The History of Bimetallism in the United States (1898)
Laughlin states in the introduction that his aim is “to present only the facts bearing on the experiments of the United States with metallic money. No special attention, therefore, has been devoted to the theory of bimetallism or to the larger principles of money involved in current discussions. In a historical study, such as this aims to be, there is neither space nor propriety for an extended treatment of principles.”
The History of Bimetallism in the United States (New York: D. Appleton, 1898). 4th ed.
The text is in the public domain.
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Table of Contents
- Fourth Edition, with New Appendices, A Study on the Fall of Silver Since 1885, and the Experience of the United States with Silver Since 1878
- To M. M. L.
- GRESHAM'S LAW.
- Preface to the Fourth Edition
- Preface to the First Edition
- Part I: THE UNITED STATES, 1792-1873
- Part I, Chapter I: The Arguments of Bimetallists and Monometallists
- Part I, Chapter II: The Silver Period, 1792-1834
- Part I, Chapter III: Cause of the Change in the Relative Values of Gold and Silver, 1780-1820
- Part I, Chapter IV: Change of the Legal Ratio by the Act of 1834
- Part I, Chapter V: The Gold Discoveries and the Act of 1853
- Part I, Chapter VI: The Gold Standard, 1853-1873
- Part I, Chapter VII: The Demonetization of Silver
- Part II: THE LATE FALL IN THE VALUE OF SILVER
- Part II, Chapter VIII: The Production of Gold since 1850
- Part II, Chapter IX: India and the East
- Part II, Chapter X: Germany Displaces Silver with Gold
- Part II, Chapter XI: France and the Latin Union
- Part II, Chapter XII: Cause of the Late Fall in the Value of Silver
- Part II, Chapter XIII: The Continued Fall in the Value of Silver since 1885
- Part III: THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1873
- Part III, Chapter XIV: Silver Legislation in 1878
- Part III, Chapter XV: Operation of the Act of 1878
- Part III, Chapter XVI: Act of 1890
- Part III, Chapter XVII: Cessation of Silver Purchases, 1893
- Appendix I
- A. Production of Gold and Silver in the World, 1493-1850.
- B. Annual Production of Gold and Silver in the World, 1850-1875.
- C. Production of Gold and Silver in the World, 1851-1875.
- D. Production of Gold and Silver in the World Annually since 1875.
- E. Production of Gold and Silver in the United States since 1873.
- Appendix II
- Relative Values of Gold and Silver
- A. Average Ratios of Silver to Gold, by Periods, since 1500.
- B. Ratios of Gold to Silver, given Yearly since 1687.
- C. Pixley and Abell's Tables of the Average Annual Ratios of Gold to Silver since 1833.
- D. Average Yearly Price of Standard Silver per Ounce in London since 1833.
- E. Monthly Quotations of Bar-Silver per Ounce Standard, in Pence, at London, since 1871.
- F. Ratios of Silver to Gold, by Months, since 1845.
- G. Method of Computing the Ratio from the London Price of Silver.
- Method of Computing the Value of a Silver Dollar from New York Quotations.
- Appendix III.
- A. Value of the 371¼ Grains of Pure Silver in the Silver Dollar corresponding to Prices of Fine Silver per Ounce.
- B. Ratios between Gold and Silver corresponding to Market Prices of an Ounce of Fine Silver.
- C. Annual Average Market Value of 371¼ Grains of Pure Silver since 1834.
- D. Purchasing Power of the Silver Dollar over Silver Bullion.
- E. Operation of the Act of February 28, 1878.
- F. Operation of the Act of July 14, 1890 ("The Sherman Act").
- Appendix IV, Coinage Laws
- A. Laws of the United States relating to Coinage.
- I. APRIL, 1792.—An Act establishing a Mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States.
- II. JUNE, 1834.—An Act concerning the gold coins of the United States, and for other purposes.
- III. JANUARY, 1837.—An Act supplementary to the act entitled "An Act establishing a Mint, and regulating the coins of the United States."
- IV. MARCH, 1849.—An Act to authorize the Coinage of Gold Dollars and Double Eagles.
- V. FEBRUARY, 1853.—An Act amendatory of Existing Laws relative to the Half-Dollar, Quarter-Dollar, Dime, and Half-Dime.
- VI. FEBRUARY, 1873.—An Act revising and amending the Laws relative to the Mints, Assay-offices, and Coinage of the United States.
- VII. JUNE, 1874.—Revised Statutes of the United States; Title XXXIX, Legal Tender.
- VIII. JANUARY, 1875.—An Act to provide for the Resumption of Specie Payments.
- IX. APRIL, 1876.—Issue of Silver Coin.
- X. JULY, 1876.—Joint Resolution for the Issue of Silver Coin.
- XI. FEBRUARY, 1873.—An Act to authorize the coinage of the standard Silver Dollar, and to restore its legal-tender character.
- XII. JUNE, 1879.—An Act to authorize the redemption of Silver Coins.
- XIII. JULY 14, 1890.—An Act directing the purchase of silver bullion and the issue of Treasury notes thereon, and for other purposes.
- XIV. NOVEMBER 1, 1893.—An Act to repeal a part of an act approved July fourteenth, eighteen hundred and ninety, entitled "An act directing the purchase of silver bullion and the issue of Treasury notes thereon, and for other purposes."
- B. French Monetary Law of 1803.
- General dispositions.
- TITLE I.
- Of the fabrication of coins.
- C. GERMAN MONETARY LAWS OF 1871 AND 1873.
- German Reichstag, 1st Legislation Period, 2d session, 1871. Law relating to the coinage of imperial gold coins, as passed by Parliament after its third reading.
- D. Treaty between Switzerland, Belgium, France, and Italy concerning the Monetary Union.
- Treaty of Latin Union, 1885.
- Arrangement Relative to the Execution of Article 14 of the Treaty of November 6, 1885.
- Act Dated December 12, additional to the Monetary Treaty signed November 6, 1885, between France, Greece, Italy, and Switzerland.
- E. Plan for the Resumption of Specie Payments, laid before the Chamber of Deputies by the Italian Government,2 November 15, 1880.
- F. Austrian Monetary Reform.3
- ACT I. Act of August 2, 1892, for the Introduction of the Crown Standard.
- ACT II. Authorizing the ministry of the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath to conclude a treaty for monetary union with the ministry of the lands of the Hungarian crown. August 2, 1892.
- ACT III. Concerning the fulfillment of obligations payable in gold florins of the Austrian standard in gold corns of the crown standard. August 2, 1892.
- ACT IV. Amending Article 87 of the Statutes of the Austro-Hungarian Bank. August 2, 1892.
- ACT V. Authorizing a loan for securing a supply of gold for the coinage of gold coins of the crown standard, and specifying the disposition and control of the newly issued coins. August 2, 1892.
- ACT VI. Authorizing the refunding of the 5-per-cent tax-free currency bonds, the 5-per-cent railway bonds of the Vorarlberg road, and the 4¾-per-cent bonds of the Crown Prince Rudolf road.
- Appendix V, Coinage Statistics
- Coinage of Gold and Silver, from the Organization of the United States Mint.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver at the French Mint since 1795.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver at the Belgian Mint since 1832.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver at the Italian Mint since 1862.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver at the English Mint.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver at the German Mint.
- Coinage of Gold and Silver in Russia.
- Appendix VI
- Flow of Silver to the East
- Exports and Imports of Silver from the United States since 1870.
- Appendix VII
- Consumption of the Precious Metals in the Arts.
- The World's Industrial Consumption of Gold and Silver in 1895.