A History of Banking in all the Leading Nations, vol. 1 (U.S.A.)
A four volume set edited by the by the “Editor of the Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin” in New York city. It consists of: Vol. 1: “The United States,” by W.G. Sumner. Vol. 2: “Great Britain,” by H.D. Macleod; “The Russian Empire,” by A.E. Horn; “Savings Banks in the United States,” by J.P. Townsend. Vol. 3: “The Latin Nations,” by P. Des Essars; “The Banks of Alsace-Lorraine after the Annexation,” by A. Raffalovich; “Canada,” by B.E. Walker. Vol. 4: “Germany and Austria-Hungary,” by M. Wirth; “The Netherlands,” by R. van der Borght; “The Scandinavian Nations,” by A. Jensen; “Japan,” by J. Soyeda; “China,” by T.R. Jernigan.
A History of Banking in all the Leading Nations; comprising the United States; Great Britain; Germany; Austro-Hungary; France; Italy; Belgium; Spain; Switzerland; Portugal; Roumania; Russia; Holland; The Scandinavian Nations; Canada; China; Japan; compiled by thirteen authors. Edited by the Editor of the Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin. In Four Volumes. (New York: The Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin, 1896). Vol. 1: A History of Banking in the United States.
The text is in the public domain.
- A History of Banking in all the Leading Nations, 4 vols. (Editor of the Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin)
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Table of Contents
- EDITOR’S PREFACE.
- AUTHOR’S PREFACE.
- BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES.
- PERIOD I.—1630 TO 1780.: The Colonists Experiment with Joint Stock Banks of Issue on Land Security, and with Provincial Mortgage Loan Offices Issuing Currency.
- CHAPTER I.: Banks in the Colonies.
- PERIOD II.—1780 TO 1812.: Banks are Incorporated in the States, also a Bank of the United States on the type of the Bank of England. The Colonial idea is continued in Banks of the States, being Institutions based either on the “Faith and Credit” of the State alone, or on a Combination of Public Funds with Private Subscriptions.
- CHAPTER II.: The Earliest Banks of Discount, Deposit, and Convertible Circulation.
- CHAPTER III.: The First Bank of the United States and Its Times.
- CHAPTER IV.: The Earliest Banks in the Mississippi Valley.
- PERIOD III: 1812 TO 1829-32.: Local Banks are Multiplied to Replace the Bank of the United States. Their Issues are Stimulated by their Fiscal Functions, soon Intensified by War Financiering. A Commercial Crisis is Produced with a Prolonged Liquidation, Attended by Various Experiments in Bank Issues and Stay Laws for Relief. A Banking System is Created Consisting of Local Banks Co-ordinated Around a Bank of the United States, as a Regulator of the Currency, and Fiscal Agent of the Government.
- CHAPTER V.: Inflation on the Atlantic Coast.
- CHAPTER VI.: Inflation in the Mississippi Valley.
- CHAPTER VII.: The Crisis on the Atlantic Coast.
- CHAPTER VIII.: The Crisis in the Mississippi Valley.
- CHAPTER IX.: The Liquidation on the Atlantic Coast.
- CHAPTER X.: Liquidation in the Mississippi Valley.—Relief Measures.
- CHAPTER XI.: The National Bank and the Local Banks Co-ordinated into a New System.
- §1.—: Local Banks on the Atlantic Coast from the Liquidation of 1819-1822 until the Bank Expansion Produced by the Bank War.
- § 2.—: The Bank of the United States from Biddle’s Accession until the Bank War.
- PERIOD IV.—1829 TO 1845.: The War of the Jackson Administration on the Bank of the United States Breaks up the Existing System of Banks and brings in Local Banks again as Currency-Providers and Fiscal Agents. Another Bank Inflation, Crisis, and Liquidation Ensue. The Bank of the State Institution Undergoes Great Extension and Variation.
- CHAPTER XII.: The Bank War.
- CHAPTER XIII.: Measures and Events Antecedent to the Crisis of 1837.
- § 1.—: The United States Bank of Pennsylvania.
- § 2.—: The Multiplication of Local Banks.
- § 3.—: The Inflation of 1835 and 1836.
- CHAPTER XIV.: The Financial Revulsion; 1837 to 1842.
- § 1,: 1837. The Suspension of Specie Payments. The United States Bank of Pennsylvania in the Crisis. Its Cotton Operations. The Federal Treasury in the Crisis.
- § 2.—: The Resumption of 1838. The New York Plan versus the Philadelphia Plan.
- § 3.—: 1838 and 1839. Treasury Notes and Bank Notes. Continuation of the Cotton Operations. Second Failure of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania. Second General Bank Suspension, South and West of New York.
- § 4.—: The Banks in the States; 1837 to 1840.
- § 5.—: 1840 and 1841. The Third Failure and Final Bankruptcy of the United States Bank. The Bank Failures of 1841. The Extra Session of Congress of 1841. The Last Attempts to Charter a National Bank. The Pennsylvania Relief System.
- CHAPTER XV.: The Liquidation; 1842 to 1845.
- PERIOD V.—1843-5 TO 1863.: Under the Independent Treasury System, the Regulation of Banking and Currency is left entirely to the States. The Federal Government Handles only Coin. Banks Organized under General Joint Stock Laws gradually, and to a great extent supersede Chartered Banks. In the Ohio Valley and the Northwest, Banks of the new kind run to great extravagance and abuse. By the development of new Institutions of Finance, Commerce, Transportation, and General Industry, Banks lose Comparative Importance.
- CHAPTER XVI.: The Local Bank System. The Gold Discoveries and Consequent Expansion. The Commercial Crises of 1854 and 1857. The Aid Given by the Banks to the Federal Government at the Beginning of the Civil War.
- § 1.—: The Local Banks, by States; 1845 to 1860.
- § 2.—: The Banks at the Outbreak of the Civil War; 1860 to 1863.
- PERIOD VI.—FROM 1863.
- CHAPTER XVII.: The National Bank System.