes from the ‘East’ [West] Indies, from whence Gold and Silver, like Rivulets are conveyed into Spain, and from thence into the other parts of Europe. At what time, and by whom this Country, which had been so long un-Edition: orig; Page: [70]known to the Europeans, was first discover’d, we have already mentioned.47 Tho’ there are [those] that pretend, That America was discovered in the Year 1190, by one Madoc, Son to Owen Gesnerb, a Prince in Wales, who they say, made two Voyages thither; and having built a Fort in Florida or Virginia, or as some say, in Mexico, died in America: And this is the reason why in the Mexican Tongue abundance of British words are to be met withall; and that the Spaniards, at their first coming into America did find the remnants of some Christian Customs among the Inhabitants: Edition: current; Page: [84] From whence some inferr, That if the first discovery of a Country, gives a good Title of Propriety to the Discoverers, England would have as good, if not a better Title to America than Spain; but this we will leave to be decided by others.48

But it is not so evident, from whence Spain could claim a right of subduing that Countrey by force of Arms. For, what is alledged among other pretences, concerning the Bull of Alexander VI.49 wherein he did grant those Countries to Spain, this does not only seem ridiculous to us, but also to those Barbarians themselves, who have ridicul’d it, saying, The Pope must be a strange sort of a Man, who pretended to give away that which was none of his own:50 But let this be as it will, the Spaniards think it sufficient that they are in possession of it; and if an exact scrutiny should be made into other matters of this nature, it would appear, that the Titles to most conquered Countries were none of the best.51 But <some of> the most conscientious Spaniards do not justifie what Cruelties, their Country-men committed in the beginning against those poor People, of whom they kill’d, without any provocation given, a great many hundred thousands; or destroyed them by forcing them to undergo intolerable hardships, and making the rest their Slaves: Tho’ afterwards Charles V. being informed of their miserable condition, ordered all the rest of the Americans to be set at liberty.52

But the Spaniards are not Masters of all America, but only of the Edition: current; Page: [85] middle part of it, viz. The Kingdoms of Peru and Mexico, and those vast Islands of Hispaniola,53 Cuba and Porto Ricco, Jamaica having been taken Edition: orig; Page: [71] from them by the English. These parts of America are now-a-days inhabited by five several sorts of People: The first are the Spaniards, who come thither out of Europe; these are put in all Offices.Several sorts of Inhabitants in the Spanish West Indies. The second are called Crioliens [Creoles], who are born in America of Spanish Parents: These are never employ’d in any Office, as being ignorant of the Spanish Affairs, and too much addicted to love their native Country of America; wherefore the King is cautious in giving them any Command, fearing, lest they should withdraw themselves from the Obedience of Spain, and set up a Government of their own; especially, because these Crioliens bear a great hatred against the European Spaniards. For this reason also the Governours are changed every three Years, to take away the opportunity of strengthening their Interest too much; who after their return into Spain are made Members of the Council for the Indies, as being esteemed the most proper to advise concerning the preservation of that Country. The third sort are called Metiffs [Mestizos], who are born of a Spanish Father and an Indian Mother, are in no esteem among them. Those who are brought forth of the marriage of a Spaniard with a Metiff, or of a Metiff and a Spanish Woman, are called Quatralvos, as having three parts of a Spaniard, and one of an Indian: But such as are born of a Metiff and an Indian Woman, or of an Indian Man and a Metiff are called Tresalvos, as having three parts of an Indian and one of a Spaniard. The fourth sort are the remnants of the ancient Inhabitants, of whom a great many are to be met with, especially in the Kingdoms of Peru and Mexico, who are not so Barbarous as some may imagine, there having been found among them such excellent Laws and Constitutions as would make some Europeans blush. The fifth sort are the Moores, or, as the Spaniards call them, Negroes, who being bought in Africa are sent thither to do all sorts of drudgery. These are generally very handy, but very perfidious and refractary, wherefore they must always be kept Edition: current; Page: [86] under a strict hand.54 Such as are born of a Negro and an Indian Woman are called Mulats [Mulattos].

Yet is that part of America, considering its bigness, not Edition: orig; Page: [72] very well stock’d with People, since the Spaniards did in a most cruel manner root out the most of its ancient Inhabitants: And if I remember well, Hieronymus Benzonus says, That all the Cities in America, which are inhabited by the Spaniards, joined together, were scarce to be compared, for number of People, with the Suburbs of Milan:55 Yet there are some who talk ‘largely’ [specifically] concerning Mexico, viz. That it has betwixt 30 and 40.000 Spanish Citizens, who are most of them very wealthy, so that it is reported, there are 18.000 Coaches kept in that City.

The Spaniards are not easily to be beaten out of America; because most places which are in their possession, are hard to come at, and it is very difficult to transport such a number of Souldiers out of Europe, as can be sufficient to attack any of these places: Besides this, the great difference of the Climate, and Diet could not but occasion mortal sicknesses among them: But in Peru, especially, they are very well settled, there being scarce any access by Land, and by Sea you are obliged to go round the South and remotest parts of America, or else to come from the East Indies; both which are such long Sea-voyages, which an Army can scarce undergo without running the hazard of being destroy’d by Sickness.

Riches of America. Concerning the Riches of America, ’tis true, the Spaniards at their first coming thither did find no coined Gold or Silver, that being unknown in those days to the Inhabitants; but an inconceivable quantity of uncoined Gold and Silver, and abundance of Gold and Silver Vessels made without Iron Tools, all which the Spaniards carry’d into Spain, except what the Seas swallowed up in their Voyages, which was very Edition: current; Page: [87] considerable: But now-a-days those Rivers which formerly used to carry a Golden Sand, are most exhausted; and what is found there now is all dug up out of the Mines; especially the Silver Mines of Porost [Potosi] in Peru, do {still} afford an incredible quantity of Silver, which is yearly, together with some other Commodities, transported in a Fleet into Spain: Nevertheless a great part of this Silver |[belonging to]|56 Italian, French, English and Dutch Merchants, the least part of it remains in Spain; so that the Spaniards keep the Cow, Edition: orig; Page: [73] but others have the Milk: Wherefore, when \A. 1563\ the French and Spanish Ambassadours at Rome quarrel’d about Precedency, and the latter, to represent his Master’s Greatness, spoke very largely of the vast Riches of America, the Frenchman answered, That all Europe, but especially Spain, had been a considerable loser by them: The Spaniards having employed themselves in searching after the Treasures of America, were thereby become idle, and had dispeopled their own Country. The King of Spain trusting to his great Riches, had begun unnecessary Wars. Spain being the fountain from whence vast Riches were derived to other Nations, did receive the least benefit of all by them, since those Countries that furnish’d Spain with Souldiers and other Commodities did draw those Riches to themselves.

Formerly there were also Emeraulds in America, and Pearls were found, but that Stock is long since, by the Avarice of the Spaniards, quite exhausted. There is besides this, a great quantity of Commodities in America, which are used in Physick and Dying Colours. There is also great quantities of Sugars and Hides, as appears in that in the Year 1587 the Spanish Fleet transported 35.444 Hides from St. Domingo, and 64.350 from New Spain: For the Oxen and Cows, which were first transported from Spain into America, are grown so numerous, that they shoot them for their Hides sake only throwing away the Flesh, which is scarce eatable. And as America is the best Appendix of the Spanish Kingdom, so the Spaniards take all imaginable care to prevent its being separated from Spain. They make, among other things, use of this Artifice, Edition: current; Page: [88] That they will not allow any Manufactory to be set up in America, so that the Inhabitants cannot be without the European Commodities, which they do not suffer to be transported thither in any other Ships but their own.

The Canary Islands. §18. Besides this, the Canary Islands are in the possession of the Spaniards, from whence are exported great quantities of Sugar and Wine; it is credibly reported, That England alone transports above 13.000 Pipes of Canary, at 20 l. per Pipe.57 The Island of Edition: orig; Page: [74] Sardinia also belongs to the Spaniards, which Isle is pretty large, but not very rich, its Inhabitants being for the most part Barbarians. The Isle of Sicily is of much greater value,Sardinia. from whence great quantities of Corn and Silk are to be exported; but the Inhabitants are an ill sort of People, who must be kept under, according to the old Proverb, Insulini quidem mali, Siculi autem pessimi.Sicily.58 Unto Sicily does belong the Isles of Maltha and Goza, which was given in Fief from Charles V. to the Order of the Knights of Rhodes. Spain also has a great part of Italy in its possession, viz.Naples. The Kingdom of Naples, who’s Capital City is scarce bridled [kept obedient] by three Castles. The Sovereignty of Siena, and a great many strong Sea-ports, and the Sea-coasts of Tuscany, viz. Orbitello, Porto Hercule, Telemone, Monte Argentario, Porto Langone, and the Castle of Piombino; besides that noble Dukedom of Milan,Milan. which is the Paradise of Italy, as Italy is commonly called the Paradise of Europe: They have also the Harbour of Final upon the Genouese Coast. In the City of Milan, Trade and Manufactory flourishes extreamly, and this Dukedom is much valued by the Spaniards, because they have thereby a convenient Correspondence with the House of Austria.

The Netherlands. As long as Burgundy and the Netherlands were united, they might be compared to a Kingdom; but now Burgundy is lost, the seven united Provinces have separated themselves from the rest of the Netherlands, and France has conquered a great part of the remainder. And tho’ in Edition: current; Page: [89] the Spanish Netherlands there are very fair and strong Cities left, yet nevertheless it seems, that the greatest benefit which Spain receives from them amounts to this, That by them the French Arms are diverted from the other Spanish Territories, that they commonly draw the Seat of War thither, and serve to take off the edge of the French Fury. In the East Indies the Philippine Islands belong to the Spaniards,The Philippine Islands. whose Capital City being Manilla, was taken by them in the Year 1565: but these Islands are so inconsiderable, that it has been often under debate, whether it were not most convenient to abandon them: Yet some Indian Commodities, which from Edition: orig; Page: [75] several places, and especially from China are brought to Manilla, are from thence transported to New-Spain and Mexico, whereby there is kept a constant Communication betwixt the Spanish West and East Indies.

Strength and Weakness of Spain. §19. From what has been said it is evident, that Spain is a potent Kingdom, which has under its Jurisdiction, rich and fair Countries [Länder], abounding with all Necessaries, not only sufficient for the use of its Inhabitants, but also affording a great overplus for Exportation. The Spaniards also do not want Wisdom in managing their State Affairs, nor Valour to carry on a War: Nevertheless this vast Kingdom has its Infirmities, which have brought it so low, that it is scarce able to stand upon its own Legs: Among those is to be esteemed one, the want of Inhabitants in Spain, there being not a sufficient number both to keep in obedience such great Provinces, and at the same time to make Head against a potent Enemy; which want is not easily to be repaired out of those Countries which are under their subjection, since it is the Interest of Spain, rather to restrain the Courage of these Inhabitants, for fear they should one time or another take Heart, and shake off the Spanish Yoak. And whenever they raise some Souldier in these Provinces, they cannot trust them with the defence of their Native Country, but are obliged to disperse them, by sending them into other Parts, under the Command only of Spaniards: Spain therefore is scarce able to raise within it self, a sufficient number of Souldiers for the Guard and Defence of its frontier places: Wherefore, whenever Spain happens to have War with other Nations, it is obliged to make use of Foreign Souldiers, Edition: current; Page: [90] and to raise those, is not only very chargeable but also the King is not so well assured of their Faith, as of that of his own Subjects.59 The want of Inhabitants is also one reason, why Spain cannot now-a-days keep a considerable Fleet at Sea, which nevertheless is extreamly necessary to support the Monarchy of that Kingdom.

Another weakness is, That the Spanish Provinces are mightily dis-joined, they being divided Edition: orig; Page: [76] by vast Seas and Countries: These therefore cannot be maintained and governed without great difficulty; for the Governours of the Provinces being remote from the sight of the Prince, he cannot take so exact an account of their Actions; and the oppressed Subjects want often opportunity to make their Complaints to the King; besides that, Men and Money are with great charge and danger sent out of Spain into these Provinces, without hopes of ever returning into the Kingdom. Their Strength cannot be kept together, as being obliged to divide their Forces. The more disjoined these Provinces are, the more frontier Garrisons are to be maintained; all which may be saved in a Kingdom, whose parts are not so much dis-joined. They are also liable to being attack’d in a great many places at once, one Province not being able to assist another: Besides this, America being the Treasury of Spain, is parted from it by the vast Ocean, whereby their Silver Fleets are subject to the hazard of the Seas and Pyrates. And if it happens that such a Fleet is lost, the whole Government must needs suffer extreamly by the want of it, the Inhabitants of Spain being so exhausted, as not to be able to raise sufficient Summs to supply the Publick Necessities.

The Spaniards are also mighty deficient in regulating their West India Trade, which is so ill managed, that the greatest part of those Riches are conveyed to other Nations, whereby they are empoured to chastise Spain with its own Money. After the death of Philip II. it has also proved very prejudicial to Spain, that by the carelessness of the succeeding Kings, and during the long Minority of this present,60 the Nobles

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have so increased their Power, that they are now very backward in duely assisting the King, and by impoverishing the King and Commonalty have got all the Riches to themselves. It is also a common Disease in all Governments, where the Popish Religion has got the upper hand, That the Popish Clergy is very rich and potent, and yet pretends, by a Divine Right, to be exempted from all publick burdens, except that some of them in the utmost extremity vouchsafe to contribute some small portion for the defence of the whole, Edition: orig; Page: [77] but that not without consent of the Pope:61 Yet the King of Spain has that Prerogative, which he obtained from Pope Hadrian IV. that he has the disposal of all the chief Church Benefices in his Kingdom; and he is also Head and Master of all the Ecclesiastical Orders of Knighthood in Spain. And because the Kings of Spain have hitherto pretended to be the most zealous Protectours of the Papal Chair and Religion, they have thereby so obliged the Zealots of the Roman Catholick Religion, and especially the Jesuits, that these have always been endeavouring to promote the Interest of Spain.

In what condition Spain is in, in reference to its Neighbours, and especially as to Barbary. §20. Lastly, It is also worth our observation, how Spain does behave it self in relation to its Neighbours, and what Good or Evil it may again expect from them. Spain therefore is opposite to the Coast of Barbary, having also several Forts on that side, viz. Pegnon de Velez, Oran, Arzilla, and would be [even] better [off] if they had also Algiers and Tunis. From hence Spain need not fear any thing now, since it has quite freed it self from the very Remnants of the Moors: But the Pyracies committed by those Corsaires is not so hurtfull to Spain, as to other Nations, who traffique with Spain, Italy or Turky; for the Spaniards seldom export [transport] their own Commodities into the other parts of Europe, but these are exported by other Nations.62 The Turks Edition: current; Page: [92] seem to be pretty near to the Islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and to the Kingdom of Naples:Turky. Yet are they not much feared by the Spaniards, the Sea which lies betwixt them being an obstacle against making a Descent with a considerable Army in any of those Parts; and if an Army should be landed, its Provisions, which must come by Sea, might easily be cut off: For in such a case all the States of Italy would be obliged to side with the Spaniards to keep this cruel Enemy from their Borders, and their Naval Strength joined together, much surpasses the Turks in every respect.

Italian States. From the Italian States, the Spaniards have little to fear, it being a maxim with them, to preserve the Peace of Italy, thereby to take away all opportunity from France to get a footing in Italy, Edition: orig; Page: [78] which is also a general maxim among all the States of Italy: Nevertheless this is most certain, That if Spain should endeavour to encroach upon the rest of the Italian States, they would unanimously oppose it; and if they should find themselves too weak to oppose their Designs, they might be easily wrought upon to call France to their aid. The Pope,The Pope. perhaps, might be willing enough to be Master of the Kingdom of Naples,63 Spain holding the same in Fief of the Papal Chair, and thereby the Popes might have a fresh opportunity to enrich their Kindred: But the Pope wants Power to execute such a Design, and the rest of the States of Italy would not be forward to see so considerable a Country added to the Ecclesiastical State; and the Pope’s Kindred are more for gathering of Riches out of the present Ecclesiastical Revenues, than to bestow the same upon an uncertain War. On the other side, Spain having found it very beneficial for its Interest, to pretend to the chief Protectorship of the Roman Religion, and that the Pope’s good or bad Inclinations towards it, may either prove advantageous or disadvantageous, Spain has always endeavoured by all means to keep fair with the Popes. France, on the contrary, having taken part with the Protestants, whom Spain and the House of Austria have sought to oppress, Edition: current; Page: [93] has demonstrated sufficiently to the Roman Court, that it is not so fond of that Religion, as to neglect an opportunity to enrich himself with the Possessions of the Protestants, and to make way for attaining to the so long projected Design of the <Universal> Monarchy; which done, he [it] might easily make the Pope his [its]64 Chaplain: Wherefore the chief aim of the wisest Popes has been, to keep the Power of Spain and France in an equal Balance, this being the most proper method to keep up the Authority and provide for the Security of the Popedom.

Venice. It being the principal maxim of the Venetians, to [p]reserve their Liberty and State, by maintaining the Peace of Italy, Spain has no reason to be ‘jealous of’ [worried about] them as long as it undertakes nothing against them. It is also the Interest, as well of them as of all the other Italian States, that the Spaniards remain in possession of Milan, for Edition: orig; Page: [79] fear, if France should become Master of this Dukedom, it might thereby be put in a way to conquer all the rest of Italy. On the other side, if Spain should shew the least Inclination to undertake any thing against the Liberty of Italy, it cannot expect, but that the Venetians, if not by an open War, at least, by their Counsels and Money would oppose it: For the rest, this State endeavours to remain Neuter betwixt France and Spain, and to keep fair with both of them, as long as they do not act against their Interest;Genoua. Genoua is of great consequence to the Spaniards, from which, depends in a great measure, the Security and Preservation of the Milaneze: Wherefore, when Charles V. could not effect his Intention of building a Castle (being opposed therein by Andreas Doria) whereby he intended to make the Genoueses dance after his Pipe, the Spaniards found out another way to make them dependent on their Interest, by borrowing vast Summs of Money from the Genoueses upon the security of the King’s Revenues in Spain. Besides this, they are possess’d of the Harbour of Final on the Coast of Genoua, whereby they have taken away the power from them of cutting off the Correspondency betwixt Spain and Milan. Spain has great reason to Edition: current; Page: [94] live in a good Correspondency with Savoy;Savoy. for if that Prince should side with France against it, the Milaneze would be in eminent danger of being lost. But because it would be very pernicious for Savoy, if the King of France should become Master of Milan, since Savoy would be then surrounded on all sides by the French, it is easie for Spain to maintain a good Correspondency with Savoy. Florence and the rest of the Italian Princes have all the reason to be cautious not to offend Spain, yet, as much as in them lies, they would scarce suffer Spain to encroach upon any of them.

The Suiss. It is also of consequence to the Spaniards to live in friendship with the Suiss, partly because they must make use of such Souldiers as are [en]listed among them; partly because they may be very serviceable in preserving the Milaneze; and their Friendship is best preserved by Money. But, because the Suiss are of several Religions, Spain is in greater Authority with Edition: orig; Page: [80] the Roman Catholick Cantons, but France with the Protestant Cantons, which being the most potent, yet have, either cajolled by fair Words, or Money, or out of Fear, conniv’d at the Frenches becoming Masters of the ‘County’ [earldom, Grafschaft] of Burgundy in the last War, whereas formerly they used to take effectual care for its preservation.

Holland. The Hollanders were before the Peace of Munster the most pernicious Enemies to Spain; but since the Conclusion of that Peace there is no cause that Spain should fear any thing from them, since I do not see any reason, why these should attack Spain, or endeavour to take any thing from them, having enough to do to maintain what they have already got. And, if they should be tempted to attempt any thing against the West Indies, they would not only meet with great resistance from the Spaniards there, but also France and England would not easily suffer, that both the East and West Indies, the two Fountains from whence such vast Riches are derived, should be in possession of the Dutch: And the Dutch, as for their own Interests, [are] obliged to take care, that France, by swallowing up the rest of the {Spanish} Netherlands, may not become their next Neighbour on the Land, or that it should obtain any considerable advantage against Spain.

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Germans. The Power of Germany Spain may consider {almost} as its own, |[as far as the same depends on the House of Austria.]|65 And it is not long ago, since the States [estates] of Germany were persuaded to take upon them afresh the Guaranty of the Circle of Burgundy;66 whereby Spain hoped to have united its Interest with that of the German Empire against France; since, whenever a War happens betwixt these two Crowns, it is scarce possible, that this Circle should escape untouch’d, it being the most convenient place where they may attack one another with vigour. England is capable of doing most damage to the Spaniards at Sea,England. and especially in the West Indies: But England, in all likelyhood, would be no great gainer by it, since the English have a vast Trade with the Spanish Sea-ports, and their Trade in the Levant would suffer extreamly from the Spanish Privateers; but also Holland could not look with a good Eye upon these Conquests of the Edition: orig; Page: [81] English. Portugal,Portugal. by it self, cannot much hurt Spain, but in conjunction with another Enemy, it is capable of making a considerable Diversion at home. But the Portugueses could not propose any considerable Advantages to themselves thereby; and it might easily happen, that Holland siding with Spain might take from hence an opportunity to drive the Portugueses quite out of the East Indies.

France. The King of France, therefore, is the capital and most formidable Enemy to Spain, who wanting not Power, not only longs to devour the rest of the Netherlands, but also aims at the Conquest of other parts of Spain. But if the old Maxims of Policy are not grown quite out of date, it is to be ‘hoped’ [assumed], that all who have any Interest in the preservation of Spain, will with all their power endeavour to prevent, that <the ruin of Spain,> the Liberty and Possessions of all the States in Europe may not depend on the Pleasure and Will of one single person.67 But what <Revolution> may happen in Spain if the present Edition: current; Page: [96] Royal Family,What may be the consequence of the Extinction of the Royal Family. which has no Heirs yet, should fail, is beyond Human Understanding to determine or foresee; because it is to be feared, that upon such an occasion, not only France would do its utmost to obtain it, but also, because several States which were annexed to Spain, by the Royal Family, might take an opportunity to withdraw themselves from the same.68

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CHAPTER III: Of Portugal.

The Origin of the Kingdom of Portugal. §1. Portugal, which comprehends the greatest part of that Province which the Romans called Lusitania, fell, with the rest of Spain, under the last Gothick King Roderick, into the Hands of the Moors, who were in possession of it for a long time; but ‘in’ [about] the Year 1093, Alfonsus VI. King of Castile and Leon, arming himself with all his Power to attack the Edition: orig; Page: [82] Moors; and craving also the Assistance of Foreign Princes, among others, also, came one Henry,1 to signalize himself in this War, whose Pedigree is variously related by the Historians. For some will have him descended out of the House of Burgundy, and have made him a younger Son of Robert Duke of Burgundy, whose Father was Robert King of France, Son of Hugh Capet. Others derive his Pedigree from the House of Loraine, alledging, That the reason of his being called a Burgundian was, because he was born at Besanson. To this Henry,Henry Earl of Portugal. King Alfonsus VI. gave in marriage his natural Daughter Theresia, as a reward of his Valour, giving unto him for a Dowry, under the Title of an Earldom, all that part of Portugal which was then in the possession of the Christians; which comprehended that part of the Country, where are the Cities of Braga, Coimbria, Visco, Lamego, and Porto, as also that tract of Ground which is now called Tralos Montes, granting to him also a power to conquer the rest of that Country, as far as to the River of Guadiana, and to keep it under his Jurisdiction; yet with these conditions, That he should be a Vassal of Spain, repair to the Dyets of that Kingdom, and in case of a War, be obliged to serve with 300 Horse.

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Alfonsus I. King of Portugal. Henry died in the Year 1112. leaving a Son whose name was Alfonsus, being then very young: His Inheritance was, during his Minority, usurp’d by Ferdinand Potz [Pacz],2 Count of Trastamara, his ‘Father-in-law’ [stepfather], he having married his Mother {who could not control her lust [unzüchtig]}. But as soon as he was grown up, he took up Arms against his ‘Father-in-law’ [stepfather], beat him out of Portugal, but his Mother he put in Prison; who calling to her aid Alfonsus VII. {king of Castile,} [s]he promised to dis-inherit her Son, and to give him all Portugal. But Alfonsus of Portugal defeated the Castilians in a Battel, by which Victory he pretended to have freed himself from the ‘Spanish’ [Castilian] Subjection \A. 1126\. This Alfonsus undertook \A. 1139\ an Expedition against King Ismar, who had his Kingdom on the other side of the River Taio, who being joined by the Forces of ‘four’ [five] other petty Moorish Kings, drew out against him. Alfonsus was then in his Camp near Cabebas [Cabecas] des Reyes proclaimed King, thereby to animate his Souldiers; and get[ting] a Edition: orig; Page: [83] most signal Victory, [and] taking the five Standards of those Kings, <whence> he put five Shields in the [coat of] Arms of Portugal,The Origin of the five Shields in the Arms of Portugal. and retained ever after the Title of King. He took afterwards a great many Cities from the Moors; and among the rest, with the assistance of the Netherland Fleet the City of Lisbon in the Year 1147. This Alfonsus was taken Prisoner \A. 1179\ near Badajoz, by Ferdinand King of ‘Egypt’ [Leon], who gave him his Freedom without any other Ransom, than that he was to restore <to him> some Cities, which he had taken <from him> in Gallicia. After he had reigned very gloriously, and greatly enlarged the Limits of his Kingdom, he died in the 91st Year of his Age \A. 1185\.

Sanctius I. §2. Him succeeded his Son Sanctius, who built a great many Cities, and fill’d them with Inhabitants. He took from the Moors the City of Selva [Salva], being assisted in that Expedition, by a Fleet |[sent out of the Netherlands]|3 to the Holy Land. He was, during his whole Reign, always in action with the Moors, and died in the Year 1212. After Edition: current; Page: [99] him reigned his Son Alfonsus sirnamed Crassus,Alfonsus II. who did nothing worth mentioning, but that, with the help of the Netherlanders, who went to the Holy Land, he took from the Moors the City of Alcassar. He died in the Year 1223. His Son Sanctius, sirnamed Capellus, succeeded him;Sanctius II. who being very careless, and ruled by his Wife, was excluded from the Administration of the Government by the Portugueses, who conferr’d it on Alfonsus his Brother. Sanctius died {miserably} an Exile in Toledo \A. 1246\. The Portugueses have made this observation concerning him, that he was the only Portuguese King who died without leaving either Legitimate Children or Bastards behind him. Alfonsus,Alfonsus III. the Brother of Sanctius, parted from his Lady Mathildis, Countess of Boulogne, she being somewhat Ancient and Barren, and married Beatrice, Daughter to Alfonsus X. King of Castile, with whom he had for a Dowry <the County of> Algarbia; but the Pope being dissatisfy’d with this Divorce, excommunicated both him and the whole Kingdom. He reigned very laudably {otherwise}, and united a great many Cities to his Kingdom, and died in the Edition: orig; Page: [84] Year 1279.

Dionysius. The extraordinary Virtues of his Son Dionysius, especially, Justice, Liberality and ‘Constancy’ [truthfulness], are highly extoll’d by the Portugueses: He having also adorn’d the Kingdom with a great many publick Buildings {and foundations [Stiftungen]}, among which is the Academy of Conimbria [Coimbra], first founded by him. There is an old Proverb concerning him, used among the Portugueses, El Rey D. Denys, qui fiz quanto quin: King Dionysius, who did |[whatsoever he pleased.]|4 He died in the Year 1325; his Son Alfonsus IV.Alfonsus IV. sirnamed the Brave, was very glorious for his Atchievements both in Peace and War; but he {unfairly persecuted and} banished his Bastard Brother, who was greatly beloved both by his Father and the People; and caused D. Agnes de Castro, a very beautiful Lady, who was without his consent married to his Son Pieter, barbarously to be murthered; which so exasperated Pieter, that he taking up Arms against the Father, did considerable mischief, till at last the business was composed. He died in the Year 1357.Pieter. His Son Pieter was Edition: current; Page: [100] commonly called the Cruel, tho’ some will have this rather to have been spoken to his praise, as having {only} been an exact observer of Justice, never sparing any Offender. He died in the Year 1368.

Ferdinand. His Son Ferdinand contended with Henry the Bastard, who had murthered his Brother Pieter, sirnamed the Cruel, King of Castile, about the Kingdom of Castile, because the [Ferdinand’s] Mother Beatrice had been Daughter of Sanctius IV. King of Castile; and a great many of the Nobility and some Cities of that Kingdom declaring for him, he waged {a difficult} War against the forementioned Henry. But he [Henry] being too strong for him, he could not maintain his Pretensions, but was obliged to make Peace. However the War broke out afresh again betwixt them \A. 1373\, because Ferdinand had protected some who were banished out of Castile for High Treason, neither would, upon demand, surrender them. To revenge this, Henry made an inrode into Portugal, and finding no resistance, over-ran the greatest part of the Country. After the death of Henry, Ferdinand made a Peace with his Son John, but the same was soon violated again by the Portugueses, who encouraged the Duke of Lancaster, that [had] married Constantia Daughter Edition: orig; Page: [85] of Pieter King of Castile, to pretend to the Crown of Castile: He came with a good Army into Portugal; but the English being quickly grown weary of the War in Spain, and living very disorderly in Portugal, a Peace was concluded on both sides. At last Ferdinand married his Daughter Beatrice to John of Castile, under condition, that such Children as were born of their Bodies, should succeed in the Kingdom of Portugal; which was afterwards the occasion of {further} bloody Wars. This Ferdinand, who by his frequent Wars had proved very pernicious to Portugal, died in the Year 1383, being the last of the true ‘Race’ [Stamm] of the Kings of Portugal.

Interregnum. §3. After the death of Ferdinand great Troubles arose in Portugal, most of the Portugueses not being able to brook living under the Subjection of the Castilians, whom they mortally hated. It was, ’tis true, agreed on in the Articles of Marriage made betwixt the King of Castile and Beatrice Daughter of Ferdinand, That her Mother Eleonora should have the Administration of the Government in Portugal, till such Children Edition: current; Page: [101] as should be born of this Marriage should be of age: But this Eleonora, leaving all to the management of the Count of Ancira, her much suspected Favourite, she drew upon her self the hatred of the Portugueses. John, therefore, natural Son of Pieter King of Portugal, privately murther’d him, whereby he got both the Favour of the people, and encreased the hatred against the Queen Dowager: But some of the Portugueses being much dissatisfy’d at these proceedings, begg’d the King of Castile, to take upon him the Crown of Portugal;Some call in the King of Castile. which he might in all likelyhood have obtained, if he had been quick enough, either by fair means or by force, to have put himself into full possession of the same: But he being uncertain in his Resolutions, gave by his delays, time and opportunity to the adverse Party to strengthen it self. Wherefore, he coming without an Army into Portugal, his Mother-in-law resign’d to him the Government, but he found but an indifferent Reception among the Portugueses, they being very averse to him Edition: orig; Page: [86] because he used very rarely to speak or converse with them: Nevertheless a great many of the Nobility and some Cities did side with him; but most out of a hatred to the Castilians, chose for their Leader John the Bastard, a wise and brave Man, and much belov’d by the People. The Castilians thereupon besieged Lisbon, but their Army being for the most part destroyed by the Plague, they were obliged to leave it without having got any advantage.

John the Bastard. In the Year next following \A. 1385\, the Portugueses declar’d this John their King, who very courageously attack’d those places, which had declared for the Castilians, and subdued the greatest part of them. The Castilians then entred with an Army into Portugal, but were entirely routed by this new King near Aliubarotta, which Victory is yearly celebrated to this day among the Portugueses. After this Battel, all the rest of the Cities did without more adoe surrender themselves to the new King. The Portugueses also calling unto their aid, the Duke of Lancaster, unto whom they had promised the Crown of Castile, they enter’d into that Kingdom with an Army: But the English having suffer’d extreamly by Sickness, the Duke of Lancaster thought it most convenient to conclude a Peace with the Castilians, whereupon it was agreed, That the Son of the King of Castile should marry his only Daughter Catharine, Edition: current; Page: [102] which he had by Constantia, Daughter to Pieter King of Castile. A Truce was also made betwixt Portugal and Castile at that time; but the War soon breaking out again, at last, an everlasting Peace was concluded betwixt both Kingdoms \A. 1399\; so that John had the good fortune to maintain himself in the possession of the Crown of Portugal, and reign’d with great applause. After he was quietly settled in the Throne, he undertook an Expedition into Africa, and took the City Ceuta \A. 1415\; whose Son also \A. 1420\ first found out the Isle of Madera. This King died in the Year 1433, and left a Memory that is to this day dear to the Portugueses.

Edward. §4. His Son Edward was a very Virtuous Prince, but did not reign long; for at that time, Portugal being over-run with the Plague, he got the Infection by a Edition: orig; Page: [87] Letter, and died in the Year 1438. During his Reign, his Brothers undertook a most unfortunate Expedition into Africa, where being themselves taken Prisoners before Tangier, they promised to restore to the Moors Ceuta for a Ransom, leaving Don Ferdinand as a Hostage behind them. But the States of Portugal refusing to stand to the Contract, the Hostage was forc’d to end his days in Prison. Alfonsus,Alfonsus V. Son to this Edward, was but six years old when his Father died, whose Tuition was committed, by his Father’s last Will, to his Mother. But the States, refusing to submit themselves to the Government of a Foreign Woman, conferr’d the Administration of the Kingdom on Don Pedro Duke of Conimbria [Coimbra], Brother to King Edward, but he received a very slender Recompence for his Services; for being falsely accused before the new King [i.e., Alfonsus], he was slain as he was going with some Troops to the King to justifie himself.

Alfonsus V. was else a very good Souldier and a brave Prince, under whose Reign the Portugueses took several places on the Coast of Africa, viz. Tangier, Arcilla, Alcassar, and some others. Good store of Gold was also transported out of Guinea into Portugal, which he employ’d in coining of Cruisadoes.5 After this Alfonsus had great contests with Ferdinand Edition: current; Page: [103] the Catholick and Isabella, there being a promise of marriage made betwixt him and Johanna, the supposed Daughter of Henry IV. King of Castile; but, as it was reported, begotten in Adultery; but the Marriage was not consummated, she being Alfonsus’s Sister’s Daughter, tho’, at last, the Pope gave his Dispensation, which he had refused at first. Alfonsus, under this pretence, took upon himself the Title and Arms of Castile, ‘surprising’ [overcoming] several Cities, assisted by some of the Nobility of Castile, who sided with him: Lewis XI. also, King of France, sent him some Auxiliaries, but these were not sufficient to enable him to undertake any thing of moment: Wherefore, Ferdinand retaking all the places from the Portugueses, routed them also near Toro \A. 1476\ and near Albuhera \A. 1479\; so that Alfonsus despairing of obtaining his Ends, concluded a Peace with Ferdinand, wherein he renounced both Castile and the Bride Johanna, she being promised in Edition: orig; Page: [88] marriage to John Son of Ferdinand, who was then a Child: But she, perceiving that this was only done to ‘elude’ [mislead] her, went into a Nunnery \A. 1479\.

John II. Portugal sustained considerable losses in this War, and Alfonsus died in the Year 1481, as it is supposed, out of Grief, because he had lost the hopes of his Bride and the Crown of Castile. Him succeeded his Son John II. against whom a most horrid Conspiracy was discovered, for which Ferdinand Duke of Braganza, and James Duke of Visco lost their lives, the latter being kill’d by the King’s own Hand. This King John was the first, who found out the way to sail into the East Indies,A Project of sailing to the East Indies. having not only ordered an exact Survey to be made of the African Coast, as far as to the Cape of good hope, but also sent some by Land into the East Indies, to inform themselves concerning the Condition of those Countries. He built also the Castle of Mina on the Coast of Guinea:6 But before this intended Voyage to the East Indies could be begun, this King died in the Year 1495, leaving no Heirs behind him.

Emanuel. §5. John II. was succeeded by his Cousin Emanuel, Son of Ferdinand Duke of Viseo, Grandchild of King Edward. With him contended for Edition: current; Page: [104] the Succession the Emperour Maximilian, whose Mother Eleonora was a Daughter of King Edward: But the Portugueses declared for Emanuel, who for his extraordinary Qualifications both of Body and Mind, was extreamly beloved by them. He, the better to establish himself at home, married Isabella, eldest Daughter of Ferdinand the Catholick, out of which marriage a young Prince was born, whose Name was Michael, who, if he had lived, would have been Heir to all the Spanish Kingdoms, except that of Navarre. To please his Bride, he [Emanuel],Moors and Jews banish’d out of Portugal. by his Proclamation, banish’d all the Jews and Moors out of Portugal by a prefix’d time, under penalty, for all such as should stay behind, to be made Slaves for ever.7 Whereupon the Moors immediately {and without restrictions} retir’d into Africa; but from the Jews they took their Children which were under the Age of fourteen, and baptized them against their Will: And as for the old ones, they were so plagued and vexed Edition: orig; Page: [89] every where, and stopp’d or hinder’d in their Journeys, that most, to be rid of these Vexations, and to avoid the danger of Slavery, were baptized, retaining, nevertheless, in their Minds, their ancient Superstition:

The first Sea-voyage into the East Indies. Under the Reign of this King, Portugal arrived to the highest pitch of its ‘Greatness’ [fortune], the design of the East-India Voyage round Africa, which was projected by the former King, being now accomplish’d by Vascus de Gama, who first arrived at Calicut \A. 1497\. As soon as the Portugueses began to draw into their Country the Trade of Spices, they were opposed, especially by the Sultan of Egypt, because formerly these Commodities used to be conveyed through Egypt to Venice, and from thence to other parts of Europe, from which both these Countries drew vast Profit. Wherefore the Venetians stirred up the Sultan, sending him great stores of Metal to make Cannons of, and Shipwrights to build Ships;The reason why the Venetians opposed the Portugueses settling themselves there. by which means they hoped to drive the Portugueses out of the Indies: But the Portugueses, who did not much trust the Barbarian Kings of the Indies, began to build Forts and strong Holds in the most convenient places; wherein they met with little opposition, partly because the Indians were terrify’d by the vastness of the Ships, and the thunder Edition: current; Page: [105] of the Cannons of the Europeans; partly because they were not aware of what consequence they might prove one day against them. The Duke of Albuquerque, specially, did mightily advance the Power of the Portugueses in the Indies, who took the Cities of Ormuz, Malacca, Cochin and Goa; the latter of which is the place of Residence of the Portuguese Governour in the Indies.The Progress of the Duke of Albuquerque in the East Indies. And thus the Portugueses engrossed to themselves the whole Trade and Commerce of Africa and the remotest parts of Asia, having possessed themselves of all the most commodious Ports and Places not only on the Western side of Africa, in Mauritania, Guinea, Congo, Angola, in the Isle of St. Thomas, and some others, but also on the East side, in Manzambique, Melinde, Mombazo, Zafala, and from the mouth of the Red Sea, as far as Japan; from whence incredible Riches were conveyed into Portugal. Besides all this did Pieter Alvanus [Alvarus] Capralis,The discovery of Brasil in America. or as some Edition: orig; Page: [90] will have it Americus Vesputius discover the Country of Brasile in America, whither the Portugueses sent {A. 1500} ‘several’ [many] Colonies.

And under the Reign of this King Emanuel, who died in the Year 1521, Portugal increased to that degree, that his Reign was called, The Golden Age. After him reigned his Son John III.John III. under whose Reign Portugal continued in the same flourishing condition. This King sent Francis Xavier, and some other Jesuites into the East Indies, who were to settle the Christian Religion among the Barbarians.The Jesuites sent to the Indies. The Jesuites commonly boast of great numbers of Heathens converted by them, but whether they deserve an intire credit in this, or whether, perhaps, a great many of these have not rather taken upon them the Name, than the Faith of Christians, those are best able to judge, who have been conversant in those places. He died in the Year 1557.

Sebastian. §6. John III. had for his Successour his Grandson Sebastian, a Child of three Years of age, whose Tuition was committed to the Cardinal Henry, his Uncle, because his Grandmother was not willing to take upon her the burthen of the ‘Government’ [guardianship]. Through the over-forwardness of this young Prince, Portugal receiv’d such a blow, that it fell from the Pinacle of its Greatness: For some of his Court Favourites did put this magnanimous and ambitious Prince, upon such Edition: current; Page: [106] Enterprizes as were far surpassing both his Age and Power, and were in no ways suitable to the present juncture of Affairs, so that his whole Mind was bent upon Warlike Exploits, and how by Martial Exercises, to revive the ancient Valour of his Subjects, which by Peace and Plenty, having been more addicted to Commerce, was of late much decay’d. He undertook, therefore, an Expedition into the next adjacent parts of Africa, intending, by light Skirmishes to try his Enemies. He proposed, afterwards, a Voyage into the Indies, but his Council opposing it, it was agreed upon, that he should undertake an Expedition into Africa, an occasion presenting it self at that time; for that Muley Mahomet, King of Morocco, being banish’d by his Uncle Muley Malucco, craved the as-Edition: orig; Page: [91]sistance of King Sebastian: Wherefore, notwithstanding the good Counsels of Philip King of Spain, and others,His fatal Expedition into Africa. who dissuaded him from it, he in person, with a great but unexercised Army enter’d Africa, and advancing, against all Reason, too far into the Country, was obliged, in a disadvantageous place, to fight against a much more numerous Army; wherefore the success of the Battel was answerable to the rash attempt; his Army, wherein was the flower of the Nobility of Portugal, being miserably routed, and the Souldiers all either cut to pieces or made Prisoners. This Battel is famous, because three Kings fell, viz. King Sebastian, the banish’d Muley Mahomet, and Muley Malucco, King of Morocco, who during the time of the Battel, died of a Fever. This happened in the Year 1578.

Henry. Him succeeded his Uncle Henry the Cardinal, a very old Man, under whose Reign there happened nothing worth mentioning, but that perpetual contests were set on foot concerning the Succession. Wherefore, he dying in the Year 1580, Philip II. King of Spain, thought it the most efficacious way, to dispute with the Sword in hand; and perceiving that the Portugueses, out of that hatred which they bare to the Castilians, were inclined to Anthony Son of Lewis de Beya, natural Son to King John III. he sent the Duke d’ Alba with a great Army into Portugal,Portugal united to Spain. who quickly chased away Anthony, and in few days became Master of the whole Kingdom, all being forced soon to submit, except the Isle of Tercera, which was not reduced till after the French, who came to its relief, were beaten.

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As the Portugueses did not, without great reluctancy, bear the Government of the Castilians; so this Union with Castile proved very prejudicial to them afterwards. For Philip, who was for bringing the Netherlanders again under Obedience, thought that nothing could do it more effectually, than to stop their Trade and Commerce with Spain and Portugal: For hitherto they had traded no further, being used to fetch away their Commodities from thence, and to convey them into the more Northern parts of Europe. Wherefore Philip concluded, that if this way of getting Money were once stop’d, they Edition: orig; Page: [92] would quickly grow poor, and thereby be obliged to submit themselves. But this design had a quite contrary effect;The Dutch sail to the East Indies. for the Hollanders being themselves excluded from Trade with Spain and Portugal, try’d, about the end of the latter Age [century], to sail to the East Indies. And as soon as, after a great many difficulties, they had once gotten footing there, they greatly impaired the Portugueses Trade, who hitherto had ‘only’ [alone] managed the same, and afterwards took from them one Fort after another. And \A. 1620\ the English, with the assistance of Abbas King of Persia, forced from them the famous City of Ormutz. Nor was this all, for \A. 1630\ the Hollanders took from them a great part of Brasile, and several places on the Coast of Africa; which the Hollanders, in all probability, would have had no reason to undertake, if Portugal had remained a Kingdom by it self, and had not been annexed to Spain.

The Portuguese shake off the Yoak of Spain. §7. But in the Year 1640, the Portugueses took an occasion to shake off the ‘Spanish’ [Castilian] Yoak. For Philip IV. then summoned the Portuguese Nobility to assist him in the War against the Catalonians, who had rebelled against him. Being therefore armed, and finding an opportunity to consult with one another, concerning those Troubles in which Spain was involv’d at that time;The Duke of Braganza proclaimed King. they agreed to withdraw themselves from the Subjection of Spain, proclaiming for their King, the Duke of Braganza, who stiled himself John IV. whose Grandmother had stood in competition with Philip II. for that Crown [of Portugal]. The Spaniards committed a gross mistake in this, that they did not in time secure the Duke, whom they knew to have a fair pretence to that Crown; to be extreamly beloved by that Nation,John IV. and to be in possession of the fourth Edition: current; Page: [108] part of the Kingdom. The Spaniards being at that time entangled in Wars against France, Holland and Catalonia; the Portugueses had thereby good leisure given them,A League between Portugal and Holland. to settle their Affairs. They made also a Peace with Holland, by virtue of which, both Parties were to remain in possession of what they had gotten. But this Peace did not last long; for, these places which were in the possession of the Hollanders, Edition: orig; Page: [93] in Brasile, revolted to the Portugueses, which the Hollanders looking upon as done by contrivance of the Portugueses, denounced War against them. And tho’ they did not retake Brasile, yet did they take a great many other places from them in the East Indies, viz. Malacca,A War breaks out betwixt them. the places on the Coast of the Isle of Zeylon, on the Coast of Cormandel, and on the Coast of Malabar, Cochin, Canaror, Cranganor, and some others; and if they had not clapt up a Peace with them \A. 1661\, they would in all likely hood have also driven them out of Goa it self.A Peace.

Alfonsus VI. John IV. died in the Year 1656, leaving the Kingdom to his Son Alfonsus, who was under Age, but the Administration of the Government was in the mean time lodged with his Mother. After the Pyrenean Treaty was concluded,8 out of which Portugal was excluded by the Spaniards, it being besides this agreed with France, not to send any Assistances to the Portugueses, the Spaniards fell upon the Portugueses in good earnest: But these defended themselves bravely, and notwithstanding the Articles of the Pyrenean Treaty, the French King did give leave to the Earl of Schombergh,9 and a great many other Frenchmen to enter into the Ser vice of the Portugueses, who routed the Spaniards in several Encounters, but more especially, near Extremos and Villa Vitrosa. At last \A. 1668\, the French entering with a great Army into the Netherlands, the Spaniards were willing to conclude a Peace with the Portugueses, who were also glad to be once disentangled out of so tedious a War. By virtue of this Peace Spain did resign all its Pretensions upon Portugal.

In the mean time Alfonsus was grown up a wild and awkward sort of Edition: current; Page: [109] a Man, as Don Pedro’s ‘Friends’ [patrons]10 have represented him to the World; who, besides this, by a Distemper which he had in his tender Age, was so disabled both in his Body and Mind, that he was neither fit to rule nor marry: Yet he taking from his Mother \A. 1666\ the Administration of Affairs upon himself (who quickly after died) married a Princess of Nemours, descended from the House of Savoy; who having lived with him about sixteen Months, retired {A. 1667} into a Monastery, desiring to be divorced from him: She alledged, That Edition: orig; Page: [94] Alfonsus was not only incapable of Matrimony, but also that he had endeavoured, to have one of his Favourites get her with Child, thereby to secure the Crown to his Family. There was, besides this, so strong a Jealousie betwixt the King and his Brother Don Pedro, that the latter thought his Life to be in danger, if he did not prevent the Designs of his Brother and his Favourites: He therefore, bringing the Nobility and People over to his Party, forced Alfonsus to surrender to him the Administration of the Kingdom, reserving for his Maintenance only the yearly Revenue of 270.000 Livers, as also the Palace of Braganza, with all its Appurtenances.Don Pedro. Don Pedro would not take upon himself the Title of King, but chose rather to be called Regent of Portugal, in the name of his Brother Alfonsus, he being incapable of Administring the Government: He married also upon the desire of the Portugueses, and with the Dispensation of the Pope, his Brother’s Wife. And because Alfonsus should not be in a capacity of raising any disturbances, he was under a good Guard conducted into the Island of Tercera. But Don Pedro has hitherto administred the Government in peace, and to the general satisfaction of the People.

The Humours of the Portugueses. §8. And to say something {now} concerning the Genius of the Portugueses, and the Strength and the Nature of the Country. The Portugueses are not inferiour to the Spaniards in Pride and Haughtiness; but are not esteemed so Prudent and Cautious as these, but are over-secure in Edition: current; Page: [110] Prosperity, and in time of danger rash and fool-hardy. Where they get the upper-hand they are very rigorous and cruel. They are mightily addicted to be Covetous, and love Usury, and |[have searched after Money in all corners of the World]|.11 Some also will have them to be very Malicious, which they say is the remnant of the Jewish Blood, which is intermingled with that of the Portuguese Nation. This Country, considering its bigness, is very populous, as is evident by the number of Portugueses, which have settled themselves in Brasile, on the Coast of Africa, and in the East Indies: Yet are Edition: orig; Page: [95] they not in a capacity to raise a numerous Land Army without Foreign help, or to man out a mighty Fleet of Men of War; but they have enough to do, to Garrison their frontier Places well, and to keep Convoys for their Merchant Ships.

Fruitfulness of Portugal. §9. Concerning the ‘Countries’ [lands] which belong now-a-days to Portugal. The Kingdom of Portugal, by it self considered, is neither very large nor very fruitfull, the Inhabitants living most upon such Corn as is imported: Yet is the Country full of Cities and Towns, and has a great many commodious Sea-ports. The Commodities ‘of the growth of’ [produced in] Portugal, [and] fit for Exportation, are Salt, of which a great quantity is from Setubal or St. Hubes transported into the Northern Countries: As also Oyl, some Wine, and all sorts of Fruit. The other Commodities which are brought from thence they first have from those Provinces that belong to them. The Silver Mine called Guacaldane [Guadacanal], is said to be of the yearly value of 178 Quentoes of Silver (each Quent being reckoned to amount to 2673 Ducats, 8 Reals, and 26 Marvedoes.)12

Brasile. Among those Countries that now belong to Portugal the chiefest is Brasile, being a long tract of Land in America, extended all along the Sea side, but very narrow, and famous for the wholsomness of the Air, and its Fertility. Here abundance of Sugar is made, from whence arises Edition: current; Page: [111] the main Revenue of the Country, the Portugueses making use of the same in preserving those excellent Fruits as grow both in Portugal and Brasile. Brasile also affords Ginger, Cotton, Wooll, Indigo and Wood for the Dyers. But because the Natives of this Country are naturally lazy, who cannot by any ways be forced to hard labour, the Portugueses buy upon the Coast of Africa, and especially in Congo and Angola, Negroes, whom they use for Slaves, buying and selling them in Brasile as we do Oxen; they are employed in all sorts of hardships and drudgery.

Africa. The Trade of the Portugueses on the West side of Africa is not now of any great consequence, since the Hollanders have interfered with them;The East Indies. and those places which they are possess’d of on the East side of Africa Edition: orig; Page: [96] only serve to enrich their Governours. What the Hollanders have left them in the East Indies is |[of no final consequence]|13 to them; for Goa {especially} is a very large City, where there is a great Trade among People of all Nations: But the wiser sort do not approve of the Portuguese Government in the East Indies; the Portugueses there are given to Voluptuousness, and neglecting Military Affairs, are so presumptuous, as to imagine, that nevertheless with their haughty Carriage they can out-brave [pravirten] others. Hence it was that the Hollanders found it so easie to drive this Nation out of the greatest part of the Indies, which was grown hatefull to them all: Yet the Portugueses enjoy one Privilege which the Dutch have not, that they are allowed a free Trade with China, where they have the City of Macao in an Island not far dis tant from the Continent; and they have understood so to misrepresent the Hollanders with the Chineses, that they, hitherto, as far as I know, <they> have not been able to obtain a free Commerce with China.

A horrible Persecution raised on the Christians of Japan, and the occasion of it. Formerly the Portugueses had a great Interest in Japan, which was chiefly procured by means of the Jesuites, who made it their business to convert the Japoneses to the Christian Religion. It is related, that above 400.000 of them were baptized, not without hopes, that all the rest would at last have followed their example. But about thirty years ago, the Dutch, by their Practices and Artifices, render’d the Portugueses Edition: current; Page: [112] suspected to the Emperour of Japan, having intercepted a Letter from the Jesuits to the Pope, wherein they promised to bring, ere long, the whole Kingdom of Japan under the Obedience of the Roman See. The Hollanders interpreted this Letter in such a sense, as if the Jesuits, with the assistance of the new Converts, did intend to dethrone the Emperour; telling him, That the Pope pretended to an Authority of disposing of Kingdoms at his pleasure, and that the King of Spain who was then Master of Portugal, was in great esteem with him. The ‘jealous’ [suspicious] Japoneses were easily persuaded hereof, when they considered with what Respect and Kindness the Jesuits were treated by the new Christians; those [Jesuits] being also very ready to accept of what these good natur’d Edition: orig; Page: [97] People offered them. And the Governours were sensible, and complained, that their usual Presents from the Subjects decreased daily, since the new Converts gave so much to their Priests. The Hollanders also shew’d the Emperour of Japan in a Mapp, how the Conquests of the King of Spain did extend on one side as far as Manilla, on the other side as far as Macao, so that by subduing of Japan, he would have an opportunity of uniting his Conquests. This occasioned a most horrible Persecution against the Christians, the Japoneses endeavouring by incredible Torments to overcome the Constancy of a Nation, which is naturally one of the most obstinate. Neither did they cease, till there was not one Christian left in Japan, and the Portugueses, upon pain of death, were for ever banish’d the Country. And the Hollanders, when afterwards they sent any Ships to Japan, used to forbid their Subjects, to shew the least appearance of Religious Christian Worship, but if they were ask’d, Whether they were Christians, to answer, They were not, but they were Hollanders. Lastly, To Portugal belong also the Isles called Azores, whereof Tercera, and the Isle Madera, which are tolerably fruitfull, are the principal.

The Strength of Portugal. §10. From what hath been said, it is apparent, that the welfare of Portugal depends chiefly on their Commerce with the East Indies, Brasile and Africa; whereby also it is evident enough, that the Strength and Power of Portugal in comparison of the rest of the more potent States of Europe Edition: current; Page: [113] is not to be esteemed such, as to be able to attack any of them, or gain any thing upon them. It is therefore the Interest of this Crown to take care how to preserve it self in the same condition as it is in now, and to be very cautious of engaging it self in a War with any Nation that is potent at Sea, which perhaps might undertake something against their Provinces abroad.

How it stands with regard to Spain. But as for its Neighbours in particular; Portugal is for the most part nearest unto Spain, so that it is easie for the Spaniards to enter Portugal, yet is the Power of Spain not very dreadfull to the Portugueses, partly, because the Spaniards can-Edition: orig; Page: [98]not conveniently keep an Army of above 25.000 Men on foot on that side, by reason of the scarcity of Provisions; the like number the Portugueses also can bring into the Field; partly, because Spain cannot man out a considerable Fleet of Men of War wherewith to attack the Portuguese Provinces: Besides, Portugal in case of such an attack might certainly expect to be assisted either by the French or English, who as much as in them lies, will not suffer Spain to become again Master of Portugal.To France. Neither does it appear for the Interest of Portugal, upon the Instigation of France or some other Foreign Power, to engage it self without a pressing necessity in a War with Spain, since it is not probable that it could gain any thing considerable, but would only weaken it self without the hopes of any advantage:

Portugal has, in all probability, not much to fear from France, they lying at a considerable distance from one another; besides this, the Naval Strength of France is not come, as yet, to that height, as to be in a capacity to be hurtfull to a Nation that has settled it self very securely in the East and West Indies; and more especially, since these two Nations have not any pretensions on each other: And it rather concerns France that Portugal may stand secure against Spain and Holland.

To Holland. The Hollanders have hitherto proved the most pernicious Enemies to Portugal, they being in a capacity not only to disturb their Trade on the Coast of Portugal, but also may prove very troublesom to them both in the East and West Indies: And it seems, that it would be no difficult mat ter for the Hollanders, by taking from the Portugueses the City of Macao, on the Coast of China, and some other places on the Coast of Malabar, Edition: current; Page: [114] quite to destroy their Trade in the East Indies.14 But it is probable, that, in case of a War betwixt the Portugueses and Hollanders, England would assist the former against the latter, since it has not been without great Displeasure to the English, to see what progresses the Hollanders have made in the East Indies, whereby they have acquired such vast Riches, that they have bid defiance to England and all the rest of Europe. Edition: orig; Page: [99]

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CHAPTER IV: Of England.

The ancient State of England. §1. In Ancient Time, Britainy, which was then esteemed the biggest Island of the World, was not ruled by one Prince, but divided into a great many petty States [Republicquen],1 ‘each’ [most] of them govern’d by its own King; but this multitude of petty Princes, as it caused great Divisions among them, so it exposed them to the danger of being overcome by their Foreign Enemies. This Island was scarce known to the Greeks and Romans till Julius Caesar’s time, who, after he had conquer’d the greatest part of France, undertook an Expedition into this Island, hoping, as ’tis suppos’d, to meet there with great Booty and Riches. But he enter’d not very far into the Country, and after some Skirmishes with the Inhabitants, returned again without leaving a Garrison, or exacting any Contributions.

After this Britainy was not attack’d again by the Romans, till under the Reign of the Emperour Claudius, who bent his Arms against it in good earnest, and the Inhabitants being divided among themselves, and not joined in a mutual defence against the common Enemy, he, without great difficulty, conquer’d part of it. At which time Britainy was made a Roman Province, a constant Army being maintained here by the Romans, who by degrees conquered one part after another,The Romans conquer England. yet not without receiving some Defeats. At last, under the Reign of Domitian, Julius Agricola marched with his victorious Army through the whole Island, Edition: current; Page: [116] and giving a signal overthrow to the Caledonians, who are now called the Scots, subdued them; tho’ the Romans could never entirely conquer the utmost parts of Britainy, being almost inaccessible. Wherefore, afterwards the Emperours Adrian and Severus, by building a Wall cross the Island from Sea to Sea, divided them from the Roman Province, hoping thereby to stop their Incursions. But the Romans never came into Ireland. After the Britains had been Edition: orig; Page: [100] above 400 Years under subjection to the Romans, the Northern ‘Nations’ [peoples] at that time over-running the Western parts of the Roman Empire, the Romans left this Island voluntarily, being obliged to recall their Legions, which were posted in Britainy, to oppose their Enemies.

The Saxons come into Britainy, §2. Britainy being thus without ‘an Army’ [Roman assistance], and besides this, mightily exhausted in its Strength, for that the Romans had made use of their young Men in their Wars, the Picts and Scots, from their barren Country, made an Inrode into these plentifull Provinces, destroying all before them. The English, to make the better Head against them, had chosen one Vortigern for their King; but he perceiving himself to be no ways able to resist their Power; and Assistance being denied him from the Romans, called in the Angles, a Saxon Nation, living then in Holstein: One part of which retains that Name to this day,2 tho’ some will have them to have been Frieslanders, others Goths; it being certain, that the modern Language of the Frieslanders has a great affinity with the ancient English Tongue. These Angles, under their Leaders Hengist and Horsa, coming with some thousands of Men to the assistance of the Britains, beat out the Scots \A. 450\. But they being mightily taken with the Fruitfulness of the Country, resolved to subdue it, and to lay the Yoak upon the Britains, who had called them in to deliver them from it. As soon as the Britains perceived what their Intention was, they endeavour’d to drive them out of the Island; but these taking up Arms, and calling in a great many thousands of their Country-men to their assistance, first took from the Britains the Eastern parts of the Edition: current; Page: [117] Island. And the Western parts, which were yet in the possession of the Britains, being afterwards extreamly wasted by Plague and Famine, so that the British King Cadwalladar retired into the lesser Britainy:3 The Saxons took hold of this opportunity, conquering all the rest of Britainy, except the Province of Wales, which being surrounded with Mountains, they were not able to subdue. This abovementioned Cadwalladar was the Edition: orig; Page: [101] last King of the ancient British Race, who, perceiving that he was no ways able, any longer, to resist the Power of the Saxons, retired to Rome, into a Convent [monastery] \A. 689\. But Britainy received the Name of Anglia, or England, from the Angles.

The Saxon Kings in England. §3. These Saxons erected seven Kingdoms, which however had not their beginning all at one time, but according as they had taken one part after another from the Inhabitants: At last they fell together by the ears among themselves, till one having swallowed up another, all were united into one Kingdom; which, how it happened we will briefly relate. The first Kingdom, then, was that of Kent, which began in the Year 455, and during the Reigns of seventeen Kings, lasted till the Year 827,The Saxon Heptarchy. when it was subdued by the West Saxons. The second was the Kingdom of Sussex, which began in the Year 488, and, under five Kings, lasted till the Year 601, when it was likewise made a Province by the West Saxons. The third was that of the West Saxons [Wessex], which began in the Year 519, and lasted, under nineteen Kings, 561 Years. The Eleventh of these Kings named Ino, did order, That each Subject that was worth ‘ten’ [nineteen] Pence,Peter’s Pence. [and] should yearly give one Penny [Pence] to the Pope of Rome, which Tax was first called the King’s Alms, and afterwards Peter’s Pence. The fourth Kingdom was that of Essex, which began in the Year 527, and lasted, under fourteen Kings, till the Year 808, when it was also conquered by the West Saxons. The fifth was that of Northumberland, which began in the Year 547, and lasted, under three and twenty Kings, till the Year 926, when it also was brought under subjection by the West Saxons. The sixth Kingdom was that of the Mercians, which had its beginning in the Year 522, and lasted, under twenty Kings, till Edition: current; Page: [118] the Year 724, when it also fell into the Hands of the West Saxons. The seventh was that of the East Angles, which began in the Year 575, and lasted, under fifteen Kings, till the Year 928, when under its King Athelstan it was united with the rest.

The Kingdom of England. But \A. 818\ after Egbert, King of the West Saxons, had either |[subdued the rest]|,4 or forced Edition: orig; Page: [102] their Kings to acknowledge him for their Supream Head, he and his Successours were henceforward called no more Kings of the Saxons, but of England. Under his Reign the Danes first enter’d England, as they continued to do under the following Kings,Danes first come into England. tho’ in the beginning they were at several times bravely repuls’d: Nevertheless they got footing, at last, in the Northern parts of England, where they lived for a while pretty quietly under the Protection of the Kings of England. But in the time of King Ethelred, who began his Reign in the Year 979, the Danes made Inrodes into the Southern parts of England, forced the English to pay them great Summs of Money, ravish’d their Women, and committed such outrages, that they got the Name of Lord Danes. And tho’ the English conspir’d [united] against the Danes \A. 1002\, and cut them all off [down], yet the Danish King [Sueno] return’d the next Year, and made prodigious havock among the English, their great Preparations which were made against the Danes, being by the Craft of the Traitor Edrick (notwithstanding Ethelred had made him Duke of Mercia, giving him his Daughter for a Wife) render’d ineffectual; so that Ethelred was obliged to leave his desolate Kingdom, and to retire into Normandy. Sueno, while he was busie in plundering the Nunnery of St. Edmund {in Suffolk}, having been kill’d by a Sword which no body knew from whence it came, Ethelred return’d out of Normandy into England, and forced Canute, Sueno’s Son,The Danes driven out, but return again. to retire out of England into Denmark; but he return’d quickly with a much greater Force, and Ethelred making all imaginable Preparations against him, died in the Year 1016, whose Son Edmund, sirnamed Ironside, did defend himself with great Bravery against the Danes, and might have obtained several Victories over them, if he had not been therein prevented by that Traitor Edrick. At last it was agreed, Edition: current; Page: [119] That both Kings should make an end of the War by a single Combat, in which,King Edmund treacherously murther’d. tho’ Edmund had the advantage of giving Canute a dangerous stroke, yet was he persuaded to finish the Combat, by dividing the Kingdom with the Danes; and was afterwards, as he retired privately to ease Nature, treacherously murther’d by Edrick. Edition: orig; Page: [103]

Canute, the Dane, King of England. §4. After the death of Edmund, Canute called together the English Lords, and asked them, Whether at the time, when the Kingdom was divided, there was any thing mentioned concerning the right of Succession of the Brothers and Sons of Edmund; and the English, out of fear, answering there was not, he received Homage from them, and was crowned King of England. After he had rid himself of all that were left of the Royal Race \A. 1017\, he, to curry favour with the People, married Emma, the Widow of King Ethelred, sent most of his Danes home, and reigned with great applause. Some of his Parasites, who pretended to attribute to him something above a Humane Power, he ridicul’d, by causing a Chair to be set near the Sea-side, commanding the Seas not to wet his Feet; but the Tide rolling on the Waves as usually, he told them, That from thence they might judge of what extent was the Power of all worldly Kings. He died in the Year 1035.

Harald. His Son Harald succeeded, by reason of his nimbleness sirnamed Harefoot: He did nothing worth mentioning, but that he caused his Stepmother Emma, and her Sons, whom he had, with fair words, per suaded to come over out of Normandy, to be miserably murther’d. He died in the Year 1039, leaving no Children behind him. After his death the great Men of the Kingdom called out of Denmark, Hardiknut his Brother,Hardiknut. born of Emma and Canute, who was famous for nothing but his greedy Appetite, he being used to keep Table four times a day. His Subjects were so averse to him, that when he happened to die at a Feast, after he had reign’d but two Years, the English made publick Rejoicings in the Streets, which they called Hocks-tide;5 the Danes, after his death, growing so despicable to the English, that the Danish Government in Edition: current; Page: [120] England expired, after they had ravag’d England for the space of 240, tho’ they possessed the Throne but 26 Years.

Edward, the Confessor. After the death of Hardiknut, Edward sirnamed the Confessor, Son of King Ethelred and Emma, Brother of Hardiknut on the Mother’s-side, who had sought Sanctuary in Normandy, was called in to be King of England: He was crowned in the Edition: orig; Page: [104] Year 1042; and to gain the Affection of the People, he remitted a Tax called Danegeld, which had been constantly paid for forty Years last past. He reigned very peaceably, except, that he was now and then pester’d with the Irish and Danish Pirates, whom, nevertheless, he quickly overcame. He was the first to whom was attributed that Virtue, which even to this day the Kings of England are said to have, to heal by touching, that Disease which in England is called the King’s Evil.6 He died without Children \A. 1066\. He intended to have left the Kingdom to his Cousin Edgar Atheling, Grandson of King Edmund Ironside; but he being very young, Harald, Son of Goodwin Earl of Kent, who had the Tuition of Edgar, put the Crown upon his own Head, but did not enjoy it above nine Months, being slain in a Battel by William Duke of Normandy, whereby the Crown of England was transferr’d to the Norman Family.

William the Conquerour. §5. This William, sirnamed the Conquerour, was Son of Robert Duke of Normandy, who was descended from Rollo, a Dane, who about the Year 900, with a great number of his Country men and Norwegians, fell into France, and ravaging the Country without resistance, Charles the Simple, the then King of France, thought it the best way to set him at quiet, by putting him into possession of the Province of Neustria, which afterwards was called Normandy, and giving to him in Marriage his Daughter Geisa, under condition that he should become a Christian. Rollo had a Son whose Name was William, sirnamed Long-sword; whose Son was Richard, sirnamed the Hardy; who was the Father of Richard II. sirnamed the Good, who was succeeded by his Son Richard III. as he was by his Son Richard IV. But he dying without Issue, after him Robert became Duke of Normandy. This Robert was Father to William the Edition: current; Page: [121] Conquerour, whom he had by one Arlotte, a Furrier’s Daughter, with whom, ’tis said, he fell in love, seeing her dance among other Maids in the Country, and afterwards married her. And notwithstanding this William was a Bastard, yet his Father made him his Successour, Edition: orig; Page: [105] and got the Nobility to acknowledge him as such when he was but nine Years of Age, and died soon after. This William met with great Troubles and Dangers in his younger Years, which he had the good fortune to overcome by his Valour, and acquired thereby great Reputation.

Willam conquers England. After the death of Edward the Confessour, William understanding that Harald had made himself King, resolv’d to demand the Crown of England, as belonging to him by virtue of the last Will of King Edward, who, he pretended, had left the same to him, as an acknowledgment for the great Favours he had received from his Father Robert. There are others, who say, That Edward did only promise this by word of mouth; and that Harald being then in Normandy, was forc’d to engage by Oath, to help him in obtaining the Crown of England. It is possible, this was only made use of as a pretence. But however it be, William landed without resistance with a great Army, compos’d of Normans, French and Netherlanders, whilst the Fleet of Harald was sailed to the Northern Coast of England, to oppose his Brother and Harald Harfager King of Norway, who were enter’d England on that side, and both vanquish’d by him; but thereby he left open the Door to William to enter into the Kingdom, and brought his Souldiers back much weakened and fatigued by their great Marches: Yet having reinforc’d his Army as well as he could, he offer’d Battel to William near Hastings in Sussex \on 14. October 1066\; which Battel was fought on both sides with great obstinacy; till Harald being mortally wounded by an Arrow, the Victory and Crown of England remain’d to William; England, without any further resistance, acknowledging him for a King.

The English were at first extreamly well satisfy’d with his Government, he leaving each in possession of what was his own, and only giving the vacant Lands to his Normans; partly, also, because he was related to the former Kings of England, partly, because he was greatly recommended to them by the Pope.7 He was also very strenuous in securing Edition: current; Page: [122] himself, commanding all the Arms to be taken from the People, and to prevent Nocturnal Assemblies and Commoti-Edition: orig; Page: [106]ons, he ordered, That after the Bell had rung at eight in the Evening,The Curfew Bell. no Fire nor Candle should be seen in their Houses: Besides this, he built several Forts in the most commodious places. Notwithstanding all this, Edgar Atheling being with some of the Nobility retir’d into Scotland, and being assisted by the Danish Pirates, continually ravag’d the Northern Parts of England, burning the City of York it self,Edgar Atheling makes an escape. wherein all the Normans were put to the Sword; but he [William] forced them afterwards thence. There was also a dangerous Conspiracy set on foot against him {A. 1076}, which was happily suppress’d by him, before the Conspirators could join their Forces. His Son Robert also, endeavoured to take from him Normandy, against whom his Father led a great Army out of England, and the Father and Son encountring one another in the Battel, the first was dismounted by the latter, but he discovering him to be his Father by his voice, immediately dismounted,His Son Robert Rebels. embraced him, and begg’d his pardon, and was reconcil’d to his Father, who freely pardon’d all past Injuries.

This King also forc’d Wales to pay him Tribute, and King Malcolm of Scotland to swear Fealty to him. But perceiving that this new-conquer’d People would not be govern’d altogether by Mildness, he began to act more severely,He acts as a Conqueror. taking away out of the Convents what Gold and Silver he could meet with, of which there was great store convey’d thither, as into Sanctuaries.8 He also imposed heavy Taxes, he appropriated to himself a great part of the Lands of England, |[which he gave unto others, reserving to himself out of them]|9 a yearly Revenue. He took upon him the Administration of the Goods and Possessions of all Minors, till they came to the 21st Year of Age, allowing them only so much as was requisite for their Maintenance: He revised all their Privileges, introduced new Laws in the Norman Tongue; whereby a great many, that did not understand that Language, fell under severe Penalties: He erected new Courts of Judicature, and employed great tracts of Ground for the conveniency of his Hunting. This King introduced first the use Edition: current; Page: [123] of the long Bow in England, whereby he had chiefly obtained the Victory against Harald, Edition: orig; Page: [107] and whereby afterwards the English did great mischief to the French, and gained many Battels from them.

Robert Rebels again. At last, Philip I. King of France, by stirring up his [William’s] Son Robert against him, endeavouring to raise Disturbances in Normandy, he went in person over into Normandy, where the Son was quickly reconcil’d to the Father. But being obliged to keep his Bed at Roan [Rouen], by reason of an Indisposition in his Belly, which was very gross, the King of France ridicul’d him, asking, How long he intended to lie in; to whom William sent this Answer, That as soon as he could go to Church after his lying in, he had vow’d to sacrifice a thousand ‘Candles’ [lights] in France;10 and he was as good as his word, for he was no sooner recover’d, but he invaded France, and burnt all where ever he came: But he having overheated himself he fell ill and died \A. 1088\, leaving by his last Will, to his eldest Son Normandy, but to the second, called William, the Crown of England.

William Rufus. §6. William II. sirnamed Rufus, met, at first, with some {internal} Disturbances, occasioned by his Brother Robert, who pretending to the Crown, was back’d by a great many of the Nobility: but he appeased him, by promising to pay him yearly, the Summ of 3000 Marks, and that he should succeed him after his death. But the Nobles, who had dispersed themselves up and down in the Country, he partly by ‘fair means’ [assurances], partly by force, reduced to Obedience. This Rebellion proved very beneficial to the English, the Rebels being most of them Normans, wherefore the King afterwards rely’d more upon the English, as the most faithfull. He waged War twice with Malcolm King of Scotland, whom he forced in the first to swear him Fealty, but in the last, he killed both him and his eldest Son. He also subdued the Province of Wales. Among other Inventions to get Money one was remarkable; for he summon’d together 20.000 Men, under pretence to go with them into Normandy, but when they were just agoing to be shipp’d off, he caused Proclamation to be made, that every one who was willing to Edition: current; Page: [124] pay ten Shillings, should have leave to stay at home, unto which every one of them readily con-Edition: orig; Page: [108]sented. He was kill’d by a random shot in hunting {by his servant} \A. 1100\.

Henry I. Him succeeded his younger Brother Henry, who being present when the King died, seized upon his Treasures, whereby he procured himself a great many Friends, so that he was preferr’d before Robert his elder Brother, who at that time assisted in the taking of Jerusalem, which proved no less than the loss of a Crown to him. For Henry, the better to establish himself in the Throne, remitted not only several Taxes, which were laid upon the People by the former Kings, but also secured unto his Interest the King of Scotland, Edgar, his most dangerous Neighbour, by marrying his Sister Maud. ’Tis reported, that this Maud had vow’d Chastity, and that when her Brother forced her to marry, she wish’d, that such Children, as should be born out of this Marriage, might never prove fortunate; which wish was afterwards sufficiently fulfilled in her Children, and a great many of their Posterity.Robert makes a Descent in England. Notwithstanding this, Robert landed a great Army in England, but Henry and Robert, by the mediation of some Friends, and a Promise of a yearly Pension to be paid to Robert from Henry, were reconcil’d, which Pension also afterwards Robert remitted to Henry. But afterwards repenting of what he had done, Henry was so exasperated against him, that he made a Descent in Normandy with a great Army, and vanquish’d him in a bloody Battel, wherein he took him Prisoner. He kept him not only a Prisoner all his life time, but also, at last, put his Eyes out, uniting Normandy to the Crown of England.

Normandy annexed to the Crown of England. But King Lewis of France, sirnamed Crassus, being very jealous of the Greatness of Henry, undertook, with the assistance of Fulco Earl of Anjou, and Baldwin Earl of Flanders, to restore unto William, Son of Robert, the Dukedom of Normandy; whereupon a bloody War ensued, which was at last composed under this condition, That William, Son of Henry, should swear Fealty to France, for this Dukedom of Normandy. And it obtained afterwards as a Custom, That the King’s eldest Son, was called Duke of Normandy, as long as this Province was united to England. The new Duke of Normandy did also mar-Edition: orig; Page: [109]ry the Daughter of the Earl of Anjou: And William, Son of Robert, being then made Earl Edition: current; Page: [125] of Flanders, and endeavouring a second time to regain Normandy, was slain in that War.

It is related by some, tho’ others contradict it, That this King [Henry] was the first who admitted the Commons [Bürgerschaft] unto the Grand Council [Berathschlagung] of the Kingdom, unto which the Nobility and Bishops only were admitted before it came to be divided into the Higher and Lower House. His Son William, being by the carelessness of a drunken Master of a Ship drowned at Sea, with a great many other persons of Quality of both Sexes, as they were coming back from Normandy to England, he endeavoured to settle the Crown upon his Daughter Maud, and her Heirs, she being at first married to the Emperour, Henry IV.11 by whom she had no Children, and afterwards to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Son to Fulk Earl of Anjou. Her Father made the States of England take Oaths of Fealty to her in his life time.The Norman Race extinct. He died in the Year 1135, and with him ended the Male Race of the Norman Royal Family in England.

Stephen. §7. After the death of Henry, Stephen Earl of Boulogne, Henry’s Sister’s Son, did by great Promises obtain the Crown of England, notwithstanding that both he and the States [estates] had taken the Oaths to acknowledge Maud for their Sovereign, which they endeavoured by a great many frivolous pretences to prove to be of no force. The better to establish himself in the Throne, he gained the Affection of the States with Presents, and discharged the People of several Taxes, giving Authority to the Nobility to build fortify’d Castles, which afterwards proved very mischievous to him. He also married his Son Eustace to Constantia, the Daughter of Ludovicus Crassus, King of France. This King’s [Stephen] Reign was overwhelmed with continual Troubles. For the Scots, at first, and afterwards a great many of his Nobles, trusting in their strong Castles, raised great Disturbances; yet he bridled the Insolence of the Scots, giving them a signal overthrow. But his greatest Contest was with the Empress Maud;Maud makes War on him. for she landing in England was Edition: current; Page: [126] re-Edition: orig; Page: [110]ceived by a great many, and King Stephen in a Battel fought near Chester, was taken Prisoner. But she refusing to restore to the Londoners, King Edward’s Laws, they sided with her Enemies, and besieged her very closely in the City of Oxford, from whence she narrowly escaped; and King Stephen also got an opportunity to get out of Prison.

These Troubles continued till Henry, Son of Maud,12 came to the nineteenth Year of his age, who, being Lord of four large Dominions, as having inherited Anjou by his Father’s, Normandy by his Mother’s side, Guienne and Poictou by his Wife Eleonora, Daughter and Heiress of William, the last Duke of Guienne, he also endeavoured to obtain the Crown of England; for which purpose he landed with an Army in England. But he obtained his End without any great opposition; for Eustace, King Stephen’s Son dying suddenly, an Agreement was made betwixt them, whereby Stephen adopted him, and constituted him his Heir and Successour,Henry II. and died not long after in the Year 1154. Henry II therefore succeeded him, who, among other memorable Actions, demolish’d such fortify’d Castles of the Nobility and Bishops, as were built with the consent of King Stephen.

After he had reigned near eighteen Years in Peace and Quietness, he had a mind to have his Son Henry crowned, the better to secure the Succession, he received him as his Copartner in the Government; but he being married to Margaret, the Daughter of Lewis the younger King of France, this proved the cause of great Disturbances afterwards. For some persuaded young Henry, That his Father having abdicated himself from the Government, had committed thereby the same to his management. France envy’d that a King of England should have such vast Possessions in France. The Scots wish’d for nothing more, than to have an opportunity of committing Depredations in England. Wherefore the French and Scots, joining with young Henry, fell upon Henry II. all at one time, but were as vigorously repulsed by him;His Son, with the French and Scots, join in a War against him. the Scots, especially, suffered the most in this War, and lost all Huntingtonshire. A Peace was also concluded with France; Adela, Daugh-Edition: orig; Page: [111]ter of Lewis King of France, being promised in marriage to Richard, second Son of Henry. Edition: current; Page: [127] But the old King, as ’tis reported, falling in love with her, privately kept her company, and therefore opposed the consummation of the marriage betwixt her and his Son Richard. This so exasperated Richard, who, after the death of his eldest Brother Henry, was now the next Heir to the Crown, that he made Head against his Father; and Philip Augustus, King of France, taking hold of this opportunity, took the City of Muns [Le Mans]. King Henry seeing himself, besides this, deserted by his Friends, Wife, and Children, died in few days of Grief \A. 1189\.

Ireland conquered. This Henry also conquer’d Ireland, and united it to England, which he and his Successours govern’d under the Title of Lords of Ireland, till the time of Henry VIII.13 who, after he had withdrawn himself from the Obedience of the Pope, to nettle him the more, assumed the Title of King of Ireland; because the Pope pretends to the sole right to bestow the Title of King in Christendom, and that none ought to take it upon him without his consent; wherefore the Pope, afterwards, to make his Pretence the more plausible, freely gave the same Title to Mary Queen of England. Henry also had some differences with Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury,14 who pretended it was derogatory to the Glory of God, that the Priests, according to the King’s Commands, should be subject to the Civil Judicatures. There is a fabulous Relation concerning this Archbishop Thomas, That he riding a Horse-back, one time, through a Village, the Country Fellows cut off the Tail of his Horse, and that their Children, afterwards, were born with such Tails.

Richard I. §8. Richard I. who succeeded his Father Henry in the Kingdom, did, out of a preposterous Zeal [ill-considered devotion], undertake an Expedition into the Holy Land,He makes an Expedition into the Holy Land. with 35.000 Men, being accompanied by Philip Augustus, King of France. In this War he took the Island of Cyprus, which he gave to Guido Lusignanus, who in consideration thereof resigned his Right to Jerusalem; and in the Year 1192, he was present at the taking of Pto-Edition: orig; Page: [112]lemais, where the Standard of Duke Leopold of Austria being set up first, he pull’d it down again, putting his own in the Edition: current; Page: [128] place. But when they were in great hopes of gaining Jerusalem, Philip returned home engaging himself by a solemn Oath, that he would not injure Richard in any of his Dominions. {Odo or} Hugo, Duke of Burgundy, afterwards followed his example, which greatly encouraged Saladin: And Richard understanding that the French were fallen into Normandy, he also made a Peace with Saladin; and taking his way by Land incognito, was discovered in his Journey through Austria,In his return he is taken Prisoner. where Duke Leopold, remembring the affront done to him near Ptolemais, took him Prisoner, and delivered him to the Emperour, who after fifteen Months Imprisonment, made him pay 100.000 Pounds for his Ransom. After his return home, he found every thing in confusion, the French having not only ravaged Normandy, and other Provinces belonging to him, but also his Brother had made a Pretension to the Crown; but he obliged the latter to implore his Pardon, and beat the French back into their own Country. He died not long after \A. 1199\, of a wound which he received in a Siege of some inconsiderable place in France.

John. After his death his Brother John took upon him the Crown of England, who was opposed by Arthur Earl of the lesser Britainy, his elder Brother’s Son; who finding himself alone not strong enough, sought for Aid of the King of France, who was ready upon all occasions to create Troubles in England.His Nephew Arthur opposes him. He took a great many Cities in Normandy and Anjou. Wherefore King John was obliged to make a dishonourable Peace with him, giving in marriage, to Lewis, King Philip’s Son, Blanch Daughter of Alfonsus, King of Castile, and of his Sister Eleonora, to whom he gave as a Dowry, all the Cities which Philip had taken from him, except Angiers. Then he married Isabella, Daughter and Heiress of the Earl of Angoulesme, who was promised before to Hugh Earl of Marche. He, to revenge this affront, join’d his Forces with the King of France and Prince Arthur of Britainy, and fell into Touraine and Anjou. But King John falling upon them unawares, routed the Edition: orig; Page: [113] Enemy, and took Prince Arthur Prisoner, who died not long after a Prisoner in Roan. But Constantia, the Mother of Arthur, made her Complaints to Philip King of France, whose Vassal King John was, on the score of such Provinces as he was possess’d of in France, and the King of France summon’d King John to appear before him, and to answer for the death Edition: current; Page: [129] of Arthur. But he not appearing, it was declar’d, that King John had forfeited what Fiefs he was posses’d of in France,The King of France disposesses him of Normandy. and King Philip took from him Normandy 316 Years after Rollo the Norman had conquered the same.

But the French afterwards attack’d also Angiers, where they were repulsed with great loss by King John, whereupon a Truce was concluded betwixt them for two Years: During which time he routed the Scots, and suppressed the Rebels in Ireland and Wales. The Truce being expired, the War began afresh with France, and King John’s Army being routed, he made another Truce with France. But this ill success had much diminished his Authority among his Nobles, who also hated him, because he had imposed heavy Taxes upon them; wherefore they, with joint consent, demanded from him the restitution of their ancient Privileges; but perceiving that he only intended to give them fair Words for Deeds, they called to their aid,The Dauphin invited by the Barons, invades England. Lewis, Son of Philip King of France, who landing with a great Army in England, was received with a general applause, and whilst King John endeavoured to make Head against him, he died overwhelm’d with Troubles \A. 1216\.

Henry III. §9. Him succeeded his son Henry III.15 whose tender Age wrought Compassion on most, and extinguish’d the Hatred which had been conceiv’d against his Father. And the Earl of Pembroke, to whose Tuition he was committed, having totally routed the French near Lincoln, and destroyed the French Forces at Sea, that were sent to their assistance, Lewis did renounce all his Pretensions upon the Crown of England, and retir’d into France.The Dauphin is forced home again. This King’s Reign was very long, but also very troublesom, occasion’d chiefly by the great concourse of Foreigners into England; who Edition: orig; Page: [114] crept into all places of profit: For the Pope sent at one time 300 Italians, who being admitted into Church Benefices, did so lay about them, that their yearly Rents amounted to 60.000 Marks of Silver, which was a greater Revenue than the Crown had at that time.16 Edition: current; Page: [130] And by reason of the Prodigality of the King, tho’ constantly burthening the People with Taxes, he was always in great want of Money. He married, besides this, the Daughter of the Earl of Provence, who having abundance of poor Kindred, they enrich’d themselves out of the Treasury of the King.A War with the Barons. This caused, at last, an open War betwixt the King and the principal Men of the Kingdom, in which Henry resign’d to the King of France, all his Pretensions upon Normandy, Anjou, Poictou, Touraine and Mans, in consideration of the Summ of 300.000 pounds paid him by the French King, and he was himself taken Prisoner in the first Battel: But his Son, Prince Edward, gathered another Army, and killed the General of the Rebels,He quits his Pretensions on Normandy for a Summ of Money. Simon of Monfort Earl of Leicester; delivering thereby his Father, and suppressing the whole Rebellion. He [Henry] did nothing worth mentioning abroad, except that he undertook two Expeditions into France, both which prov’d fruitless. He died in the Year 1272.

Edward I. Him succeeded his Son Edward, who was at that time in the Holy Land; and tho’ he did not come into England till a Year after his Father’s death, yet took quiet possession of the Crown. This King entirely united the Principality of Wales to the Crown of England, the last Prince, Lyonel, being slain in a Battel. Under his Reign also began a bloody War, and an implacable hatred was raised betwixt the English and Scotch Nations, which for 300 Years after caused abundance of bloodshed betwixt both Nations. The occasion was thus: After the death of Alexander III. King of Scotland, who died without Heirs, there were several that pretended to the Crown of Scotland,The causes of the Differences betwixt the English and Scots. wherefore King Edward took upon him the Arbitration of this matter, that Crown having depended on his Predecessours, and the Scots being still obliged to do Homage to the King of England. The matter being examined, it so proved, that John Baliol Earl of Edition: orig; Page: [115] Galloway, and Robert Bruce, were found to have the best Title to that Crown. But these two having contested for the same during the space of six whole Years, Edward sent under hand to Bruce, telling him, That he would decide the difference concerning the Crown of Scotland in favour of him, if he would swear Fealty to England, which Bruce refused, answering, That he was not so fond of the Crown, as to purchase the same with the prejudice of the Liberty of his Native Country. But John Baliol receiving the same offer, was made King of Scotland.

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There was about that time a capital Quarrel in Scotland, betwixt the Earl of Fife and the Family of Alberneth, who had kill’d the Earl’s Brother, and the King of Scotland had by his Sentence absolv’d the latter. The Earl, therefore, appeal’d to the English Court, whither King Baliol was called to appear, and to sit with the King in Parliament: But as soon as this matter came under debate, he was admonished to rise from his Seat, and to give an account concerning his Sentence. He pretended to answer by his Advocate, which being denied him, he was obliged to answer in person from the same place, where others used to plead their Causes: Which both he and the Scots resented as so signal an affront, that, no sooner was he returned home, but he renounced his Oath to King Edward, pretending the same to have been unjust, and that it was not in his power to make such a promise; and renewing the ancient Alliance with France, he denounced War against England. King Edward,A War with Scotland. therefore enter’d Scotland with an Army, took the best strong Holds, and forced the Scots and their King to swear fealty to him; their King he sent a Prisoner into England, leaving considerable Forces in Scotland, which were, nevertheless, soon after beaten out of Scotland by the Scots, under the Conduct of a Gentleman of a mean Fortune, whose name was William Wallis [Wallace].17 But King Edward soon returned, kill’d 40.000 Scots in a Battel near Torkirke, and forced them to swear Fealty to him a third time. Notwithstanding all these Oaths, Robert Bruce, who had been John Baliol’s Competitour, took upon him the Crown, Edition: orig; Page: [116] who was several times worsted, but also beat the English at other times, particularly when King Edward going with an Army against Robert, in person, fell sick and died \A. 1307\.

This King Edward had also had some Differences before with France. For some of his Subjects in Aquitain, having done considerable mischief by Privateering on the Coast of Normandy, King Philip sirnam’d the Handsome summon’d Edward to appear at his Court as his Vassal, and to answer the same, which Edward refusing to do, he declared all his Possessions which he held from the Crown of France to be for feited;With France. taking from him by force of Arms Bourdeaux and some other places; against whom Edward enter’d into a Confederacy with the Earl Edition: current; Page: [132] of Flanders and the Emperour Adolphus. But coming into Flanders with an Army, and finding every thing in confusion and disorder, he made a Truce with King Philip \A. 1297\, promising, That his Son Edward should marry Isabella, Philip’s Daughter.He banishes the Jews. This King caused, likewise, all the Jews to be banished out of England, not allowing them to carry away any thing more than what they could carry themselves.

Edward II. §10. Him succeeded his Son Edward II. who at the very beginning of his Reign, married Isabella, Daughter of Philip sirnamed the Handsom, with whom he had for a Dowry ‘Guienne’ [Aquitaine], and the County of Ponthieu, the greatest part whereof had been taken from his Father by the French. This King was very unfortunate in his Wars against the Scots, who in the Battel fought near Bannoksborough, with an Army of 30.000 Men defeated 100.000 English,Unsuccessfull in his War with Scotland. which struck such a terrour among them, that 100 English durst scarce face three Scotchmen: And the English were continually beaten by the Scots (except in Ireland, where they beat the Scots out, who had enter’d that Kingdom) so that Edward was at last obliged to make a Truce with them. He met also with great Disturbances at home,His Troubles at home. the great Men of the Kingdom pressing him without intermission, to leave to their Mercy, his Favourites Gaveston, and after him the Spencers, which he refusing to consent to, they fell into open Re-Edition: orig; Page: [117]bellion, in which they proving unsuccessfull, several of the Nobility paid with their lives for it. But the Queen, pretending that the Spencers had diverted the King’s Love from her, retir’d first into France, and from thence into Hainault, and returning with an Army, took the King Prisoner, and caused the Spencers to be executed. The King was carried from place to place, and greatly abused during his Imprisonment, having been forced before by the Parliament, to resign the Kingdom to his Son Edward. At last, about six Months after his Deposition, he was miserably murther’d \A. 1327\.

Edward III. §11. Edward III. was very young when the Crown was conferr’d upon him, wherefore the Administration of the Government was, during his Minority committed to his Mother, and managed under her chiefly by her Favourite Roger Mortimer. She immediately, at the beginning, Edition: current; Page: [133] made a dishonourable Peace with Scotland, whereby Edward renounced the Sovereignty and all other Pretensions upon that Kingdom; and the Scots renounced their Title to Cumberland and Northumberland. This and some other matters laid to their charge, was the reason why, some Years after, the Queen was condemned to a perpetual Imprisonment, and Mortimer was hanged.

His Pretensions to the French Crown. Afterwards a most cruel War broke out betwixt England and France; for Lewis, Philip and Charles, all three Sons of Philip sirnamed the Handsom,18 dying without Issue, Edward did pretend a right to the French Crown, as being the late King’s Sister’s Son; alledging, That if his Mother, as being a Woman, might be thought incapable of governing the Realm, the same ought not to be prejudicial to him, as being a Man. But Philip de Valois,19 notwithstanding he was a degree farther of[f], as being the late King’s Father’s Brother’s Son, yet prevailed with the States, who under pretence of the Salick Law,20 and the hatred they bore to a Foreign Sovereign; being, besides this, encouraged thereunto by the Earl of Artois, set him upon the Throne. Edward being afterwards summon’d by Philip, to come in person, and to do Ho-Edition: orig; Page: [118]mage for the Dukedom of Aquitain, went thither in person, he being then but young, and England full of intestine Commotions, notwithstanding this seemed to be very prejudicial to his Pretensions: And King Edward appearing in the Church at Amiens with the Crown upon his Head, his Sword and Spurs on, was ordered to lay them aside, and to take the Oath upon his Knees; which so exasperated Edward, that France afterwards felt the effects of it.

He is successfull against Scotland. Not long after, Edward Baliol, Son of John Baliol, made pretensions to the Crown of Scotland against the young King, being assisted by King Edward, notwithstanding King David of Scotland had married his Sister. During which Commotions the English recovered Barwick upon Tweed, and in one Battel killed 30.000 Scots, whereupon Edward Edition: current; Page: [134] Baliol did do Homage to the King of England for the Crown of Scotland. By this time King Edward being come to his riper years, upon the instigation of Robert Earl of Artois, undertook an Expedition into France,His Expedition into France. and taking upon him the Title and Arms of France, renewed his Pretensions to that Crown. In this Expedition \A. 1340\ he entirely routed the French Fleet near Sluys, which was sent to hinder his landing, and defeated 30.000 Men, and after he had besieged Tournay he made a Truce with them for twelve Months. In the mean while the English were engaged in a War with the Scots, who, under the Conduct of their former King David, had driven out Edward Baliol. The time of the Truce being expir’d, the War began afresh in France, where, among other places, the English took Angoulesme. King Edward himself came with a great Army into Normandy, and took, both there and in Picardy,The Battel near Crecy. a great many places from the French: At last a bloody Battel was fought betwixt them near Crecy in Picardy, wherein the English, tho’ but 30.000 strong, fought against 60.000 French, killing 30.000 upon the spot, among whom were 1500 persons of Quality. The next day after 7000 French were cut to pieces by the English, who, not knowing what had happened the day before, were upon their march to the French Camp.The Scotch defeated. In this Battel \A. 1346\ no Quarter was given on either Edition: orig; Page: [119] side. Much about the same time King David of Scotland enter’d England with an Army of 60.000 Men, to make a Diversion in behalf of France; but he was defeated in a great Battel, and himself taken Prisoner. The English had no less success the same Year in Britainy and Guienne. In the Year next following King Edward took the City of Calais,He takes Calais. which he fill’d with English Inhabitants.

Prince Edward, Son to Edward III. whom his Father had sent with an Army into Guienne \A. 1356\, behaved himself very valiantly, making great havock where-ever he came. John King of France drew out an Army against him of 60.000 Men, tho’ the Prince was not above 8000 strong; upon this the King, thinking he had catch’d the Bird in the Net, would not accept of any Conditions, tho’ never so advantageous. But Prince Edward having posted his Men betwixt the Bushes and Vineyards, from thence so gall’d the French Horse with his long Bows, that they being repulsed, put all the rest in confusion; King John himself Edition: current; Page: [135] was taken Prisoner, as also his youngest Son, and above 1700 persons of Quality were slain.The Battel near Poictiers. This Battel was fought about two Leagues from Poictiers. At last, after King Edward had with three Armies over-run the greatest part of France, a Peace was concluded by the Mediation of the Pope, at Bretaigny, not far from Chartres: The Conditions of this Peace were, That England, besides what it had before in France, should be put in possession of Poictou, Zaintogne, Rochelle, Pais d’Aulnis, Angoumois, Perigord, Limoisin, Quercy, Agenois, and Bigorre,A dishonourable Peace to France. with an absolute Sovereignty over the same; besides this, the City of Calais, the Counties of Oye, Guisnes, and Ponthieu, and three Millions of Crowns were to be given as a Ransom for the King; and that King John should give his three younger Sons, his Brother, and thirty other persons of Quality as Hostages for the payment of the said Summs. But that on the other side, the English should restore all the other places which they had taken from the French, and renounce their Right and Title to the Crown of France.

The Peace being thus concluded, Prince Edward, to whom his Father had given the Dukedom of Aquitain, Edition: orig; Page: [120] restored Peter King of Castile to his Kingdom. But in his Journey, the Souldiers being very mutinous for want of Pay, he levyed an extraordinary Tax upon his Subjects, which they complaining of to the King of France, he summon’d the Prince to appear before him, who answer’d, He would <suddenly> appear with an Army of 60.000 Men; therefore Charles V. King of France, denounced War against the English,Another War with France. pretending, that the promised Sovereignty, at the last Peace, was void, because the Prince had not fulfilled the Articles of the same, and had committed Hostilities against France. But whilst Prince Edward was busie in making great Preparations against France, he died suddenly, and with him, the English good Fortune; for the French took from them all the Dukedom of Aquitain, except Bourdeaux and Bayonne. The King was so troubled at the loss both of so brave a Son and his Conquests in France, that he died within ten Months after his Son \A. 1377\.

Richard II. §12. Him succeeded Richard II. Son of that brave Prince Edward, who being but eleven Years of Age when he came to the Crown, was despised Edition: current; Page: [136] by the French, who burnt several places on the English Coast. The Scots also made an Inrode on the other side of England, and the War being carried on with various Fortune,A Peace with France. after several Truces expired, a Peace was at last concluded.

Troubles at home. There were also great Commotions in the Kingdom under this King’s Reign: For in Kent, and other neighbouring Counties, there was an Insurrection of the Rabble, occasioned by the Insolence of one of the Receivers of the Poll Tax: This Rabbles Intention was to have murthered both the Nobility and Clergy, except the Mendicant Fryars; but were soon restrained by the King’s Valour. But there were continual Discontents betwixt the King and the Lords, the King being resolved to rule according to his Pleasure, and to maintain his Favourites against the Lords, who were for removing his Favourites, and bringing his Royal Power into a more narrow compass by the Authority of the Parliament. But it was the King’s custom, as soon as the Parlia-Edition: orig; Page: [121]ment was dissolved, to reverse all that was concluded upon before; yet once the Parliament got him at an advantage, when it forced him to permit most of his Favourites to be either kill’d or banish’d; and obliged him by an Oath to promise, That he would administer the Government according to the Advice of his Lords. Not long after, a Conspiracy among the Lords was discovered against him, a great many of them paid for it with their Heads, the King seemed at last to have master’d his Enemies; but he was,The occasion of his Ruin. nevertheless, ruin’d at last, which was occasioned thus: Henry Duke of Lancaster accused the Duke of Norfolk, as if he had spoken ill of the King; and the latter giving the lye to the former, they challenged one another, but the Duel was prevented by the King’s Authority, who banish’d them both out of the Kingdom. Henry of Lancaster retired into France, raising there a Faction against the King, by inviting all dissatisfy’d persons to him, who promised to set him on the Throne of England. He landed but with a few in England, but at a time,Henry Duke of Lancaster invades England. as King Richard’s ill Fortune would have it, when he was in Ireland; and the Wind proving contrary, he could not have notice of his Enemies arrival in England till six Weeks after, which gave them opportunity and leisure to strengthen their Party. The King also committed a great errour, for that he afterwards, against his Promise, tarry’d so long in Ireland, which Edition: current; Page: [137] was the cause, that such Forces as were brought together by his Friends, whom he had sent before, were again dispersed before his arrival in England. Coming afterwards in person into England, and being informed how powerfull his Enemies were, he despair’d of his Affairs, and having dismiss’d his Forces, that were ready to fight for him till the last gasp, he was made a Prisoner. Henry of Lancaster calling, immediately hereupon, a Parliament, a great many things were objected to Richard, and he was declared to have forfeited the Crown. But before this Resolution was published, he resign’d himself, and was not long after miserably murthered in Prison \A. 1399\. Edition: orig; Page: [122]

Henry IV. of the House of Lancaster. §13. Thus Henry IV. of the House of Lancaster, came to the Crown, he being after the Deposition of King Richard declared King by the Parliament, tho’, if the Pretensions of Henry, together with the Power of the Parliament, be duely examined, the Title of Henry IV. to the Crown of England, will be found to have a very ill Foundation. For what some pretend, that Edmund, from whom the House of Lancaster descended, was the eldest Son of Henry III. and that he being very deformed, was obliged to give way to his Brother Edward I. is rejected as a frivolous Fable by the English Historians. This King did labour under great difficulties at the beginning of his Reign,He had great Difficulties which he surmounted. all which he at last overcame: For the Design of the French to restore Richard ended with his death. And a Conspiracy of some Lords against him was discover’d, even before Richard died. The Scots, who made War on him, got nothing but blows. The Welshmen also, in hopes of having met with an opportunity to shake off the English Yoke, joined with a discontented Party out of England, and rebell’d against him; but before they could join all their Forces, the King came suddenly upon them, and overthrew them in a great Battel, wherein, ’tis said, the King kill’d six and thirty with his own Hands. Yet the discontented Party did not rest, but enter’d into a third Conspiracy against him, which was soon discover’d. A great many of them retir’d afterwards into Scotland, where they stirr’d up the Scots against England (for these never used to miss an opportunity of being troublesome to England) but they got nothing but blows again for their pains. This King died in the Year 1413.

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Henry V. §14. After him reigned his Son Henry V. who in his younger Years did not promise much, but after he came to the Crown, shew’d himself one of the most valiant Kings the English ever had. And as he was very Aspiring and Ambitious, so he thought he could not meet with a better opportunity of gaining Glory, than by entring into a War with France, and renewing the ancient Pretensions upon that Crown. He sent, therefore, his Ambassadours to Charles VI. to Edition: orig; Page: [123] lay claim to that Crown, and to make this Proposition to him, That if he would resign to him the Crown of France, he would marry his Daughter Catharine.He invades France to prosecute his claim of the Crown. But it being not usual that Princes are persuaded to part with a Crown thus, the next way was to try their Fortune by Arms. Henry therefore enter’d France with an Army, took Harfleur, and obtained afterwards a most signal Victory near Agincourt in Picardy against the French, who (according to the English Historians) were six times stronger than the English. Ten thousand of the French were kill’d upon the spot, and as many taken Prisoners, not above some Hundreds being slain of the English:21 Yet at that time Henry did not pursue his Victory.The Battel near Agincourt. But not long after, the French Fleet having first been beaten by the English near Harfleur, Henry made a second Descent upon France, taking one place after another in Normandy, and at last the City of Roan it self \A. 1419\.

He met with very little opposition in France at that time, because all was in confusion at the French Court, the King, Charles VI. being not in his right Wits, and the Queen being fallen out with her Son, the Dauphin, who had taken from her all her Jewels and Money, alledging, That they might be better employ’d upon the Souldiery: Which was the reason that the Queen siding with John Duke of Burgundy, did promote him to the place of chief Minister of France; who was more intent to maintain his private Interest and Greatness, against the Dauphin, than to make Head against the English. A Congress was proposed to be held betwixt the two Kings, but this Design was frustrated by the cunning of the Dauphin, who gave the Duke hopes of an entire Reconciliation to Edition: current; Page: [139] be made betwixt them both. And Monterau being named for the place where they should meet, the Duke of Burgundy was there, (questionless, by instigation of the Dauphin) miserably murther’d. For this reason his Son, Duke Philip, being resolved to revenge his Father’s death, declared openly for the English, and by his Mediation obtain’d, That King Henry should marry the Princess Catharine, and during the life of his Wife’s Father, administer the Government in his name, but after his death, Edition: orig; Page: [124] should succeed him in the Throne. The Nuptials were afterwards celebrated at Troyes in Champaigne \A. 1420\.

The Administration of France to be in Henry during Charles’s life, and after his death the Crown to descend to him. After the Treaty had been confirmed by solemn Oaths on both sides, which was also ratify’d by the three Estates assembled in Paris, where the Dauphin was summon’d to appear, to answer concerning the death of the Duke of Burgundy: But he not appearing, Sentence was given against him, That he should for ever be banish’d out of France. There were also some who design’d to make him away [do away with him], and he was forced to go from place to place, but his common place of Residence was Bourges, wherefore they used to call him, by way of ridiculing, The King of Bourges. In the mean time the English took one place after another from him. At last, King Henry being upon his March to raise the Siege of the City of Cosne on the Loire, which was besieged by the Dauphin, he fell sick in his Journey thither, and being carried to Bois de Vicennes, there died in the flower of his Age and Felicity \A. 1422\, leaving the Administration of France to his Brother, the Duke of Bedford, and the Administration of England to his second Brother, the Duke of Gloucester.

Henry VI. §15. Him succeeded his Son Henry VI. a Child of eight Months old; who, after he was grown up, degenerated from his Father’s Martial Valour, and by his ill management, lost what his Father had got, eclipsing thereby the English Glory. He was, after the death of Charles VI. who died not long after Henry V. proclaimed King of France in Paris. In opposition to him, the Dauphin, Charles VII.Proclaim’d King of France. also declared himself King of France, with whom sided the Bravest among the French, and a great many Scots were sent to his assistance. But Philip Duke of Burgundy, and John Duke of Britainy, held to the Confederacy with the Edition: current; Page: [140] English, which was renewed at that time. And then they began to fall upon one another with great fury: For the French received a great Defeat near Crevant in Burgundy \A. 1423\, and were soundly beaten near Verneuil {in the following year}. In the Year 1425 {as} the French had besieged St. ‘Jaques’ [James] de Beuveron with Forty Edition: orig; Page: [125] thousand Men, the Garrison being reduc’d to great extremity, prayed with a loud voice to St. George of Salisbury: The Besiegers hearing the name of Salisbury very frequently among the Besieged, supposed that the Earl of Salisbury was coming to raise the Siege; whereat the French were so terrify’d that they ran away for fear of his Name {as the English historians purport}.

This is certain, that the English, for a while, were Masters where-ever they came, but before Orleans the carreer of their Fortune was first stopt. For, tho, during that Siege, they beat the French, who came to cut off their Provisions (which Battel is commonly called the Battel of the Flemmings [herring])22 and the City would have surrender’d it self to the Duke of Burgundy, which the English would not accept of; yet did they not only lose in that Siege the brave Earl of Salisbury, but also the French, being encouraged by a Maid called Joan,The Maid of Orleans. that was born in Lorraine, {successfully} beat the English from before Orleans. This Maid did several great exploits against the English, and led, her self in person, King Charles to his Coronation in Rheims. At last she was taken Prisoner by the English in an Encounter, who carried her to Roan, where they burnt her for a Witch. But because the English perceived, that after the Coronation of Charles, a great many Cities sided with him,He was crowned in Paris. they also called over their King Henry out of England, and crowned him King of France in Paris \A. 1432\.

About the same time, a Truce was concluded by Mediation of the Pope, for six Years; but it lasted not long, for the French, during the time of the Truce, possess’d themselves of several places, which they had brought over to their side by cunning Insinuations, pretending, That any thing gained without open violence did not violate the Truce. And Edition: current; Page: [141] King Charles’s Maxim was, Not to fight with the English, but to strive to get Advantages over them rather by Policy [Geschwindigkeit] than open force. But that which gave a great blow to the English, was,The English decline in France. That the Duke of Burgundy having taken a distaste at the English upon some slight occasion, was reconciled to King Charles. There were some small Differences arisen betwixt the Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Burgundy; to compose which, a meet-Edition: orig; Page: [126]ing was appointed at St. Omer [Omar]: But the time being near at hand, a Dispute arose, which of them should appear there first; it being supposed, that he who should come first, did thereby yield the Precedency to the other; wherefore the Duke of Bedford refused to come first, alledging, That he being Regent of France, ought not in that Quality to give preference to a Vassal of France. But the Duke of Burgundy stood upon his right of being Sovereign of the place where they were to meet; so that the meeting being set aside, the Duke of Burgundy broke quite off with the English, and afterwards assisted King Charles against them.The Duke of Burgundy leaves the English and is reconciled to Charles. The death of the Duke of Bedford \A. 1435\, proved another Misfortune to the English. For the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of York both pretended to his place; and tho’ the latter did obtain it, yet did the first always oppose his Designs, so that, before the new Regent arrived, Paris, which had been seventeen Years in the possession of the English, and a great many other Cities, did surrender themselves to King Charles \A. 1436\. Yet did the Duke of Gloucester beat the Duke of Burgundy before Calais, making great havock in Flanders, Artois and Hainault; and the brave Talbot did considerable mischief to the French.

The occasion of the Troubles in England. But when afterwards, by a Truce made with France, the fury of the War ceased for a little time, there was a Foundation laid in England for intestine Commotions. The King had promised marriage to the Daughter of the Earl of Armagnac, to prevent which, the French King had made both the Earl and his Daughter Prisoners. The Earl of Suffolk, who was then Ambassadour in France, did propose thereupon, with out having received any Instructions to that purpose from the King, a Match betwixt the King and Margaret Daughter of Rene, Duke of Anjou and King of Naples and Sicily, and afterwards persuaded the King to ratifie the same. This Match was mightily opposed by the Duke of Edition: current; Page: [142] Gloucester, the King’s Uncle, who alledged, That her Father had only the bare Titles of King and Duke; and that besides this, great Injury was done thereby to the first Bride, viz. to the Daughter of the Count of Armagnac. Notwithstanding this, the Match went forward, and to Edition: orig; Page: [127] obtain the Bride of the French, Anjou and Maine were given them as a Recompence. The King being thus ‘led away’ [ruled] by the Queen and his Favourites,23 her first design was to revenge her self upon the Duke of Gloucester, whom she accused of Male Administration,24 and after she had got him committed to Prison, caused him privately to be murther’d.The English driven out of France. The death of so innocent a Man did afterwards fall heavy upon the King: For the French, not long after \A. 1449\, took from them all Normandy, the English, by reason of a Rebellion in Ireland, not being in a capacity to send thither speedy and sufficient Relief. They were also beaten out of Aquitain, so that they had nothing left them in France, but Calais, and some neighbouring places; neither could they, afterwards, ever get footing again in France.

The occasion of this sudden loss. This sudden loss was occasioned by the carelessness of the English Garrisons, that were not provided with able Governours, as also by the Pride of the English, whereby they were become hatefull to the French Subjects: But the chief cause was, Richard Duke of York, who had underhand raised intestine Commotions in England: For he being sensible of the King’s Weakness, and how ill satisfy’d the People were with the Queen’s management of Affairs, hoped, by fomenting and raising Troubles in the Kingdom, to make way for himself to obtain the Crown; and this he did, principally, because he pretended to have the best right to the Crown, being descended, by his Mother’s side, from Lionel Duke of Clarence, third Son of King Edward III. whereas Henry was descended from John of Gaunt, fourth Son of the said Edward III.[,] but publickly he profess’d, That his Intention was only to remove from the King’s Person his pernicious Favourites, and especially the Duke of Somerset. Having therefore got an Army on foot, he fought with the Edition: current; Page: [143] King’s Forces, in which Battel the Duke of Somerset was slain, and the Duke of York thereupon declared Protector of the King’s Person and the Kingdom. But this Agreement did not last long, and things came quickly again to an open War, wherein the Duke of York being worsted, was forced to fly into Ireland. But not long after Edition: orig; Page: [128] the Earl of Warwick did beat the King’s Army, and taking him Prisoner, the Duke of York was again declared Protector of the King and Kingdom, and lawfull Heir of the Crown; under condition that Henry should retain the Title of King during his life. But Matters did not remain long in this condition, for the Queen, who was fled into Scotland, marched with a great Army against the Duke of York, who was kill’d in the Battel, and all the Prisoners were executed. But his Son, in conjunction with the Earl of Warwick, raised another Army, and marching up to London, the young Duke of York was there \A. 1460\ proclaimed King by the Name of Edward IV.

Edward IV. of the House of York. §16. Thus Edward IV. came to the Crown, but could not maintain it without great difficulty: For Henry had got together a very powerfull Army in the North, against whom Edward fought the most bloody Battel that was ever fought in England, there being 36.796 Men killed upon the spot, because Edward knowing his Enemies to be superiour in number, had ordered, not to give Quarter to any of them: After which Battel Henry retired into Scotland, from whence he returned with another Army,A bloody Battel betwixt Edward and Henry. and being again defeated, with much adoe got safely into Scotland. But returning again incognito into England, he was taken Prisoner and committed to the Tower. This Prince, would have made a better Priest than a King of such a Nation, |[that was distracted by the Animosities of several Factions]|.25

But the Tragedy did not end here: The King [Edward IV.] had sent the Earl of Warwick into France, to conclude a Match betwixt him and Bona the Daughter of Lewis Duke of Savoy. But the King having in the mean time suddenly married Elizabeth, the Widow of John Gray, the Edition: current; Page: [144] Earl was so dissatisfy’d at it, that he declared for King Henry; and having brought over to his Party the Duke of Clarence, the Brother of King Edward, he fell upon a sudden upon Edward, and took him Prisoner; but by the carelessness of his Keepers he escaped not long after. And tho’ an Agreement was then made betwixt them, yet was it of no long continuance, for the Edition: orig; Page: [129] Earl of Warwick’s Forces were routed, and he forced to fly into France. As soon as he had recover’d himself a little, he returned into England, where he was so well received, that he forced King Edward to fly into the Netherlands to Charles Duke of Burgundy: And King Henry,Henry taken out of Prison and set on the Throne. after he had been nine Years a Prisoner in the Tower, was again set upon the Throne.

Edward returns into England. But Edward having received some Assistance from the Duke of Burgundy, returned again into England; but perceiving that but few came in to him, he made an Agreement with King Henry, which he confirm’d with a solemn Oath, That he would not undertake any thing against him, but be contented with his own Estate: Yet notwithstanding his Oath, he underhand gathered what Forces he could. The Earl of Warwick therefore marched towards him, when the Duke of Clarence, being reconcil’d to his Brother King Edward, went over with all his Forces to him. This gave a signal blow to the Earl of Warwick, who being now not strong enough to oppose him, was forced to let him march up to London, where he was joyfully received by the Londoners, to whom, as ’tis said, he owed much Money, and was very acceptable to their Wives;26 but King Henry was committed again to the Tower \A. 1471\. Then King Edward attack’d the Earl of Warwick,Henry a second time Prisoner, and murther’d by the Duke of Gloucester. where a bloody Battel was fought, the Victory seeming, at first, to incline on the Earl’s side: But some of his Troops, by reason of a thick Fogg, charged one upon another, which lost him the Battel, he remaining, with a great many other persons of Quality, slain in the Field. There happened also this misfortune, That King Henry’s Lady and his Son Edward having got together very considerable Forces in France, could not come [in] time Edition: current; Page: [145] enough to his assistance, having been detained by contrary Winds; and coming afterwards into England, she was taken Prisoner, and her Son kill’d; and King Henry, also, was murthered by the Hand of the bloody Duke of Gloucester.

England being thus restor’d to its Tranquility at home, Charles, Duke of Burgundy, who was in hopes of getting an advantage by a War betwixt England and France, stirr’d up King Edward against Lewis XI. King of Edition: orig; Page: [130] France. But King Lewis, who was not ignorant how mischievous the Confederacy of England and Burgundy might prove to him, did endeavour to detain the English King with fair words, and to render the Duke of Burgundy suspected to him; which had the design’d effect with Edward, who considered with himself, That Charles Duke of Burgundy having besieged Nuys, did not send him the promised Succours; so that the Peace was easily concluded, |[the French having been very liberal to the English]|.27 To confirm this Peace, King Lewis proposed a Congress to be held betwixt him and Edward at a certain place, where he, without making any further difficulty, appeared first in person,28 and bestowed a good quantity of Wine upon the English Souldiers, who soon after returned with their King, who had got but little Honour in this Expedition[,] into England, {to the great displeasure of the Burgundian}. But he behaved himself better against the Scots, to whom he did considerable mischief. In the mean time the Duke of Gloucester had rid himself of his elder Brother, the Duke of Clarence, thereby to advance himself one step nearer to the Crown. At last King Edward being now resolved to enter again into a War with France (since King Lewis made a very slight account of what he had promised in the last Peace, after he was once rid of his Enemy) he fell sick, and died in the Year 1483.

Edward V. §17. After the death of Edward IV. his Son Edward V. a Child of eleven Years of Age was proclaimed King, but scarce enjoyed this Title ten Weeks. For his Uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the most bloody Edition: current; Page: [146] and wicked Man that ever the World beheld, immediately made it his business to set the Crown upon his own Head. Wherefore he first of all secured to himself the Tuition of the King’s and his Brother’s Persons, by making away their most trusty Friends. Afterwards, by the help of some Impudent ‘Priests’ [preachers],29 he got it spread abroad, That Edward IV. was born in Adultery, and that consequently the Crown did of right belong to himself, as being the most like his Father. At last, the Duke of Buckingham did insinuate into the Lord Mayor of London, That the Crown ought to Edition: orig; Page: [131] be offered to Richard; and his Proposal being approved by the Acclamations of a few ‘Villains’ [boys] set on for that purpose, it was divulged,Richard III. That the {whole} People had conferr’d the Crown upon Richard. Having by these {shameless} Intrigues obtain’d the Crown, Richard III. got himself proclaimed King \A. 1483\; and having been crowned, he caused the innocent <King> Edward V. and his Brother,Murthers his Nephews. miserably to be murthered.

But soon after his Coronation a difference arose betwixt him and the Duke of Buckingham, who had been chiefly instrumental in helping him to the Crown. He therefore leaving the Court, began to make a Party against the King, with an intention, to set the Crown upon the Head of Henry Earl of Richmond, who was then an Exile in Britainy. And tho’ the Duke of Buckingham’s Plot was discovered, and he beheaded, yet was not the Design stopt. For the Earl of Richmond set sail with a great Fleet out of Britainy {A. 1484}, but being driven by contrary Winds on[to] the Coast of Normandy, he sought Aid of Charles VIII. King of France, which he readily granted him. A great many English, also, went over to him, who swore Allegiance to him, he promising them upon Oath, That he would marry the Princess Elizabeth, Daughter of Edward IV. But Henry was within an ace of having been delivered up to Richard by the Treachery of one Pieter Landois, Treasurer of the Duke of Britainy, who had received a great Summ of Money from Richard for undertaking it, for which reason he was afterwards Edition: current; Page: [147] hang’d by his Master’s order. Richard also had an Intention of marrying the Princess Elizabeth, and therefore had privately made away [secretly murdered] his former Lady,He murthers his Wife. but was obliged to delay the consummation of the Match, by reason of the approaching danger from Henry: Who to prevent this intended Match, did in all haste sail out of France, and landing in Wales, was kindly received by most.Henry Earl of Richmond invades England. Not long after he gave Battel to Richard, where William Stanley, with some thousands of Men, went over to Henry; and besides this, a great many of Richard’s Souldiers refusing to fight, Richard himself was slain in the Field, and the Crown being immediately Edition: orig; Page: [132] there put upon Henry’s Head, he was proclaimed King \A. 1485\.

Henry VII. §18. Hitherto England had been miserably torn to pieces by the bloody Wars betwixt the Houses of York and Lancaster, the first whereof bore a White, the latter a Red Rose in their Shields. For Henry IV.He united the White and Red Roses. of the House of Lancaster, had driven Richard II. from the Throne; Edward IV. of the House of York, dethroned again his [Henry’s] Grandson Henry VI. And Henry VII. of the House of Lancaster, took from Edward the IVth’s Brother, Richard III. both his Crown and Life. This King Henry marrying the Daughter of Edward IV. united the Red and White Roses, and by his singular Wisdom, did again settle the State of the Kingdom.

Yet was he not altogether free from Disturbances at home. For first of all, one Lambert Symnel, Son to a Baker, taking upon him the Name and Person of Edward Earl of Warwick,Lambert Symnel. caused himself to be proclaimed King in Ireland. This Comedy was first invented by a Priest, and encouraged by Margaret, the Widow of Charles Duke of Burgundy, Sister to Edward IV. who, to spite Henry, gave them all the Assistance she could. This Symnel transported an Army out of Ireland into England, but was routed by Henry; and being taken Prisoner, was made a Turn-spit in the King’s Kitchin.

He makes an Expedition into France. In the Year 1491 Henry undertook an Expedition against France, and besieged Bologne.30 But the Emperour Maximilian failing in his promises of giving him Assistance, he in consideration of a good Summ of Edition: current; Page: [148] Money made a Peace with France. In the mean time, Margaret Dutchess Dowager of Burgundy, had set up another Impostor, whose Name was Perkin Warbeck.Perkin Warbeck. He pretended to be Richard, a younger Son of King Edward IV. and knew so well how to act his part, that he got a considerable Party in Ireland. From thence he went to Paris, where he was very well received, France being then engaged in a War with England: But a Peace being concluded betwixt them, he retir’d to the Dutchess Margaret’s Court. From thence he returned into Ireland, and afterwards came into Scotland, Edition: orig; Page: [133] where being splendidly received by that King, he was married to one of his Kinswomen, and enter’d England with a considerable Army. This business might have proved very dangerous to England, since there were, at the same time, great Tumults in England, arisen about some new Taxes. But the Rebels were beaten, and the Scots obliged to retire with great loss into Scotland. The Scots made thereupon a Peace with England, promising, among other things, not to uphold, by any ways, the Impostor Perkin, who fled from thence into Ireland, and so came into Cornwall, where he caused himself to be proclaimed King: But perceiving that few came over to his side, and the King’s Forces coming upon him, he took sanctuary in a Church, and surrender’d himself to the King, who committed him a Prisoner to the Tower; but he having twice made an attempt to escape, was at last hang’d ‘according to his demerits’ [as he had long deserved].

He marries his Daughter Margaret to the King of Scotland. In the Year 1501, a Marriage was concluded betwixt James IV. King of Scotland, and Margaret the Daughter of Henry, which afterwards united England and Scotland under one King. Arthur, also, eldest Son of Henry, married Catharine Daughter of Ferdinand the Catholick.31 But the Prince dying a few Weeks after the Wedding, in the sixteenth Year of his Age, and Henry being unwilling to give back the Dowry, and desirous to maintain the new Alliance with Ferdinand, married the said Catharine to his second Son Henry, who was then but twelve Years of Age, having obtained a Dispensation from Pope Julius II. under pre tence that there had been no carnal knowledge betwixt them; which Edition: current; Page: [149] afterwards proved the cause of great Alterations. This King [Henry VII] is reckoned among the wisest of his Age, and the only thing which is reprehended in him, is, That he had a way, by false Accusations against the rich, to squeeze out of them great Summs of Money from them. He died in the Year 1509.

Henry VIII. §19. Henry VIII. immediately upon his first accession to the Throne, celebrated the Nuptials with his Brother’s Widow [Catherine of Aragon], more to fulfill his Father’s Will than out of his own Inclination;He enters into League with Ferdinand and the Pope. yet as long as he Edition: orig; Page: [134] lived with her in Wedlock he govern’d the Realm very laudably, and in the Court nothing was seen but Plays and Diversions. As to his Transactions abroad, upon the persuasions of Pope Julius II. and Ferdinand the Catholick, he enter’d \A. 1512\ into a Confederacy with them against France, which Confederacy was pretended to be made for the defence of the Holy See. Ferdinand also put him in hopes of recovering Guienne; wherefore Henry sent an Army into Biscay, to fall in conjunction with the Spaniards into Guienne. But Ferdinand having rather his Eye upon Navarre,His Expedition against France. and being negligent in sending timely Succours to the English, they returned home without doing any thing.

A Second. In the Year 1513 Henry enter’d France with a great Army, where he lost his time in the taking of Terovane and Tournay, which [Therouanne] was wholly destroyed in spight of all the Attempts of the French to relieve it, tho’ Tournay was {later} redeemed by Francis I. with a good Summ of Money. But at that time Henry did not pursue his Advantage, partly out of carelessness, incident to young Men, partly, because he had carried on this War, not so much for his own Interest, as in favour of the Pope, and so returned into England. During the absence of Henry, James IV. King of Scotland, upon instigation of the French invaded England,An Invasion of the Scots. but received a great overthrow, himself being killed in the Battel. In the Year next following [1514], Henry perceiving that his Father-in-law Ferdinand did only impose upon him, concluded a Peace with France, giving his Sister Mary in marriage to King Lewis XII.

He makes a second War against France. In the Year 1522 Henry again denounced War against Francis I. and sent considerable Forces into France, which, nevertheless, both in the Edition: current; Page: [150] same and next following Year did nothing of moment; and the Scots, on the other side, obtained not any advantages against the English. But after Francis was taken Prisoner near Pavia,32 it seem’d that Henry had met with a fair opportunity to give a great blow to France, more especially, since he had before prepared a Fleet, which lay ready to make a Descent in Normandy, yet he left Charles and made Peace with France. And Edition: orig; Page: [135] Charles, after he thought he had obtained his aim, did not make any great account of England, leaving the Princess Mary, Daughter of Henry, to whom he had promised Marriage, for the Princess of Portugal, whom he married. And whereas he used formerly to write to the King with his own Hand, and subscribe himself, Your Son and trusty Friend; he now caused his Letters to be writ by his Secretary, subscribing only his Name, Charles. And truly it seemed very necessary for Henry to keep a little the Ballance. Tho’ a great many are of opinion, That Cardinal Woolsey {who was then in charge of Henry’s affairs} had a great hand in this business, who was no great Friend of Charles V. because he had not promoted him to the Papal Dignity, and had denied him the Archbishoprick of Toledo, of which he had put him in hopes at first;33 neither did he subscribe himself any more Your Son and Cousin, as he used to do. But however it be, Henry at that time saved France from an imminent danger.

The Divorce of Henry VIII. After he had lived very peaceably and well with his Queen for the space of twenty Years, he began to have a scruple of Conscience, Whether he could lawfully live in Wedlock with his Brother’s Widow; which scruple he pretended was raised in him first by the President of Paris, who was sent to treat concerning a Marriage betwixt Mary Daughter of Henry, and the second Son of Francis. Some say, that he being weary of her, was fallen in love with Anna Bullen [Anne Boleyn], and found out this way to be rid of her. Yet this seems not so probable Edition: current; Page: [151] to some, since he did not marry the said Anna Bullen till three Years after he pretended to the scruple of Conscience; whereas the heat of Love does not usually admit of such delays. Some will have it, that Cardinal Woolsey raised this scruple first in him, on purpose to nettle Charles V. and to please Francis I. in hopes, after this Divorce, to make up a Match betwixt Henry and the Dutchess of Alenson, Sister of Francis. But however it be, the business was brought before the Pope, who gave a Commission to the Cardinal Campegius, to enquire, in conjunction with Woolsey, into the matter: ’Tis said, That the Pope was willing to gratify Henry, and for that purpose had sent a Bull to Campegius, yet with this Edition: orig; Page: [136] caution, to keep it by him till further order. But when he afterwards saw Charles V. to prove so successfull, he durst not venture to do any thing that might displease him, wherefore he ordered Campegius to burn the Bull, and to delay the business to the utmost. The Queen also refused to answer to their Commission, but appealed to the Pope in person; besides, Charles V. and his Brother Ferdinand had protested against this Commission. Woolsey did also perceive, that the King was fallen in love with Anna Bullen, which being likely to prove prejudicial to his Authority, he persuaded the Pope underhand, not to give his consent unto this Divorce. Henry being informed what Intrigues the Cardinal was carrying on against him,The fall of Woolsey. humbled the greatness of this haughty Prelate, who died in the Year next following in great misery.

And Henry being made sensible, that the Pope regarded more his own Interest than the merits of the Cause, he forbid, that any body should hence forward appeal to Rome, or send thither any Money for Church Benefices. He therefore sent to several Universities in France and Italy to define their Opinions in this matter, who all unanimously agreed in this, That such a Marriage was against the Laws of God; and having once more, by his Ambassadours, sollicited the Pope, but in vain, to decide the matter, the King had the same adjudged in Parliament, and divorced himself from her \A. 1532\, yet conversed with her in a very friendly manner ever after till her death, except, that he did not bed with her since the time when this scruple first arose. Some Months after he was married to Anna Bullen,He marries Anna Bullen. by whom he had Elizabeth, who was afterwards Queen.

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He abrogates the Pope’s Supremacy. Anno 1535 the King caused himself to be declared Supream Head of the Church of England, abrogating thereby all the Pope’s Authority in that Kingdom, and John Fisher Bishop of Rochester, and Thomas Moor the Lord Chancellour, refusing to acknowledge him as such, it cost them their Heads. Yet would Henry never receive the Doctrine of Luther or Zwinglius, but continued in the Roman Communion, because he was mightily exasperated against Luther. For Henry had formerly got a Book to be published Edition: orig; Page: [137] under his Name against Luther in favour of the Pope, for which he acquired the Title of Defender of the Faith, which Title the Kings of England retain to this day. But Luther setting aside all the Respect due to a King, writ an Answer to the same,Monasteries demolished. full of Heat and bitter Reflections.34 Yet because he esteemed the Monks as a sort of people that were not only useless, but also such as depending on the Pope, might prove very pernicious to him at home, he gave free leave to all Monks and Nuns to go out of the Convents and Nunneries; and by degrees converted unto his own use the Revenues of all Nunneries and Convents, Colleges and Chappels, as also those of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; nevertheless he employed some part of them in erecting six new Episcopal Sees, and Cathedral Churches, and to the advancing of Learning in the Universities. A great part also he gave away or sold for a little Money to great Families, intending thereby to oblige them for the future to maintain the alterations he had made. It is reported, that these Church Revenues which were so reduced, did amount yearly to 186.512 l. or as some others will have it, to 500.752 l. He also abolished the superstitious worship of Images, and made some other alterations in Religious Worship, so that, in effect, he laid the Foundation of the Reformation. Nevertheless England was at that time in a miserable condition;Protestants and Papists executed. for a great many Roman Catholicks, that would not acknowledge the King for the Supream Head of the English Church were executed: And a great many more Protestants received the same punishment, because they would not own the Corporal Edition: current; Page: [153] presence of the Body of Christ in the Sacrament; tho’ this effusion of blood was not so much caused by the King as by the Bishops, who had first brought in use such rigorous Laws, and now executed them with as much severity.

War with Scotland. In the Year 1543, another War happened with the Scots, who making an Inrode into England were beaten by a few English; which did grieve King James V. to that degree, that he died for trouble [grief], leaving behind him one only Daughter Mary, whom Henry would have engaged to his Son Edward,35 there-Edition: orig; Page: [138]by to unite these two Kingdoms; and the business was like to have succeeded very well, if the Archbishop of St. Andrews had not opposed it. Henry also enter’d into a League with the Emperour against France, wherein it was agreed,He enters into a League with the Emperour against France. to join their Armies of 80.000 Foot and 22.000 Horse near Paris, to plunder that City, and to ravage the whole Country as far as the Loire. But neither of them acted according to the Agreement, for Henry wasted his time in the Siege and taking of Boulogne, which he afterwards, by the Peace concluded in the Year 1546, promised to restore to France within the space of eight Years, in consideration of the Summ of 800.000 Crowns to be paid him for the same; which was performed accordingly under Edward VI. \A. 1550\. Neither do I believe that Henry was in good earnest by ruining the French to give such great advantages to Charles V.

After his Divorce with Catharine of Arragon, he was very unfortunate in his Marriages; for Anna Bullen was beheaded for Adultery and Incest,Anna Bullen beheaded. tho’ some are of opinion, that it was more the Protestant Religion than the Crime which proved fatal to her. It is certain, that the Protestant Princes of Germany did so resent this matter, that whereas they intended to have made Henry the Head of their League, they afterwards would hold no correspondency with him. After Anna Bullen he married Jane Seymour, Mother to Edward VI. who died in Child-bed.His other Wives. Then he married Anna of Cleves, whom he also pretending I know not what bodily infirmity in her, quickly dismiss’d. The fifth was Catharine Howard, who was beheaded for Adultery. The sixth Catharine Parre, Widow of the Lord Latimer, who outlived him. Henry died in the Year 1547.

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Edward VI. §20. Edward VI. was nine Years of age when he came to the Crown, during whose Minority his Uncle, the Duke of Somerset had the Administration of Affairs. His first design was to force the Scots to agree to a Match betwixt Edward and their young Queen Mary, wherefore he fell into Scotland, and overthrew them near Muskelborough in a great Battel. Nevertheless he miss’d his aim, for the Scots sent their Edition: orig; Page: [139] Queen into France, who was there married to the Dauphin, afterwards King of France by the Name of Francis II. Under this King Edward the Reformed Religion was publickly established in England, and the Mass quite abolished; which occasioned great disturbances in the Kingdom, which were nevertheless happily suppress’d. In the Year 1550 there was a Peace concluded betwixt England, France and Scotland, when also Boulogne was restor’d to the French. But King Edward falling sick, the Duke of Northumberland, who had before destroyed the Duke of Somerset, persuaded King Edward, under pretence of settling the Protestant Religion, to exclude by his last Will and Testament his two Sisters, Mary and Elizabeth (for of the Queen of the Scots they made but little account at that time) from the Succession of the Crown, and to settle it upon Jane Grey, Daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, whom he had by Mary Daughter of Henry VII.36 which afterwards proved fatal both to {the good} Jane and the Author [Northumberland]. For after the death of Edward \A. 1553\, the Duke of Northumberland caused Jane to be proclaimed Queen in the City of London;Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen. but Mary el dest Sister of Edward did immediately lay claim to the Crown in her Letters to the Privy Council: And Letters proving ineffectual, they began to come to blows; but most of the Nobility, unto whom Mary promis’d not to make any alteration in Religion, did side with her; and a part of the Army and Fleet, most of the Privy Counsellors, and the City of London, taking her part proclaimed her Queen. Northumberland himself being now willing to go with the tide, did proclaim Mary Queen in Cambridge, notwithstanding which he afterwards lost his Head.

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Mary. §21. Queen Mary caused the Roman Catholick Religion and Mass, which were abolished in her Brother’s time, as also the Pope’s Authority to be restor’d in England, she used the Protestants very hardly, of whom a great many were punished with death,Restores Popery. Yet was she not able to restore the Church Revenues, for fear of exasperating the greatest Families, who had them in their possession. The Pope did also send Cardinal Edition: orig; Page: [140] Poole [Pole], to re-unite the Kingdom to the holy See of Rome.

Marries Philip of Spain. This Queen Mary was married to Philip Son of Charles V. who was afterwards King of Spain, yet under these Conditions, That she should have the sole disposal of all Offices and Revenues of the Kingdom, and if a Son was born, he should, besides the Crown of England, inherit Burgundy and the Netherlands: Don Carlos, who was born of a former Wife, should be Heir of Spain and all the Italian Provinces, and in case he died without Issue, this [son of Mary] should also inherit his part. But no Children came of this marriage, Mary being pretty well in Years, for she was thirty Years before proposed in Marriage. And there were some, who being dissatisfy’d at this Match, raised Tumults; among whom was the Duke of Suffolk, Father of Jane [Grey],Lady Jane, &c. beheaded. who had hitherto been a Prisoner in the Tower, but she and her Husband Guilford, and her Father, paid with their Heads for it. It was within an ace but that Elizabeth, who was afterwards Queen, had also undergone the same fate, if Philip and the Spaniards had not interceded for her, not out of any affection to her person, but because they knew,The reason why Philip interceded for the Lady Elizabeth. that after her, the next Heir to the Crown of England was Mary Queen of Scotland, who being married to the Dauphin of France, they feared, lest by this means England and Scotland might be united with France.

Among other Articles in the Marriage Contract of Queen Mary,The Battel of St. Quintin. it was agreed, That she should not be obliged to engage her self in the Wars which her Husband, Philip, should carry on against France: Notwithstanding which, when Philip afterwards was engaged in a War with France, she sent to his assistance some of her best Forces, who by their Bravery chiefly obtain’d the Victory near St. Quintin; for which reason Philip gave the City to be plundered by the English. Henry II. King of France,Calais lost. taking hold of this opportunity, assaulted the City of Calais, under the Command of the Duke de Guise, which being not well Edition: current; Page: [156] Garrison’d he took in a few days, and obliged all the Inhabitants to quit the City, and to leave behind them all their Gold, Silver and Jewels. He also took afterwards the two Castles of Guisnes and Edition: orig; Page: [141] Hammes, and thereby drove the English quite out of France. Not long after this loss Queen Mary died \A. 1558\.

Elizabeth. §22. Elizabeth, who after the death of her Sister, was unanimously proclaimed Queen, maintain’d her Authority, and govern’d with great Prudence and Glory in the midst of a great many threatning dangers to the very end. In the beginning Philip endeavoured by all means to keep England on his side, for which reason he proposed a Marriage betwixt Elizabeth and himself,Philip desires her in marriage. promising to obtain a Dispensation from the Pope, which was nevertheless opposed by the French in the Court of Rome. Elizabeth was very unwilling to disoblige so great a Prince, who had well deserved of her; yet on the other side, the same scruple which had caused her Father to be divorced from Catharine of Arragon, by a parity of reason, did remain with her;37 she considered, especially, that the said Divorce must needs be esteemed unjust, if the Pope’s Dispensation was allowed of; since it had been alledged as a fundamental reason of the said Divorce, that the Pope had no power to dispense in any cases which were contrary to God’s Law: She resolved therefore not to have any further concerns with the Pope, and to give a friendly refusal to Philip.

Then she, by an Act of Parliament, constituted the Protestant Episcopacy, yet not at once, but by degrees, taking away from the Papists the free exercise of their Religion, and under several Penalties and Fines obliged every one to frequent the Protestant Churches on Sunday. Every body also was obliged by a solemn Oath to acknowledge her the Supream Governour in England, even in Spiritual Matters; which Oath was among 9400, who were possess’d of Church Benefices, taken by all, except 189 who refused the same, among whom were fourteen Bishops. She kept stedfast to the established Episcopal Church Government, Edition: current; Page: [157] tho’ she met with great opposition from two sorts of people, viz. the Papists and Puritans.Papists and Puritans. These having conceived a great hatred against Episcopacy, and all other Ceremonies which had the least resemblance of Edition: orig; Page: [142] Popery, were for having every thing regulated according to the way of Geneva.38 Tho’ their number increased daily, yet the Queen kept them pretty well under. But the Papists made several attempts against her Life and Crown;Foreign Seminaries. for her envious Enemies did erect several Seminaries or Schools for the English Nation in foreign Countries; viz. at Douay, at Rheims, at Rome and Valedolid; all which were erected for the Instructing of the English Youth in these Principles, viz. That the Pope had the Supream Power over Kings, and as soon as a King was declared a Heretick by him, the Subjects were thereby absolved from their Allegiance due to him, and that it was a meritorious work to murther such a King.39 Out of these Schools Emissaries and Priests were sent into England, whose business was there to propagate the Roman Catholick Religion; but more especially, to instruct the People in the abovementioned Doctrines. To these associated themselves some Desperado’s, who, after Pope Pius V. had excommunicated the Queen [in 1570], were frequently conspiring against her Life. But most of them got no other advantage by it, than to make work for the Hang-man, and occasioned that the Papists were stricter kept than before.

Mary Queen of Scotland. Mary also, Queen of Scotland, raised abundance of troubles against Queen Elizabeth; she being the next Heiress to the Crown of England,40 did, with the assistance of the Duke of Guise, endeavour to have Queen Elizabeth declared by the Pope Illegitimate (which the Spaniards under-hand [secretly] opposed) and both she and the Dauphin assumed the Edition: current; Page: [158] Arms of England, which undertaking proved afterwards fatal to Queen Mary. For Elizabeth sided with the Earl of Murray, natural Brother of Queen Mary,41 whose main endeavour was to chase the French out of Scotland, and to establish there the Protestant Religion, both which he effected with the assistance of Queen Elizabeth. This Queen Mary being after the death of Francis II. returned into Scotland, was married to her Kinsman Henry Darley, one of the handsomest Men in England, by whom she had James VI. But her Love to him grew quickly cold; for a certain Italian Musician, whose name was David Ritz Edition: orig; Page: [143] was so much in favour with the Queen, that a great many persuaded Henry, that she kept unlawfull company with him. He being thus animated, with the assistance of some Gentlemen, pull’d David Ritz out of the Room where he was then waiting upon the Queen at Table, and kill’d him immediately. From whence King James, with whom Queen Mary was then big with Child, had this natural infirmity, That he could not see a naked Sword, his Mother having at that time been frighted with naked Swords.The Queen of Scots married Bothwell, who murthered her Husband. This so exasperated the Queen against her Husband, that he soon after, as was suppos’d, was in the Night time murthered by George Bothwell, who was afterwards married to the Queen. The Earl of Murray, with some others, did publish, That this Murther was committed by the instigation of the Queen, and George Buchanan, a Creature [sic] of the Earl’s, does boldly affirm the same in his Writings.42 Yet there are some, who say, That the Calumnies as well concerning David Ritz, as also concerning the death of Henry Darley, were raised against the Queen by the Artifices of the Earl of Murray, thereby to defame and dethrone her.

But however it be, there was an Insurrection made against the Queen, and Bothwell, whom she had married, was forced to fly the Edition: current; Page: [159] Land (who died, in Denmark some Years after in a miserable condition) and she being made a Prisoner, made her escape in the Year 1568. But the Forces which she had gathered being routed,She was made a Prisoner in England. she retir’d into England, where she also was made a Prisoner. There she enter’d into a Conspiracy against the Queen Elizabeth, with the Duke of Norfolk, whom she promised to marry, hoping thereby to obtain the Crown of England. But the Plot being discover’d, the Duke was made a Prisoner, but was afterwards released. And being again discover’d to have afresh pursued his former design, paid for it with his Head \A. 1572\. Queen Mary was confined to a more close Imprisonment. Several Treaties were set on foot to procure her Liberty, but no sufficient security could be given to Queen Elizabeth. Wherefore Queen Mary growing at last impatient, and being overcome by ill Counsellours, enter’d into a Conspiracy with Spain, the Pope, and Edition: orig; Page: [144] the Duke of Guise against Elizabeth: Which Plot having been long carried on privately, did break out at last \A. 1586\, and some Letters of her own hand writing having been produced among other matters, a Commission was granted [set up] to try the Queen; by vertue of which she received Sentence of Death; which being confirm’d by the Parliament, great application was made to the Queen for Execution, which Queen Elizabeth would not grant for a great while, especially, because her [Mary’s] Son James and France did make great intercessions in her behalf. At last the French Ambassadour d’ Aubespine, having suborned a Ruffian to murther Queen Elizabeth, her Friends urged vehemently to hasten the Execution, which she granted, and signed the Warrant, commanding, nevertheless, Secretary Davidson to keep it by him till farther order: But he advising thereupon with the Privy Council, it was order’d,Beheaded. that Execution should be done upon her immediately \A. 1587\. Queen Elizabeth seemed much concerned there-at, and removed Davidson from his place. King James also was grievously exasperated, and some of his Friends advised him to join with Spain and to revenge his Mother’s death. But Queen Elizabeth found a way to appease his Anger, and there was ever after a very good understanding betwixt them to the very last.

Queen Elizabeth assists the Huguenots. The Duke of Guise and his party were great Enemies to Queen Elizabeth in France, and she, on the other hand, assisted the Huguenots with Edition: current; Page: [160] Men and Money, who surrender’d into her Hands as a pledge, Havre de Grace \A. 1562\, but her Forces were obliged to quit the same in the Year next following. Neither could she ever get Calais restored to her, tho’ in the Peace concluded at Chasteau en Cambresis \A. 1559\, the same was promised to her. With Henry the IVth.43 she lived in a good understanding, sending frequently to his assistance both Men and Money. But with Spain she was at variance about the Rebellious Netherlanders, to whom she not only granted a safe retreat in her Country and Harbours, but also assisted them, first underhand, and afterwards openly, both with Men and Money, they having surrender’d unto her as a pledge,The Sovereignty of the Netherlands twice offered her. Flushing, Brill and Rammeken: Edition: orig; Page: [145] But she would never accept of the Sovereignty of the Netherlands, which being twice offered her, she refused as often, out of weighty and wise Considerations. She sent, however, the Earl of Leicester, her Favourite, thither as Governour, who did not acquire much Reputation; but having put things rather in confusion, he was recalled in the second Year. She did also great damage to the Spaniards on their Coasts, and in the West Indies, by Sir Francis Drake and others, and the Earl of Essex took from them Cadiz \A. 1595\; but quitted it immediately after. On the other side, Spain was continually busie in raising Commotions and Conspiracies against her. And because the Spaniards were of Opinion, That England might be sooner conquer’d than the Netherlands, and that the latter could not be subdued without the other, they equipp’d a Fleet which they called the Invincible Armado, wherewith they intended to invade England [in 1588].The Armado defeated. Which Fleet, to the Immortal Glory of the English Nation being partly destroy’d by them, and many miserably torn to pieces by Tempests, did return home in a very miserable condition.

Spain also supported constantly the Rebels in Ireland, who were very troublesome to Queen Elizabeth, tho’ they were generally beaten by her Forces, except in the Year 1596, when they soundly beat the English. Wherefore the Queen sent thither the Earl of Essex, who did nothing Edition: current; Page: [161] worth mentioning. And after his return, the Queen giving him a severe Reprimand, and ordering him to be kept a Prisoner, he was so exasperated at it, that tho’ he was reconcil’d to the Queen, he endeavoured to raise an Insurrection in London, which cost him his Head.Essex beheaded. Tho’ the Spaniards were twice repulsed and chased out of Ireland with considerable loss, yet the Rebellion lasted till the very end of her life. Neither could a Peace be concluded betwixt her and the Spaniards as long as she lived: For tho’ a Treaty was appointed to be held at Boulogne \A. 1600\, by the Mediation of Henry IV. yet the same was immediately broke off, because the English did dispute Precedency with the Spaniards.

This Queen could never be brought to take a Resolution to marry, tho’ Edition: orig; Page: [146] her Subjects did greatly desire it, and she had great Offers made her; amongst whom were, besides Philip, Charles Archduke of Austria, Eric King of Sweden, the Duke de Anjou, and his Brother the Duke de Alenson, the Earl of Leicester, &c. It was her custom not to give a flat denial to such as sued for her in Marriage, but she used to amuse them with hopes, whereby she made them her Friends: For she treated with Charles Archduke of Austria for seven Years together, and with the Duke of Alenson she was gone so far, as that the Marriage Contract was made, yet was it so drawn as that a way was found to annul the same afterwards.

Under her Reign the English Trade was first established in Turkey and the East Indies, the finest Coin, as also the Manufactury of Serges and Bays44 was settled in England about the same time. This Queen also brought first into Reputation the English Naval Strength, which she was so jealous of, that,She was jealous of her Power at Sea. tho’ she supported the Netherlanders against the Spaniards, yet would she never consent, that the Netherlanders should so augment their Sea Forces, as that thereby they might be able to contest with England at Sea. This Maxim, which seem’d so necessary for England, was not regarded by King James [I.], he being a lover of Peace: And King Charles I. having always his Hands full with his Rebellious Subjects, was not in a capacity to observe it; wherefore the Dutch Power at Sea, could neither by Cromwel, nor by Charles II. be brought Edition: current; Page: [162] down again. This most glorious, and by her Subjects, extreamly beloved Queen died in the Year 1602, having before appointed James VI. King of Scotland, for her Successour.

James I. §23. After the death of Elizabeth, James VI. King of Scotland, was with an unanimous applause proclaimed King [James I] of England. His Title to this Crown was derived from Margaret Daughter of Henry VII. who was married to James IV. King of Scotland; whose Son James V. left one only Daughter, who was Mother of James VI. He at first shewed himself pretty favourable to the Papists, fearing, lest they might in the beginning of his Reign raise some Commotions Edition: orig; Page: [147] against him. Notwithstanding which, immediately after his Coronation \A. 1603\ the Lord Cobham, Gray,Cobham’s Conspiracy. and others, enter’d into a Conspiracy against him: Their main design was to root out the Line of James, and to put in his place the Marchioness d’Arbelle,45 she being also descended from the abovesaid Margaret Daughter of Henry VII. This Lady [Margaret] was after the death of her Father married to Archibald Douglass, by whom she had Margaret, who was married to Matthias Earl of Lenox; and this Arbella being the Daughter of Charles Lenox, the third Son of this Earl, was, by the intercession of Spain, to have been married to the Duke of Savoy, and by this means the Popish Religion was again to be introduced into England: But the whole Plot being discover’d, the Ring-leaders were punish’d, yet not with that Severity as the hainousness of their Crime did deserve; tho’ in the Year next following, all the Jesuits and Popish Priests were, by a severe Proclamation, banish’d out of England.

The Powder Plot. In the Year 1605, some Popish Villains had hir’d a Vault under the Parliament House, which being fill’d up with a great many Barrels of Gunpowder, they intended to have blown the King, the Prince, and the whole Parliament into the Air. But this devilish Design was discover’d, for one of the Accomplices, by a Letter that was obscurely written, and deliver’d by an unknown person to a Footman of the Lord Mounteagle, did intreat him not to come the next day into the Parliament House: Edition: current; Page: [163] Which causing a suspicion in the King, all the Vaults were search’d, and the Powder found. Hereupon the Parliament made an Act, That all Subjects, by a solemn Oath, should acknowledge James for their lawfull Sovereign; neither, that the Pope had any Authority to Dethrone Sovereigns, or to absolve Subjects from their Allegiance.

He concluded a Peace with Spain \A. 1604\, and was afterwards one of the Mediators of the Truce made betwixt Spain and Holland. His Son-in-law, the Elector Palatine being banish’d out of his Territories,46 he assisted only with sending of Ambassadours and proposing of an Agreement, all which the Spaniards render’d ineffectual. His Son Prince Charles was sent into Spain \A. 1626\ Edition: orig; Page: [148] to marry the Infanta, where the Marriage Contract was concluded and confirmed by Oath, but the Nuptials were deferred till the next year, the Spaniards being willing to gain time, and to see how things would be carried on in Germany for the House of Austria. But when, after the Prince’s return into England, the English would needs have the Restitution of the Elector Palatine inserted in the Articles, the Match was broke off, and, tho’ the Parliament voted a Subsidie to be employed towards the restoring of the Elector Palatine, yet the Design came to nothing.

Under this King there was a period put to the Differences and Wars betwixt England and Scotland, which hitherto had created abundance of Troubles to this Island. And that nothing of jealousie might remain betwixt these two Nations about Preference in the Royal Title, he intro duced the Name of Great Britain, which comprehends both the Kingdoms. There was also set on foot a Treaty to unite both Kingdoms into Edition: current; Page: [164] one Body, but it did not succeed, because the Scots would not be Inferiour to the English.Foreign Plantations. Under this King’s Reign Colonies were established in Virginia, Bermudos and Ireland; by which means the English have extended their Dominions, but there are some, who believe that this has weakened the English at home, and that in all probability, it would have been more profitable for England to have employed those people in Manufactury and Fishing of Herrings, which produce such vast Riches to the Dutch in the very sight of the English. Yet some are also of Opinion, That it is good for the publick repose, that the unruly Multitude do not grow too numerous in England.47 The East India Trade was also greatly promoted at that time, but the English could not come there in competition with the Dutch, these having been before hand with them. This King died in the Year 1625.

Charles I. §24. His Son Charles I. succeeded him, who, after the Spanish Match was broke off, married Henrietta Daughter of Henry IV [of France]. \A. 1626\ He equipp’d out a great Fleet against the Spaniards, the English landed near Cadiz,War with Spain. but being repulsed with loss, returned with-Edition: orig; Page: [149]out doing any thing, and all Commerce was prohibited betwixt Spain and England.War with France. He also broke with France, and because the French Merchants had been ill treated by the English, all Commerce was also prohibited betwixt these two Nations. The English thereupon endeavoured to send Aid unto the City of Rochelle {A. 1627}, and landing in the Isle of Rhee [Ré], besieged the Fort of St. Martin, which being valiantly defended by one Toyras, the English were repulsed with great loss. In the Year next following, they undertook to relieve Rochelle, but in vain.A Peace concluded with both. Whereupon Charles concluded a Peace with France in the Year 1629, and in the Year next following with Spain, having by this War, waged against these two Nations, which were not so easie to be attack’d by one at the same time, gained no Reputation to the dissatisfy’d Subjects, and vast Debts.

Under this King arose very violent Divisions betwixt him and the Parliament, which produced a most strange [wunderliche] Revolution Edition: current; Page: [165] in that Kingdom.Causes of the intestine Commotions in England. It will be very well worth our while, to enquire a little more narrowly into the true causes thereof. That wise Queen, Elizabeth, held it for a constant maxim, to oppose the growing power of Spain with all her might, whereby she weaken’d Spain, and not only enrich’d her Subjects, but also exercised them in Sea Affairs, wherein consists the chief Strength and Security of this Kingdom: Wherefore she always kept a good Correspondency with all such as were Enemies of the House of Austria; she assisted France against the Designs of the Spaniards, favoured the Protestant Princes in Germany, upheld the Dutch against the Spaniards, thereby the better to weaken so formidable a Neighbour, looking upon the Netherlands as the Out-work of her Kingdom. Besides this, she finding continual employment for her Subjects abroad, did not a little contribute towards the preserving the Health of the State; for by this means a great deal of corrupt and inflamed Blood being taken away, it prevented intestine Diseases in the State.The different Conduct of Queen Elizabeth and King James as to the State. But King James took quite another course, and perceiving that the United Provinces were grown strong enough, not only to support themselves against Spain, but also to dispute Edition: orig; Page: [150] the Dominion of the ‘Narrow Seas’ [Ocean] with England, he left them to themselves, and concluding a Peace with Spain, establish’d a lasting Tranquility at home, for his Inclinations were more for Books than Arms. And because Subjects in general are apt to follow the Inclinations of their Sovereigns, the People laid aside all Warlike Exercises, and fell into such Weaknesses and Vices, as are commonly the product of Plenty and Peace: And the King hoped, when these Nations applyed themselves only to Trade and Commerce, they would {become womanly [Weibisch] and thus} be diverted from having any thoughts of opposing his Authority.

The Occasions that were taken from Religion. He made it also his main endeavour to unite the Minds of the Scots and English, by Naturalizing the English in Scotland, and the Scots in England, and by joining the great Families by Marriages: But he was more especially carefull of establishing one Form of Religious Worship in both Kingdoms. For tho’ there was no great difference in the Articles of Faith, yet the Ceremonies and Church Government were very different. For Queen Elizabeth, when she established the Protestant Religion retained many Ceremonies, which were anciently used in the Primitive Edition: current; Page: [166] Church, as also used by the Papists afterwards; she maintained also the Authority of the Bishops, yet under the Royal Power; supposing that this Constitution was most suitable to a Monarchy, considering that the Bishops had some dependence on the King, and had their Votes in Parliament. And it used to be the saying of King James, No Bishop, no King. But this Constitution did not agree with those of the Reform’d Religion in Holland, Switzerland and France, partly because these Nations were used to a Democratical Liberty, and therefore loved an Equality in the Church-Government as well as the State; partly because they had suffered from some Kings and Bishops, and therefore both were equally hated by them. These would not allow of any Superiority among the Clergy, but constituted the outward Church-Government by Presbyteries, Classes and Synods; neither would they admit any Ceremonies, believing, that the perfection of the Reformed Religion did consist in not having so much as anything, tho’ never so indifferent, common Edition: orig; Page: [151] with the Papists.48

And according to this Form the Church of Scotland being establish’d, the number of such as were of the same Opinion increased daily in England, who were commonly called Presbyterians or Puritans. And the Capriciousness of those who were of several Sentiments proved the more dangerous, because these Nations49 being of a melancholy temper used to adhere stedfastly to their Opinions, not to be removed from them. King James being besides a great Enemy of the Puritans, thought to have found out a way to suppress them in Scotland, by inserting it among the Royal Prerogatives, which was to be confirmed by the Parliament of Scotland, That he had the Supream Power both in Spiritual and Temporal Affairs in the same manner in Scotland as in England. By this means he hoped to model, without any great difficulty, the Church of Scotland according to that of England. And tho’ this Proposition was opposed by a great many in the Parliament of Scotland, yet the King’s party prevailed, and a new Form of Church-Government was established in Scotland. But the King had no sooner turned his back and was Edition: current; Page: [167] return’d into England, but the common people made an Insurrection against the Bishops in Scotland, who began to introduce there the Ceremonies of the Church of England.

The Conduct of Charles I. §25. Tho’ King Charles I. was of a more war-like temper than his Father, yet was he obliged, tho’ against his Will, according to the Maxims of his Father, to preserve Peace abroad, to avoid the danger of being oblig’d to depend on the Capricious Humours of his Subjects. And because he, as well as his Father, had a great dislike of the Power of the common people, and of <the Temper and Principles of> the Puritans, all his Thoughts were bent to find out ways how to secure himself from the danger of both: And because the King could not impose any extraordinary Taxes without the consent of the Parliament, Charles chose rather to controul his own Inclinations, which were bent for War, than to fawn upon the Parliament; in hopes that its |[Heats, which was for limiting Edition: orig; Page: [152] the King’s Power]|,50 would by degrees diminish, if it was not called together for a considerable time. It is supposed, that the Lord Treasurer Weston did confirm him in this Opinion, who did expect to be call’d to an account by the Parliament.

The Parliament used anciently to provide a certain yearly Revenue for the King, towards maintaining his Court and Fleet, to secure the Commerce of the Kingdom, which Revenue was not hereditary to the next Successour. The first Parliament which was called by Charles I. had settled the Customs, as part of his Revenue, but when he afterwards, having dissolved the same |[against the Opinion of the Male Contents,]|51 his Revenues also began to be call’d in question, it being their Opinion, that nothing could so soon oblige the King to call a new Parliament, as if what was necessary for his and the Courts Subsistence, were withheld from him. But the King, however, {took no notice and} Edition: current; Page: [168] did not only receive [collect] the same Customs as his Predecessours had done, but also augmented them with new Impositions to the yearly value of ‘800.000’ [80.000] l. by which means the King, who was {in any case} firm in his Opinion, was thought to have a Design to alter the ancient ‘Constitution of the Government’ [manner of ruling], and to maintain himself without a Parliament; which however was look’d upon as an impossibility by the ‘generality of them’ [people]: For King James had left above 1.200.000 l. Debts, which were since increased by Charles 400.000 l. more, which Money was expended in the {futile} Wars against France and Spain; it was therefore not visible, how he could extricate himself out of these Debts without the assistance of a Parliament, since according to the fundamental Constitutions52 of the Realm he could not levy any Taxes upon the Subjects, and to force them [illegally] to pay any, was beyond his Power, having no Forces on foot, but the Militia of the Kingdom. And it was impossible to bring in such a Foreign Force, as could be supposed to be able to make Head against the dissatisfy’d people{, though he considered for some time, the recruitment of some German troops}. Notwithstanding all which the King pursued his Resolution, and having ask’d the Opinion of {a few} Men skill’d in the Law, who told him, That it was allowable, for the publick benefit, to levy Money by his own Authority; he imposed several new Edition: orig; Page: [153] Taxes, whereby he augmented his yearly Revenue from 500.000 l. to 800.000 l. Besides this, he laid a Tax {on all households, according to each’s means, on the pretext} for maintaining of a Fleet, which amounted to 200.000 l.53 All which caused great dissatisfaction among the Subjects against the King:

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Besides, the King was thought by the Puritans, to deal {too} hardly with them and too mildly with the Papists (by the Counsel of Archbishop Laud {of Canterbury}, a ‘Man of great Resolution’ [hothead]<, who at that time apprehended, that Faction very dangerous both to Church and State>) which was by the Puritans interpreted, as if the King was resolved, by suppressing of them, to introduce Popery; [and] to insinuate this into the Multitude, abundance of Libels and scurrilous Papers were scatter’d abroad against the King and the Bishops, and Commissioners being appointed to inquire into them, they [the Multitude] were rather exasperated than appeas’d by its [the Commission’s] Severity.

Troubles in Scotland and England. §26. Both Nations being therefore full of Discontents, the Flame first broke out in Scotland: For the King endeavouring to root out Puritanism there, to establish the Authority of the Bishops, and an Uniformity in Religion, he order’d a Church Liturgy to be composed, abrogating all Presbyteries, Classes and Provincial Synods, and enjoining every one under severe penalties, to conform to the same; there was a general Insurrection raised by ‘that party’ [the priests] in Scotland \A. 1637\. There was also another reason; for, at the time of the first Reformation the Revenues of a great many Church Benefices were appropriated to the use of the Crown, but without any remarkable advantage; for they were lett out, for the most part, to younger Brothers of Noble Families. These having found the benefit of them, had, by getting from time to time the Survivorship, continued the same in their Families, and kept them as their own Propriety. Nay, they did more than this, for during the Minority of King James VI. {around the Year 1567} they had obtained the Titles of Lordships for some of the most considerable of these, or some lesser Benefices joined together. King James afterwards perceiving, that thereby they had bound him up from rewarding such with these Benefices as deserved well of him, would have recall’d the beforesaid Edition: orig; Page: [154] Grants \A. 1617\, but met with such opposition in the Nobility, that he desisted from it. But the King [Charles I] undertook the business effectually \A. 1633\, employing the said Revenues towards the augmenting of the Salaries of the Clergy. These therefore who had Edition: current; Page: [170] been losers by this Revocation joined with such Ministers as were mortal Enemies of the Liturgy, [and] did, with all their might, help to stirr up the Rebellion.

Alexander Lesley, also, who had been a Commander in the German Wars {under the Swedes}, and having refused to serve under John Banniers there, was returned into his native Country, |[in hopes to make his advantage of these Troubles.]|54 He put himself at the Head of the Rebellious Party, and by persuading the Nobility, that the King intended to take away their ancient Privileges, stirr’d up a great many against the King. And to make a fair shew to the common people, they made use of the Religious Cloak of Conscience,The Scotch Covenant. ordering a Directory to be compos’d by the Ministers quite opposite to the former Liturgy. They thereupon enter’d into an Association confirm’d by solemn Oaths, That they would maintain the same against all, even the King himself: This Association was called the Covenant, which being subscrib’d by the greatest part of the Nobility and Clergy, a Council was constituted, unto whom was committed the supream direction of their Affairs.

To suppress these Commotions, the King sent the Marquiss of Hamilton into Scotland, who dealing mildly with them, only encouraged the adverse party: For the King calling a Parliament in hopes to remedy these Disorders, the Covenant was by its Authority confirm’d, the Episcopal Authority quite abolish’d, and Puritanism establish’d |[in defiance of]|55 the Royal Authority. There being then no other way left to reduce the Rebellious Party to ‘Obedience’ [reason] but force, and the King being in want both of Money and a sufficient number of faithfull Subjects, he was forc’d to make some use of the Papists to obtain both, wherefore he did not only raise an Army, wherein were some Papists, but also was assisted by them with some Summs of Money, all which, however, was in no ways sufficient to supply the want of the King; and a Supply being demanded Edition: orig; Page: [155] from the Subjects, very few, except the King’s Servants and Officers were for contributing any thing. And it being divulged, that a great many thousand of Irish Papists and Edition: current; Page: [171] Germans were ready for the King’s Service, to try, whether by this way the Subjects could be frightened out of some Money, it served only to exasperate the Minds of the people.

Yet the King’s Forces might in all probability have been successfull against the Scots, if they had fallen upon them immediately. But because they had leisure given them, they did not only settle a Correspondency with France and Holland, from whence they were supply’d with Money and Ammunition; but also sent their Deputies into England, who so well knew there to represent the state of their Affairs, that the King being persuaded by the English, made a dishonourable Agreement with them [the Scots]: Which nevertheless did not last long, the Court being asham’d of the Agreement, and the Scots not trusting the King,A Letter intercepted, wherein the Scots desire Succour from France. the King had in the mean while intercepted a Letter, wherein the Scots had sollicited for some Officers and Money to be sent them from France; this he hoped might prove an inducement to the English to oppose the Treachery of the Scots, and to furnish him with some Supplies, of which he stood in great need at that time. He calling therefore a Parliament, the Letter was read, but to no great purpose, the Members of the House of Commons being most of them Puritans, who were great friends of the Scots, so that the Parliament was a little while after dissolv’d by the King’s Authority.The Parliament is factious, and favours the Scots. The King had caused to be made Prisoner in London the Scotch Commissioner, who had subscribed the abovementioned Letter, whereupon the Scots took up Arms, and took the Castle of Edinburgh. The King having with great difficulty, for want of Money, got together an Army, went in person against the Scots, but as <a party of> his Army endeavouring to force their passage was beaten back with loss, which augmented the Discontents of his Subjects, the Souldiers for want of Pay, ‘being’ [having] to be maintained by those Counties where they were quartered. Besides this, ten thousand Men, which were raised by the Edition: orig; Page: [156] Parliament in Ireland for the King’s service, were forc’d to be disbanded for want of Pay. There was then no other remedy left but to make a Truce with the Scots, and to call a new Parliament in England, which began to sit in November in the Year 1640.

§27. But in the Session of this Parliament, the Ulcer [Übel] which had been long gathering in the Minds of the people broke out: For the Edition: current; Page: [172] Parliament, in lieu of assisting the King against the Scots, enter’d into a Confederacy with them,The Parliament of England directly oppose the King. promising a monthly Subsidy towards the maintaining of the Scottish Army, which was to be ready at the English Parliament’s command. Then they began to reform the |[States]|,56 to clip the King’s Authority, to punish his Ministers and Servants, and to take away the Bishops, Liturgy, and fall upon Papists. The better to obtain their aim, they forced the King to consent, that he would not dissolve the Parliament, till all such as were criminal were punished, and the State were entirely reformed: In a word, that they should have the liberty to sit as long as they pleased. Which in effect put an end to the Royal Authority. To try the King’s Patience, and their own Strength, they brought the Earl of Strafford, Lord Deputy of Ireland, to his Tryal, who, notwithstanding he made a good Defence, and the King did his utmost to preserve his beloved and faithfull Minister, yet the Rabble of London, then encouraged by the House of Commons, making an Insurrection, he received Sentence of Death in the House of Lords. And the King refusing to sign the Warrant for his Execution, was obliged thereunto, partly by the importunity of the Parliament, partly by the Insurrection of the Rabble of the City of London, and partly by a Letter from the Earl, desiring him to do it.

Then the rest of the King’s Ministers went to rack [and ruin], some of them saving themselves by flight, some being imprisoned. The Bishops were excluded from the House of Lords. The Star-chamber, the Authority of the Privy Council, and the High Commission were suppressed: the Customs and power over the Fleet were taken away from the King. Some of these and Edition: orig; Page: [157] some other things, which proved very prejudicial to him, the King was forced to grant them, in hopes thereby to heal the ulcerated Minds of the people. He went also in person into Scotland, where he granted them all what they could desire. About the same time a horrid Conspiracy broke out among the Irish Papists, who pretended to maintain the Popish Religion, and to redress some Grievances by force of Arms, which occasioned afterwards a most cruel slaughter.

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The Rebellion begins. At last \A. 1642\ it came to an open Rebellion: For the Parliament not ceasing to encroach daily more and more upon the Royal Authority, the King resolved to assert his Authority; wherefore he summoned five Members of Parliament, whom he accused as Traitors, and authors of all the Differences: And the House of Commons taking their part, the King went into the House accompanied with some Officers, and spoke to them with a due resentment of their Behaviour,Their Behaviours. which however they made but little account of, being not ignorant of his want of Power, of which he seem’d to betray himself, when he immediately afterwards condescended and came nearer their Expectations. The House of Commons thereupon stirr’d up the neighbouring Counties, and especially the London Apprentices, who made such an Insurrection, that the King, not thinking himself safe in London, retir’d into the Country. And the Parliament order’d all the Governours of the Sea-ports, not to obey the King’s Commands. It was certainly a great errour in the King, that in such troublesome times, he had not taken care to secure to himself the Sea-ports, by which means he might have hoped for some assistance from abroad: For, when the King intended to possess himself of the Fort and Harbour of Hull, ‘he’ [his envoy] was not admitted; so that there was nothing left, but that the Parliament had not as yet taken from the King {completely} the disposal of Offices. But for the rest it was evident, that their Intention was, to abolish totally the Royal Power, and to introduce a Democracy. And after the King had once given his Assent to the exclusion of the Bishops from the House of Lords, where they had six and twenty votes, and the rest of the King’s Friends had once absented themselves from both Edition: orig; Page: [158] Houses, it was easie for the remainder quite to abolish the Authority of the House of Lords.

Thus, after there had been long contests by Words and Writings betwixt both parties, the King now as well as the Parliament began to Arm themselves: And the King having at several times, at first, beat the Parliament Forces, the Parliament stirr’d up the Scots, entring with them into a Confederacy. Whereupon the Scots came with a consider able Force to the assistance of the Parliament, which turned the Scale, the King’s Forces being routed near York, and he obliged,The King made a Prisoner. for want of Men and Money, to give himself up to the protection of the Scots, Edition: current; Page: [174] who nevertheless did surrender him to the English for the Summ of 400.000 l. under condition that he should not be abused by them. The King was afterwards carried a Prisoner from place to place for a considerable time.

The Independents become Masters. §28. By these means the Puritans or Presbyterians, had, under the pre text of Religion, overthrown the Royal Power: But that they could not long enjoy their usurped power, was occasioned by a certain Sect that called themselves Independent, because they would not depend on any certain form of Faith, or Spiritual, or Temporal Constitutions, nor acknowledge any of the same, whereby they opened a door for all sorts of Fanaticks, to come under their Protection. These, under pretence of a particular holy Zeal, had not only got a great sway in the Parliament, and had been against any peaceable accommodation, propos’d by others; but also by their cunning insinuating way crept into the chief Civil and Military Employments: For in the place of the Earl of Essex, Thomas Fairfax was made General, and Oliver Cromwell Lieutenant General over the Army, the last of which was the Head of the Independents, a sly and cunning Fox. And out of this party all vacant places were supply’d in Parliament.

The Presbyterians therefore perceiving that the Independents began to be very strong in the House, and that most Military Employments were in their Hands, proposed in the House, That one part of the Army should be sent into Ire-Edition: orig; Page: [159]land, that some Forces only should be kept in England, and the rest be disbanded. Cromwell made use of this to stirr up the Souldiers, telling them, that they were likely to be disbanded without pay, or else to be starv’d in Ireland. Thereupon the Souldiers enter’d into an Association among themselves, taking upon them not only the Military, but also all the Civil Power, they took the King from the Parliament into their own custody, pretending they would give him his liberty, but made themselves Masters of the City of London, and acted in every thing at discretion. For they quickly after broke off the Treaty with the King, and a great many of the Subjects, who were not able to bear their Tyranny, taking up Arms were dispers’d by Cromwell, who also beat the Scots that were come into England to the assistance of the King, making their General Hamilton a Prisoner.

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But during the absence of Cromwell, the Parliament had re-assumed the Treaty with the King, and the business was carried on so far, that there was no small hopes of an Accommodation, when the Souldiers, headed by Ireton, Son-in-law to Cromwell, broke off the Treaty, taking Prisoners such Members of the House as did oppose them: So that there were not above forty Members left in the Parliament, and those were either Officers, or at least, favourers of the Army. These decreed, That no Treaty should be set on foot for the future with the King; That the Supream Power was to be lodged in the People, which was represented by the House of Commons; But the Regal Power, and the Authority of the House of Lords should be quite abolished. Then they order’d a Court of 250 [150] persons to be erected, by whose Authority the King was to be summoned,The King is sentenced to death and executed. sentenced and punished, notwithstanding that the generality of the people look’d upon this Court as an abominable thing, <some> Presbyterian Ministers cry’d out aloud against it in the Pulpits; the Scots protested against it, and the Dutch Ambassadours, and other Princes did their utmost to oppose it. Before this Court, where sat among the rest, a great many of very mean Extraction [Lumpenhunden], the King was accused of High Treason, Tyranny, and of all the Murthers and Robberies committed since Edition: orig; Page: [160] the beginning of these Troubles. And the King, as in justice he ought to do, refusing to acknowledge its Authority {and to answer its charges}, was sentenced to be beheaded, tho’ there were but 67 of these pretended Judges present, the rest abominating the fact, had absented themselves, among whom was Fairfax. But the King, having been miserably abus’d by the Souldiers, was beheaded with an Ax upon a Scaffold erected for that purpose before Whitehall \A. 1649\.

Ireland conquer’d §29. After the death of the King the outward shew of the Supream Power was in the Parliament, but in effect it was lodged in the Generals of the Armies. Their first design was to banish the King’s Son and the whole Royal Family, and to suppress all such as adhered to him. Cromwell was sent into Ireland, where the Royal Party was as yet pretty strong, which Island was reduced in the space of one year by Cromwells good Fortune and Valour. In the mean while the Scots had proclaimed Charles II. tho’ under very hard Conditions, their King, who also arriving there safely out of France, whither he was gone for Shelter, was Edition: current; Page: [176] crowned King of Scotland. The Parliament thereupon recall’d Cromwell out of Ireland, and having made him General (for they had deposed Fairfax whom they mistrusted) sent him into Scotland, where he beat the Scots several times, but especially gave them an entire defeat near Leith, taking, among other places, the Castle of Edinborough, which was hitherto esteemed impregnable. The King, in the mean while, having gathered a flying Army enter’d England, in hopes that a great many English would join with him: But he was deceiv’d in his hopes, very few coming to him, and Cromwell overtaking him with his Army near Worcester,Charles II. routed. his Forces were routed and dispersed; so that he was forc’d to change his Cloaths in his flight, and after a great many dangers was miraculously saved, and escaped, by the help of a Merchant-ship, into France.

The King being thus driven out of the Island, the Scots were entirely subdu’d under the Conduct of General Monk, who was sent thither by Cromwell, who having imposed upon them very hard Edition: orig; Page: [161] Conditions, according to their deserts,The Scots conquered. intirely subjected them to the English. This done, the Parliament began to take into consideration, how to disband part of the Army, and to quarter the rest in the several Counties. But Cromwell sent away that Parliament, which had been the cause of so much troubles, and constituted a new Parliament, consisting of 144 Members, most of them being Fanaticks and Enthusiasts; among whom Cromwell had put a few cunning Fellows, who being entirely devoted to his Service, did make the rest dance after his pipe. These having first let these silly wretches go on in their own way, till by their phantastical Behaviour they had made themselves ridiculous and hated by every body,Cromwell made Protectour. then offer’d the Supream Administration of Affairs to Cromwell; who having accepted of the same under the Title of a Protectour, selected a Privy Council, wherein were received the Heads of the several Sects. Thus they who had shown so much aversion to the Royal Power, had hatch’d out a Monarch of their own, who, without controul, ruled the three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland at pleasure.57

Cromwell, to have a fair pretence to keep on foot his Sea and Land Edition: current; Page: [177] Forces, which were the Foundation of his Power, began a War with the Dutch \A. 1652\, who seem’d to despise this new ‘Monarch’ [government]: But Fortune was so favourable to Cromwell in this War, that he took above 1700 Merchant men from the Dutch, and beat them in five Sea Engagements, in the last of which the Dutch lost Martin Tromp, and twenty seven Men of War.58 The Hollanders then were oblig’d to beg for Peace, and to accept of such Conditions as were propos’d to them, among which, one was, That the Province of Holland should exclude the Prince of Orange for ever, from succeeding in his Father’s place. Another was, That they should not receive the banish’d King Charles II. into their Territories.59 Which some alledge as a reason, that he was always ready afterwards to revenge himself upon them, tho’ at his return into the Kingdom \A. 1660\, they endeavoured with abundance of flattery to make amends for the former affront. It is very likely also, that the King was suspicious, that the Dutch Edition: orig; Page: [162] had fomented the Differences betwixt his Father and the Parliament.

Cromwell acquired so much Glory by this War, that most ‘Princes’ [potentates] sent their Ambassadours to him as if he had been a lawfull Sovereign, and desir’d his Friendship. He was no less fortunate in discovering several Plots which were made against him: For which purpose he entertained his Spies every where, even near the King’s [the exiled Charles II] person; having besides this, a cunning way to draw the people over to his party, and to suppress such as envy’d his Fortune. He sent also a Fleet into the Mediterranean, wherewith he curb’d the Pirates on the Coast of Barbary. Another was sent into the West Indies, Edition: current; Page: [178] where his Designs against St. Domingo and Hispaniola miscarried, but Jamaica he took from the Spaniards, notwithstanding that a great many of his Men were taken off by Sickness; and he did considerable mischief to the Spaniards by ruining their Silver Fleet.60 He sent some Auxiliary Troops to the French in Flanders, who, in recompence, surrender’d to him Dunkirk. He died in the Year 1658, having been as great and formidable as ever any King of England. He was a great Master in the Art of Dissimulation, knowing how to make his advantage of Religious Pretences; wherefore he gave liberty of Conscience to all Sectaries, whereby he not only got their Favours, but also by dividing the people into several Opinions, he prevented their easily joining against him.61

King Charles II’s Restoration. §30. After the death of Cromwell this unlawfull and violent <form of> Government could not be of a long continuance: For tho’ his Son Richard succeeded him in the Protectorship (this was the Title used by Cromwell, having refused the Name of King) yet was he in no ways capable to bear such a weight. Wherefore he was soon deposed by the Parliament, which being divided within itself, Monk, who was then Governour of Scotland, took this opportunity, and marching with an Army out of Scotland into England, possess’d himself of the City of London, dissolv’d the Military Parliament, and recall’d King Charles II. into his Kingdom \A. 1660\. This King did restore the ancient Form Edition: orig; Page: [163] of Government in the Kingdom both in Spiritual and Temporal Matters, for his Subjects were ready to gratify him in most respects, as having been taught by Experience, That the Frogs who despised to have a Block for their King, got afterwards a Stork for their Master.62

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This King, who judg’d, that the Greatness of England did chiefly depend on the Dominion of the Seas and Commerce, which was disputed by no body but the Dutch, did, in all probability, bend all his Thoughts that way, viz. How to make these proud Merchants more pliable, his hopes being grounded upon what he had seen Cromwell do against them.War with Holland. Wherefore he began a War with Holland \A. 1665\, which was carried on at first with equal losses on both sides: But the English at last taking a Resolution to tire out the Dutch without coming to an Engagement, they [the Dutch] ventur’d at a bold stroke, and to the great dishonour of the English, enter’d the River of Thames, firing some Ships at Chattam. This obliged the King to make a Peace with them by the Mediation of Swedeland, tho’ the great success of the French Arms in Flanders may probably have contributed a great deal towards it. Yet it seems as if ever since he had kept up a Resolution of Revenging himself upon them, he being also again exasperated by the Rable in Holland, who affronted him afterwards. He therefore in the Year 1672 attack’d the Dutch at Sea, whilst the King of France made War against them by Land.63 But this War did not succeed according to his expectation; for the Dutch did not only take from the English a great number of Merchant-ships, but also the English could not master the Dutch in any of these Sea-fights, partly, because the French {ships} would not fall on in good earnest, partly, because the Dutch acted very circumspectly, not giving any opportunity to the English to make a Descent either on Holland or Zealand. It is possible that the King’s Intentions may perhaps have been frustrated by some Intrigues at home. And because the English Nation began to grow very jealous of the great Successes of France, the King was obliged to make a separate Peace with Holland \A. 1674\, and afterwards was receiv’d as a Mediatour betwixt the Parties then engag’d in War against one another. Edition: orig; Page: [164]

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Constitution of the English Nation. §31. The English Nation is very populous and fruitfull: There are some who have reckoned, that in England are 9913 [9725] Parishes, in each Parish 80 Families, which make ‘778.183’ [778.000] Families, and seven persons reckoned to each Family amounts to ‘6.470.800’ [5.446.000] Souls, among which number it may be suppos’d to be above a Million of Men capable of bearing of Arms. This Nation is also very fit to settle Colonies in Foreign Countries, because the English, as soon as they are in the least settled in a place, they quickly marry, and remain there for their life time. Whereas other Nations, if they go into far distant Countries, go only with an intent to get a little Money, which they afterwards love to spend in their Native Country. The English are also Courageous, Brave, not fearing Death. For in former times their Land forces were much superiour to the French, and ever since the times of Queen Elizabeth, when they first began to apply themselves in earnest to the Sea, they have not been inferiour in Skill and Courage to any Nation in the World, except that the Dutch may be compared with them in Sea Affairs. But this is to be observ’d of the English Valour, that they commonly are very Furious and Brave at the beginning, yet great Hardship, Famine, and other Inconveniencies they are not so well able to endure with Patience, as being us’d to live in great Ease and Plenty in their own Country. Wherefore Maurice Prince of Orange us’d to put the English, that were sent to his assistance, upon desperate Enterprizes, before (as he us’d to say) they had digested the English Beef.64

They are also very dexterous in Woollen and Silk Manufacturies, |[and are generally great Improvers of other Arts and Mysteries]|65: Yet they are also somewhat |[Highminded, inclining themselves to Diversion]|,66 which is the reason that they do not ‘so much Work’ [accomplish as much] as otherwise they might; and yet they expect to be paid for their idle Hours as well as the rest, which is the reason why they sell their Wares at a higher rate than others, and that they envy such French Handycrafts-men, who live among them, and are seldom Edition: current; Page: [181] diverted from their daily Labour by any Pleasures. They being generally of Edition: orig; Page: [165] a melancholy temper, makes them very Ingenious, and when they apply themselves to any Science, they make great progress in the same, if they hit the right way.

But by the same rule, because there happens often to be an ill mixture of this melancholy temper, abundance of Fanaticks and Enthusiasts are to be found among them, who having form’d to themselves Opinions out of ill grounded Principles, adhere so stedfast to them, that they are not by any ways to be removed from them. Wherefore there is not any Nation ‘under the Sun’ [in Christendom], where more different and more absurd Opinions are to be met withall in Religion than in England. The ‘loose sort of people’ [rabble] are addicted to Thieving and Robbing upon the Highway, wherefore the Hangmen are always busie in England. This Nation also loves to eat and drink extreamly well; tho’ there are some who will have it, that the English have got their way of drinking so plentifully from the Netherlanders in the Wars of the Low-Countries, and from thence have brought that ill Custom over into England, which before, they say, was not in use there. Their own Histories are sufficient evidences, that they have been always inclined to Rebellion and intestine Commotions. Wherefore their Kings can never be secure, except they keep a watchfull Eye over the restless Spirit of the People.

Constitution of the Scotch Nation. §32. The Scots are reported to have a share of Pride and Envy in them. They are very apt to propose to themselves great ‘Matters’ [hopes], and to delight in their own Inventions. They are good Land-Souldiers, and can endure more hardship than the English, neither are they so much addicted to their Belly, both which they have from the barrenness of their Native Country. They are very Revengefull, and intestine Broils among the Noble Families were formerly very common among them: For it was a custom, that each Family used to select one for the Head of the Family, unto whom they almost paid more respect than to the King himself, and if any one of the Family had received an Injury, he made complaint thereof to the Head of his Family: And if the Head Edition: orig; Page: [166] of the same Family did resolve to revenge the Injury, the whole Family, under Edition: current; Page: [182] the Conduct of their Head, fell upon the Family of the Aggressour with Fire and Sword. Which abominable Custom King James VI. did endeavour to abolish. Besides this, they are easily stirr’d up to Rebellion, very obstinate in defending their Opinions to the utmost.

Their fruitfulness in Children makes them seek other Countries, since their Country can scarce maintain them all at home. There is another reason also to be given for this, which is the right of the First-born, whereby the eldest Son is Heir of all the real Estate of his Father, the rest of the Brothers being obliged to be satisfy’d with their share in the Personal Estate.67 These then being obliged to advance themselves as well as they can, apply themselves either to the Wars or Study: Wherefore most Ministers in Scotland are said to be younger Brothers of good Families. But in England it is no shame for the younger Brothers of such Families to be Merchants. In former times, before Scotland and England were united under one King, the Scottish Souldiers were in great esteem, because the French made constantly use of them in their Wars, and at home they were always picquering [bickering] with the English: But afterwards they grew careless of Warlike Exercises, and especially when Cromwell subdu’d them, their ancient Glory was quite obscur’d.

The Scots are also often very Ingenious, and well vers’d in the Latin Tongue: And at that time, when all Liberal Sciences were suppress’d in Europe by a long Barbarism, the same were kept up in Scotland, which did furnish several other Nations with Learned Men, who instructed them in these Sciences. But as the Scots, which live in the low Countries, on the South-side, are well civiliz’d, so those who inhabit the Mountains, who are called Highlanders, as also the Inhabitants of the Orkney and Western Islands, are very raw and unciviliz’d.

Of the Irish. §33. The Irish are commonly esteem’d to be a fool-hardy and ill sort of people; very lazy, yet pretty hard in undergoing the Fatigues of War. They are very obstinate, and never to be bent from their Opi-Edition: orig; Page: [167]nion. Edition: current; Page: [183] After Ireland was conquer’d by King Henry II. abundance of English settled themselves in that Kingdom, whose numbers increased from time to time to that degree, that scarce the fourth part of the Island remaine in the possession of the ancient Inhabitants. And because most of the Irish adhere to the Popish Religion, they did not only rebel under Queen Elizabeth, but also under the Reign of King Charles I. enter’d into a most horrid Conspiracy against the English living among them, of whom, ’tis said, they murther’d 200.000 within the space of six Months: But when the English had recollected themselves, they again kill’d about 100.000 of them. Cromwell had once a mind to have rooted out the whole Nation, as being quite incorrigible and past hopes of any amendment. Wherefore he sent some thousands to the King of Spain, under condition, that none of them should return into the English Dominions. He used also to plague them every way, so that they are become a miserable Nation.

The Condition of Great Britainy. §34. Concerning those Countries which belong to the King of England, the Kingdom of England {itself} is a {beautiful and} Rich and Fertile Country, abounding in every thing, either for the Necessity or Pleasures of Mankind, except Oyl and Wine, and such other Commodities as do not grow in |[the other parts of Europe, are of the growth of that Country.]|68 But else they have great numbers of very fine Horses, and good Cattle, especially the best Sheep of all Europe, which make the best part of the native Riches of England, bearing so good a sort of Wooll, that an incredible quantity of the best Cloath is made in England, and from thence every Year transported into Foreign Parts. These Sheep feed in great Flocks in the Country without as much as a Shepherd, there being no Wolves to be met withal in England; the reason of which, as ’tis reported, is, that King Edgar, about the Year 940, did order a certain number of Wolves to be paid by the Prince of Wales to him as a yearly Tribute, by which means the Wolves were quite destroy’d in England: Tho’ it is also very probable, that the great English Mastiffs have Edition: orig; Page: [168] been very instrumental in this point, it being certain, that for Edition: current; Page: [184] Fierceness and Strength they surpass all the rest in the World. A great quantity also of Lead, but especially of the finest Tin is to be found in England, which surpasses in goodness all others in that kind.

The Sea also is very profitable to the English, since it produces a great quantity of Fish, which are daily catch’d by the Inhabitants. Tho’ by the Negligence and Laziness of the ancient English, who did not apply themselves industriously to Fishing, they have lost a great part of that advantage. But the Netherlanders, from ancient times, have made use of this advantage, and got vast Riches by the Fishery of Herrings and Cods, giving only a small Gratuity to the English, in case they have occasion to dry their Nets on their Shores; tho’ oftentimes the English, envying the Netherlanders, will force them to pay more than ordinary, which has several times served as a pretext for a War betwixt both Nations. Besides this, the Sea is extreamly advantageous to England, for thereby the English being separated from their Neighbouring Nations, cannot easily be attack’d; whereas they may easily invade others: And because this Island is situated almost in the very middle of Europe, in a narrow Sea, where all Ships which either go East or Westward must pass by; and having, besides this, a very deep Coast and commodious Harbour[s], it lies most convenient for Commerce and Trade, which the English carry on in most parts of the World, and the Dutch hitherto have been the only obstacle that they are not become Masters of the whole Trade of the World. For it proves very disadvantageous to the English, that they love to eat and drink well, and that in great quantity, and by reason of their love of Ease, they are fain to employ double the number of Seamen in their Ships, of what the Dutch do; and besides this, they will not be contented with a small gain: Whereas the Dutch live very sparingly, do not refuse the Penny,69 and therefore are easier to be dealt withall than the English.

They import a great deal of raw Silk into England, which being wrought in the Country, mightily encreases their Riches. In the same Edition: current; Page: [185] Edition: orig; Page: [169] manner they do with their Woollen Manufactury now, whereas before the times of Henry VIII. they used to transport most of their Wooll into the Netherlands, where it was wrought, and turn’d to the great advantage of those Cities. But this King perceiving that his own Subjects might as well make the same benefit of it, he set up the Woollen Manufactury in his Kingdom, which increased prodigiously, afterwards, when at the time of the Troubles in the Netherlands, a great many of these Weavers did settle themselves in England. The Riches of England also are, as it seems, not a little increased, because it is not permitted there to any Body to carry any Gold or Silver of their own Coin out of the Land, except it be perhaps to the value of ten pound Sterling for a Traveller.70

But Scotland does not come near England, neither in Fertility nor Riches, having not any Commodities fit for Exportation, except Salt-fish, Salt, Lead and Coals. The Western and Orkney Islands also produce nothing but Fish. Ireland abounds in Cattel, and especially in Sheep, tho’ the Irish Wooll is not so fine as the English, but for the rest it is a fertile and plentifull Country. In America belong to the English Crown, the Islands of Bermudos, Virginia and New England, and some of the Caribby Islands, whither the English have sent their Colonies, and have also begun to settle themselves on the ‘Continent of’ [mainland in] Guiana. The Product of these Countries is chiefly Tobacco, Sugar, Ginger, Indigo and Cotton. They have also a Colony in the Island of Jamaica, from whence the English Buckaneers and Privateers do great mischief to the Spanish West Indies. For it is a custom with the English, That tho’ they are at Peace with the Spaniards in Europe, they do them, nevertheless, all the Mischief they can in the West Indies. Tangier King Charles II. got as a Dowry with the Infanta of Portugal.71 Lastly, The English also are possess’d of some places in the Banda Islands, and thereabouts in the East Indies, which are of no small consequence to them.

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The Form of the Government in England. §35. The Constitution of the Government in England is chiefly remarkable for this, that the King cannot act at pleasure, but in ‘some’ [quite a few] Matters is to take Edition: orig; Page: [170] the Advice of the Parliament. By this Name is to be understood the Assembly of the Estates of England, which is divided into the Higher and the Lower House. In the first sit the Bishops and the Lords, in the latter the Deputies of the Cities, and of the 52 Counties or Shires, into which the whole Kingdom of England is divided. The first origin of the Parliament, as ’tis related, was this, That the former Kings of England did grant great Privileges to the Lords, by whose assistance they had conquer’d the Country, and kept the common people in obedience. But these in conjunction with the Bishops growing too head-strong, proved very troublesome, especially to King John and Henry III. wherefore, to suppress their Insolence, Edward I. took part [allied himself] with the Commons. And whereas formerly, out of each County or Shire two Knights and two Citizens only were call’d, to represent their Grievances, which having been debated by the King and the House of Lords, they used to receive an answer and to be sent home again: This King Edward call’d together the Commons, and consulted with them concerning the publick Affairs; tho’ there are some who will have their origin to be much more ancient. This House, after it was once establish’d, did extreamly weaken the Authority of the Lords, and in process of time did not a little diminish the Regal Power; for ever since that time the Rights of the People were maintained with a high hand, the House of Commons imagining, that the Sovereignty was lodg’d among them, and if the Kings refused to gratify them in their Requests, they used to grumble at their proceedings.

And because the Power of the Parliament is not so much establish’d by any ancient Laws as Precedents and Customs, this is the reason why it is always very jealous of its Privileges, and always ready to make out of one single Precedent a right belonging to it ever after. This Parliament the King is obliged to call together as often as any extraordinary Taxes are to be levy’d (for the Parliament did assign this King, at first, for his ordinary Revenue, 1.200.000 l. per annum, which has been considerably augmented since) or any old Laws are to be abrogated, or new ones to be made, Edition: orig; Page: [171] or any alteration to be made in Religion. Edition: current; Page: [187] For concerning these matters the King cannot decree any thing without consent of the Parliament. The Parliament [is] also used to take into consideration the state of the Kingdom, and to present their Opinion to the King, yet is the same of no force till approved of by the King. It often also calls into question the Ministers of State, concerning the Administration of publick Affairs, and inflicts Punishment upon them, with the King’s approbation. And it is a common rule in England, that whatever is committed against the ‘Constitutions’ [laws] of the Realm{, or against the common good}, is done by the Ministers and Officers; for the King, they say, does never amiss, but his ill Counsellours, which is not altogether contrary to Truth. But if the Parliament should pretend to transgress its bounds, the King has power to dissolve it; yet ought the King also to be cautious in this, lest he should by an unseasonable Dissolution of the Parliament exasperate the People.

The Power and Strength of England. §36. If we duely consider the Condition and Power of England, we shall find it to be a powerfull and considerable Kingdom, which is able to keep up the Balance betwixt the Christian Princes in Europe; and which depending on its own Strength, is powerfull enough to defend it self. For, because it is surrounded every where by the Sea, none can make any attempt upon it, unless he be so powerfull at Sea, as to be able entirely to ruine the Naval Forces of England. And if it should happen, that the English Fleet were quite defeated, yet would it prove a very hard task, to transport thither such an Army, as could be suppos’d to be superiour to so powerfull a Force as the English Nation is able to raise at home. But England ought to take especial care, that it fall not into civil Dissentions, since it has often felt the effects of the same, and the Seeds of them are remaining yet in that Nation; which chiefly arises from the difference in Religion, and the fierce Inclinations of this Nation, which makes it very fond of Alterations.72 Nevertheless a Wise and Courageous King may easily prevent this evil, if he does not act against the general Inclination of the People, maintains Edition: orig; Page: [172] a good Edition: current; Page: [188] Correspondency with the Parliament; and for the rest is very watchfull, and as soon as any Commotions happen, takes off immediately the Ringleaders.With relation to other States. Lastly, England and Scotland being comprehended in one Island, whose chiefest Strength lies in a good Fleet, it is evident, that this King need not make any great account of such States as either are remote from the Sea, or else are not very powerfull in Shipping. Wherefore, as the King of England takes no great notice of Germany (except as far as it relates to France or Spain)[,] of Poland and other such like States [Republicquen]; so it is easie for him to curb the Pirates on the Barbary Coast: Which Nests of Pirates might have been easily destroyed long ago, if they had not been let alone on purpose to render the Trade in the Mediterranean difficult to the Hamburgers, and some others.

England has nothing to fear from Portugal; and this must rather hope for assistance from England and Holland against Spain.To the Northern Crowns. The Naval Strength of the Northern Crowns, England need not be jealous of, as long as the same is divided. Yet it cannot be for the Interest of England, if one of those Kings should become absolute Master of the East [Baltic] Sea, or that |[they should be fain to depend on the Discretion of the Dutch.]|73 Since the Naval Strength of Spain is mightily decay’d England need not fear any thing from thence:To Spain. Yet does it not seem to be the Interest of England to fall out with that Kingdom, considering what a vast Trade the English have into Spain; for Spain does either consume the English Commodities at home, or else exchanges them for Silver, by sending of them into America. There are some who have computed, that in case of a War with Spain, the English would lose in effects above thirty Millions; and besides this, their Trade into the Levant and other places, would be greatly endangered by the Privateers of Ostend, Biscay, Majorca and Minorca, who at the time of the Wars under Cromwell took 1500 Merchant ships from the English.To France. Tho’ the Land Forces of France are now-a days much superiour to the English, this Island both for its bigness and strength making up not above a third part of France; yet the Naval Strength of France has hitherto not been able to Edition: orig; Page: [173] come in competition with the English.

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It is the chiefest Interest of England, to keep up the Balance betwixt France and Spain, and to take a special care that the King of France do not become Master of all the Netherlands; for it is visible, that thereby his Power at Sea would be encreas’d to that degree, that he might enter on a Design of being [getting] even with England,To Holland. for what they have formerly done to France. Holland seems to be the only obstacle that the English cannot be sole Masters of the Sea and Trade, tho’ for the rest they have no reason to fear the Dutch by Land, but only at Sea, because the Dutch Land Forces are not so considerable, as to be able to undertake any thing of great moment. Nevertheless, how desirous soever the English are to be sole Masters at Sea, yet does it not seem to be the Interest of England, frequently to engage it self in Wars with Holland, it having been observ’d, that the Dutch, since the Wars with England are rather increased in Valour, Experience, and Power at Sea. And because other Nations are not likely to suffer that Holland should be swallow’d up by the English, or that one Nation should have the {commercial} Monopoly of Europe; it seems therefore the best method for the English, to let the Dutch trade as well as themselves, and to set some others upon their Backs, which may give them so much work as thereby to give a check to their growing Greatness, and in the mean while, take care to establish their own Power at Sea, and Commerce abroad. But least of all it would be for the Interest of England, if Holland should be brought under the Yoak of the French King, who, without question, by the additional Sea Forces of Holland, and the advantage of the East India Trade, would be superiour in Power to any in Europe. Edition: orig; Page: [174]

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CHAPTER V: Of France.

The most ancient State of France. §1. As far as we can search into the most ancient Histories, it is evident from thence, That Gaul, now call’d France, has been a very powerfull and populous Country. For the Gauls [die Gallische nation] in ancient times had conquer’d a great part of Italy, where they settled themselves; who also, when they had over run Greece and some other <neighbouring> Countries [Oerter], inhabited a part of the Lesser Asia, which was called from them Galatia or Gallo-graecia: Yet formerly this so powerfull Country did never either rightly understand or exert its own Strength against other Nations [die fremden], because it was not then under the Government of one ‘Prince’ [lord], but divided into a great many petty States [Staaten], which were always at variance with one another. This much facilitated the Conquest of the Romans over them,Gaul subdued by the Romans. who else stood not in fear of any Nation [sic] so much as the Gauls. And tho’ the in comparable Valour of Julius Caesar was chiefly instrumental in subduing this Nation, yet with ten Legions he had work enough to effect it [only] in ten Years time. But as soon as the Romans had brought this fair Country [Land] under their Subjection, they employ’d all means to suppress the Martial Spirit of this Nation [Volck], in which they succeeded as well in this as in ‘other Nations’ [their other provinces], it being their Custom to civilize and refine the Manners of these Nations [Leute], thereby to render them soft and effeminate.1

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By the Barbarous Nations. After France had been near 500 Years under the Dominion of the Romans, it fell, under the Reign of the Emperour Honorius, into the Hands of the Barbarous Nations.2 For the Goths, after they had overrun Italy, settled themselves in Gallia Narbonensis,3 and the Burgundians, conquer’d a considerable part of the rest. But the Franks entring this Kingdom, settled and maintained themselves in it, giving it the Name of France, after their own Name. These Franks, were for certain, Germans, tho’ some of our Modern French Writers pretend to Edition: orig; Page: [175] demonstrate, That this Nation was a Colony of the ancient Gauls, who being overstock’d with People at home, passed over the Rhine, and having settled a Colony in Germany, after several hundred Years, return’d into their Native Country.4 But it is more probable,That the Franks came out of Germany. That the Franks are the same ‘Nations’ [peoples] which were formerly encompass’d by the Rivers of the Mayn, the Rhine, the Weser, and the Sea; and which in Tacitus’s time were call’d Salii, Bructeri, Frisii, Angrivarii, Chamari, Sigambri and Chatti, and who having enter’d into a mutual Confederacy against the Romans, called themselves, in spite of their Power, Franks, or a free People, as not doubting but to be able to defend their Liberty against them. And it is certain, that they did transplant the German Tongue into France, which was for a great while after in fashion among persons of the best Quality,The origin of the French Language. till at last they used themselves, by degrees, to the Latin Tongue, formerly introduced by the Romans, which being corrupted by the German Tongue produced the modern French Language. It is also evident, that the Race of the ancient Gauls was not quite extinguish’d, but that both Nations were by degrees united in one, yet with this difference, that the Frankish Families made up the ‘Body’ [most distinguished part] of the Nation.

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Pharamond the first King. §2. But howsoever this be, all Historians agree in this, That the Franks did choose for their King, about the Year 424, Pharamond, who established among them wholsome Laws and ‘Constitutions’ [order]; yet most are of Opinion that not this Pharamond, but his Son Clodion,Clodion. sirnamed Long-hair, invaded Gaul; who, after he had been several times repulsed by Aetius the Roman General, at last took Artois, Cambray, Tournay, and some other places as far as the River Somme, making Amiens his place of Residence. He died in the Year 447; but his Successour and Kinsman Merovaeus,Merovaeus. in conjunction with the Roman General Aetius and Theodorick the King of the West Goths, having beaten Attila, the King of the Huns out of France, extended his Dominions as far as Mentz [Meyntz] on one side, and on the other side conquer’d Picardy, Normandy, Edition: orig; Page: [176] and the greatest part of the Isle of France. The Romans themselves contributed to this loss, for that not only in the Battel fought against Attila, they had lost a great many of their best Forces, but Aetius also being fallen into disgrace with the Emperour Valentinian, was by him murthered; which Aetius may be justly said to have been the last great Captain the Romans had; there being after his death no body left who could resist Merovaeus.

From this King sprang the first Race of the French Kings, which is called the Merovi [n] gian Family. He died in the Year 458. His Son Childerick, for his Lasciviousness, was banish’d;Childerick. in whose stead one Aegidius of the ancient Race of the Gauls was set up for King. But Childerick, through the faithfulness of his Friend Guyeman, was after an Exile of eight Years, recall’d out of Thuringia, whither he fled, and restor’d to his Throne; who drove back the Britains and Saxons, that made at that time great havock in France. He also conquer’d that part which is now call’d Lorrain, and took Beauvais, Paris, and some other places near the Rivers of the Oise and the Seyne. He died in the Year 481.

Clouis I. His Son Clouis or Lewis, having kill’d Syagrius, the Son of Aegidius, establish’d the French Monarchy, and added great Territories to the Kingdom. This King fell in love with Clotildis, of the Royal Race of Burgundy, who promised to marry him; if he would turn Christian. Which, however, he afterwards delayed to perform, till the Alemans, who would have got a footing in France, enter’d that Kingdom, whom Edition: current; Page: [194] he meeting with his Army near Zulick [Zulch], a bloody Battel was fought, where, when he saw the French began to fall in disorder, he vow’d, That if he obtain’d the Victory, he would be baptiz’d; which Vow, after the Victory he perform’d, being baptiz’d at Reims \A. 496\ by St. Reim [Remigo], whose example the whole Nation of the French followed. This King also overturn’d the Kingdom of the Goths, which they had establish’d in Languedock; uniting that Country with his Kingdom: He also conquer’d several petty Principalities, and a part of the Higher [southern] Germany. He died in the Year 511. Edition: orig; Page: [177]

France is divided. §3. After the death of Clouis, France received a signal blow, the Kingdom being divided among his four Sons; who, tho’ they annexed the Kingdom of Burgundy to it, yet this division weaken’d this Kingdom, and administred Fuel to the following intestine Dissentions. Nay, this impolitick dividing the Kingdom went further still, for they subdivided the Kingdom again among their Sons, which occasioned most horrible civil Commotions in France, these Kings endeavouring, as it were, to out-do one another in Iniquity: And among the rest, the two Queens Brunechildis and Fredegundis are infamous for their monstrous Crimes. At last, after a great many intestine Divisions Clotarius II.Clotarius II. re-uniting the divided Kingdom \A. 614\, did somewhat restore its ancient State. He died in the Year 628. But his Son Dagobert fell into the same Madness;Dagobert. for he not only gave part of the Kingdom to his Brother Albert, but also divided his own share among his two Sons; neither did he do any thing for the Benefit of the Publick during his Reign.

From this time the French Kings quite degenerated from their ancient Valour, giving themselves over to Laziness and Debauchery. Wherefore the Grand Mareschals of the Kingdom did by degrees assume the Power and Administration of Publick Affairs. Among these Pipin was famous, descended of a Noble Family in Austrasia, who had the Administration of Affairs during the space of twenty eight Years {until the Year 714}, under several Kings.Charles Martell.5 His Son Charles Martell succeeded his Father in Edition: current; Page: [195] his Power and Office, which he rather augmented, after he was grown famous by his Martial Exploits, having chas’d away the Saracens, who about that time, conquering Spain, fell also into France, of whom he kill’d a vast number.6 This Man took upon himself the Title of a Prince and Duke of France \A. 732\, so that nothing remain’d with the Kings but the bare Title and an empty Name,Pipin proclaim’d King. they being kept in the Country [on a rural estate], and once a Year carried for a Show through the City, to expose them to the view of the People like strange Creatures. At last, Pipin the Younger, Son of this Charles Martell (who died in the Year 741) having brought the great Men of the Kingdom over Edition: orig; Page: [178] to his Party, depos’d King Childerick II. and having sent him into a Convent, got himself proclaim’d King of France.The Merovingian Family loses the Crown. This was approv’d easily enough by Pope Zachary, because he being in fear of the growing Power of the Longobards in Italy, did endeavour by all means to oblige the King of France to come to his Assistance. And thus the Merovingian Family loses [lost] the Crown of France \A. 751\.

Pipin’s Expeditions. §4. Pipin, to convince the World that he was not unworthy of the Crown, or else to furnish the People with other Matters than to talk of the deposing of Childerick, undertook an Expedition against the Saxons, whom he vanquish’d in a great Battel. And he had likewise, under the Reign of the former Kings, undertaken several Expeditions into Germany with great Success, and subdu’d some of the Nations bordering upon the Rhine. Not long after an Opportunity presented itself to make himself famous in Italy, For Aistulphus, the King of the Lombards [Langobards], had propos’d to himself the Conquest of all Italy; after he had chas’d the Governours of the Grecian Emperours, which were then call’d Exarches, out of Ravenna, and all other places which were under their Jurisdiction, and was ready to march directly against Rome: The Pope Stephen III. being in great fear of this Enemy, and not knowing where to find Assistance, crav’d Aid of Pipin, whom he at last persuaded to take his part against Aistulphus.He assists the Pope against the Lombards. In this War Pipin recover’d from Aistulphus all what he had before taken from the Grecian Emperours in Italy, the ‘Revenue’ [use] of which, he, as ’tis pretended, gave to the Edition: current; Page: [196] Roman See, reserving to himself, as it is very probable, the Sovereignty over these places. He gained, by this Action, the Reputation of being very Zealous; and by bestowing these Revenues upon the Holy Chair, got a firm footing in Italy, and the advantage of swaying Matters there according to his Pleasure. He made also Tassilo, Duke of Bavaria, his Vassal, and beat the Duke of Aquitain.

This Pipin, died in the Year 768, leaving behind him two Sons, Charles and Carolomannus, who divided the Kingdom betwixt Edition: orig; Page: [179] them. But Carolomannus dying quickly after,Charles the Great. the whole Kingdom fell to Charles. This Charles was justly sirnam’d the Great, he having carried the French Monarchy to the highest pitch of its Greatness, none of his Successours having been able to attain to the like, tho’ some of ’em have aim’d at it. For having routed Desiderius, the last King of the Lombards [Langobards], who endeavour’d \A. 774\ to recover what was formerly taken from Aistulphus, he conquer’d the Kingdom, and brought it under his Subjection. He also subdu’d Germany, having routed Tassilo, who had taken upon him the Title of King of Bavaria. He also waged War against the Saxons, for the space of 32 Years, whom he at last brought under his Obedience, obliging them to embrace the Christian Faith. For which purpose he erected several Episcopal Sees and Monasteries, by the help of the Priests, to reform the barbarous Manners of this Savage People. He also beat the Sclavonians [Slavs], Danes and Huns, and took from the Saracens a part of Spain, as far as to the River Iberus; tho’ his Forces,He is proclaimed Emperour of the Romans. in their return home, were overthrown near Ronceval, where was also slain the famous Rowland.7 This Charles was in the Year 800, at Christmas, being then at Rome, proclaim’d {Roman} Emperour by the People, by the Instigation of the Pope, in St. Peter’s Church. Tho’ he gain’d nothing by this Title, except it was the Sovereignty or Protection of |[the Roman Church, and the Patrimony of St. Peter]|,8 if both did not belong to him before, for all the rest {which then belonged to his empire} he enjoy’d before under other Titles. He died in the Year 814.

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Lewis the Pious. §5. After the death of Charles the Great, the French Monarchy began to decline again, because his Son Lewis sirnamed the Pious, was more fit to be a Priest, than a Souldier: And it is certain, that so vast a Kingdom, where the new Conquests were not yet well settled, did require a Prince of a Military Spirit. And notwithstanding he had the good Fortune to force some of the Rebellious Nations to return to their Duty, yet he committed, afterwards, two fatal Oversights; when in his life time he gave to his Sons the Edition: orig; Page: [180] Titles of Kings, and divided the Kingdom betwixt them. The first of which proved pernicious to himself,He divides his Kingdom. the second to the Monarchy. For these impious and ungratefull Sons were not for staying [waiting] for their Father’s Death, but Rebelling against him, and made him, after he was deserted by every body, their Prisoner. The Bishops, who were by him kept under strict Discipline,His Sons Rebell. after they had condemn’d him, forc’d him to resign the Government \A. 833\. But the great Men of the Kingdom quickly repenting, restor’d him to his Throne, and he also pardon’d his Sons.

He died in the Year 840, having before his Death made a new Division of the Kingdom betwixt his Sons; the Effects of which appear’d soon after to the World, when Lotharius, the elder Brother, who also had the Title of Emperour, undertook to take from his Brothers their Portion; against whom, the two other Brothers, Lewis and Charles entring into a Confederacy, forced him to divide the Monarchy with them, having first obtain’d a bloody Victory near Fountenay unfar [not far from] Auxerre, in which Battel were slain above 100.000 Men, and among them the Flower of the French Nation.Germany divided from France. In this Division Germany fell to Lewis’s share, which ever since has continued separate from France, and has made a distinct Empire. But the younger Brother, Charles sir-named the Bald, got for his Portion the greatest part of France, viz. all that part which lies betwixt the Western Ocean and the Meuse; but the eldest Brother obtain’d Italy, Provence, and all those Counties which are situated betwixt the Meuse, Rhine, and the Some [Somme].Charles the Bald. Under the Reign of this Charles the Bald, the Normans (so they call’d the Danes and Norwegians) fell, with a considerable Force, into France, making great Havock where ever they came: And the Kingdom was weakned to that degree, by the last bloody Battel,The Normans make an Irruption into France. and its being divided into so many Edition: current; Page: [198] Principalities (for the Sons of Lotharius had also shared their Father’s Provinces among themselves) that it was not strong enough to chase out of its Dominions these Robbers, but was oblig’d \A. 912\, under Charles sirnamed the Simple, to give into their possession the Province of Neustria, which they cal-Edition: orig; Page: [181]led after their Name, Normandy.

The Sons of Lotharius dying without Issue, Charles the Bald and the Sons of Lewis shared their Part betwixt them, out of which Charles got Provence.Ludovicus Balbus. At last Charles obtain’d the Title of Emperour, and died in the Year 877. His Son Lewis sirnamed Balbus, succeeded him, who dying soon after, left the Kingdom to his two Sons, who were very young, viz. to Lewis III. and Carolomannus;Ludov. III. and Carolomannus. from whom Lewis King of Germany took Lorrain. Lewis [III.] dying in the Year 882, as did Carolomannus in the Year 884, none was left but a Brother of theirs by the Father’s side, viz. the Son of Lewis sirnamed Balbus, who being then a Child of five Years of Age, was afterwards called Charles the Simple.Charles the Simple. For at that time the Authority of the Kings of France was decay’d to that degree, that it was a common custom to give them Sirnames according to the several defects of Body or Mind, as were obvious in them. He was, during his Minority, committed to the Tuition of his Cousin Carolus Crassus,9 who also had the Title of Emperour, who not long after, because he was very infirm both in Body and Mind, was deposed, and died in the Year 888. The Royal Authority being thus decay’d,The decay of the Royal Authority. and nothing but Divisions found in the Kingdom, the great Men of the Kingdom mightily increased their own Power, so that, whereas they used formerly to be Governours of their Provinces under the King’s Command, they now began to claim them as a Propriety belonging to themselves, independent of the King.The Excessive Power of the Nobles. It is related by some, That the Kings at that time had nothing left but Rheims and Laon which they could really call their own; which Evil could not be totally suppress’d by the following Kings, till several hundred Years after.

Eudo Count of Paris crown’d King of France. After the Death of Carolus Crassus, Eudo Count of Paris got himself to be crowned King, and waged War with Charles the Simple, but died in the Year 898: Yet Charles the Simple, quickly found another Rival for Edition: current; Page: [199] the Crown. For Rudolf King of Burgundy, got himself to be crowned King of France, making Charles the Simple his Prisoner, who died during his Imprisonment \A. 929\. After the Death of Rudolf (which Edition: orig; Page: [182] happen’d in the Year 936) reign’d Lewis IV.Rudolf of Burgundy crown’d King. sirnam’d Outremer [“from overseas”], because he had, during the Imprisonment of his Father, shelter’d himself in England. This King’s Reign was full of intestine Commotions; he died in the Year 954, leaving for his Successour his Son Lotharius, who likewise reign’d in continual troubles till the Year 985,Lewis Outremer. leaving behind him his Son Lewis sirnamed the Faint-hearted, of whom the French Historians only say this, that he did nothing. He had for his Tutor and Administrator of the Kingdom, Hugh Capet Earl of Paris. After this King’s Death \A. 987\, his Uncle,Lotharius. viz. Lewis sir-named Outremer’s Son, laid claim to the Crown, but was disappointed in his Pretensions by the great Power of Hugh Capet. He afterwards endeavour’d to maintain his Right by force of Arms, but was made a Prisoner, and dying in Prison, put an end to the Carolinian Race, or at least, to its Inheritance of the Crown of France,Lewis the Fainthearted. which had been in its possession for at least 236 Years. It is very remarkable, that this Family lost the Kingdom through the same Errour which the former lost it. For tho’ this Family, by prodigious Conquests, had rais’d the Power of France, yet were the Conquests soon after,The Carolinian Family extinguish’d. by the Divisions made of the Kingdom again dis-united, and even a considerable part quite separated from that Kingdom, and annexed to the German Empire. Besides this, by the Negligence of these Kings, and the excessive Power of the great Men in the Kingdom, France was reduced to a very low Condition.

Hugh Capet, the first of the present Race. §6. As Hugh Capet, the first Founder of the present Royal Family, obtain’d the Crown, not so much by right of Succession as by the assistance of the chief Men of the Kingdom, who excluded the right Heir; so (as it is very probable) he was obliged |[to remit a great many of the ancient Royal Prerogatives]|,10 and to confirm to the great Men of the Kingdom the Power of governing their Provinces, with the Titles of Dukes and Earls, under condition that they should acknowledge themselves Edition: current; Page: [200] Vassals of the Kingdom, yet not be obliged to depend absolutely on the King’s Commands; so that France at that time was like a Edition: orig; Page: [183] mishapen and weak Body.11 Hugh, in the mean time, re-united to the Crown (which at that time had scarce any thing left which could be call’d her own) the County of Paris, the Dutchy of France, wherein was comprehended all that lies betwixt the Rivers of Seine and the Loire, and the County of Orleans. Among the great Men of the Kingdom, the chief were the Dukes of Normandy (on whom also depended Britainy)[,] of Burgundy, Aquitain and Gascoigne; the Earls of Flanders, Champaign and Tolouse, the latter of which was also Duke of Languedock: But the Counties of Vienne, Provence, Savoy and Dauphine belong’d to the Kingdom of Arelat, which was a part of the German Empire. Yet these Kings had at last the good Fortune to see all these Demi-Sovereign Princes extinguish’d, and their Countries re-united to the Crown of France.

Robert. Hugh died in the Year 996, whose Son Robert, a good natur’d Prince, reign’d very peaceably, he having reduc’d the Dukedom of Burgundy, to which, he, after the Death of his Uncle, was the next Heir, under the entire Jurisdiction of the Crown. The Tyranny exercis’d by the Pope against this King ought to be mention’d here. For, the King having an Intention of marrying Bertha, of the House of Burgundy, which Match was esteemed very beneficial to his State, and the said Bertha standing with him in the fourth degree of Consanguinity; besides that, he had been Godfather to a Child of hers in her former Husband’s time: He desir’d and obtain’d the Consent of his Bishops, the said Marriage being otherwise against the Canon Law.The Pope excommunicates him and his Kingdom. But the Pope took hence an occasion to Excommunicate the King and the whole Kingdom, which proved so mischievous, that the King was deserted by all his Servants, except three or four, and no Body would touch the Victuals that came from his Table, which was therefore thrown to the Dogs. He died in the Year 1033.

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Henry I. The Reign of his Son Henry was also not very famous, except that he waged some inconsiderable Wars against his Vassals. He presented his Brother Robert with the Dukedom of Burgundy, from whence comes the Race of the Dukes of Burgundy descended from the Royal Blood. He Edition: orig; Page: [184] died in the Year 1060.Philip I. His Son Philip did nothing memorable; he was also for his Marriage excommunicated by the Pope, but at last obtained a Dispensation.Will. Duke of Normandy conquers England. Under the Reign of this King Philip, William Duke of Normandy conquer’d England, which prov’d to be the occasion of unspeakable Miseries to France; for these two Kingdoms were ever after in continual Wars, till the English were driven out of France.12

Expedition into the Holy Land. About the same time the first Expedition was undertaken into the Holy Land, which Extravagancy continued for near 200 Years after. The Popes drew the most Benefit from these Expeditions, assuming to themselves, an Authority, not only to command, but also to protect all such as had listed themselves under the Cross. Under this pretext also[,] frequent Indulgences were sent abroad into the World, and what was given towards the use of this War, was collected and distributed by their Legates. The King of France, and other Kings, receiv’d thereby this Benefit, That these Wars carried off a great many turbulent Spirits: And a great many of the Nobility used either to sell or else to mortgage their Estates; and if any of them happened to die in the Expedition, leaving no Heirs behind them, their Estates fell to the King. By this means also, that prodigious number of People, wherewith France was overstock’d at that time, was much diminish’d, whereby the Kings got an Opportunity to deal more easily with the rest. Nevertheless, when afterwards the Kings, either by Instigation of the Popes, or out of their own Inclinations, undertook these Expeditions in their own Persons, they found the dismal effects of it. For, by so doing, the best of their Subjects were led to the Slaughter; and yet it was impossible to maintain these Conquests as long as they were not Masters of Egypt: Whereas, if this Kingdom had been made the Seat of the intended Empire, and the Store-house of the War, a Kingdom might have been establish’d, which would have been able to support it self by its own Strength.

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Lewis the Fat. This King [Philip I] died in the Year 1108. His Son Lewis sirnamed the Fat was always at variance with Henry I. King of England, and in continual Troubles with the petty Edition: orig; Page: [185] Lords in France, who did considerable Mischiefs from their strong Castles; yet he was too hard for them at last, and died in the Year 1137. His Son Lewis VII.Lewis VII. sir-named the Younger, undertook, upon the Persuasion of St. Bernhard [of Clairveaux], an Expedition into the Holy Land,13 but this prov’d a fatal Expedition, for by the Defeat which he receiv’d at Pamphylia, and the Siege of Damascus, which he was forc’d to quit, and the Fatigues of so great a Journey,His unfortunate Expedition to the Holy Land. as well as the perfidiousness of some of the Commanders, after he had ruin’d a great Army, he returned with the miserable Remainders into France, without having done any thing answerable to such an Undertaking: But he committed the greatest Error, when he divorced himself from his Lady Eleonora, whether out of Jealousie or tenderness of Conscience is uncertain, she being his Cousin in the third or fourth degree. This Eleonora being also the only Heiress of Aquitain and Poictou, was immediately after married to Henry Duke of Normandy, afterwards King of England, the second of that Name, who, by this Match annexed these fair Countries to the Crown of England. In fine, having been kept in a continual alarm by his petty Vassals, but especially by Henry II. King of England, he died in the Year 1180.

Philip II. the Conquerour. §7. His Son Philip II. sirnamed Augustus, or the Conquerour, was at first engaged in a War against Henry II. King of England, from whom he took several considerable places; which, however he restored afterwards to his Son Richard, with whom he enter’d into a League to retake Jerusalem from the Saracens, pursuant to which, both the Kings went thither in Person with a considerable Force.Another Expedition to the Holy Land. But a Jealousie arising betwixt these two Kings, nothing was done worth mentioning; for Richard accused Philip, that he had an ill design against him in Sicily, in their Voyage; besides that, he had refused to consummate the before intended Match betwixt his Sister and Richard: Wherefore, as soon as Ptolemais [Acre] had been taken by their joint Forces, Philip, under pretence of Sickness Edition: current; Page: [203] returned into France, leaving only with Ri-Edition: orig; Page: [186]chard, Hugh III. Duke of Burgundy, with some Troops; who envying Richard, hinder’d the taking of the City of Jerusalem. After his return from that unfortunate Expedition to the Holy Land,War betwixt France and England. he undertook a War against Richard, which he also carried on against his Brother John, wherein Philip had much the better of the English, for he took from them Normandy, the Counties of Anjou, Maine, Touraine, Berry and Poictou. He was very instrumental in deposing the Earl of Tholouse, who, because he had taken into his Protection the Albigenses, was excommunicated by the Pope. Philip also obtained a great Victory near Bouvines, betwixt Lisle and Tournay, against the Emperour Otho IV. who being joined with the Earl of Flanders, attack’d him with an Army of 150.000 Men, whilst the King of England was to fall into France on the side of Aquitain. This King was so successfull in his Wars against England, that his Son Lewis was very near obtaining the Crown of England. And tho’ he was chased again out of England, yet did he, after his Father’s Death \A. 1223\, pursue his Victories against the English in France, taking from them among others, the City of Rochelle.

Lewis VIII. But this Lewis VIII. did not reign long, for he died in the Year 1226, leaving for Successour his Son Lewis IX. sirnamed the Holy, during whose Minority, his Mother Blanch of Castile had the Supream Administration of Affairs; and tho’ some of the Nobility raised great Troubles against her, she subdued them all by her singular Prudence.Lewis IX. In the Year 1244, the City of Jerusalem was ransack’d by some Persians, who called themselves Chorasmii, Lewis being about the same time dangerously ill, made a Vow, That if he recovered he would undertake an Expedition against those Infidels; which he afterwards perform’d.A third Expedition to the Holy Land without Success. But before his departure he issued out his Proclamation throughout the Kingdom, intimating, that whoever had received any damage by his Souldiers, should have Restitution made him, which was performed accordingly. In this Expedition he took the strong City of Damiata [Dumyat] {A. 1249}; but the overflowing of the River Nile, hindered him from taking Grand Cairo. After the River was returned to its usual Edition: orig; Page: [187] Bounds, he vanquish’d the Enemy in two Battels; but they having receiv’d new Reinforcements, cut off the Provisions from the French, who were also Edition: current; Page: [204] extreamly pester’d with the Scurvy. The King then resolv’d to retreat towards Damiata, but in his March thither they attack’d him, gave him a terrible overthrow, and took him Prisoner, yet released him again for a Ransom of 400.000 Livres, he being obliged to restore also to them the City of Damiata. Thus he marched with the Remainders of his Army, which from 30.000 Men was moulder’d away to 6000, to Ptolemais, where, after he had given what Assistance he could to the Christians, he at last returned home \A. 1254\.

The first Pretensions of the French upon the Kingdom of Naples. Under the Reign of this King, France got first an Opportunity to intermeddle in the Affairs of Italy, from whence, yet this Kingdom never reapt any great Benefit. Manfred, natural Son of the Emperour Frederick II. having first kill’d King Conrad his Brother, made himself King of Naples and Sicily. But the Pope [Urban IV], on whom this Kingdom depended as a Fief, being dissatisfy’d with Manfred, offer’d the same to Charles Earl of Anjou, Brother of Lewis IV. [IX] King of France, which he having accepted of, was crowned at Rome \A. 1261\, with Condit[i]on, that he should pay to the Pope 8000 Ounces of Gold, make a yearly Present of a White Horse [palfrey]<, as an acknowledgment>; and |[if he was chosen Emperour, that he should not unite]|14 that Kingdom with the Empire; the Pope being unwilling to have any one more powerfull than himself in Italy. Charles thereupon vanquish’d Manfred, and having murthered him and his Children, took possession of the Kingdom. The young Conradin, Duke of Swabia, came with an Army to recover the Kingdom, which was his Inheritance, from his Grandfather, but having been overthrown in a Battel near the Lake of Celano \A. 1268\, was made a Prisoner, and in the Year next following, had his Head cut off at Naples, upon the Instigation of the Pope, who being ask’d by Charles, What he had best to do with his Prisoner? answer’d, Vita Conradini, mors Caroli; Mors Conradini, vita Caroli; i.e. The Life of Conradin is the Death of Charles; The Death of Conradin the Life Edition: orig; Page: [188] of Charles. And as by the Death of this young Prince was extinguish’d Edition: current; Page: [205] the Noble Race of the Dukes of Swabia, so this Charles laid the first Pretensions of France to the Kingdom of Naples.

An unfortunate Expedition of S. Lewis. In the mean while, King Lewis being not satisfy’d with his former unfortunate Expedition against the Infidels, resolved to try again his Fortune against Tunis, either because he found, that this place lay very convenient for his Brother’s Kingdom of Sicily, or because he hoped thereby to open a way for the Conquest of Egypt, without which, all the Expeditions into the Holy Land, were likely to prove ineffectual. But in this Siege he lost a great part of his Army by Sickness, and he died himself there in the Year 1270. From a younger Son of this Lewis IV. [IX] viz. from Robert Earl of Clairmont, sprang the Bourbon Family, which now sways the Scepter of France.

Philip the Hardy. §8. His Son Philip sirnamed the Hardy [Audax] succeeded him, under whose Reign that considerable Earldom of Tholouse was united to the Crown of France. Alfonsus Son of Lewis IX. who had married the only Heiress of this ‘Country’ [earldom], happening to die without Issue, in an Expedition into Africa. Under the Reign also of this King fell out the so much celebrated Sicilian Vespers, whereby all the French were at one blow extirpated out of Sicily.15 The Business was thus;The Sicilian Vespers. Some Frenchmen had ravish’d the Wife of John of Porchyta [Prochyta], born at Salerno, who, enflam’d with Revenge, did seek for Aid of Pieter King of Arragon, hoping, by his Assistance, to drive Charles [Earl of Anjou] out of Sicily; the Sicilians also being very averse to the French, who had committed great Outrages in that Kingdom. Pope Nicholus V. lent a helping hand, who stood in fear of the Power of Charles; as did also Michael [VIII] Paleologus the Constantinopolitan Emperour, because Charles had made some Pretensions to that Empire. John therefore, disguis’d in a Monks Habit, travell’d about from place to place, till he had brought his Design to Perfection. It was next to a Miracle that the Design was not betray’d in three years time, it having been so long a forming in several places. At last it was Edition: orig; Page: [189] put in Execution \A. 1282\, it being agreed upon, that Edition: current; Page: [206] in the second Holyday in Easter, at that very time when the Bells rung in to the Vespers, all the French throughout the whole Kingdom of Sicily should be massacred at once, which was done accordingly, within two Hours time with great Barbarity, no person having been spared in the Massacre. Which being done, Pieter King of Arragon possess’d himself of the Kingdom of Sicily. And, tho’ the Pope order’d the Croisade to be preached up against Pieter, and declared Charles, the second Son of Philip [of France] King of Arragon, and this Philip marched with a great Army to put his Son into possession, yet it did prove labour in vain, and Philip died in the Year 1285.

Philip the Handsom. His Son and Successour Philip sirnamed the Handsom, upon some frivolous Pretences, began a War with the English \A. 1292\, taking from them the City of Bourdeaux, and the greatest part of Aquitain, which however they soon after recover’d by vertue of a Peace concluded betwixt them. Not long after he attack’d the Earl of Flanders, who, by the Instigation of the English had enter’d into a Confederacy with a great many neighbouring Lords against him, from whom he took most of his strong Holds. But the Flemings, being soon tired with the Insolencies committed by the French, {revolted and} cut in pieces the French Garrisons;He has ill Success in Flanders. whereupon the King sent an Army under the Command of Robert Earl of Artois, to reduce them to Obedience; but he was defeated near Courtray, there being 20.000 French slain upon the Spot, which happened chiefly by a ‘Misfortune’ [carelessness], that the Cavalry was misled into a moorish Ground. It is related, that the Flemings got above 8000 gilt Spurs as a Booty from the French \A. 1302\. And tho’ afterwards \A. 1304\ there were 25.000 killed of the Flemings, yet they quickly recollecting themselves,He suppress’d the Templers. raised another Army of 60.000 Men, and obliged the King, by a Peace made betwixt them, to restore them to their ‘ancient State’ [previous status].

This King Philip also, with consent of the Pope, suppress’d the rich Order of the Knights Templers, and died in the Year 1314. Whom succeeded his three Sons,Lewis X. each in his turn, who all died without Issue, and without doing any thing of moment. The eldest, Lewis X. Edition: orig; Page: [190] sirnamed Hutin [headstrong], died in the Year 1316; whose Brother Philip sirnamed the Tall,Philip the Tall. had a Contest for the Crown with his deceased Edition: current; Page: [207] Brother’s Daughter Joan, she being supported by her Mother’s Brother, the Duke of Burgundy, but it was determined in favour of Philip by vertue of the Salick Law.16 Under this King the Jews were banish’d out of France, they having been accused of poisoning the Fountains. He died in the Year 1322. Him succeeded the third Brother Charles IV.Charles IV. sirnamed the Handsom, under whose Reign all the Italians and Lombards, who being Usurers, did exact upon the People, were banished {from} the Kingdom. A War also was begun in Aquitain against the English, but these Differences were quickly composed by the Intercession of Queen Isabella, Sister of Charles. He died in the Year 1328.

Philip of Valois. §9. After the Death of this King, France was for a great many years together torn in pieces by very unfortunate and bloody Wars, which had almost prov’d fatal to this Kingdom: For a Contest arose about the Succession, betwixt Philip of Valois, Philip the Handsom’s Brother’s Son, and Edward III.His Title contested by Edward III. of England, and on what ground. King of England, the above-mention’d Philip the Handsom’s Daughter’s Son. The former pretended a right by vertue of the Salick Law, which excludes the Females from the Succession: But the latter, tho’ he did not deny the Salick Law, yet did he alledge, That this Law did not barr from the Succession the Sons born of the King’s Daughters. And it was certain, that he was nearer a kin to the deceased King than Philip, neither could any Precedent be brought where a Son of the King’s Daughter had been excluded from the Succession to admit his Brother’s Son: Yet the Estates of France declared for Philip, partly upon the persuasion of Robert Earl of Artois, partly because they were unwilling to depend on England. And tho’ King Edward did dissemble at first, this Affront, and came in person to do homage to Philip for his Provinces which he was possess’d of in France; yet not long after he began to show his Resentment, the French having obliged him at the time when he performed the Edition: orig; Page: [191] Ceremony of Homage, to lay aside his Crown, Scepter and Spurs. Besides, the States of England did persuade him not so easily to let fall his Pretensions, and Robert Earl of Artois, being fallen out with Philip about some Pretensions concerning the County of Artois, Edition: current; Page: [208] did stir up King Edward to undertake a War against France. In the mean time while Philip had defeated the Flemings, who were risen in Rebellion against that Earl, to that degree, that of 16.000 Men not one escaped the Sword {in a great battle near Mont Cassel, A. 1328}.

War with England. In the Year 1336 the English began to make War against France,17 which was carried on for some Years with equal Advantage on both sides, and was interrupted by several Truces; till at last Edward landed with an Army in Normandy, and outbraving the French, approach’d to the very Gates of Paris. But Edward making soon after his Retreat through Picardy towards Flanders, was overtaken by Philip near Albe ville,Battel near Crecy. where a bloody Battel was fought betwixt them.18 The French Forces being extreamly tir’d by a long March gave the English an easier Victory. Besides this, some Genoese Foot retreated immediately, their Bows19 having been render’d useless by the rainy Weather; which the Duke d’Alanzon [Alençon] perceiving, and thinking it to have been done by Treachery, fell with a Body of Horse in among them, which caused the first Confusion. The English also made use of four or five pieces of great Cannon against the French, which being never seen before in France, caused a great terrour in the French Army. Several French Lords also being not well satisfy’d with the King, were glad to see him defeated. This Victory is the more remarkable, because (according to the French Historians) the English were not above 24.000 strong, whereas the French were above 100.000. Out of which number 30.000 Foot Souldiers were slain, and 1200 Horsemen, among whom was the King of Bohemia. This King, tho’ he was blind, yet charg’d the Enemy on Horseback betwixt two of his Friends, who had ty’d his Horse to theirs, and they were all three found dead together. The next day there was a great slaughter made among some French Troops, who not knowing what had pass’d the day before, Edition: orig; Page: [192] were on their March to join the French Camp.

The English take Calais. After this Battel the English took Calais, Philip having in vain attempted its relief with 15.000 Men \A. 1347\. This unfortunate King, Edition: current; Page: [209] however, received this one Comfort, That the Dukedom of Dauphine was annexed to the Crown of France by a Gift of Hubert the last Duke, with Condition, that the eldest Son of the Kings of France should bear the Title of Dauphin. This Hubert having conceived a mortal hatred against the then Earl of Savoy had before put himself under the Protection of France; but when afterwards by an unfortunate Accident he kill’d his only Son,Dauphine annexed to France. he retir’d into a Monastery, giving to the King of France the Possession of his Country \A. 1349\. This King Philip also bought Roussilion and Montpelier, and was the first who imposed that so much abominated Tax in France upon Salt, called the Gabell, whereby the Subjects are obliged to pay for the Sun and Sea Water at so dear a rate.Philip introduced the Gabell. Wherefore King Edward used to call him in jest, The Author of the Salick Law. He died in the Year ‘1356’ [1350].

John. Unfortunate in his Wars against the English. §10. His Son and Successour John was more unfortunate in his Wars against the English than his Father. For the Truce being expir’d, the War began afresh, wherein Prince Edward20 made an Inrode with 12.000 Men out of Aquitain, destroying all round about him; King John intending to cut off his Retreat, overtook him with all his Forces near Maupertuis, two Leagues from Poictiers. The Prince offered the King Satisfaction for the Damage sustained, which he refusing to accept of, attack’d Prince Edward in his advantageous Post,Battel near Poictiers. he being surrounded with Hedges and Vineyards; but the English, by the help of their Bows, soon broke through his Vanguard, and afterwards the whole Army, which consisted of 50.000 Men, put them in Disorder, killing upon the Spot (as it is related by the French Historians) 6000 French, among whom were 1200 Gentlemen, the King and his youngest Son were both made Prisoners: The three eldest had the good Fortune to escape {as the situation began to decline, by the assistance of their majordomo [Hofmeister]} \A. 1356\.

During the Father’s Imprisonment Charles the Dauphin took Edition: orig; Page: [193] upon him the Administration of Affairs, but the People which had Edition: current; Page: [210] been sorely oppress’d hitherto, being unwilling to obey it, caused great Disorders in the Kingdom. The Peasants rose up against the Nobility, and the Citizens of Paris made heavy Complaints. The Souldiers for want of Pay lived at Discretion, and made a miserable havock in the Country; Charles of Navarre added Fuel to the Fire, in hopes to make his own Advantage by these Troublesome times, and did not stick to make Pretensions to the Crown; yet Matters were composed with him at last. And the Estates of France refusing to accept of such Conditions as were proposed by the English, the King of England enter’d France with a great Army, and over-ran the greatest part of it, yet could not make himself Master of any fortify’d place. Then a Peace was concluded at Bretigny, a League from Chartres; by vertue of which the French were to surrender to the English, besides what they were possess’d of before, Poictou, Xaintonge, Rochelle, Pais d’ Aulnis, Angoumois, Perigord, Limosin, Quercy, Agenois, and Bigorre, with the Sovereignty over them; besides this, Calais, and the Counties d’Oye, Guisnes and Ponthieu, and three Millions of Livres, as a Ransom for the King’s person.A dishonourable Peace to France. This Peace \A. 1360\ was very hard for France, and continued not long.

King John, forced by Necessity, was oblig’d to do another thing little becoming his Grandeur, for he sold his Daughter to Galeas Viscount of Milan, for 600.000 Crowns, giving her in Marriage to the said Vis count. This King presented his youngest Son Philip sirnamed the ‘Handy’ [Bold], with the Dukedom of Burgundy, it being vacant by the Death of the last Duke. From this Philip descended the famous Dukes of Burgundy, whose Territories, <at last,> devolved to the House of Austria. This King died in England \A. 1364\, whither he was gone to make satisfaction for his Son, who being a Hostage there had made his escape. Some say, that he went to see a Lady there, with whom he was much in love.

Charles the Wise. §11. King John was succeeded by his Son Charles V. sirnamed the Wise, who prudently made Edition: orig; Page: [194] amends for the Rashness of his Grandfather and Father, never engaging himself in Battels with the English, but by protracting the War and secret Intrigues, endeavoured to tire out their Courage. The disbanded [French] Souldiers had mutineer’d, and were Edition: current; Page: [211] become so Insolent, that no body durst oppose them. These he sent into Spain, where Pieter sirnamed the Cruel and Henry I. fought for the Crown of Castile. These Forces had put the Pope in such a fear, that in their March he presented them with 200.000 Livres and a good store of Indulgences, to divert them thereby from taking their way near Avignon.21 Prince Edward {of Wallis} also engaged himself in this War, but got nothing by it but a sickly Body and great want of Money. Wherefore he pretending to lay a Tax upon his Subjects in Guienne, to pay off his Souldiers, they complained thereof to the King of France; who having well prepared himself, and being informed that the Prince languished under a mortal Disease, summon’d him to appear in Paris, pretending, that the Peace made at Bretigny was of no force, since the English had not performed the Conditions, and had since that time committed Hostilities, wherefore he insisted upon his former right of Sovereignty over Aquitain. And Prince Edward having sent him a disdainful Answer, King Charles denounced War against the English.

He declares War against the English. A great many Fast-days and Processions were kept by the King’s Order in France; and the Priests made it their business to represent the Justice of the King’s Cause, and the Injustice of the English to the People. By this way he insinuated himself into the Favour of the French that lived under the English Jurisdiction, and persuaded his own Subjects to be more free in paying their Taxes. The Archbishop of Tholouse alone, did, by his cunning Persuasions, bring over to his Party above fifty Cities and strong Castles. The Constable Bertrand du Guesolin did also great mischief to the English with small Parties, and worsted them not only in several Rencounters, but also beat them out of Perigord and Limosin: But in Guienne, especially, the English Affairs were in a bad condition, after the Spanish Fleet, which was sent to the Assistance of the Edition: orig; Page: [195] French by Henry King of Castile, had ruin’d the English near Rochelle. After which exploit Poictiers was taken from them, and Rochelle upon very advantageous Conditions, surrender’d it self to the King of France. And King Edward being detained by contrary Winds, not being able to bring over timely Relief, Xaintonge, Angoumois, and some other places, Edition: current; Page: [212] followed the Example of the former. The English, not long after, with an Army of 30.000 Men, marched from Calais cross the Country as far as Guienne, ravaging and plundering by the way where ever they came, yet would Charles never hazard a Battel with them, but contented himself to annoy them with Skirmishes, whereby he did them considerable Mischief. The Pope, in the mean while, labour’d hard to make Peace betwixt these two Crowns, but King Edward happening to die about that time [1377],After the Death of Edward, Charles attacks the English with Advantage. King Charles took hold of this Opportunity, and attacking the English with five several Armies at one time, took all from them but Calais, Bourdeaux and Bayonne in Guienne, and Cherbury in Normandy. The English, during the Minority of their King,22 being also pester’d with the Plague and the War with the Scots, were not in a Capacity to send sufficient Relief: Yet this King miscarried in his Enterprize against Britainy.

In the Year 1379, the Emperour Charles IV. came to visit him in Paris, where he constituted the Dauphin a perpetual Vicar of the Empire in Dauphine: And ever since, say the French, the German Emperours never did pretend to any thing in Dauphine, and in the Kingdom of Arelat. He died in the Year 1380.

Charles VI. §12. Now we are come to that most unfortunate Reign of Charles VI. at the very beginning of which, one of the main occasions of Mischief to France was, That Joan Queen of Naples standing in fear of Charles de Duraz [Durazzo], did adopt Lewis Duke of Anjou, declaring him Heir of that Kingdom. The Duke willingly accepting of her Offer, raised, in her behalf, an Army of 30.000 Horse, having employed thereunto the Treasure left by Charles V. which he had got clandestinely into his possession. With this Army he made Edition: orig; Page: [196] himself Master of Provence, which then belong’d to Joan. And tho’ in the mean time Charles de Duraz having kill’d Joan, had made himself Master of the Kingdom, the Duke of Anjou, nevertheless, pursued his intended Expedition; but was, by continual Marches, and the Cunning of Charles, led about and Edition: current; Page: [213] tir’d to that degree, that he died in great Misery \A. 1384\, very few of so great an Army having had the good fortune to return into France.

The People also were generally much dissatisfy’d at the beginning, because those who had the Tuition of the King, to curry-favour with the People, had promised an abatement of the heavy Taxes. But the same being not long after again introduc’d, augmented and devoured by the Courtiers, great Troubles and Insurrections arose both in Paris and other places. In the mean while the Flemings had carried themselves insolently towards their Lord, who calling to his Assistance, the French, they killed 40.000 Flemings, together with their General Arteville \A. 1382\. The general Dissatisfaction of the People was much increased afterward, when a great Summ of Money was employed upon an Expedition against England, which proving fruitless, both the Money and Men were lost. Lewis Duke of Orleans,The first rise of the French Pretensions upon Milan. Brother of this King Charles, married Valentina the Daughter of John Galeacius Viscount of Milan \A. 1389\, with this Condition, That he should receive immediately, as a Dowry, not only a great Treasure of Money and Jewels, but also the County of Ast [e]; and in case her Father should die without Issue, the whole Country should be devolved on Valentina and her Children. Which Contract has not only furnished France with a Pretension to Milan, but also has been the occasion of great Calamities.

After this another Misfortune happened to France, for the King, whose Brains were mightily weakened by Debaucheries in his younger Years, as he was travelling in Britainy, fell upon a sudden Distraction, caused, partly by the great Heat,The King falls under an alienation of Mind. which was then in the Month of August; partly, because, as ’tis reported, a tall black Man appear’d to him, who, stopping his Horse by the Bridle, said, Stop King, whither will you go? you are betray’d. Edition: orig; Page: [197] Soon after a Page being faln asleep {on a horse}, let the point of his Lance drop upon the Headpiece of him who rid [rode] just before the King, which the King being extreamly surpriz’d at, interpreted it as directed against him. And tho’ this Madness did cease afterwards, yet was his Understanding much impair’d, and the Fits would return by intervals.

This unhappy Accident was the occasion of that fatal Contest concerning the Administration of the Kingdom (which the King was incapable Edition: current; Page: [214] of) betwixt Lewis Duke of Orleans, the King’s Brother, and Philip Duke of Burgundy, his Uncle. The first claim’d it on the account of proximity of Blood, the latter on account of his Age and Experience. The latter was most approv’d of by the Estates, who declar’d him Regent; yet the Duke of Orleans, by making new Intrigues, still endeavour’d to make himself the Head of the Kingdom, which caused pernicious Factions in the Court. And tho’ the Duke of Burgundy died \A. 1404\, his Son John pursuing his Father’s Pretensions, the Hatred so increased betwixt both Parties, that notwithstanding the Reconciliation made betwixt them, the Duke of Burgundy caus’d the Duke of Orleans to be murther’d by some Ruffians, at Night,The Duke of Orleans assassinated by the Duke of Burgundy. in the Streets of Paris \A. 1407\. And tho’ the Duke of Burgundy, after having made away his Rival, and forc’d a Pardon from the King, was now the only Man in the Court, yet were the Animosities betwixt the Duke of Burgundy, and the Sons of the murther’d Duke of Orleans, not extinguish’d thereby, which divided the whole Kingdom into two Factions, one siding with the Burgundian, the other with the Family of Orleans, and occasion’d barbarous Murthers, Devastations, and such other Calamities, which are the common products of Civil Commotions. At last the Burgundian Faction was brought very low by the King and his Party.

The English take advantage of these Troubles. But the English having observ’d the intestine Divisions in France, landed in Normandy \A. 1415\ with a great Army, and took Harfleur: But being extreamly weaken’d both in the Siege and by Sickness, they resolv’d to retreat towards Calais. In the mean while the French had got together an Army which was four times stronger than the English, which met them Edition: orig; Page: [198] near Agincourt, a Village in the County of St. Poll [Poldesperat], where a Battel being fought betwixt them, 6000 French were kill’d upon the Spot,Battel of Agincourt. and a great number taken Prisoners, among whom were a great many persons of Quality. (The English Historians make this Defeat much greater, it being rarely to be observ’d, that the Historians of two Nations, who are at Enmity, agree in their Relations.)23 Yet the English being extreamly tir’d, could not pursue the Victory.

Edition: current; Page: [215]

In the mean time the Invasion made by a Foreign Enemy did in no ways diminish the intestine Divisions, but rather augmented them: For the Duke of Burgundy perceiving his Party in France to decline, began to favour the English, who, in the Year next following, landed again in Normandy, and had great Success. At last the Queen, who had hitherto had a share in the Government, added Fuel to the Fire: For the Constable d’ Armagnac having now the sole Administration of Affairs, and being only balanc’d by the Authority of the Queen, took an opportunity, by the ‘free Conversation’ [overly loose living] of the Queen, to put such a Jealousie in the King’s Head, that with the Consent of Charles the Dauphin she was banish’d [from] the Court. Which so incensed the Queen, that she having conceiv’d an implacable Hatred against her Son, sided with the Duke of Burgundy, whose Party was thereby greatly strengthen’d. Thus commenced the intestine Wars, wherein both Parties were so exasperated against one another, that they had little regard to the great Success of the English, who, in the mean time \A. 1419\ conquer’d all Normandy and Roan it self.

The Duke of Burgundy assassinated. The Dauphin intending at one blow to root out the Evil of these intestine Commotions, cunningly invited the Duke of Burgundy to come to an Agreement with him, when at their second meeting at Monterau, he caused him to be kill’d. But this stroke had a quite contrary effect: For the generality of the Nation abominated the fact, and the Queen took from hence an Opportunity totally to ruin her Son, and to exclude him from the Succession. Wherefore, entring into a League with the murther’d Duke’s Son Philip, a Peace was concluded with Henry V. King of England, by vertue of Edition: orig; Page: [199] which he was to marry Catharine, the Daughter of Charles VI. and during his Life to be Regent of France, and after his Death to be put into the full possession of the Crown of France: That both the Crowns of France and England should be united, yet that each Kingdom should be ruled according to its own Laws. Besides this, a Sentence was pronounc’d against the Dauphin in Paris, That by reason of the Murther committed by him upon the Duke of Burgundy, he was declared incapable of the Crown, and that he for ever should be banish’d the Kingdom. He appeal’d from this Sentence to God and his Sword, and set his Court up at Poictiers, so that at that time there was in France two Governments and two Courts. But the Edition: current; Page: [216] Affairs of the Dauphin were in a very ill condition, very few of the Provinces siding with him; those that did, were Anjou, Poictou, Tours, Auvergne, Berry and Languedock, but all of them mightily exhausted of Money. But it was happy for him, that the brave King Henry V. died in the very Flower of his Age and good Fortune, as likewise did, not long after, Charles VI. \A. 1422\ whose Life (by the Infirmities of his Mind, being incapable of governing the Kingdom) had greatly obstructed the Welfare of the Kingdom.

Charles VII. §13. Charles VII. whom we hitherto have call’d the Dauphin, caused himself, immediately after his Father’s Death, to be proclaim’d King, with the Assistance of the Bravest among the French, nevertheless his Affairs at the beginning were under very ill Circumstances: For the Duke of Bedford, who was constituted Regent in France, having caused young Henry VI.Henry VI. of England proclaim’d King of France. of England to be proclaimed King of France in Paris, in conjunction with the Dukes of Burgundy and Britainy, try’d all ways to expell him quite out of France. His Forces were several times miserably beaten by the English, the greatest part of the Cities abandon’d him, so that the English used to call him, in derision, the King of Bourges, because he used commonly to reside there. He was at last become so poor that he rarely could dine in Publick, and it was ob-Edition: orig; Page: [200]serv’d, that one time he had nothing for his Dinner but a piece of roasted Mutton and a couple of Fowls. Besides this, most of the great Men about him being dissatisfy’d with the ambitious Proceedings of the Constable Richmond, had left the Court, and were driving on their own Intrigues. The only Comfort left to Charles was, that there was a misunderstanding betwixt the English and the Duke of Burgundy; else, if they had with their joint Forces vigorously attack’d Charles, he,Misunder-standings betwixt the English and the Duke of Burgundy the only Advantage Charles had left. in all probability could not have held out long against them.

The occasion happen’d thus; Jaqueline Countess of Hennegau, Holland, Zealand and Friesland, being divorced from her Husband, John Duke of Brabant, a Cousin of the Duke of Burgundy, was married again to the Duke of Gloucester, Brother of Henry V. The Duke of Burgundy taking his Cousin’s part, it caused great Heart-burning betwixt him and the Duke of Gloucester. The Duke of Bedford endeavour’d to appease Edition: current; Page: [217] them, yet did the Duke of Burgundy from that time entertain a Grudge against the English; which encreased afterwards, when the English refused to put the City of Orleans into the Hands of the Duke of Burgundy. This City being besieged by the English was reduc’d to the utmost Extremity; the French, which attack’d a Convoy which was going to the English Camp, having been entirely beaten: Which Engagement is called la journée des Haranes, or, the Battel of the Herrings.24 Charles’s Affairs were then become so desperate that he had resolv’d to retire into Dauphine, when upon a sudden an unlook’d for help was sent him: For a Country Maid born in Lorraine, whose Name was Joan, did pretend that she was sent from God to relieve Orleans,The Maid of Orleans. and to see the King crowned at Rheims. Both which she effected, striking thereby great terrour into the English; whereas, on the other side, the French being greatly encouraged by this Success, saw their Affairs from hence forward mend every day. But this poor Wench following the Wars longer, as it seems, than she had in Commission,25 was taken Prisoner making a Sally out of Compeigne, and being deliver’d to the English, was with great dishonour Edition: orig; Page: [201] burnt as a Witch at Roan \A. 1431\. The English, perceiving their Affairs not to go so forward as formerly,The English Power declines in France. resolv’d to give them new Life and Vigour, by bringing over the young King Henry, and having him crowned in Paris: And to keep fair with the Duke of Burgundy they gave him the Counties of Brie and Champaigne; yet all this proved insufficient.

The War therefore having been thus carried on for several Years only with light Skirmishes, both Parties being tir’d out, a Treaty was at last propos’d by Mediation of the Pope at Arras; but the English rigorously insisting upon their Pretensions, which were very hard, they were deserted by the Duke of Burgundy, who made a separate Peace with Charles \A. 1435\ upon very advantageous Conditions. There {soon} befell also the English another Misfortune by the Death of the Duke of Bedford, who hitherto had administered the Affairs in France with great Edition: current; Page: [218] Prudence. After this the Cities of France surrender’d themselves one after another to Charles; among which was Paris, which submitted it self to its natural Lord \A. 1436\. But because the English had made miserable havock throughout France, and the French Souldiers themselves being ill paid, had committed great Depredations, without any Order or Discipline, a great Famine ensu’d, and afterwards a great Plague. It is related that the Wolves did snatch the Children out of the Streets of the Suburbs of St. Anthony in Paris. The War having been thus protracted for a considerable time, a Truce was concluded for some Years. The King, to be rid of the Souldiers, sent them into Alsace, under pretence to disturb the Council at Basil [Basel].26 They killed at once 4000 Swiss, but having lost double the number soon after, returned home again.

In the mean time the English were degenerated from their former Valour, their Forces were extreamly diminish’d in France, and the Souldiers for want of Pay had given themselves over to Plunder. They wanted good Officers, their Places were not well provided, and their Subjects weary of the Government. England, at home, was divided within it self, and the English weakened by two Overthrows, which they had received from the Scots. Edition: orig; Page: [202] Charles therefore having met with this Opportunity, resolv’d to beat the English at once out of France. He took, for a Pretence of the War, that they had broken the Truce in Britainy and with the Scots; and attacking them with great Vigour in several places at once \A. 1449\, he drove them,He drives the English out of France. within the space of thirteen Months, {completely} out of Normandy. The next Year after he took from them Aquitain, Bayonne being the last which surrender’d it self \A. 1451\; so that the English had nothing left on the Continent of France but Calais and the County of Guines: Bourdeaux soon after revolted from the French, and sought for Aid of the English, but the brave Talbot27 having been kill’d in an Engagement, it was retaken \A. 1453\ and {permanently} re-united to the French Crown, after it had been 300 Years in Edition: current; Page: [219] the possession of the English. Thus did this King re-unite the mangled Kingdom, having expell’d the English out of its Bowels. Nevertheless he did not entirely enjoy the Fruits of his good Fortune, living at variance with his Son, who for the space of thirteen Years came not to Court. And being at last persuaded, that a Design was formed against his Life, it so disturb’d him, that for fear of being poisoned, he starved himself \A. 1461\.

Lewis XI. §14. Him succeeded his Son Lewis XI. a cunning, resolute and malicious Prince, who laid the first Foundation of the absolute Power since exercised by the Kings of France, whereas formerly the Royal Power was kept under by the Authority of the great Men of the Kingdom.He reduces the excessive Power of the Nobility. He began with reforming his Court and Ministers according to his Pleasure: Of which the great Men of the Kingdom foreseeing the Consequence, they enter’d into a League, which they called, La Ligue du bien public, the League for the publick good; wherewith they pretended to defend the Publick against the King’s arbitrary Proceedings. Among these were the Dukes of Burgundy and Britainy, who were willing [eager] to keep the King within bounds.A League against him.

In the Year 1465, Charles, the young Duke of Burgundy, enter’d France with an Army, and fought a Battel with the King near Montlehery, wherein the Advantage was Edition: orig; Page: [203] near equal; but, because the King retreated a little backwards the Night following, the Duke of Burgundy pretended to have gained the Victory, which put him upon those Enterprizes which afterwards cost him his Life.The King’s Politick Methods. The King extricated himself with a great deal of Cunning out of this danger, for he released the Taxes, and with great Promises and fine Words appeased the People, all which, as soon as the danger was pass’d, he revok’d at pleasure. To dissolve the knot of this Faction, he made Divisions betwixt the most powerfull, the bravest he brought over to his side by giving them particular Advantages, the rest he ruined by his Policy,The Original of selling the Offices of France. especially by bribing their Friends and Servants. And being in great want of Money, he borrow’d great Summs of his Servants, and such as refused to lend, were put out of their Employments: Which, ’tis said, gave the first occasion, that the Offices were afterwards sold in France. But the Duke Edition: current; Page: [220] {Charles} of Burgundy persisted in his Opposition, who had in the Year 1468 hem’d him in at Peronne, which danger he however escaped. At last Lewis was rid of this his troublesome Enemy, who had laid so many Designs against him, he being kill’d by the Swiss near Nancy \A. 1477\.Duke of Burgundy slain.

Lewis taking advantage of the great Confusion, which was occasioned by the Death of the Duke in that Country, took possession of the Dukedom of Burgundy, under pretext that the same was an Appanage,28 and brought over to his side the Cities situated on the River Some, which had been under the Jurisdiction of Charles. It was generally believ’d, That Lewis, by way of Marriage, might easily have annexed the whole Inheritance of this Duke unto France, if he had not conceived such an implacable hatred against this House, that he was resolved to ruin it. Two Years before the Death of the Duke of Burgundy King Edward IV. landed with a great Army in France, whom Lewis with Presents and fair Promises persuaded to return home again. He united to the Crown Provence, Anjou and Muns [Maine], having obtained the same by the last Will and Testament of Charles d’Anjou, Count de Maine, who was the last Male Heir of the House of Anjou; notwithstanding that Rene Duke of Lorraine, Edition: orig; Page: [204] Son of Ygland d’ Anjou pretended a Right to the same by his Mother’s side. In his latter days he [Lewis] lived miserably, and grew {sometimes} ridiculous, being in continual fear of death. He died in the Year 1483.

Charles VIII. §15. His Son Charles VIII. had at the beginning of his Reign his Hands full with the Duke of Britainy, and was marching with an Army to unite that Province by main [Fr. ‘hand’] force to the Crown. But understanding that Maximilian of Austria had concluded a Match betwixt Anna, the only Heiress of this Dukedom and himself, the French King did think it no ways adviseable to let such a delicious Morsel fall to the share of the House of Austria, but obliged the Bride, partly by force, partly by fair words, to renounce Maximilian, and to be married to himself \A. 1491\, whereby this Country was united to France.Britainy united to France. And Edition: current; Page: [221] tho’ Henry VII. King of England, did not look with a good Eye upon the growing Power of France, and therefore with a great Army besieged Boulogne, yet in consideration of a good Summ of Money he was prevailed upon to return home again; especially, since Maximilian (who had received a double affront from Charles, who had not only taken his Bride from him, but also had sent back his Daughter Margaret, which was promised to him in Marriage)29 did not join his Forces with him according to Agreement. Maximilian took Arras and St. Omer, but being not able to go further he consented, that his Son Philip, Lord of the Netherlands, might make a Truce with Charles. On the other side, Charles gave to Ferdinand the Catholick, the Counties of Russilion [Roussillon] and Cerdagne, some say, to engage him thereby not to oppose his intended Expedition against Naples. Others say, that Ferdinand corrupted Charles’s Confessour, to persuade him, that he should restore that Country to its lawfull Sovereign.

France being thus by the Union with Britainy become an entire Kingdom, it began to contrive how to obtain the Sovereignty over Italy. Charles had a Pretension, because the Right and Title of the Family of Anjou and Naples was by the Death of the last Duke of Anjou and Earl of Provence devolv’d to Edition: orig; Page: [205] Lewis XI.An Expedition to Naples, and the Pretensions of it. and consequently to himself. But this young King received the greatest Encouragement from Lewis sirnamed Morus, or the Black, Duke of Milan, who, having Tuition of his Nephew John Galeas, the true Heir of this Dukedom, but a weak Prince, had under that Pretence made himself Master of the same. This Duke fearing that he might be put out of possession by Ferdinand King of Naples, whose Son Alfonsus’s Daughter Isabella was married to John Galeas, endeavour’d to give Ferdinand his Hands full of Work, that he might not be at leisure to think of him; knowing also, that Ferdinand and his Son Alfonsus were much hated by their Subjects for their Tyranny and Impiety. An Expedition was therefore undertaken against Naples \A. 1494\, which proved the occasion of continual Miseries to Edition: current; Page: [222] Italy for the space of forty Years; for so long it was the Cock-pit for the French, Germans and Spaniards, and at last lost a great part of its <ancient> Liberty.

Charles conquer’d Naples. It seem’d to be |[fatal to Italy,]|30 that the wise Italians either could or would not prevent this Expedition, which was design’d two Years before. Charles had at the beginning all the Success imaginable, for the Italian Troops were in a very ill condition, and there being no body who durst oppose him, Florence and the Pope sided with him, the latter declaring Charles King of Naples. King Alfonsus stirr’d up by his own Conscience, abdicated himself, transferring all his Right and Title upon his Son Ferdinand: But his Forces being soon beaten and dispers’d, Charles made his solemn Entry into Naples with loud Acclamations \A. 1495\. Immediately the whole Kingdom submitted to him, except the Isle of Iseria [Ischia], and the Cities of Brundisi and Gallipoli. The Conquest of so fair a Kingdom, and that within five Months time, struck a Terrour into the Turkish Emperour himself, being in fear at Constantinople, and Greece being ready to rebell as soon as the French should land on that side.

But the Face of Affairs was quickly changed; for the French, by their ill behaviour quickly lost the Favour of the Neapolitans; the King minded nothing but Gaming, and the rest following his Example, were careless in maintaining Edition: orig; Page: [206] their Conquest. Besides this, it was look’d upon as a thing of such Consequence by the rest of the Princes of Europe, that the Emperour, the Pope,The League of Italy against the French. King Ferdinand of Arragon, Venice and Milan enter’d into a Confederacy, to drive the French out of Italy; Charles therefore fearing lest his Retreat might be cut off, took his Way by Land into France, having left things but in an indifferent state of Defence in Naples. In his March he was met by the Confederate Army near the River of Taro, where a Battel was fought, in which, tho’ there were more kill’d on the Confederate side than of the French, yet he marched forward with such Precipitation, as if he had lost the Battel.He loseth Naples. Charles was no sooner returned into France, but Ferdinand soon retook, without great trouble, the Kingdom of Naples, to the great Dishonour Edition: current; Page: [223] of the French, who were not able to maintain themselves there a whole Year, of whom very few return’d alive into France. Not long after Charles died without Issue \A. 1498\.

Lewis XII. §16. Him succeeded Lewis XII. formerly Duke of Orleans, who, not to lose Britainy, married Anna Widow of the late King. He made {a new} War soon after on Milan, pretending a Right to that Dukedom by his Grandmother’s {Valentina’s} side, and having conquer’d the same within ‘21’ [twenty] days \A. 1499\. Lewis the Black was forc’d to fly with his Children and all his Treasure into Germany.He conquers Milan. But the Inhabitants of Milan grew quickly weary of the French, their ‘free Conversation’ [liberties] with the Women being especially intolerable to them, and therefore recall’d their Duke, who having got together an Army of Swiss was joyfully receiv’d, and regain’d the whole Country, except the Castle of Milan and the City of Novara. But Lewis sending timely Relief, the Duke’s Swiss Souldiers refused to fight against the French, so that the Duke endeavouring to save himself by flight in a common Souldiers Habit, was taken Prisoner, and kept ten Years in Prison at Loches, where he died. Thus the French got Milan and the City of Genoua again.

He conquers Naples. After so great Success Lewis began to think of the Kingdom of Naples: To obtain which, Edition: orig; Page: [207] he made a League with Ferdinand the Catholick, wherein it was agreed, that they should divide the Kingdom betwixt them, so that the French should have for their share Naples, Terre de Labour and Abruzze; and the Spaniards, Poville and Calabria. Each of them got his share without any great trouble, Frederick King of Naples surrendring himself to King Lewis \A. 1501\, who allowed him a yearly Pension of 30.000 Crowns [escus].31 But soon after new Differences arose betwixt these two haughty Nations, concerning the Limits; for the French pretended that the Country of Capitanate (which is very considerable for its Taxes paid for Sheep, which are there in great numbers) did belong to Abruzze, whereas the Spaniards would have it belong Edition: current; Page: [224] to Poville; and from Words they came to Blows. The French, at first, had somewhat the better; but as soon as Gonsalvus de Cordoua, that cunning Spaniard had broke their first Fury, and Lewis did not send sufficient Relief,Loses it again. they were as shamefully beaten again out of the Kingdom \A. 1503\, as they had been before.32 Lewis endeavoured to revenge himself upon the Spaniards in the Year next following, but tho’ he attack’d them with four several Armies, yet could he not gain any thing upon them: Wherefore he made a Peace with Ferdinand, and enter’d into an Alliance with him against Philip Son-in-law to Ferdinand, who having, after the death of Isabella, taken from him the Kingdom of Castile, was upheld by his Father Maximilian, and back’d by Henry [VII] King of England, whose Son had married his Wife’s Sister.

In the Year 1507, the City of Genoua rebell’d against Lewis, but was soon reduced to her former Obedience.The Venetian War. Then the War began afresh in Italy, with the Venetians, who being too much addicted to self-interest, had drawn upon themselves the hatred of all their Neighbours, having encroached upon every one of them; and Lewis especially attributed to them his loss of the Kingdom of Naples. To humble this proud State a League was concluded at Cambray \A. 1508\, betwixt the Emperour,Lewis joins in the League against them. the Pope, the Kings of France and Spain. Lewis, by entring into a Confederacy with his mortal Enemies, had more regard to his Edition: orig; Page: [208] Passion than his Interest, it being certain that he might upon all occasions have trusted to the Friendship of the Venetians. But now he was the first that fell upon them, and defeated them in a great Battel near Giera d’ Addua \A. 1509\, which caused such a Terror among them, that they left all what they had on the Continent, within twenty days, and if Lewis had pursued his Victory whilst they were under this first Consternation, he might doubtless have put a period to their Greatness. But in the mean time that he marched back towards Milan, not making the best of his Victory, they got leisure to recover themselves; especially since the Emperour Maximilian was not in earnest against them, and Pope Julius II. was reconciled to them.A League against Lewis. Nay, in the Year 1510, the Pope, Ferdinand, Henry VIII. and the Swiss Cantons, denounced War against Lewis. For Edition: current; Page: [225] the Pope could not look with a good Eye upon the growing Power of France in Italy, Ferdinand feared lest Lewis might attack Naples, and Henry being come lately to the Crown, was for making himself famous by so great an Undertaking; the Swiss were set against France, because Lewis had not paid them their old Arrears, and had refused to encrease their Pension, not because their Demands were extravagant, but because he would not be out brav’d [importuned] by them. In this War the French General Gasto de Foix behaved himself very gallantly; for he relieved Bononia, beat the Venetian Army, killed 8000 of them in Brescia, and obtained a glorious Victory against the Confederate Army near Ravenna \A. 1512\; in which Battel, nevertheless, this brave General, being too hot in pursuing the Enemy, was slain.

With his death the French Affairs began to decline, and they were again forced to leave Italy. Maximilian, Son of Lewis the Black was restored to his Dutchy of Milan by the help of the Swiss: The Genouese revolted, and made Janus Fregosus their Duke. Ferdinand the Catholick took from King John the Kingdom of Navarre, which the French in vain endeavoured to regain from the Spaniards.He conquers Milan again. But Lewis being extreamly desirous to regain Milan enter’d into a League with Venice, and re-took most places of Edition: orig; Page: [209] that Dukedom and the City of Genoua. He besieg’d Duke Maximilian in the Castle of Novara, but the Swiss coming to the Assistance of the Duke, attack’d the French with incredible Fury in their Camp, and drove them quite out of the whole Dukedom, which was twice taken in one Month {A. 1513}. Then Lewis was at one time attack’d by the Emperour,He is attack’d by several Princes at once. England, and the Swiss; and if the English and the Swiss had join’d, France would have run a great Risque: But King Henry, in lieu of entring into the Heart of France, lost his Time at the Siege of Terouene [Terouanne], where he defeated the French, that were come to its Relief, near Guinegast; this Battel was call’d La journée des esperons, or The Battel of the Spurs, because the French made better use of their Spurs than their Swords;33 and after he had taken Tournay, he return’d into England. The Swiss, who kept the Duke of Tremoville besieg’d, were bought off with 600.000 Crowns [escus], which were Edition: current; Page: [226] promised to them by the Duke without the King’s Order, as likewise, that he should renounce the Council of Pisa and his Pretensions to the Dukedom of Milan. Which shamefull Agreement the King refus’d to ratify; and if the Swiss had not been more fond of the Ransom offer’d for the Hostages {given them by Tremouille} than their Blood, they [the hostages] had pay’d with their Lives for it. In the Year next following Lewis made a Peace with the King of England, who gave him his Sister Mary in Marriage; which young Lady, ’tis thought, did hasten the Death of the old King, which ensu’d in the beginning of the Year 1515. This King was so well belov’d by his People, that he was generally call’d, Le Pere du Peuple, or The Father of the People.

Francis I. §17. His Nephew Francis I. succeeded him, who having made a League with England, the Archduke Charles and Venice, enter’d upon a sudden into Italy, and took Genoua and some other Places without great Opposition; but being encamp’d near Marignano, within a League of Milan, the Swiss unexpectedly fell upon him, where a bloody Fight ensu’d [in 1515]. The Swiss were at last repuls’d, and found that they cou’d be beaten, having lost above 10.000; but the French Edition: orig; Page: [210] also left 4000 of their best Men upon the Spot. After this Maximilian34 surrender’d himself and the whole Country to the King, on the Condition of an annual Pension of 30.000 Ducats to be paid him.

Soon after the King agreed with the Swiss, whom in Consideration of a good Summ, he brought again into an Alliance with France. He made also an Agreement with Pope Leo X. by vertue of which the King was to have the Right of naming Bishops and Abbots, but the Pope to keep certain Benefits out of the chiefest Church Benefices. In the Year 1518, he redeem’d Tournay from the English for a good Summ of Money.He aspires to the Empire. In the Year next following, after the Death of the Emperor Maximilian, Francis employ’d all his Engines to be exalted to the Imperial Dignity; but the German Princes fearing lest the French should endeavour to humble them, and for some other Considerations, preferr’d before him Charles V. This proved the Occasion of great Jealousies betwixt these Edition: current; Page: [227] two Princes; for Francis being very sensible what great Advantages he [Charles] had gained by the Imperial Dignity, put himself into a good posture, to prevent his becoming Master of him and all the rest of the Princes in Europe. This Jealousie broke at last out into an open War, Francis endeavouring to re-take Navarre from the Spaniards, as thinking to have met with a fair Opportunity,In a few Days he takes and loses the Kingdom of Navarre. whilst the Divisions in Spain were on Foot. The French conquer’d that Kingdom in a few days time, but being not carefull enough to preserve it, as easily lost it again \A. 1521\.

Soon after the War was kindled in the Netherlands, occasion’d by Robert Van de Marck, Lord of Sedan, whom Francis took into his Protection. This Robert was so puft up with the French Protection, that he writ a Letter of Defiance to the Emperour, and fell into the Country of Luxemburgh. But Charles quickly chastis’d this petty Enemy; and being persuaded that Francis had encourag’d him thereunto, he took from him St. Amand and Tournay. The Business nevertheless might have been compos’d at the beginning, if the French had not insisted upon keeping Fonterabia, which in the mean time had been surpris’d by them.A War kendled in Italy. But the hardest task was in Italy, both the Edition: orig; Page: [211] Emperour and Pope being willing to drive Francis out of Milan, and to restore Francis Sforza. They effected both with good Success, for the French Army was not timely supply’d with Money, and being, besides this,The French driven out of Milan. beaten near Bicoque, the French were again driven out of Milan and Genoua \A. 1521\. And on the other side they also lost Fonterabia.

The Duke of Bourbon revolts to the Emperour. But what happen’d very ill to Francis, was, That the Constable Charles of Bourbon went over to the Emperour; the Reason of which was, That he had been for a while mightily kept under by the Queen Mother, the Chancellour Duprat, and Admiral Bonnivet. The first had commenc’d a Suit at Law against him about the Dukedom of Bourbon, which he despair’d to be able to maintain against so strong a Party, as believing [since he believed] that the King was underhand concern’d in the Matter. ’Tis said, that the first Cause of this Difference was, because the Duke of Bourbon had {not reciprocated her love for him, and had} refus’d to marry her. The Duke of Bourbon therefore had agreed with the Emperor and the King of England, That they should divide the Kingdom of France betwixt them; the Kingdom of Arelat and the Emperour’s Edition: current; Page: [228] Sister having been promis’d to the Duke of Bourbon. But the Design being discover’d, the Duke of Bourbon was forc’d to fly into Italy. Notwithstanding the English had made an Inrode into Picardy \A. 1524\, Francis sent again an Army into the Milaneze, under the Command of the Admiral Bonnivet, which was beaten back with considerable loss by the Duke of Bourbon. This Bonnivet persuaded the King to go in Person into Italy, with this prospect, that if Things succeeded well, he [Bonnivet] should have the Glory of having been the ‘Adviser’ [initiator], but if they succeeded ill, the Misfortune would be cover’d by the King’s Person. Francis therefore went with a good Resolution into Italy, because he saw the Duke of Bourbon, who in the mean time having enter’d Provence, had besieged Marseilles, did retreat before him, and having laid Siege to Pavia, he for two Months together harrass’d his Army in that Siege. In the mean while the Imperialists drew their Forces together, and march’d against him (who was encamp’d in the Parks [Thiergarten]) with an Intention either to Edition: orig; Page: [212] fight him or to relieve Pavia. Francis engaged with them in a Battel,Francis defeated at the Battel of Pavia, and taken Prisoner. but was defeated and taken Prisoner \A. 1525\. And thus the French were again driven {completely} out of Italy.

Francis was carry’d into Spain, and kept very hardly, so that he fell sick for Grief; which hastened his Liberty, it being fear’d that he might die through Vexation. Besides that, England and the Italian Princes enter’d into a Confederacy to hinder the growing Power of Charles. The Conditions upon which he obtain’d his Liberty we have touch’d upon in another place;35 but besides this, Francis gave his Parole of Honour, if the said Conditions were not fulfill’d, That he would return a Prisoner. But the wiser Sort did sufficiently foresee, that Francis would not perform the Agreement, wherefore Gattinara the Chancellour [of Charles V] refused to sign the Treaty,He is set at Liberty on hard Conditions, which he did not perform. alledging, That Charles could get nothing else by this Treaty but the implacable Hatred of the French, and to be ridicul’d by every Body; that |[he had been bubbl’d and disappointed in his covetous Designs.]|36 And Francis having obtain’d his Edition: current; Page: [229] Liberty after thirteen Months Imprisonment, pretended, That what had been done was done {under constraint} in Prison, and contrary to his Coronation Oath which he had taken at Rheims; That the Kingdom was not in his disposal, he having only the use of the same for Life. The same was alledged by the Estates, and especially, by the Burgundians, who would in no ways consent to be separated from the Crown of France. If Charles was so much for having Burgundy, he ought to have taken care to have been put into possession of the same, before he set Francis at liberty.

He with the King of England declare War against the Emperour. As soon as Francis had got his Liberty, he made it his first Business to renew the League with England and the Italian States. And the new Treaty having proved fruitless which was set on foot with the Emperour, both Kings [Henry and Francis] denounced War against him. Charles afterwards accusing Francis of not having kept his Parole, the latter gave the first the Lye [accused the former of lying], sending him also a Challenge {to a duel}, which Matters were look’d upon by the World as very unbecomming the Grandeur of such ‘Princes’ [potentates]. Francis sent, after this,He sends an Army into Italy. an Army into Italy under the Command of Odet de Foix Lau-tree, which Edition: orig; Page: [213] having made considerable progresses in the Milaneze, enter’d the Kingdom of Naples, and having taken a great many places there, laid Siege before the Capital City it self. But the French Affairs receiv’d the first Shock there, when Andrew Doria, the Admiral, leaving the French side, went over to the Emperour, he being dissatisfy’d that the King had refus’d to conferr upon him the Government of his Native City Genoua, and to restore to the Genouese, Savona. This Doria is deservedly praised, for that, when he might have been Lord of his Native Country, he chose rather to procure its Liberty, which it enjoys to this Day. But Doria leaving the French side, was the occasion that the City of Naples could not be cut off of their Communication by Sea. And the Plague began to reign in the Army during this long Siege, which devoured the greatest part of it, and the General himself. The Remnants of the Army were miserably treated, the Officers being made Prison ers, and the common Souldiers disarmed; the French were also oblig’d to quit Milan and Genoua. At last, the Emperour having obtained his Aim, and Francis being very desirous to see his Children at Liberty Edition: current; Page: [230] again,Peace made at Cambray. a Peace was concluded betwixt them at Cambray \A. 1529\, by vertue of which, Francis pay’d two Millions of Ducats as a Ransom for his Sons, and renounced the Sovereignty over Flanders, Artois, Milan and Naples. And this was all the Benefit which this King and his Predecessours had reapt from the Italian Wars.

The War breaks out afresh. Nevertheless, some Years after \A. 1535\, the War began afresh, at which time Francis found a new way to make himself Master of the Milaneze, by first securing to himself the Dukedom of Savoy. Wherefore he made Pretensions upon Charles Duke of Savoy concerning the Inheritance of his Mother, descended out of the House of Savoy, and for some other Reasons he fell upon him, and took most of his strong Holds. In the mean time died Francis Sforza Duke of Milan, wherefore the Emperour was resolv’d to annex this Country to his House, but Francis could by no means digest the loss of it. Charles therefore entered Provence in person with an Army of 40.000 Foot and 16.000 Horse, ransack’d Aix and be-Edition: orig; Page: [214]sieged Marseilles, which however he could not take[,] his Army being in a Month’s time greatly diminish’d by Sickness. An Army of 30.000 Men also enter’d Picardy from the Netherlands, which took Guise, but was beaten from before Peronne; yet afterwards took St. Pol and Monstrevil. Francis summoned the Emperour before him as his Vassal concerning Flanders and Artois, alledging, that the Sovereignty of these Provinces was inseparable from the Crown, and made an Alliance with the Turks. The first seemed to be very ridiculous to most People, the last very unbecoming a Christian Prince. The French however [did] reply, That this Alliance was eagerly sought for by the Emperour himself.The Truce prolong’d for nine Years. At last {A. 1538}, by the Mediation of the Pope, the Truce which was the Year before made at Nissa [Nice] in Provence was prolong’d for nine Years, and these two great Rivals gave afterwards one another a Visit at Aigues Mortes. And when in the Year next following the City of Ghent rebell’d, Charles had such a Confidence in Francis, that he took his Journey through France, tho’ Charles in the mean while had cunningly given Francis some Hopes of the Recovery of Milan; which however afterwards he would not acknowledge, because upon the Persuasions of the Constable Montmorency, the King had not Edition: current; Page: [231] taken from him any Security under his Hand37 during his stay in Paris; which some alledge to be one reason why Montmorency afterwards fell into Disgrace.

Francis breaks the Truce. But the Truce was broke again \A. 1542\, under pretence, That the Governour of Milan had caused to be kill’d Caesar Fregosus and Anthony Rinco the Ambassadours of Francis, as they were going along the River Po in their Way to Venice, the first of whom was to have gone from thence to Constantinople. Francis thought to have met now with a fair Opportunity, because Charles had suffered a considerable loss before Algier. He therefore attack’d the Emperour with five several Armies at once. But the strongest of all, which lay before Perpignan did nothing, the Second took some Places in the Country of Luxemburgh. The Emperour Salyman38 also made a great Diversion in Hungary, taking Gran and ‘some other Places’ [Stulweissenburg]. The great Pyrate Barbarossa Edition: orig; Page: [215] arriv’d in Provence with his Fleet, but did more mischief than good to France. But Charles, on the other hand, made an Alliance with Henry VIII. who was dissatisfy’d with Francis, because he had taken part with the Scots, and would not renounce his Obedience to the Pope. He, after he had beat the Duke of Cleves, who depended on the French, besieged Landrecy with a great Army, but to no purpose. In the mean time the French had obtain’d a most signal Victory over the Imperial Forces near Cerisolles in Piedmont. But the King could not prosecute his Victory, being obliged to recall his Troops, because the Emperour and Henry King of England had made an Agreement with an Army of 80.000 Foot and 22.000 Horse, to fall into France; the first by the Way of Champagne, the second by the Way of Picardy, to join their Forces near Paris, to ransack the City and all the adjacent Countries as far as to the River Loire. The Emperour took by the Way Luxemburgh, lay six Weeks before Disier, got abundance of Provision in Espernay and Chasteau Thierry, which put the whole City of Paris into a great Consternation; and no small Danger seemed to threaten that City, if Edition: current; Page: [232] King Henry had joined his Forces in time, according to his Promise: But he losing his Time in the Sieges of Boulogne and Monstrevil, Charles hearkened to a Peace,A Peace concluded at Crespy. which was concluded at Crespy \A. 1544\. By vertue of this Peace all the Places were restored, and the Emperour promised to the Duke of Orleans, the second Son of the King, either his or his Brother’s Daughter in Marriage, and to give for her Dowry either Milan or the Netherlands; which was not performed, because the said Duke died in the Year next following. Francis also made a Peace with England \A. 1546\, under Condition that he should have liberty to redeem Boulogne for a certain Summ of Money. He died in the Year 1547.

Henry II. §18. Him succeeded his Son Henry II. to whom fell the Marquisate of Saluzze \A. 1548\, as a Fief of Dauphine, the last Marquiss Gabriel dying without Issue. He severely chastiz’d the City of Bourdeaux \A. 1549\, which had rebelled against him. In the Year next following \A. 1550\ he Edition: orig; Page: [216] redeemed Boulogne for a certain Summ of Money from the English. In the Year 1551, the Emperour being engaged in a War against the Turks, and the German Princes being very jealous of his Greatness, Henry thought to have met with a fit Opportunity to break with him.His Expedition into Germany. He began therefore in the Netherlands and Piedmont; and having made an Alliance with Maurice Elector of Saxony, he marched with his Army towards the Rhine \A. 1552\, and surpriz’d by the Way the Cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, and would have done the same with Strasbourgh, if they had not been upon their Guard there. But the Elector of Saxony having made a Peace with the Emperour without including the King, and some Princes intreating him not to advance farther into the Empire he marched back into the Country of Luxembourgh, where he took some Places. The Emperour then besieged Metz with an Army of 100.000 Men, but the Duke of Guise defended himself so bravely, that the Emperour was obliged to raise the Siege with great loss. To revenge this Affront, he attack’d Terouanne in Artois with great Fury, and rased to the Ground this Fortress, which had proved hitherto so troublesome to the Netherlands. The same he did to Hesdin, both the Garrisons being put to the Sword. On the other side the French took Edition: current; Page: [233] Siena in Italy, and several Places in the Island of Corsica, but were again beaten out of Siena \A. 1555\, after they had been maul’d near Marciano.

A Truce between Charles V. and Henry II. In the Year 1556, a Truce was concluded at Vaucelles near Cambray, the Emperour being desirous to leave the Kingdom to his Son (to whom he had surrender’d the same) in Peace.39 But the Truce was scarce confirm’d by Oath, when the French, upon the Instigation of Pope Paul IV. broke the same again, who having some Differences with Spain persuaded Henry to take his part. The Duke of Guise was therefore sent into Italy with an Army, but did nothing worth mentioning. In the meantime King Philip had gathered an Army of 50.000 Men, hoping thereby to establish his Reputation in the beginning of his Reign, and having also drawn England into the War, he besieged St. Quintin, into which place the Admiral Gaspar Coligny had thrown Edition: orig; Page: [217] himself. The Constable Montmorency advanced with an Army to the Relief of the Place, but retreating again in sight of the Enemies, they fell upon him, and gave him a terrible Defeat \A. 1557\. France had been then in the utmost danger, if this Victorious Army had march’d directly towards Paris, and if the Enemies Design upon Lyons had not miscarry’d. But King Philip feared least the Duke of Savoy, who commanded his Army, might take this Opportunity to reconcile himself to France upon some advantageous Conditions; wherefore he would not let him march on far into the Country, but took St. Quintin by Storm, and lost his Time in the taking of Han, Chastelet and Noyon. This gave leisure to the French to recollect themselves, and having recall’d the Duke of Guise out of Italy, they retook Calais, and those few other places which remained under the English thereabouts, as likewise Thionville in the Year 1559.

A Project to unite Scotland with France miscarried. In the same Year a Project was set on foot, to unite the Kingdom of Scotland with France, by a Marriage betwixt Queen Mary and the Dauphine Francis;40 but the same miscarried, no Children being born of them. The Mareschal de Fermes, who made an Inrode into Flanders was soundly beaten near Gravelingen. At last a Peace was concluded at Edition: current; Page: [234] Chasteau en Cambresis, which prov’d very pernicious for France; because, for <the Castle of Cambray,> the {three} Cities of Han, Chastelet and St. Quintin, there were not only 198 Places redeliver’d to Spain {and others}, and the Duke of Savoy restor’d, but also this Peace was partly the Occasion of those intestine Wars, which afterwards miserably tore in pieces the Kingdom of France. It was also resolv’d in France not to intermeddle any more in the Italian Affairs, and to dissolve the Alliance with the Turks. After this Peace was concluded Henry was kill’d in a Turnament, a Splinter of a broken Lance having got into his Eye; for the King had challeng’d the Earl of Montgomery to run against him with an open Vizier, and as soon as he was wounded he lost both his Senses and Speech, and died within eleven days. By this Accident, the Wedding which he celebrated for his Sister Margaret, which was married to Chilibert [Philibert] E-Edition: orig; Page: [218]manuel Duke of Savoy, was very mournfully consummated.

Francis II. §19. Him succeeded his Son Francis II. under whose Reign the French Divisions began to break out with Fury in their own Bowels, which continued near 40 Years, whereas formerly the violent Heat of this Nation had been quell’d, partly by the Wars with the English, partly by the several Expeditions undertaken against Italy. Concerning the Causes of these Intestine Wars, it is to be observ’d, That after the House of Valois came to the Crown,The Causes of the intestine Wars of France. the next in Blood were those of the House of Bourbon, which House was grown so Potent, by its Riches, Power and Authority of a great many brave Persons, which descended from it, that the preceding Kings were grown extreamly jealous of it. And, tho’ Francis I. at the beginning of his Reign did constitute {Charles} the Duke of Bourbon Constable; yet being soon convinced afterwards, of the Reasons which had induc’d his Ancestors to keep under this House, he us’d all his Endeavours to humble the said Charles of Bourbon. For this Reason he enter’d into a Conspiracy against Francis, which having been discover’d, he went over to Charles V. and commanded as General in the Battel near Pavia, where Francis was taken Prisoner, and was slain in the storming of Rome \A. 1527\. By his Death the House of Bourbon receiv’d a great blow, those who were left being look’d upon with a very Edition: current; Page: [235] ill Eye, tho’ they kept themselves very quiet to extinguish the Suspicion and Hatred conceiv’d against them.

The House of Bourbon being thus brought very low, the two Houses of Montmorency and Guise held up their Heads under the Reign of Francis I. The first was one of the most ancient in France; the latter was a Branch of the House of Lorrain. The Head of the first was Annas Montmorency, Constable of France; of the latter Claude Duke of Guise. Both of them were in great Favour and Authority with Francis I. but both fell into Disgrace at the latter end of his Reign, being banish’d [from] the Court. It is related of Francis I. that just before his Death he advised his Son Henry to con-Edition: orig; Page: [219]sult with neither of them in his Affairs, since too great and too able Ministers proved often dangerous. Yet notwithstanding this, Henry II. did receive both Annas Montmorency and Francis de Guise, the Son of Claude, into his particular Favour; who quickly grew jealous of one another, the first taking much upon him41 because of his Experience in State Affairs, and Gravity, the latter being puff’d up with the Glory of Martial Exploits, and the Applause of the People; the Authority of the Duke of Guise was greatly encreas’d after he had repuls’d Charles V.The House of Guise rises, and that of Bourbon declines. from before Metz, and taken Calais; whereas the unfortunate Battel fought near St. Quintin, and the ensuing dishonourable Peace were very prejudicial to Montmorency. But the House of Guise got the greatest Advantage, after Francis II. had marry’d Mary Queen of Scotland, whose Mother was Sister to the Duke of Guise: So that during the Reign of Francis II. the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal his Brother, were the Men that bore the greatest Sway in the Kingdom; which extreamly exasperated Montmorency and the two Brothers of Bourbon, Anthony King of Navarre, and the Prince of Conde, seeing themselves thus neglected. And tho’ Anthony was of a very modest Behaviour, watching only an Opportunity to regain his Kingdom of Navarre from the Spaniards, and having a sufficient Revenue out of his Country of Bearn, wherewithal to maintain himself; yet the Prince of Conde was Ambitious, Poor, and of a turbulent Spirit, who was not able to maintain his |[Grandeur without some considerable Edition: current; Page: [236] Employment]|.42 Besides this, he was continually stirr’d up by the Admiral Gaspar Coligny, an ambitious, cunning and sly Man; who, as his Enemies will have it, was very forward to fish in troubled Waters; his Brother d’ Andelot also being of a very wild and turbulent Spirit. These three only watch’d an Opportunity to raise Commotions in the Kingdom.

Thus the great Men of the Kingdom were divided into these several Factions, at the Time when Francis II. began his Reign, a Prince scarce sixteen Years old, weak both in Body and Mind, and therefore incapable to rule the Kingdom by himself. Several therefore pretended to have Edition: orig; Page: [220] a right to the Administration of the Government, these of Bourbon, as being the next Princes of the Blood;Divisions about the Administration of the Government. the House of Guise, as being nearly related to the Queen, and the Queen Mother Catharine de Medicis, the very pattern of an aspiring and cunning Woman, hoped, That whilst the Princes were in contest about the Administration of the Government, it would fall to her share, wherefore she always fomented the Divisions, by keeping up the Balance betwixt them. This Catherine first sided with the House of Guise, dividing the Administration of Affairs with them, so that she was to have the Supream Administration, the Duke of Guise was to manage the Military Affairs, and his Brother the Cardinal the Finances. This Agreement being made betwixt them, the Constable, under pretence of his old Age was dismiss’d from Court, and the Prince of Conde sent as Ambassadour into Spain. These, who were thus excluded, had a meeting, to consider which way they might free themselves from these Oppressions, where it was resolv’d that the King of Navarre should intercede for them at Court; who being put off with fair words and empty Promises, set himself at rest. Conde was resolv’d to try his Fortune by force; but having not a sufficient ‘Interest’ [strength], Coligny advised him, he should side with the Huguenots (for so they call’d in France those who profess’d the Protestant Religion) who labour’d then under a severe Persecution and wanted a Head, under whose ‘Conduct’ [leadership] they might obtain the free Edition: current; Page: [237] Exercise of their Religion: Besides that, they mortally hated those of Guise, whom they supposed to be the Authors of their Persecution.

The Business was thus concerted [orchestrated]; That the Huguenots should assemble in private, and some of them by a humble Petition to request the free Exercise of their Religion at Court; which, if it should be refus’d, the rest should be at hand, to kill those of Guise, and to force the King to receive the Prince of Conde for his chief Minister of State. The Execution of this Design was undertaken by a certain Gentleman call’d Renaudie; but the Enterprize being deferr’d for some time, because the Court went from Blois to Amboise, it was discover’d, and thereby render’d impracti-Edition: orig; Page: [221]cable, above twelve hundred that were taken paying with their Lives for it; Conde was also sent to Prison, and was just upon the point of receiving Sentence of Death, when Francis II. after a very short Reign, died suddenly \A. 1560\ of an Ulcer in the Head, which caused great Alterations in the Affairs of the Kingdom.

Charles IX. §20. Him succeeded his Brother Charles IX. then scarce eleven Years old, whose Tuition his Mother Catharine took immediately upon her self, hoping to enjoy it quietly, whilst the Houses of Bourbon and Guise were engag’d in mutual Quarrels; wherefore she was very carefull to uphold these Jealousies betwixt them. To find an Opportunity to set up [elevate] the Prince of Conde and his Party, thereby to balance those of Guise, she pretended to be no Enemy to the Protestant Religion, under which Pretence the same was much in request at Court. To suppress the reformed Religion, Montmorency, the House of Guise, and the Mareschal of St. Andrew, join’d in a Confederacy, who calling themselves the Triumvirate, drew also the King of Navarre in to their Party.The Conference of Poissy. After this a Conference and Disputation was held betwixt some Divines of both Religions at Poissy, after which, the Royal Protection was by a publick Edict, promis’d to the Protestant Religion \A. 1562\; which from the Month is call’d the Edict of January.43

The first Huguenot War. This extreamly exasperated the Triumvirate, so that in the very same Year the War commenc’d. The first occasion of it was given by some Edition: current; Page: [238] belonging to those of Guise, who in a small Town call’d Vassy, disturb’d the Protestants in the Exercise of their Religion; and a Quarrel arising thereupon, kill’d near threescore of them: Which was the first Blood shed in this Civil War; and from this time Things went very strangely [turbulently] in France. It is not our purpose to enumerate all the Cities that were taken, neither to speak of all the small Skirmishes which are innumerable, nor the Cruelties committed on both sides, and the ‘Barbarities’ [frenzy] of the Rabble; it will be sufficient for us to touch upon some of the main points. In this first War the King of Navarre died of a Wound, which he receiv’d in the Siege of Roan. Near Dreux Edition: orig; Page: [222] a bloody Battel was fought, where Conde at first had the Advantage, but his Souldiers falling to plundring, he was beat back again, he himself being made a Prisoner, and the Mareschal St. Andrew being kill’d by a Shot. 8000 Men were slain upon the Spot, and the Loss [was] near equal on both sides; [still,] the Duke of Guise kept the Field, but was afterwards, at the Siege of Orleans, treacherously murther’d by one Poltrot, with a Pistol shot, who was supposed to have committed the Fact by instigation of Coligny. Soon after \A. 1563\ a Peace was made. It is related, that above 50.000 Huguenots were slain in this War; on the other side, they [Huguenots] took the Church-plate and Ornaments, which they having turn’d into Money, Silver was after this War more currant in France than before. But Catharine had persuaded her self, that both Parties were reduc’d to that Condition, that she could now handle them at pleasure.

After the Peace was concluded the English were again beaten out of Havre de Grace, which the Huguenots had given them as an Acknowledgment for their Assistance. This Peace lasted no longer than till the Year ‘1576’ [1567], when the Huguenots were persuaded, that at the interview betwixt Catharine and the Duke of Alba at Bayonne, a League was set on foot for rooting out the Hereticks: And in effect, they were immediately after more severely dealt with,The Second War. and, as it was reported, the Prince of Conde and Coligny were to be secur’d. The Huguenots therefore began the Second War, during which, the Constable Annas Montmorency being mortally wounded in an Engagement {near St. Denys}, he told a Monk, who at his last Hour was very troublesome to him; He Edition: current; Page: [239] should let him be at quiet, since during the Time of 80 Years that he had liv’d, he had learn’d how to employ one quarter of an Hour in dying. The Huguenots got great Reputation for Valour in this Engagement, they being much Inferiour to the others in Number. About the same time the City of Rochelle declar’d for the Huguenots, which afterwards for 60 Years together serv’d them for a secure Retreat. Then a second Peace was concluded \A. 1568\, not with an Intention to keep it, but that each Party might find a better Opportunity to take Advantage of one another; nor were the Conditions ever fulfill’d. Edition: orig; Page: [223]

The Third War. The War therefore was renewed in the same Year, during which the Prince of Conde was kill’d by a Shot, in a Battel near Jarnack \A. 1569\. After his Death the Huguenots declar’d Henry King of Navarre, the Son of Anthony, who afterwards was King of France, their Head, tho’ in effect Coligny had the chief management of Affairs.The Prince of Conde being slain, the King of Navarre is declar’d Head of the Huguenots. He in vain besieged Poictiers, in the Defence of which Place the young Duke of Guise gave the first proofs of his Valour; he was also soundly beaten near Montcontour, where he lost 9000 Foot. He lost nevertheless nothing of his former Reputation, for he quickly recollected his broken Troops, and got together a great Army, being assisted by Queen Elizabeth with Money, and by the Paltzgrave44 with Souldiers, he directed his March towards Paris, whereupon a Peace was concluded \A. 1570\ to the great Advantage of the Huguenots, the four strong Cities of Rochelle, Montauban, Cagnac and Charité being given them for their Security:

But the main design of this Peace was, that the King perceiving, that the Huguenots could not be suppress’d by Force, hop’d he might win them by Policy, therefore endeavour’d by fair Words and great Promises to make them secure. The Admiral was caress’d at Court, he being consulted withall concerning an Expedition to be undertaken against the Spaniards in the Netherlands. A Marriage also was concluded betwixt Henry King of Navarre and Margaret the King’s Sister,45 to which Wedding they invited the chief of the Huguenots, with a Design to cut Edition: current; Page: [240] their Throats in Paris. And first of all the Admiral Coligny, as he was going home from Court,The Parisian Massacre. was by some Villains, who were suborn’d by the Duke of Guise, shot with two Bullets through the Arm. Then it was agreed, That in the Year ‘1571’ [1572], on the 24th Day of August, early in the Morning, when the Bells were ringing to Prayers, all the Huguenots should be massacred, except the King of Navarre and the young Prince of Conde: The Execution of this Enterprize the Duke of Guise had taken upon himself. The beginning of whose Massacre was made with Coligny, who was ill of his Wounds; then it fell promiscuously upon the rest, the Fury of the Mob not ceasing till after seven Days Edition: orig; Page: [224] slaughter. A great many other Cities of France follow’d the Example of Paris, so that within ‘few’ [those same] Days near 30.000 were miserably massacred. The King of Navarre and Prince of Conde were forc’d to abjure the Reformed Religion. This was the so much celebrated Parisian Wedding, which Gabriel Naude would fain represent us a State’s Trick [coup d’état], but this is, in my Opinion, a very gross [grob] way of arguing.46

The Fourth War. Nevertheless the Huguenots did quickly recollect themselves, after the first Consternation was over, renewing the War with great Animosity and Revenge. During this War the King’s Army {under the command of the Duke of Anjou} besieged Rochelle near eight Months together, and having lost 12.000 Men before it, News was brought, That the Duke d’ Anjou47 was elected King of Poland. Hence an Opportunity was taken to raise the Siege with some Reputation, and to make a Peace the fourth time with the Huguenots \A. 1573\; by vertue of which, the Cities of Rochelle, Montauban and Nismes were given them for their Security.The Fifth War. But immediately, in the Year next following, the fifth War commenc’d; at which time also a third Faction arose in France, which was call’d, that Edition: current; Page: [241] of the Politicians [Politicos]; they pretended, without having any regard to the Religious Differences, to seek the publick Welfare, to have the Queen remov’d from the Administration of the Government, and the Italians and those of Guise to be banish’d [from] the Kingdom of France. The Heads of this Faction were those of the House of Montmorency, who intended, during these Troubles, to play their own Game. These were afterwards very instrumental in helping Henry IV. to the Crown. During these Troubles Charles IX. died, leaving no legitimate {male} Issue behind him.

Henry III. §21. After the Death of Charles IX. the Crown fell to Henry III. who was at that time in Poland, during whose absence his Mother Catharine govern’d the Kingdom, which was in a very confus’d Estate. He left Poland privately, and taking his Way by Vienna and Venice, arriv’d safely in France. But after he had taken upon him the Administration of Affairs, he deceiv’d every body in those Hopes which were conceiv’d Edition: orig; Page: [225] of him before. For he being addicted only to his Pleasures and Idleness, was led away by his Favourites, leaving the chief Administration of the Kingdom to his Mother. The Huguenots Power encreas’d remarkably after the Duke of Alenson, the Kings Brother, sided with them, and Conde and the Pfaltzgrave, John Casimir,48 led an Army out of Germany into France; besides that, the King of Navarre found means to make his escape out of Prison. The fifth Peace was therefore concluded with the Huguenots, whereby they obtain’d very advantageous Conditions.

The Holy League. About the same time a new Faction was set up, which was compos’d of a great many small ones, this was call’d, The holy Union, or League, which reduc’d France to the most miserable Condition that could be. The chief promoter of it was Henry Duke of Guise, who, perceiving, that the great Authority which he had among the People, made him to be hated by the King, endeavour’d to make a Party of his own. He made use especially of the Priests and common People of Paris; among whom Edition: current; Page: [242] the Name of the Guises was in great Veneration. He was encouraged to undertake this Design, because the King was despis’d by all, and the Women by their Intrigues, rul’d at Court. Besides this, he pretended to be descended from the Race of Charles the Great, which was excluded unjustly from the Crown by Hugh Capet. The Pretence of [pretext for] this League was the Catholick Religion; and there was a Draught made of this League, which contain’d chiefly three things, viz. The Defence of the Catholick Religion; the Establishment of Henry III. in the Throne, and the maintaining the Liberty of the Kingdom, and the Assembly of the States. Those who enter’d into this League promis’d to be obedient to such Head or General as should be chosen for the Defence of this League, all which was confirm’d by {a terrible} Oath. At the first setting up of this League the King conniv’d at it, hoping thereby the sooner to subdue the Huguenots; nay, he himself subscrib’d [to] the same at the Dyet at Blois, declaring himself the Head of this League \A. 1577\.

The Sixth War. Then the sixth War was begun against the Huguenots, but the King made Peace with them the Edition: orig; Page: [226] same Year, notwithstanding that they were in a very ill Condition, neither was any thing done worth mentioning in this War. The War being ended, the King returning to his Pleasures, confounded great Summs of Money, and therefore laid new and heavy Impositions upon the People, and his Favourites grew very Insolent; which increas’d the Hatred against him, and at the same time the Respect and Love of the People to those of Guise. Besides this, the Duke of Alenson, the King’s Brother, declaring himself Lord of the Netherlands, Philip King of Spain was provoked to revenge himself of the French, and upheld the League.Spain enters the League. In the Year 1579 the Seventh War was begun against the Huguenots, wherein also they succeeded very ill. Notwithstanding this the King made a Peace with them in the Year next following he being unwilling that they should be quite rooted out,The Seventh War. for fear that the League might prove too strong for himself. The German Horse were also much fear’d, and the Duke of Alenson was very forward to have the Peace concluded, that he might be at leisure to employ his Forces in the Netherlands. This Peace lasted five Years, during which time the Hatred against the King increas’d daily, because of the heavy Taxes which were devour’d by his Favourites. He made himself also the Edition: current; Page: [243] more despis’d by playing too much the Hypocrite, and by transforming himself almost into a Monk. The French Glory was also much eclips’d, when the Duke of Alenson behav’d himself so ill in the Netherlands,49 and the French Fleet which was sent to the Assistance of Anthony the Bastard, was totally ruin’d near Tercera.

But the League grew very strong after the Death of the Duke of Alenson, the King’s younger Brother, the King having no hopes of any Issue of his Body: Then it was that the Duke of Guise propos’d to himself no less than the Crown, tho’ he for a colour [pretense] set up the Cardinal of Bourbon, thereby to exclude the King of Navarre. And because it was suspected that the King favour’d the King of Navarre, the Priests began to thunder in the Pulpits, and to make horrid Exclamations, that the Catholick Religion was lost; the Duke of Guise en-Edition: orig; Page: [227]ter’d into a Confederacy with Philip, who was to furnish great Summs of Money under pretext of maintaining the Catholick Religion, and to assist the Cardinal of Bourbon in obtaining the Crown; but in effect, this Intention was to uphold the Divisions in France, thereby to disenable it to take part with the Netherlands. Then \A. 1585\ the Leaguers began to break out into an open War; and having taken a great many Towns oblig’d the King, according to their Demands, to forbid the Exercise of the Protestant Religion in France.

The Eighth War. And so began the Eighth War against the Huguenots, and if the King had been in earnest to ruin them, they would have been in a very ill Condition: For tho’ the King of Navarre beat the Duke de Joyeuse near Coutras \A. 1587\, yet did he not prosecute his Victory. And about the same time the Duke of Guise dispers’d the German and Swiss Forces, which under the Command of Fabian de Dona50 were marching to the Assistance of the Huguenots. This Army, being destitute of a good Commander was miserably maul’d, and the rest sent home in a very shamefull Condition. This Victory acquir’d the Duke of Guise great Applause and Favour among the People, and still [further] lessen’d the Value of the Edition: current; Page: [244] King’s Person; so that the Priests now did not stick to exclaim against the King in their Sermons, calling him a Tyrant. The King therefore having resolv’d with himself to punish the Heads of the League in Paris, they broke out into open Rebellion,The League force the King from Paris. and having sent for the Duke of Guise as their Protector, the King was oblig’d to leave Paris by Night \A. 1588\.

But the King perceiving that more Cities sided daily with the League, and despairing to overcome them by Force, took another Course to obtain his Ends, and made an Agreement with the Duke of Guise, with great Advantages on his and the Leaguers side: He pretended also to have forgotten all past Injuries, on purpose to inveigle the Duke of Guise. And under these specious pretences he got him to appear at the Assembly of the Estates at Blois. (In the mean time the Duke of Savoy had taken from the French the Marquisate of Saluzze, the only Province left them in Italy.) But the Estates, who were most of them Crea-Edition: orig; Page: [228]tures of the Duke of Guise, being very urgent in their Demands, to have the King of Navarre declar’d incapable of the Crown, and the Duke of Guise to be made Constable, the King caus’d the Duke of Guise and his Brother the Cardinal to be murther’d.The Duke and Cardinal of Guise assassinated by the King’s Order at Blois. This put those of the League into a Rage, and with the Assistance of the Priests, the King was in Paris publickly declar’d to have forfeited the Crown. Most of the great Cities of France being stirr’d up by the Example of the Parisians did the same, declaring the Duke de Maine, Brother to the Duke of Guise, Lieutenant-General of the State and Crown of France, and Su pream Head of the League; who endeavour’d, but in vain, to surprize the King in Tours.

The King makes use of the Huguenots against the League. The King then being overpower’d by the League, and besides this, excommunicated by the Pope, was oblig’d to make an Agreement with the King of Navarre and to make use of the Huguenots. And having got together a great Army, he march’d towards Paris, with a Resolution to reduce that City to Obedience by Force of Arms: But the day before the general Attack was to be made, one James Clement, a Jacobin Monk, brought a Letter out of the City directed to the King, which whilst he deliver’d, pretending to whisper [to] the King, thrust a Knife into his Bowels, of which Wound he died the day following \on 2. August 1589\: The last of the House of Valois.

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Henry IV. §22. Henry IV. whom we hitherto have call’d the King of Navarre, and, who was the first of the House of Bourbon, did at the beginning of his Reign, meet with no less Difficulties than he had met with before. For tho’ he was lawfull Heir to the Crown, yet the ‘Protestant’ [Huguenot] Religion, which he profess’d, was no small obstacle, for as long as he was addicted to that, the League, the Pope, and Spain, would questionless oppose him with all their might: But if he chang’d his Religion he was in danger of losing the Assistance of the Huguenots which had been steady to him, and so {perhaps} set himself betwixt two Stools.His Difficulties on the account of his Religion. And it would have been very unbecoming, to have so publickly accommodated his Religion to his {worldly} Interest. Notwithstanding this, immediately after the Death of Hen-Edition: orig; Page: [229]ry III. all the great Men of the Army assembled together, promis’d him Obedience after ‘several Contests’ [a long debate, disput], under Condition, that within six Months he would suffer himself to be instructed in the Catholick Religion. But because Henry would not be bound to any certain time, but only gave them some Hopes in general terms, it was agreed, That the Huguenots should enjoy the free Exercise of their Religion, yet that the Catholick Religion should be re-establish’d in all Cities, and the Revenues restor’d to the Clergy. But, those of the League, because the Duke of Maine at that time durst not take upon him the Title of King, proclaim’d the Cardinal of Bourbon, an ancient decrepid Man, Uncle to King Henry, and who was then in Custody, their King, declaring the Duke de Maine Lieutenant-General of the Crown. The Leaguers made the strongest Party, having on their side the Common People, most of the great Cities, all the Parliaments except that of Rennes and Bourdeaux, almost all the Clergy, Spain, the Pope, and the rest of the Catholick Princes, except Venice and Florence. But the Heads were not very unanimous, and the Duke de Maine had not Authority enough to keep them in Unity. But on the King’s side were almost all the Nobility, the whole Court of the deceas’d King, all the Protestant Princes and States, the old Huguenot Troops, who had done great Service to Henry, and would still have done more, if they had not mistrusted him, that he would change his Religion.

Each Party watch’d an Opportunity of surprizing one another. The Edition: current; Page: [246] Duke of Maine endeavouring to surprize the King near Diep, was bravely repuls’d, which seem’d {to the wise} to be ominous to the League. On the other Hand, the King could not get Paris tho’ he had taken the Suburbs. But Henry was not only pester’d by the League, but also for want of Money, was oblig’d to keep up his Party with fair Words and Promises. The Spaniards also began to intermeddle publickly in the Affairs of France, in hopes in this Juncture either to conquer the Kingdom, or to divide it, or at least to weaken it. But the Duke de Maine did underhand oppose these Designs, being unwilling, that in Edition: orig; Page: [230] case he could not be King himself, France should fall under the Subjection of Spain. In the Year 1590, Henry obtain’d a glorious Victory over the Duke de Maine, who had double the Number, near Ivry. Then he block’d up Paris, which was reduc’d to the greatest Extremity by Famine, but reliev’d by the Duke of Parma Governour of the Netherlands. In the Year 1591, there arose a third Faction, the young Cardinal of Bourbon making Pretensions to the Crown, but was very fortunately disappointed in his Aim by the King.The Pope Excommunicates Henry. Then Pope Gregory XIV. excommunicated Henry, exhorting all his Subjects to withdraw themselves from their Obedience, which Difficulty Henry did not surmount without great troubles.

The Spaniards also declar’d themselves more freely, Philip offering his Daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia to be made Queen of France; which Proposal was mightily encouraged by the young Duke of Guise, he being then just escap’d out of his Custody, as ’tis suppos’d, by connivance of the King, who supposed, that thereby that Party might be divided, since he would certainly endeavour to oppose the Designs of the Duke de Maine his Uncle. After the Duke of Parma had rais’d the Siege of Roan, the Spaniards urg’d more and more,Proposals about setting up another King. that the French would take a Resolution concerning the setting up of another King. And in the Assembling of the Estates in Paris \A. 1593\, which was held for that purpose, it was propos’d, That Isabella the Daughter of Philip, being born of a French Mother, should be declar’d Queen of France, and that she should have for her Husband Ernest Arch-Duke of Austria. But the French refusing to accept of a Foreigner for their King, Charles Duke of Guise was proposed as a Husband to Isabella. This Proposition relish’d very ill with the Duke of Maine, who thought himself so well deserving, that no body ought to be preferr’d before him; wherefore, if he could Edition: current; Page: [247] not have the Crown, he was resolv’d no body else should have it, and so employ’d all his Cunning, that there was nothing determined in the Assembly concerning this Proposition.

The King, however, plainly perceiv’d, That if he did not change his Religion, his Affairs must needs grow Edition: orig; Page: [231] worse, especially, since these Catholicks, who hitherto had been of his Party did threaten to leave him, if he did not perform his Promise.The King changes his Religion. He called therefore the {most eminent} Bishops together, who instructed him in the Catholick Faith, and having receiv’d Absolution, he went, to St. Denys’s Chapel to Mass \A. 1593\. And that the People might tast the sweetness of Peace, and desire it, he made a Truce of three Months, which prov’d very successfull, especially, since the fundamental Pretence, namely, Henry’s being a Heretick,Several Cities surrender to him. was now remov’d. Vitry and the City of Meaux were the first that surrender’d themselves to the King in the same Year, upon very advantageous Conditions; Aix, Lyons, Orleans, Bourges and other Cities soon followed their Example. And to encourage the rest to do the same, the King caused himself to be Crowned and Annointed in Chartres, Rheims being as yet in the hands of the League. Not long after Paris was also Surrendred by the Governour Brissac; and here the King was received with such joyfull Acclamations of the People, as if they had never been his Enemies, the Spanish Garrison being turn’d out with Ignominy, and the hissing of the Common people. Then all the rest of the Cities and Governours surrendred themselves to the King on very advantageous Conditions, which the King was willing to grant them, that he might once be put in quiet possession of the Crown, and drive the Spaniards out of France. The young Duke of Guise submitted himself, being made Governour of Provence. Then Henry denounced War against Spain, not only to revenge himself for what Troubles they had created to him before, but also to please the Huguenots, and to root out of the People their affection for the Spaniards. These were the Fruits Philip reapt for so many Millions, which he had bestowed in supporting the League.

The King assaulted and wounded by a Ruffian. |[In the beginning of the same Year]|,51 a Knife was by a certain desperate ‘Ruffian’ [boy, Buben], called John Castel, thrust into the King’s Edition: current; Page: [248] Mouth, whereby he lost one of his Teeth. It was the King’s good fortune that he [had] just bowed himself, this Villain’s aim having been at his Throat: And because it was found out, that the Jesuits had been tampering with him, whose Principles Edition: orig; Page: [232] also were thought very dangerous, they were banish’d out of France, but some years after restored again.52 Afterwards the Duke of Nevers being sent to Rome to obtain Absolution for King Henry,The Jesuits banish’d. the same was granted by the Pope, who had been very averse hitherto to Henry; but perceiving that he would maintain his Crown in spite of him, was now for ingratiating himself with the King. Then the Dukes of Maine, and Espernon, and Marseilles were received again into the King’s favour. But the War against Spain did not succeed according to wish. For tho’ the King had got some advantages over them in the Franche Comte, and had beat the Spaniards out of Han in Picardy; yet on the other side, these took Dourlans and Cambray, the latter of which had been hitherto in the Possession of Balagny under French protection; and in the Year 1596, next following, they took Calais and Ardres. And tho’ the King took from the Spaniards Fere, yet was that a very slender compensation of his Losses. But there happened another great Misfortune; For the Spaniards in the Year next following took the City of Amiens by surprize, which was not re-taken without great pains. In the Year 1598, the Duke of Mercœur, who hitherto had stood out resolutely in Bretany, did at last submit himself, hoping thereby to obtain the said Dukedom.The Edict at Nants. And to set the Huguenots at rest, he [Henry] publish’d for their security that famous Edict of Nants [Nantes],53 as it is called, by virtue of which they have hitherto enjoyed the free Exercise of Religion. At last a Peace was concluded betwixt Henry and the Spaniards at Vervins, with Conditions,The Peace of Vervins. that such Places as were taken since the Year 1559, should be restored on both sides.

A Peace being thus concluded, and Henry resolved to be {reconciled} Edition: current; Page: [249] even with the Duke of Savoy, who under his Predecessour’s Reign had taken Saluzze, and during the intestine Wars had raised great Troubles in Dauphine and Provence, in hopes to snatch away a piece of the dismembred Kingdom; and tho’ the Duke came in Person into France, and promised to the King to give him some other Places in exchange of the former; yet was he not in earnest, in hopes to be upheld by Spain, or that the Marshal de Biron, with whom he kept pri-Edition: orig; Page: [233]vate Intelligence, should renew the civil Commotions. But the King fell upon him,He takes from the Duke of Savoy, all that he possessed on this side the Alpes. and took from the Duke all what he was possess’d of on this side of the Alpes. At last, by Mediation of the Pope, an agreement was made \A. 1600\, that the Duke should give to France, in exchange for Saluzze, La Bresse, Bugey, Valromay et [and] Gex. The Italian Princes were very ill satisfied with this Peace, since there being no door left for France to enter Italy, Italy was left to the discretion of the Spaniard. But Henry being tired with so long and tedious War, was resolved at last to enjoy the sweet Fruits of Peace after so many years Troubles. But soon after a dangerous Conspiracy was discovered,The Conspiracy of the Marshal de Biron. contrived by the Mareschal de Biron, who intended with the Assistance of the Spaniards to depose the King, and to dismember the Kingdom, by setting up a great many petty Principalities; having agreed with the rest, to have for his share the Dukedom of Burgundy. And he refusing to accept of the King’s Mercy, which he was willing to grant him in consideration of his great Deserts, was condemn’d, and his Head cut off \A. 1602\.

The King being now at Peace, did employ all his Thoughts, how France might recover itself after such tedious Wars, and that good Ordinances might be establish’d, but especially that his Revenues might be encreased. He establish’d for this purpose all sorts of Manufactories, and especially that of Silk,He introduces Manufacturies. (which afterwards drew great Riches into that Kingdom.) But even in the midst of Peace he was continually troubled with his Queen,54 who was jealous about his Mistrisses; and the Spaniards were always plotting both against his Person and Crown. On the other hand, Henry had a design to oppose the growing Power Edition: current; Page: [250] of the House of Austria, by keeping it within the Bounds of Spain,His Design to put a stop to the growth of the House of Austria. and the Hereditary Countries in Germany. And ’tis said, that for that purpose he concerted Measures with the Northern Crown[s], with Holland, with the Protestant Princes of Germany, with the Elector of Bavaria, the Duke of Savoy, the Swiss, and even the Pope himself. To put this design in execution, he took the opportunity of those Differences which were then on foot concerning the Succession in the Country of Juliers, which, that it might not be Edition: orig; Page: [234] devoured by the House of Austria, he was resolved to prevent with all his Might. This is certain, that his Preparations were greater, than seem’d to be requisite only for the business of Juliers; for he and his Allies had got 120.000 Men together, and prodigious Summs of Money.

The House of Austria on the other hand did not make the least Preparations, just as if it had fore known the fatal Blow, which happened soon after: The Army was marching towards the Netherlands, and the King ready to follow in a few days, having caused the Queen to be Crowned, and constituted her Regent during his absence; When the King going along the Street in Paris in his Coach, which was fain to stop by reason of the great Croud of the People,He is Assassinated by Ravillac. was by a desperate ‘Ruffian’ [boy, Buben], whose Name was Francis Ravillac, stabb’d with a Knife in his Belly, so that he without uttering one word died immediately \on 14. May 1610\. There are some, who make no question of it, but that this Villain was set on to commit this fact [deed], and that it was not done without the knowledge of the Spaniards and the Queen herself. And so fell this great Hero by the hands of a profligate Wretch, after he had surmounted great Difficulties in ascending the Throne, and had avoided above fifty several Conspiracies; which being most contrived by the Priests against his Life, were all timely discovered. His Death proved very pernicious to the Kingdom, because, during the Minority of his Son, the Power of the Great Men, and also of the Huguenots, did extreamly encrease.

Lewis XIII. §23. His Son Lewis XIII. succeeded him, being scarce nine Years of Age, and under the Tuition of his Mother Mary de Medicis, she endeavour’d to preserve Peace abroad by Alliance, and at home by Clemency Edition: current; Page: [251] and Liberality towards the great Men of the Kingdom, who nevertheless several times raised Disturbances, whereby they made their own advantage, the Queen-Regent being not Powerfull enough to keep them in Obedience by force. As soon as the King had taken upon himself the Management of Affairs, he caused Concini, Marshal d’ Ancre, who was born a Florentine, to be killed \A. 1617\, he having been in great Power during the Edition: orig; Page: [235] Queen’s Regency, and by his Pride, Riches and Power, [had] drawn upon himself the Hatred of the Subjects; by his Death he hoped to appease the dissatisfied Multitude. The Queen Mother was sent away from Court to Blois, from whence she was ‘carried away’ [freed] by the Duke d’ Espernon \A. 1619\. And these Commotions were at last appeased by bestowing liberal Presents among the Great Men.

Richlieu comes in play. About the same time Richlieu, afterwards made a Cardinal, began to be in great Esteem in Court, who advised the King to establish his Authority, and to take up by the Roots the intestine Evils of France. He laid this down as a fundamental Principle, That he should take from the Huguenots the power of doing him any mischief, considering that such as were dissatisfied at any time, or that were of a turbulent Spirit, took always refuge, and were assisted by them. The first beginning was made in the King’s Patrimonial Province of Bearn, where he caused the Catholick Religion to be re-establish’d. The Huguenots being greatly dissatisfied thereat, began to break out into Violence, whence the King took an opportunity to recover several Places from them, but sustained a considerable Loss in the Siege of Montauban, till at last Peace was made with the Huguenots, under condition that they should demolish all their new Fortifications, except those of Montauban and Rochelle. In the Year 1625,Made chief Minister of State. Cardinal Richlieu was made Chief Minister of France, about which time also the second War with the Huguenots was ended. But this Peace did not last long, because those of Rochelle would not bear, that the Fortress called Fort-Lewis, should be built just under their Noses. Richlieu therefore having taken a resolution at once to put an end to this War by the taking of Rochell [e], besieg’d it so close both by Sea and Land, that the English, who had had very ill Success in the Isle of Rhée, where they Landed, could bring no Succours into the Edition: current; Page: [252] place.Rochelle taken.55 Their Obstinacy was at last over-come by Famine, of 18.000 Citizens, there having been not above 5000 left, for they had lived without Bread for thirteen Weeks. With this stroke the Strength of the Huguenots was broken, Montauban upon the persuasion of the Cardinal having demolished its Works [bulwarks]. Edition: orig; Page: [236] The cunning Duke of Roan also at last made his peace, after he had been sufficiently troublesome to the King in Languedoc, under condition, that the Cities of Nismes and Montpelier should demolish their Fortifications; but for the rest, enjoy the free Exercise of their Religion. And thus the Ulcer, which had settled it self in the very Entrails of France, was happily healed up.56 It is related by some, that these Civil Wars have devoured above a Million of People;The Effects of the Civil Wars. that 150 Millions were employed in paying of the Souldiers {alone}; that nine Cities, 400 Villages, 20.000 Churches, 2000 Monasteries, and 100.000 [10.000] Houses were burnt or laid level with the ground.

A War in Italy. Then France applied all their care towards Foreign Affairs. The King assisted {Charles} the Duke of Nevers \A. 1628\, in obtaining the Dukedom of Mantua, which belonged to him by Right of Succession, but whom the Spaniards endeavour’d to exclude from the same, as being a French-man. In this War the Siege of Casal is most famous, in the defence of which place, the French gave incredible proofs of their Bravery.The first Occasion of Mazarini’s Greatness. At last the business was, through the wise Management of the Popish Nuncio Mazarini (who then laid the first Foundation of his future Greatness in France) composed, and the Duke of Nevers afterwards by the Treaty made at Chierasco, establish’d in the Dukedoms of Mantua and Montferrat. The King also bought Pignerol of the Duke of Savoy, that so the French might not want a door into Italy. France had also before taken part with the Grisons against the Inhabitants of the Valte-line, who had revolted being assisted by the Spaniards,How Pignerol came into the hands of the French. whereby he prevented this Country from falling into the Hands of the Spaniards, and so Matters were restored to their former State.

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In the Year 1631, France made an Alliance with Sweden, allowing to that King a yearly Pension, to assist him in opposing the Greatness of the House of Austria. But when King Gustavus Adolphus began to be formidable on the Rhine, he [France] took the Elector of Treves [Trier] into his [its] protection, putting a Garrison into Hermanstein, (which nevertheless in the Year 1636, was forced to a Surrender by Famine).The Queen Mother raises Troubles. In the mean time the Queen-Mother and the Kings Brother Edition: orig; Page: [237] the Duke of Orleans envying the Greatness of Richelieu had raised some tumults. With them also sided Montmorency, who paid for it with his Head, and put an inglorious end to his noble Family, which boasted to have been the first noble Family that embrac’d the Christian Religion in France. And tho’ this business was afterwards Composed, the Queen Mother being received into Favour again, yet was she so dissatisfied, because she could not Act according to her own Will; that she retired into Flanders, and from thence into England, where she made some stay, and at last died in a very low Condition in Cologne \A. 1642\. In the Year 1633 the King took from the Duke of Lorrain his Countrey, because he had declared himself for the Emperour. And when afterwards, viz. after the Battel fought near Nordlingen \A. 1634\ the Swedish Affairs were in a very low Condition,The King takes Lorrain from that Duke. and the House of Austria began to hold up its Head again, France broke out into open War with Spain, to balance the growing Power of the House of Austria. He [France] took for a pretence that the Spaniards had surprized the City of Treves, and taken the Elec tor of Treves Prisoner, who was under French protection.

And then the War began in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and Roussilion, which was carried on with various Fortune; yet so, that the French got the better of it at last. To touch upon some of the most remarkable Actions: The first Attack which the French made in the Netherlands {A. 1635} did not succeed very well, they having been forced to raise the Siege of Lovain with great Loss. In the Year 1636, Piccolomini marched into Picardy, and Galias into Burgundy, but did nothing of moment. On the other hand the French beat up [broke] the Siege of Leucate in Roussilion \A. 1638\, and the brave Duke Bernhard of Saxen-Weimar took the Fortress of Brisac, he carrying on the War with French Money. And after the Death of this Duke, which happened not long after, the King Edition: current; Page: [254] of France brought both that Fortress and his Army over to its side with Money. Yet the French miscarried in the same Year before St. Omer and Fontarabia, before the last of which Places the Prince of Conde sustained a considerable Loss. In the same Year, viz. on the 5th. of Edition: orig; Page: [238] September, Lewis XIV. was, almost by a Miracle, born of a Marriage, which had proved unfruitfull for twenty Years before. In the Year 1639, the French were beaten before Thionville. In the Year 1640, they took Arras, and in the same Year Catalonia, revolting from Spain, threw itself under the French Protection.

In the Year 1641, a great Misfortune hung over Richlieu’s Head, the Count the Soissons having raised a dangerous Rebellion; but, he being killed in an Engagement, wherein otherwise his Party had the better, establish’d, by his Death, the Cardinal’s Authority, and the Quiet of France. In the Year 1642, Perpignan was taken, at which Siege the King and Richlieu were both present. Monsieur Cinqmats did about that time first insinuate himself into the King’s favour, hoping thereby to undermine Richlieu. And the better to balance the Cardinal, he had made some under-hand Intrigues with Spain. But the Cardinal having discovered the business, caused his Head to be cut off; as also de Thou the younger’s, because he had been privy to the business; tho’ he had advised against it, yet had he not discover’d it. From the Duke of Bouillon, who had been also of the Cabal, he took for a Punishment his strong Hold, Sedan. In the same Year Richlieu died, to his great good fortune, the King being grown quite weary of him, notwithstanding he had laid the first Foundation of the Greatness of France, which is now so formidable to Europe. The King also died not long after \14. May 1643\.

Lewis XIV. §24. Lewis XIV. was but Five years of Age when he came to the Crown, his Mother ’tis true bore the name of Regent of France, but in effect the Cardinal Julius Mazarini57 had the chief Management of the Kingdom; which was then in a very flourishing Condition;Mazarini’s Ministry. but every Body Edition: current; Page: [255] was for enriching himself out of the Kings Purse during his Minority; and Mazarini was very liberal, thereby endeavouring to make them in love with his Government. But the Treasury being become empty, new Taxes were of necessity to be imposed upon the People which caused a great dissatisfaction against the Government. Neverthe-Edition: orig; Page: [239]less for the first Five years every thing was pretty quiet at home, and War carried on abroad.

At the very first beginning of this new Government the Duke ‘d’ Austria’ [d’Anguin] obtained a signal Victory against the Spaniards near Rocroy; after which he took Thionville, and Gaston the Kings Uncle Graveling; \A. 1644\ Anguin revenged the loss which the French had sustainded the Year before near Dutlingen, and, having first beaten the Bavarian Forces near Friburg in Brisgaw [Breißgau], he took Philipsburg; in the Year 1646. he beat the Bavarian Troops near Norlingen, and afterwards took Dunkirk. But in the Year next following he in vain besieged the City of Lerida. In the Year 1648.Peace of Munster. a Peace was concluded at Munster in Westphalia, betwixt the Emperour and France,58 by Vertue of which the latter got the two Fortresses of Brisac and Philipsburg, the Countrey of Puntgau [Sundgau], and part of the upper Alsatia.

The intestine Commotions. But as France by this Peace was freed from one Enemy, so on the other hand the intestine Commotions put a stop to its great Progresses. The chief reason of these Troubles was, that some envying Mazarini, as being a Foreigner, they would by all means have him removed from the Helm, and this they sought with the greater Importunity, because they were not in awe of the King, who was but a Child, neither of his Mother, she being an outlandish [foreign] Woman. Some of the great Men also were for fishing in ‘troubled’ [murky] Waters: but above all the rest, the Prince of Conde would fain have been Master, and have made the Cardinal dance after his Pipe. The Cardinal was for bringing of him over to his Party by a Marriage propos’d to him; but the Prince of Conde perceiving that the Cardinal was for maintaining his old Post, nor would ‘depend on’ [be subservient to] him, rejected the Edition: current; Page: [256] Offer as unbecoming the Grandeur of his House. There were also some Women of a restless Spirit concern’d in these Intrigues, among whom was Mad. de Longueville, Sister of the Prince of Conde, Mad. Chevreuse, Mombazon, and others.The Slingers. The first beginning was by slanderous Papers and Libels which were daily dispers’d in Paris. There was also a certain Faction set up {in Paris} \A. 1648\, who called themselves the Slingers, because they openly under-Edition: orig; Page: [240]took to knock down the Cardinal, as David struck down the Giant Goliah by the help of his Sling.59 The Heads of this Faction were the Duke of Beaufort, and Guadi [Gondi] the Archbishop of Paris, afterwards call’d the Cardinal de Rez.60 With this Party also sided the Parliament of Paris, which did pretend to have a great Authority against the Government at that time.

The first Insurrection was made in Paris, occasion’d by the taking into Custody of one Braussel [Broussel] a Member of the Parliament, whereupon the King left the City. Yet the Business was compos’d for that time, some things having been granted to the mutinous Party. But the Faction of the Slingers renewing their former Disturbances,The King forc’d to leave Paris. the King left the City a second time \A. 1649\. The Parliament having then publickly condemn’d the Cardinal, grew every day stronger, Turenne, who then commanded the French Army in Germany, having declar’d for that side; but he was fain to leave the Army, which was kept ‘in Duty’ [loyal to the king] by the help of a good Summ of Money. And tho’ Matters were afterwards reconcil’d a second time at St. Germains, yet the Design against Mazarin was not laid aside; the Prince of Conde, who had brought over the Slingers to his Party, not ceasing to stir them up against him. But because they had a different Aim, for the Slingers were for totally pulling down of the Cardinal, but the Prince of Conde would only have humbled him, the Cardinal cunningly rais’d a misunderstanding betwixt them, by setting the Prince of Conde against the Slingers. Whereupon the Slingers were reconcil’d with the Cardinal. The Cardinal taking hold of this Opportunity, caused the Prince of Edition: current; Page: [257] Conde and his Brother the Prince of Conti,The Imprisonment of the Princes. and their Brother-in-law the Duke of Longueville to be taken into Custody {A. 1650}. This was putting Fuel into the Fire, every body being dissatisfy’d at the Imprisonment of the Princes. The City of Bourdeaux openly rebell’d. The Spaniards upon this Occasion took from the French, Piombino and Porto Longone in Italy. The Archduke Leopold struck Terrour into the City of Paris it self, on the side of the Netherlands. And tho’ the Cardinal beat Turenne near Rethel, he being gone over to the Spaniards, yet Edition: orig; Page: [241] the Hatred against him encreas’d daily, and the Faction of the Slingers, the Parliament, and the Duke of Orleans were absolutely for having the Princes set at Liberty. The Cardinal therefore perceiving that nothing was to be done by open Violence, resolv’d to avoid the Storm, by setting the Princes at Liberty: And he himself retir’d to Bruel, the Court of the then Elector of Collen [Cologne] \A. 1651\. Then he was by a Decree of the Parliament for ever banish’d [from] the Kingdom of France.The Cardinal banish’d [from] France.

Mazarini being thus remov’d, the Prince of Conde began to disturb the publick Quiet with more freedom, having engag’d himself with the Spaniards, and being gone to Bourdeaux, he began to make open War against the Government. And the Spaniards taking hold of this Opportunity, recover’d Barcellona, and with it all Catalonia. Then the Queen recall’d the Cardinal, who having strengthen’d the King’s Army by such Troops as he had got together, fought several times very briskly with the Prince of Conde.The Queen recalls him. But seeing that the Hatred which the Faction of the Slingers and the Parliament had conceiv’d against him, did not diminish, he took this Course, that he publickly declar’d, he was willing to leave the Kingdom, to re-establish the publick Quiet. He hoped by so doing, to lay the Blame of the Intestine Divisions upon the Prince of Conde alone; which Design prov’d successfull; for thereby the Eyes of the People were opened, who now plainly perceiv’d, that the Cardinal sought the Good of the King and Kingdom, but the Prince of Conde his own Interest, Dunkirk and Graveling being lost in the Fray. The Prince of Conde therefore perceiving that he had lost the Favour of the People, retir’d with his Troops into the Spanish Netherlands. Then the Cardinal return’d to Court, and ever after had the Administration of the chiefest Affairs of the Kingdom till his Death, without any further Opposition. Edition: current; Page: [258] The City of Paris return’d to its due Obedience, the Faction of the Slingers was dissolv’d, the Duke of Orleans left the Court; Rez was taken into Custody, and Bourdeaux forc’d to submit \A. 1653\.

In the Year next following the French began again to make War on the Spaniards; they took Mom-Edition: orig; Page: [242]medy [Montmédy] with great difficulty, and fortunately reliev’d Arras: But they were beaten from before Valenciennes and Cambray. France having just made an Alliance with Cromwell, the joint Forces of France and England besieged Dunkirk under the Command of Turenne \A. 1658\: And the Duke John d’ Austria and Prince de Conde, who came with an Army to relieve it, being repuls’d with great loss, the City was taken and deliver’d to the English, from whom the King afterwards \A. 1662\ redeem’d it for four Millions. About the same time Graveling was also retaken.The Pyrenaean Peace. At last \A. 1659\ a Peace was concluded between France and Spain near the Pyrenaean Mountains by the two chief Ministers of State, on both sides, viz. by Mazarini and Don Lewis de Haro, by vertue of which, France was to keep Roussilion and the greatest part of the places which were taken in the Netherlands; Mary Theresa, the Daughter of Philip IV. was to be married to the King, and the Prince of Conde to be receiv’d into Favour again. This last point met with great Opposition for a considerable time.The Death of Mazarini. In the Year next following died Mazarini, who, as ’tis said, left the King among others, this Lesson, That he should govern himself, and not trust entirely to any Favourite.

The first thing of moment, which the King undertook \A. 1661\, was, to settle his Revenues in a good order. He began with the Lord High Treasurer Fouquet, whom he took into Custody, and made a strict Inquisition against all such as having had hitherto the management of his Revenues, had enrich’d themselves therewith: The Sponges which were swell’d up with Riches, being soundly squeez’d out, brought an incredible Treasure into the King’s Coffers. In the Year 1661 a Difference arose betwixt the French and Spanish Embassadours in London, about the Precedency at the solemn Entry made by Count Nils Brahe the Swedish Embassadour,A Dispute about Precedency between the French and Spanish Embassadours. where the French Embassadour’s Coach was put back by Violence. This might easily have prov’d the Occasion of a War, if the Spaniards had not given Satisfaction to the French, and Edition: current; Page: [259] agreed, That where-ever there were any French Embassadours resident, the Spanish should not appear upon any publick Occasions: Which Edition: orig; Page: [243] the French do interpret, as if Spain had thereby declar’d, That {at all places and times} the Spanish Ministers were always to give place to the French of the same Character.

A Treaty with the Duke of Lorrain. In the Year 1662, the King made an Agreement with the Duke of Lorrain, according to which, he was to exchange his Dukedom for an Equivalent in France, and his Family to be the next in right of Succession, if the Family of Bourbon should happen to fail: Which Agreement the Duke would fain have annull’d afterwards, but the King, who did not understand jesting in such a point, forc’d him to surrender to him Marsal. In the same Year the Duke de Crequy the French Embassadour at Rome, was grossly affronted there by the Corsi Guards,A Difference with the Pope. which the King resented so ill, that he took from the Pope the City of Avignon: But the Difference was compos’d by the Mediation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Pisa, and the Pope was fain to send a splendid Embassy to give Satisfaction to the King. About the same time the French would have got footing at Gigeri on the Coast of Barbary, but were repuls’d with considerable loss by the Moors. The King also sent some Troops \A. 1664\ to the Assistance of the Emperour against the Turks, who behav’d themselves bravely in the Battel fought near St. Gothard, and contributed much to the Victory. Notwithstanding which the Emperour clapt up a Peace with the Turks, fearing lest the King of France might make use of this Opportunity to fall into the Netherlands. Yet those Forces, which were sent to the Assistance of the Venetians into Candie,61 did not acquire so much Glory, they being too forward and hot in the first Onset, where they lost the Duke of Beaufort.

In the Year 1665, the King of France kindled a War betwixt the English Edition: current; Page: [260] and ‘Dutch’ [Hollanders], thereby to weaken their Naval Force, which was so formidable to him, and in the mean while to get leisure to conquer the Netherlands.He attacks Flanders. In the Year 1667, he enter’d the ‘Netherlands’ [Flanders] in person, and took Charleroy, Lisle, Tournay, Doway, Courtray, Oudenarde, and some other places, pretending, that the Netherlands did belong to him in right of his Queen, by vertue of the jus devolutionis or right of devolution, {as it was called} in Bra-Edition: orig; Page: [244]bant, notwithstanding that in the Marriage Contract she had renounc’d all her Title to it.62 He also conquer’d the County of Burgundy, but after having demolish’d the Fortifications he restor’d it again, but kept those places which he had taken in the Netherlands, by vertue of the Peace concluded at Aix la Chapelle \A. 1668\. The tripple Alliance,Peace made at Aix la Chapelle. as it is call’d, made betwixt Sweden, England and Holland, which was intended for the Preservation of the {Spanish} Netherlands, did greatly hasten this Peace; tho’ France afterwards found out a way to draw the English Court from this Alliance and to join with him [it] in humbling the Hollanders who ‘he’ [it was] said were too proud. For tho’ France all along had been in the Interest of Holland, yet the King took it very ill, that the ‘Dutch’ [Hollanders] had made a Peace at Munster,63 without including France, and that they had been so bold \A. 1667\ as to undertake the Preservation of the {Spanish} Netherlands; and when afterwards the King put strong Garrisons into the conquer’d ‘places’ [cities], they sent a Fleet on these Coasts, as it were to brave him. The tripple Alliance also was displeasing to him, and some are of Opinion, that the King of England, who had not forgot the Business at Chatam,64 and that the Peace concluded at Breda was not according to his wish, had engag’d himself in this Alliance, only to draw in the Dutch thereby, and so to exasperate the King of France against them.

He invades Flanders. At last, France in conjunction with England, made War on Holland, with prodigious Success at first {on land} \A. 1672\; for he took three Edition: current; Page: [261] Provinces, viz. Gueldres, Over-yssel and Utrecht; besides that he had already possess’d himself of some Passes leading into Holland: But his Confederate the Bishop of Munster65 had not the same Success in the Siege of Groningen, and afterwards lost Coeverden again. And the Dutch had better Success at Sea, where they behaved themselves bravely in four several Engagements, whereas the French Fleet, as the English say, did not engage heartily: Besides, England grew Jealous of the great Success of the French, which was one reason, why the Parliament did in a manner oblige the King [Charles II], to make a separate Peace with Holland, fearing, that France, after England and Holland had destroy’d one another Edition: orig; Page: [245] at Sea, might also, at last, fall upon them. The Emperour and Elector of Brandenburgh endeavour’d, immediately at the beginning of the War, to give a Diversion to France but to no great purpose, since they did nothing but ruin several Provinces in Germany, and drew Turenne with his Army thither, who ravag’d the Country, but especially Westphalia. The Elector of Brandenburgh made a Peace with France at Vossem \A. 1673\, whereby he got the Restitution of his strong Holds in the Dutchy of Cleves, but as soon as he got them into his possession, he made no great account of the Peace.Mastricht taken by the French. In the Year next following, France took the strong City of Mastricht, where the French both shew’d their Bravery and Dexterity in attacking of places. On the other hand, the Imperialists had good Success against Turenne {in Franconia}, who ‘pretended’ [sought] to oppose their March; for they trick’d him, and having march’d to the lower Rhine, in conjunction with the Spaniard and Prince of Orange, took Bon [n]: This, and the loss of Na[e]rden, which the ‘Dutch’ [Hollanders] took, caus’d the French to leave Utrecht and all the other places in the United Provinces, except Grave and Mastricht: For it seem’d very difficult to maintain so many Garrisons, and at the same time to have a sufficient Army in the Field to oppose the Enemy; since it might easily have happen’d, that all Correspondency with these places in the United Provinces might have been cut off by the Enemy.

Afterwards Spain and the whole German Empire declar’d against France, and a great many were of Opinion, That the joint Power of Edition: current; Page: [262] Spain, Holland and Germany,66 would be sufficient to curb the French, and to carry the Seat of the War into France itself; but this could not be effected. ’Tis true, the Germans did take from the French, Philipsburgh, and beat them out of Treves [Trier], where Mareschal de Crequi receiv’d a Defeat. But on the other hand, the Germans were several times also,The Death of Turenne. especially near Sintsheim and in Alsace, worsted by the French {A. 1674}, and oblig’d to repass [pull back quickly over] the Rhine. And in the Year 1675, there was a great probability that it would not have gone very well with them on this side of the Rhine, if the brave Turenne had not been kill’d by an Edition: orig; Page: [246] accidental Shot,The Losses of the Spaniards in this War. which oblig’d the French, who were ignorant of his Design, after a sharp Engagement, to retire on the other [west] side of the Rhine. For the rest, Spain lost most by this War: for the Franche Compte was taken from them, Messina receiv’d voluntarily a French Garrison, and the Dutch Fleet which was sent to the Assistance of the Spaniards into Sicily, got nothing but Blows,Peace at Nimmegen. the brave Admiral de Ruyter being there slain; tho’ afterwards the French quitted Messina on their own accord. Besides this the French took from them these strong holds; Limburgh, Conde, Valenciennes, Cambray, Yper, St. Omer, Aire and several others. The Prince of Orange retook Graves, but in the Battel of Seneffe and St. Omer, he was worsted, and sustained a considerable loss before Mastricht. At last France ended this War very gloriously for it self, restoring to Holland what it had taken from those Provinces, but kept Burgundy and a great many strong places in the Spanish Netherlands. In Germany in lieu of Philipsburgh it got Friburgh, and for the rest the Westphalian and Copenhagen Treaties were renewed, by Virtue of which Sweden was restored to its own again.67

The French Nation. §25. To consider the French Nation, whose History we have briefly related, it must be observ’d, That it is swarming (if I may so speak) with Edition: current; Page: [263] People, and sow’d thick with Cities and Towns. Under the Reign of Charles IX.68 it is related, That above twenty Millions of People paid the Poll Tax. Some say, That Richlieu affirm’d, that by Computation, France could bring into the Field 600.000 Foot, and 150.000 Horse, provided every Man that was able to bear Arms, did go into the Field. This Nation also has been always warlike: nevertheless in former times, it has been objected to them, That they were very brave at the first Onset, but after their first Fury was a little cool’d, their Courage us’d to slacken, if they met with a stout and brave Resistance: wherefore they us’d to make great Conquests, but seldom kept them very long. And after they had good Success, they us’d to grow careless, insult over the conquer’d, and put them to great Edition: orig; Page: [247] Hardships under their Government. But in our last Wars they have shewn sufficiently, that they as little want Constancy at last, as Heat and Fury at first.Fall of Nobility. There is a great number of Nobles in France, who make Profession of the Sword, and make no difficulty to expose themselves to any Hazards to gain Glory. In former times, the French Infantry was good for nothing, wherefore they always us’d to employ Swiss and Scotch: but now a-days, their Foot are very good, and in attacking of a ‘place’ [fortification], they are to be preferr’d before all other Nations.

This Nation always hath a great Veneration and Love for their King; and as long as he is able to maintain his Authority, is ready to sacrifice Life and Estate for his Glory. The French are also brisk, forward, and of a merry Constitution: as to their outward appearance in their Apparel and Behaviour, they are generally very comely;Their Natural Qualities. and some other Nations, whose temper is more inclined to gravity, and do attempt to imitate them, appear often very ridiculous, there being a vast difference in these matters, betwixt what is natural and what is affected.69 They are of a Genius fit to undertake {almost} any thing, whether it be in Learning, Trade, or Manufactures; especially in those things which depend more Edition: current; Page: [264] on ingenuity and dexterity than hard labour. On the other side, the levity and inconstancy of the French is generally blam’d, |[which is easily to be perceiv’d by such of them as are raw and unpolish’d]|70; and a great many of them glory in amorous Intrigues [Unzucht], ‘oftentimes’ [now and then] more than is true; and under Pretence of Freedom, they commit great Debaucheries.

The Nature of the Country. §26. The ‘Country’ [land] which is possess’d [occupied] by this potent Nation, is very conveniently situated, almost in the very midst of the ‘Christian World’ [European Christendom]; wherefore this King may conveniently keep Correspondence with them all, and prevent Europe from falling into the hands of any one Prince. On the one side, it has the Mediterranean, on the other the Ocean, and on both sides a great many pretty good Harbours; and is well water’d with Rivers; besides that great Channel with twelve Sluces, by which the present King has joyn’d Edition: orig; Page: [248] the Rivers of Garonne and the Aude, and consequently the Mediterranean with the Ocean; which proves very beneficial for Trade.71 It is also very near of a circular Figure, and well compacted, so that one Province may easily assist another.Its Situation. On the side of Spain, the Pyrenaean Mountains; and on the Italian side, the Alpes are like a Bullwark to the Kingdom: but on the side towards Germany and the Netherlands, it lies somewhat open: For out of the Netherlands, Paris it self has often been |[hard put to it.]|72 And this is the reason why the French have been so eager in getting a good part of these into their Possession, in which they have been successful in the last War, and thereby have mightily strengthen’d their Frontiers:73 and for the same reason, they have Edition: current; Page: [265] made themselves Masters of Lorrain, to fortify themselves on the side of Germany; and by degrees to become Masters of the Rhine, the ancient boundary of Gaul, which seems {to them}74 the only thing wanting to the Perfection of France.

Its Fertility. Next to this, France ‘may be’ [must be considered] one of the most happy and most fruitfull Countries, not only for the equal Temperature of its Climate betwixt an immoderate Heat and an excessive Cold; but also, because it produces every thing, which seems to be requisite for the Sustenance and Conveniency of Mankind; so that scarce a spot of Ground is to be found in France, but what produces something or other for the benefit of Man. And its Product is not only sufficient for its Inhabitants, but also plentifull enough to be exported into foreign parts. The Commodities exported out of France, are chiefly; Wine, Brandy, Vinegar, Salt, innumerable sorts of Silk, and Woollen Stuffs, and Manufactures, Hemp, Canvas, Linen, Paper, Glass, Saffran, Almonds, Olives, Capers, Prunello’s, Chesnuts, Soap, and the like. Yet in Normandy and Picardy, grow no Vines, but the common people drink Cyder. Scarce any Metals are to be found in France, and no Gold or Silver Mines. But this want is supplied by the ingenuity of the French, and the folly of Foreigners.75 For the French Commodities have drawn ‘Fleets’ [streams] of their Money into France, especially since Henry IV. set up the Silk Manufactury there. There are some who have com-Edition: orig; Page: [249]puted that France sells Stuffs A-la-mode yearly to Foreigners ‘only’ [alone], to the value of 40 millions of Livres, Wine 15 millions, Brandy 5 millions, Salt 10, and so proportionably of other Commodities. Mr. Forcy [Fortry] an Englishman,76 says, that about the year 1669, the Commodities which Edition: current; Page: [266] were brought from France into England exceeded what were carried from England to France, in value 1.600.000 lib. Sterl. And it is notorious that by help of such Commodities as they send into Spain, they get a great part of their ‘West-India Plate-Fleet’ [American silver].

Yet Navigation does not flourish so much in France as it might. The reason seems to be, that the French Nation is not so much addicted to the Sea [interested in sea travel], and that other Nations have been before-hand with them in the East and West-Indies. Which is the reason, that the King, tho’ he has above 100 ‘Capital’ [war] Ships, yet cannot set out so great a Fleet hitherto, as the English and Dutch, as some think, wanting able Seamen. For it is not sufficient to Man out a Fleet once, but in time of War, Recruits must also be had.Its Plantations. Nevertheless it may be this King will first settle his Maritime Affairs, and afterwards take his opportunity to surprize his Neighbours. France has very few ‘Plantations’ [colonies] abroad, except what is in the Caribby Islands, the Isles called Tartuges, and on the North side of Hispaniola.77 They apply themselves also to fishing upon the great Sand Bank before Newfoundland, and catch in Canada and New France good store of Be[a]vers. They have set several Projects on foot for the East-India Trade, but without any great success hitherto, the Dutch, who are so powerfull there, opposing them with all their might.

Lastly the great strength of France may {also} be judged of by this, that the Revenue of the Clergy, which is possess’d of two fifth parts {and thus more than half}, as ’tis said, of the Kingdom, amounts to 104 millions and 500.000 Crowns [Reichs-Thaler] yearly. The King’s Revenues are computed to amount now to 150 millions of Livres [Frantzösische Edition: current; Page: [267] Gulden], whereas in the last Age [century] it did not amount to above 9 or 10 millions. At the time of Henry IV. to 16 millions, and in the year 1639 to 77 millions; which vast difference is in part to be ascribed to the different value of Money since those times, and the great Taxes which are im-Edition: orig; Page: [250]posed upon the Subjects: but without question the chief reason is, that France since that time has found out new ways to draw Money out of other Countries.

The Government of France. §27. As to the Form of Government of France, it is to be observ’d, That anciently there were very potent Dukes, Earls and Lords in France, who, tho’ they were Vassals of the King,78 yet they us’d to pay no further Obedience to him, than was consistent with their own Interest, except [when] the Kings were in a Condition to oblige them to it: But all these in process of Time were extinguish’d, and their ‘Countries’ [lands] {re}united to the Crown. Now a days the Dukes and Earls in France are nothing else but bare Titles annex’d to some considerable Estate without any Sovereignty or Jurisdiction. And whereas formerly certain ‘Countries’ [regions] used to be assign’d to the King’s Sons, whereof they bore the Title, now-a-days only a certain yearly Revenue is allotted them, with the Title of a certain Dukedom or County, wherein perhaps they have not a Foot of Ground. And after the ancient Sovereign Dukedoms and Earldoms were abolish’d, some of the great Men of the Kingdom had taken upon themselves great Authority in the Kingdom, but by the Policy of Richlieu and Mazarini they were reduc’d to such a Condition, that they dare not utter a Word against the King.

The Assembly of the Estates (there being three of them, viz. The Clergy, Nobility, and the Citizens [Bürgerschafft], they making up the third Estate {or order}) |[were also formerly in great Veneration]|,79 whereby the King’s Power was much limited. But they having not been conven’d since the Year 1614, their Authority ‘is quite suppress’d’ [has died out long ago]. Those of the Reform’d Religion did prove also very Edition: current; Page: [268] troublesome to the Kings of France as long as they were in a Condition to ‘take up Arms’ [defend themselves], but with the loss of Rochelle80 they lost the Power of giving their Kings any ‘Disturbance’ [damage] for the future. And tho’ the King hitherto does not {desire to} force their Consciences,81 yet he draws off a great many from that Party, by hopes of his Royal Favour and Preferments. Heretofore the Parliament of Paris us’d {also often} to oppose the King’s Designs, Edition: orig; Page: [251] under pretence, <that it had a right,> that the King could not do any thing of great moment {even in state affairs} without its consent; but this King hath taught it only to intermeddle with Judicial Business, and some other Concerns, which the King now and then is pleas’d to leave to its Decision. The Gallick Church also boasts of a particular ‘Prerogative’ [freedom] in regard of the ‘Court’ [chair] of Rome, she always having |[disputed with the Pope some part of his Authority over her]|82; and the King has the Nomination of the Bishops and Abbots, all which contributes much to the Strength <and Increase> of this Kingdom, if {only} a wise and good King sits upon the Throne.

The Strength of France with regard to England. §28. When we duely weigh the Power of France in comparison with its Neighbours, it is easily perceiv’d, that there is not any State in Christendom which France doth not equal if not exceed in Power: ’Tis true, in former Ages the English reduc’d the French, but at that time they were possess’d of a great part of it themselves; there were then several Demi-Sovereign Princes; the French Infantry was then inconsiderable, and the English Bows were terrible to them: All which is quite otherwise now, and the English Landforces are now not to be compar’d with the French neither in Number nor Goodness, since the English are unexercis’d, and their Civil Wars have rather been carried on by Armies rais’d on a sudden, than [by] well disciplin’d Troops, and these Wars have not a Edition: current; Page: [269] little weaken’d this Nation. On the other hand, the English have chiefly apply’d themselves to Sea Affairs, and in this the French cannot hitherto be compared with the English; yet England can scarce reap any great Advantages from France at Sea. For, suppose they should beat the French Fleet, yet they would scarce venture to make a Descent upon France, as having not any footing there; and the French Privateers would certainly do great mischief to them. But if the English should once miscarry at Sea, and that the French should once get footing in England, it might perhaps prove fatal to that Kingdom, since the fate of the War must be then decided by the Issue of one Edition: orig; Page: [252] Battel, England having no Inland strong Holds.

To Spain. In the last ‘Age’ [century] Spain prov’d very troublesome to France, the French scarce being able to defend themselves against it, and having several times been oblig’d to make Peace upon disadvantageous Conditions: But besides, that at that time the