Friedrich Hayek: A Bibliography of his Writings

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Source: Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought was published first by the Cato Institute (1978-1979) and later by the Institute for Humane Studies (1980-1982) under the editorial direction of Leonard P. Liggio. Chapter: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRIEDRICH A. HAYEK

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The following bibliography of the writings by and about Friedrich A. Hayek was compiled near the end of 1982 by John Cody assisted by Nancy Ostrem. We gratefully acknowledge the helpful suggestions of Kurt R. Leube (Editor-in-chief of the International Carl Menger Library, Vienna), Prof. Albert H. Zlabinger of Jacksonville University (and co-editor with Kurt Leube of Philosophia Verlag), Prof. Paul Michelson of Huntington College, Paul Varnell of Chicago, and members of the Institute for Humane Studies staff, including Leonard P. Liggio, Walter Grinder, and John Blundell.

While aiming to be the most comprehensive, accurate, and up-to-date listing of Hayekian scholarship yet assembled, this bibliography–owing to the prolific and dispersed nature of the materials involved—must unavoidably contain errors, incomplete citations, and omissions. Among the omissions are a great many of Hayek's voluminous letters-to-editors, short notes or comments, interviews (including tape recordings, video-cassettes, and films), and book reviews. Such journals as the Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik, Jährbucher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Sozialpolitik (after 1927 superseded by Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie), and Economica contain many items not listed in this edition of the bibliography. Many additional bibliographical items by or about Hayek came to our attention only after our typesetting deadline precluded further citations. To remedy our omissions and to emend our in-accuracies for a possible subsequent publication of an enlarged Hayek bibliography we welcome our readers’ comments and assistance.

Earlier bibliographical orientations to Hayek's writings that proved helpful in creating the present Bibliography are:

Erich Streissler, Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich A. Lutz, and Fritz Machlup, eds. “Bibliography of the Writings of Friedrich A. von Hayek,” in Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 309–315.

Walter Eucken Institut. “Bibliographie der Schriften von F.A. von Hayek.” [“Bibliography of the Writings of F.A. von Hayek.”] in Freiburger Studien. Gesammelte Aufsätze von F.A. Hayek. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr/Paul Siebeck (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche und wirtschaftsrechtliche Untersuchungen 5), 1969, pp. 279–284.

Fritz Machlup, “Friedrich von Hayek's Contribution to Economics.” The Swedish Journal of Economics 76 (December 1974): 498–531.

———. “Hayek's Contribution to Economics,” in Essays on Hayek. Edited by Fritz Machlup. Foreward by Milton Friedman. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 13–39. [Machlup's 1974 and his updated 1976 bibliographical essays are indispensable guides to Hayek's writings through the mid-1970s. Adhering to the fourfold classification system of Hayek's writings laid out in the Streissler 1969 Roads to Freedom, Hayek “Bibliography,” Machlup devised an alphabetical and numerical identification code for easy reference to Hayek's books (B-), pamphlets (P-), edited or introduced books (E-), and articles in learned journals or collections of essays (A-).]

———. Würdigung der Werke von Friedrich August von Hayek. Translated by Kurt R. Leube. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 62), 1977, pp. 63–75. [This “Assessment of the Works of Friedrich August von Hayek is the German translation of the preceding Machlup Bibliography of Hayek.]

Leube, Kurt R. “Anhang: Bibliographie der Schriften von F.A. von Hayek,” [“Appendix: Bibliography of the Writings of F.A. von Hayek”] in: F.A. von Hayek. Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie. Reprint of the first edition (Vienna, 1929; see B-1). Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1976. pp. 148–160. This is identical to Leube's Hayek Bibliography in: Friedrich A. von Hayek. Individualismus und wirtschaftliche Ordnung. Reprint of the first German edition (Erlenbach-Zurich, 1952; see B-7). Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1976, pp. 345–357.

———. “Ausgewählte Bibliographie der Arbeiten F.A. Hayeks zu verwandten Problemkreisen” [“Selected Bibliography of the Works of F.A. Hayek to Related Problem Areas”], in the German reprint of the first edition (Vienna, 1931; see B-2) of Preise und Produktion. Vienna: Philosophia Verlag, 1976, pp. 13–18.


B-1 Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie. (Beitrage zur Konjunkturforschung, heraus-gegeben vom Österreichisches Institut für Konjunkturforschung, No. 1). Vienna and Leipzig: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1929/2, xii, 147 pp. (England 1933, Japan 1935, Spain 1936.) Translated into English by N. Kaldor and H. M. Croome with an “Introduction to the Series, Library of Money and Banking History” by Lionel an “Introduction to the Series, Library of Money and Banking History” by Lionel Robbins as Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle. London: Jonathan Cape, 1933, 244 pp. American edition, New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1933. Reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1966. The German first edition of Geldtheorie is described as “Contributions to Trade Cycle Research, published by The Austrian Institute for Trade Cycle Research, No. 1.” This Institute was founded by Ludwig von Mises, and Hayek was its Director from 1927–1931.)

See also foreward and bibliography to the 2nd German edition by Kurt R. Leube, “Vorwort und Bibliographie zur Weiderauflage F. A. Hayek: Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie.” Salzburg: (W. Neugebauer) Philosophia Verlag, 1976. [Hayek's Geldtheorie (1929) together with its English translation (1933) is an expanded version of the paper (A-7a) delivered at a meeting of the Verein für Sozialpolitik, held in Zurich, in September 1928 (See A-7a with annotations). Hayek cites earlier studies as the foundations for his Geldtheorie: A-2a, A-6, A-7a, A-9a, A-13. Hayek presents, from the Austrian School perspective, a critical assessment of rival theories on the cause of trade cycle. He argues that the cause of all significant trade cycle fluctuations are monetary interventions which distort relative price relationships.].

B-2 Prices and Production. (Studies in Economics and Political Science, edited by the director of the London School of Economics and Political Sciences. No. 107 in the series of Monographs by writers connected with the London School of Economics and Political Science.) London: Routledge & Sons, 1931/2, xv, 112 pp. 2nd revised and enlarged edition, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1935/9, also 1967 edition, xiv, 162 pp. American edition, New York: Macmillan, 1932. German edition. Preise und Produktion. Vienna, 1931/2, also 1976 edition. (Japan 1934, China [Taipei] 1966, France 1975).

See also the selected bibliography to the 2nd German edition: Kurt R. Leube, “Ausgewählte Bibliographie zur Wiederauflage F. A. Hayek: Preise und Produktion.” Philosophia Verlag, 1976.

[The 1st edition of Prices (1931) literally reproduced Hayek's four lectures on industrial fluctuations presented at the University of London (LSE) during the session 1930–1931. The “Preface to the Second Edition” of Prices (1935) states how Hayek developed Austrian capital theory following the four lectures. These developments were contained in the 2nd edition and prepared for by A-11a, A-12, A-13, A-14, A-21, A-22, A-23, A-24a, as well as by the first German edition of Preise (1931), the English version (B-1), and A-9a. Economist Sudha R. Shenoy, in an unpublished manuscript, has done a detailed comparative analysis of the differences between the 1931 and 1935 editions of Prices.]

B-3 Monetary Nationalism and International Stability. Geneva, 1937; London: Longmans, Green (The Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Publication Number 18), 1937, xiv, 94 pp. Reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1964, 1971, 1974.

[Revised version of five lectures delivered at the Institute Universitaire de Hautes Études Internationales at Geneva. Hayek surveys the consequence of alternative monetary arrangements, such as gold vs. paper currency and flexible vs. fixed exchange rates.]

B-4 Profits, Interest and Investment: and Other Essays on The Theory on Industrial Fluctuations. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1939/3, viii, 266 pp., also 1969 edition. Reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1969, 1970; Clifton, New Jersey: Augustus M. Kelley, 1975.

[Collection of essays, mostly reprints or revised versions of earlier essays, which are attempts “to improve and develop the outline of a Theory of Industrial Fluctuations contained in” B-1 and B-2. The first chapter, “Profits, Interest and Investment” is new; the other chapters are revisions of A-37a, A-27a, A-26, A-19, A-21, A-14, A-9a. Hayek's essays defend the Austrian School's theory of the trade cycle. He argues that monetary interventions cause far-ranging economic distortions that bring about malinvestment and unemployment.]

B-5 The Pure Theory of Capital. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1941/2 (also 1950 edition); Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1941 (also 1950, 1952 and 1975 editions); xxxi, 454 pp. (Spain 1946, Japan 1951 and 1952).

[Growing out of Hayek's concern for the causes of the trade cycle or industrial fluctuations, this work deals with capital, interest, and time components in the structure of production.]

B-6 The Road to Serfdom. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1944/1945/20 (also 1969 edition); Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944/1945/20 (also 1969 edition), 250 pp. (Sweden 1944; France 1945; German version 1945: Der Weg zur Knechtschaft. Zurich 1945/3 (also 1952 edition); the German translation by Eva Röpke is available in paperback from Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (Munich, 1976); Denmark, Portugal, and Spain 1946; Netherlands 1948; Italy 1948; Norway 1949; Japan 1954; China [Taipei] 1956/1965/1966; Iceland 1980). Reprinted in two different paperback versions with new Prefaces by F. A. H. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Phoenix Books, 1956 (see B-13, chapt. 15) and also 1976 paperback edition by University of Chicago Press and Routledge and Kegan Paul.

[Hayek wrote The Road to Serfdom in his “spare time from 1940 to 1943” while he was engaged in pure economic theory. The central argument was first sketched in A-37b (1938) and expanded in P-2 (1939). Hayek's thesis is that social-political planning endangers both political and economic liberties of the individual.]

B-7 Individualism and Economic Order. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1948/5, also 1960, 1976; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948/5, also 1969, 1976, vii, 272 pp. Paperback edition, Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., Gateway edition 1972 (out of print), but now available in a University of Chicago paperback edition; (German edition, Zurich, 1952, Norway [shortened version] 1953, Spain 1968, Netherlands no date.)

See also bibliographic postscript in the German reprint of the 1st edition, Erlenbach-Zurich: 1952: Kurt R. Leube, “Bibliographisches Nachwort zur Wiederauflage F. A. Hayek: Individualismus und wirtschaftliche Ordnung.” Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1977.

[Individualism reprints P-5, A-34, A-49, A-50, E-5 (Chapt. 1: “The Nature of the Problem”), E-5 (Chapt. 5: “The (Present) State of the Debate”), A-41, A-48, A-45, A-38; and some previously unpublished lectures: Chapt. 5: “The Meaning of Competition” and Chapt. 6 “‘Free’ Enterprise and Competitive Order.” These articles and speeches sound the Hayekian warning against economic and social planning.]

B-8 John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor: Their Friendship and Subsequent Marriage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951/1969; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951/1969, 320 pp.

[During the 1920s the Mill-Taylor correspondence became available for scholarly assessment of how much ideological influence Harriet Taylor exerted on the political, economic, and social ideas of her intimate friend and eventual husband, John Stuart Mill. Hayek's volume presenting their correspondence allows the reader to judge the nature of their relationship.]

B-9 The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies on the Abuse of Reason. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1952, 255 pp; new edition New York, 1964; 2nd edition with 1959 Preface to German edition, Indianapolis, Indiana: Liberty Press, 1979, also available in Liberty Press paperback. (Germany 1959, Frankfurt am Main edition published under the title Missbrauch und Verfall der Vernunft or “The Abuse and Decline of Reason”; German reprint of Frankfurt edition, Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1979; France excerpts, 1953; Italy 1967.)

[The two major sections of this volume first appeared as articles in Economica as A-46 (1942–1944) and A-42 (1941), respectively: the third study first appeared as A-70 (1951). Hayek analyzes the intellectual origins of social planning and engineering. Topics covered include: scientism and the methodology of studying society, collectivism, historicism, non-spontaneous or rationalistic social planning, as well as the role of Saint-Simon, Comte, and Hegel in legitimizing scientistic sociology.]

B-10 The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952, xxii, 209 pp; new edition 1963/1976. Reprinted Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Phonenix Book paperback, 1963 (out of print). University of Chicago Press has reissued the paperback in a Midway Reprint, 1976, with the Heinrich Klüver Introduction.

[Though published in 1952, the “whole principle” of The Sensory Order was conceived 30 years earlier by Hayek in a draft of a student paper composed around 1919–1920, while he was still uncertain whether to become a psychologist or an economist. Three decades later his concern about the logical character of social theory led him to reexamine favorably his youthful conclusions on certain topics of epistemology and theoretical psychology: concepts of mind, classification, and the ordering of our mental and sensory world. In his 1952 Preface Hayek acknowledges his indebtedness “particularly” to Ernst Mach and his analysis of perceptual organization.]

B-11 The Political Ideal of the Rule of Law. Cairo: National Bank of Egypt, Fiftieth Anniversary Commemorative Lectures, 1955, 76 pp. [Publication of four lectures Hayek delivered at the invitation of the National Bank of Egypt. These essays form a historical survey of the evolution of freedom and the rule of law in Britain, France, Germany, and America.]

[Reprinted in a revised, edited, and abridged format as Chapters 11 and 13 - 16 of Hayek's B-12; Chapters 11 and 16 of the B-12 version were reprinted under the title, The Rule of Law. Menlo Park, California: Institute for Humane Studies (Studies in Law, No. 3), 1975.]

B-12 The Constitution of Liberty. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1960; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960/1963/5 (also 1969 edition); Toronto: The University of Toronto Press, 1960, x, 570 pp. Also available in paperback: Chicago: Henry Regnery Co. Gateway Edition, 1972.

German translation: Die Verfassung der Freiheit. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche und wirtschaftrechtliche Untersuchungen No. 7), [J. C. B. Mohr/P. Siebeck], 1971. (Spain 1961, Italy 1971, China [Taipei] 1975). [Hayek composed the Preface of The Constitution of Liberty on his 60th birthday (May 8, 1959). He intended this survey of the ideals of freedom in Western civilization to commemorate the centenary of John Stuart Mill's On Liberty (1859). In “Acknowledgments and Notes” he describes the various preliminary drafts and versions he incorporated into this volume; also see B-11. Hayek stresses the working of the liberal, spontaneous order of society, which is too complex to be subjected to social planning and engineering.]

B-13 Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967/1969; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967/1969; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967/1969; x, 356 pp. Reprinted in paperback New York: Simon and Schuster Clarion Book, 1969.

[This volume of 25 essays contains reprints of articles and speeches by F. A. H. as well as previously unpublished writing and speeches over a 20-year period preceding 1967. Reprints (often revised) include: A-76, A-102, A-103b, A-112, A-108, A-115, A-65, A-68, A-99a, etc. Consult volume to determine other essays published for the first time. The scope of topics includes essays on epistemology, history of ideas, specialization, Hume, spontaneous order, the liberal social order, the transmission of liberal economic ideas, and a variety of other topics on philosophy, politics, and economics.]

B-14 Freiburger Studien. Gesammelte Aufsätze. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche und wirtschaftsrechliche Untersuchungen 5) J.C.B. Mohr/P. Siebeck, 1969, 284 pp.

[“Freiburg Studies. Collected Essays.” German anthology of Hayek's essays. Contains German versions of such items as P-9 and P-10.]

B-15 Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy, Vol. I, Rules and Order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973, xi, 184 pp.

A trilogy published in the following sequence:

  • Vol. I, Rules and Order, 1973
  • Vol. II, The Mirage of Social Justice, 1976
  • Vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People, 1979

These volumes are also available in paperback, Phoenix Books editions of the University of Chicago Press. A French translation, Droit, Législation et Liberté, is available from Presses Universitaires de France in the Collection Libre Échange, edited by Florian Aftalion and Georges Gallais-Hamonno.

[Vol. I distinguishes between liberal spontaneous order (‘cosmos’) and planned or engineered, rationalistic social orders (‘taxis’). Hayek also traces the changing concept of law, principles vs. expediency in politics, and the ‘law of legislation’.]

B-16 Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy, Vol. II, The Mirage of Social Justice. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976, xiv, 195 pp.

[Vol. II outlines the meaning of justice in the free, liberal social order, critiques the notion of 'social’ or distributive justice, and contrasts it with the market order or ‘catallaxy’, the regime of the Open Society.]

B-17 New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978. [This volume of 20 essays supplements Hayek's earlier Studies (B-13) by reprinting in a more accessible form some of his earlier articles and unpublished lectures not reprinted in Studies. Reprints include P-11a, P-9, A-121, P-10, A-127, P-9, A-131a, A-136a, A-116, A-113. Consult New Studies for titles of essays not previously published. Ranging over themes from philosophy, politics, economics, and the history of ideas, Hayek analyzes such topics as constructivism, the ‘atavism of social justice’, liberalism, the dangers of economic planning, and the ideas of Mandeville, Smith, and Keynes. Chapter 2 reprints his 1974 Nobel Prize speech, “The Pretence of Knowledge.”]

B-18 Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy, Vol. III, The Political Order of a Free People. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979, xv, 244 pp. [Vol. III concludes Hayek's trilogy. Hayek exposes the weakness inherent in most forms of democratic government and outlines his alternative constitutional, political, and legal arrangements to create a democratic order that would be consistent with the free society. The Epilogue, “The Three Sources of Human Values,” reprints Hayek's Hobhouse Lecture delivered at the London School of Economics, May 17, 1978.]


P-1 Das Mieterschutzproblem, Nationalökonomische Betrachtungen. Vienna: Steyrermühl-Verlag, Bibliothek für Volkswirtschaft und Politik, No. 2, 1929. [“The Rent Control Problem, Political Economic Considerations.” Hayek's later article (A-9b) was adapted from P-1 (the more detailed study on the effects of rent control) and both were used to form the substance of Hayek's “The Repercussions of Rent Restrictions,” in F. A. Hayek, Milton Friedman, et al. Rent Control: A Popular Paradox. Evidence on The Effects of Rent Control. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1975, pp. 67–83; this last volume grew out of an earlier version: Arthur Seldon, ed. Verdict on Rent Control. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1972.]

P-2 Freedom and the Economic System. University of Chicago Press (Public Policy Pamphlet No. 29. Harry D. Gideonse, editor), 1939, iv, 38 pp.

[Reprinted in an enlarged form from Contemporary Review (April 1938).]

P-3 The Case of the Tyrol. London: Committee on Justice for the South Tyrol, 1944. [F. A. H. advocates Tyrolean autonomy independent of Italian hegemony. Compare with Hayek's artice A-53 (1944).]

P-4 Report on the Changes in the Cost of Living in Gibraltar 1939–1944 and on Wages and Salaries. Gibraltar, no date (1945).

P-5 Individualism: True and False. (The Twelfth Finlay Lecture, delivered at University College, Dublin, on December 17, 1945.) Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co. Ltd. 1946; and Oxford: B. H. Blackwell Ltd. 1946, 38 pp.

[Reprinted in Individualism (B-7), chapter 1. German edition: “Wahrer und Falscher Individualismus.” Ordo 1, 1948. Spain, 1968. Also reprinted in the various translation of B-7.]

P-6 Two Essays on Free Enterprise. Bombay: Forum of Free Enterprise, 1962.

P-7 Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik. Freiburger Universitätsreden, N.F. Heft 34, Freiburg im Breisgau: H.F. Schulz, 1963, 24 pp.

[English version, “The Economy, Science and Politics,” chapter 18 of B-13. The original (in German) was Hayek's inaugural lecture on the assumption of the professorship of Political Economy Albert Ludwig University at Freiburg im Breisgau, June 18, 1962.]

P-8 Was der Goldwährung geschehen ist. Ein Bericht aus dem Jahre 1932 mit zwei Ergänzungen. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze, 12), 1965, 36 pp. (France 1966): Révue d'Economie Politique 76 (1966), for French version. [“What Has Happened to the Gold Standard. A Report Beginning with the Year 1932 with Two Supplements.”]

P-9 The Confusion of Language in Political Thought, With Some Suggestions for Remedying It. London: Institute of Economic Affairs (Occasional Paper 20), 1968/1976, 36 pp.

[Lecture originally delivered in 1967 in German to the Walter Eucken Institut at Freiburg im Breisgau. Reprinted in English as Chapter 6 of B-17, and in German as “Die Sprachverwirrung im politischen Denken” in B-14.]

P-10 Der Wettbewerb als Entdeckungsverfahren. Kiel: (Kieler Vorträge, N.S. 56), 1968, 20 pp.

[“Competition as a Discovery Procedure.” Originally delivered in English as a lecture to the Philadelphia Society at Chicago on March 29, 1968 and later on July 5, 1968, in German, to the Institut für Weltwirtschaft of the University of Kiel. The German version was published first, but it lacked the final section found in the English version published in Chapter 12 of New Studies (B-17). The German version also was reprinted in F. A. H.'s German collection of essays entitled Freiburger Studien (B-14), 1979.]

P-11a Die Irrtümer des Konstruktivismus und die Grundlagen legitimer kritik gesellschaftlicher Gebilde. Munich-Salzburg 1970/2 (also 1975 edition). Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 51), 1975. (Italy, 1971).

[Reprinted with some changes as “The Errors of Constructivism” (Chapt. 1) of B-17.]

P-11b A Tiger by the Tail: The Keynesian Legacy of Inflation. A 40 Years’ Running Commentary on Keynesianism by F. A. Hayek. Compiled and introduced by Sudha R. Shenoy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs (Hobart Paperback #4), 1972; 2nd edition 1978, xii, 124 pp. Also reprinted, San Francisco: The Cato Institute (The Cato Papers, No. 6), 1979. See A-130.

P-11c Die Theorie Komplexer Phänomene. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 36), 1972.

[English version, “The Theory of Complex Phenomena” appears in Chapter 2 of B-13. This essay originally appeared in English in M. Bunge, ed. The Critical Approach and Philosophy. Essays in Honor of K. R. Popper. New York: The Free Press, 1964.]

P-12 Economic Freedom and Representative Government. Fourth Wincott Memorial Lecture delivered at the Royal Society of Arts, Oct. 21, 1973. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs (Occasional Paper 39), 1973, 22 pp.

[Appears as Chapter 8 of B-17.]

P-13 Full Employment at Any Price? London: Institute of Economic Affairs (Occasional Paper 45), 1975/1978, (Italy 1975), 52 pp.

[Three Lectures. Lecture 1: “Inflation, The Misdirection of Labour, and Unemployment; Lecture 2: “The Pretence of Knowledge” (Hayek's 1974 Nobel Prize Speech); Lecture 3: “No Escape: Unemployment Must Follow Inflation.” A Short Note on Austrian Capital Theory is added as an Appendix. Reprinted as Unemployment and Monetary Policy. San Francisco: Cato Institute (Cato Paper No. 3), 1979, 53 pp.]

P-14 Choice in Currency. A Way to Stop Inflation. London: Institute of Economic Affairs (Occasional Paper 48), February 1976/1977, 46 pp.

[Based on an Address entitled “International Money” delivered to the Geneva Gold and Monetary Conference on September 25, 1975 at Lausanne, Switzerland.]

P-15 Drei Vorlesungen über Demokratie, Gerechtigkeit und Sozialismus. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 63 [J.C.B. Mohr/P. Siebeck]), 1977. [“Three Lectures on Democracy, Justice, and Socialism.”]

P-16a Denationalisation of Money: An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs (Hobart Paper Special 70), October 1976, 107 pp.

P-16b See, along with P-16a, the revision: Denationalisation of Money—The Argument Refined. An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies. Hobart Paper Special 70, Second (Extended) edition, 1978, 141 pp.

P-17 The Reactionary Character of the Socialist Conception, Remarks by F. A. Hayek. Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1978.

P-18 Economic Progress in an Open Society. Seoul, Korea: Korea International Economic Institute (Seminar Series No. 16), 1978.

P-19 “The Three Sources of Human Values.” The Hobhouse Lecture given at the London School of Economics, May 17, 1978. Published in the Epilogue to Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. III. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979 (B-18).

[German translation: “Die drei Quellen der menschlichen Werte.” Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 70) [J. C. B. Mohr/P. Siebeck], 1979.]

P-20 Social Injustice, Socialism and Democracy. Sidney, Australia, 1979.

P-21 Wissenschaft und Sozialismus. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut, (Vorträge und Aufsätze 71) [J. C. B. Mohr/P. Siebeck], 1979.

[“Science and Socialism.”]

P-22 Liberalismus. Translated from English by Eva von Malchus. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 72) [J. C. B. Mohr/P. Siebeck 1979], 47 pp. [“Liberalism”] Reprint-translation into German of article in New Studies (B-17).

Books Edited or Introduced

E-1 Hermann Heinrich Gossen. Entwicklung der Gesetze des menschlichen Verkehrs und der daraus fliessenden Regeln für menschliches Handeln. Introduced by Friedrich A. Hayek. 3rd edition. Berlin: Prager, 1927, xxiii, 278 pp.

[“The Laws of Human Relationships and of the Rules to be Derived Therefrom for Human Action.” Cf.: A-15. Gossen's (1810–1858) fame rests on this one book, first published in 1854, in which he developed a comprehensive theory of the hedonistic calculus and postulated the principle of diminishing marginal utility. He thereby anticipated the marginal utility breakthrough in the theory of economic value in 1871 by Menger, Jevons, and Walras.]

E-2 Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser. Gesammelte Abhandlungen. Edited with an introduction by Friedrich A. von Hayek. Tübingen: Mohr, 1929, xxxiv, 404 pp. [This edition includes von Wieser's Collected Writings published between 1876 and 1923. Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (1851–1926) was Hayek's mentor at the University of Vienna and represented the “older Austrian school” of Economics. See A-4 and A-125b.]

E-3 Richard Cantillon. Abhandlung über die Natur des Handels im Allgemeinen. Translated by Hella von Hayek. Introduction and annotations by F. A. von Hayek. Jena, 1931, xix, 207 pp.

[A French translation of Cantillon's “Essay on the Nature of Trade in General” appeared as Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général in Revue des Sciences Économiques (Liège, April-October, 1936). Italian translation by the Italian liberal editor of Il Politico, Luigi Einaudi appeared in Riforma sociale (July 1932).]

E-4 Beiträge zur Geldtheorie. Edited and prefaced by Friedrich A. Hayek. Contributions by Marco Fanno, Marius W. Holtrop, Johan G. Koopmans, Gunnar Myrdal, Knut Wicksell. Vienna, 1933, ix, 511 pp.

[“Contributions on Monetary Theory.”]

E-5 Collectivist Economic Planning: Critical Studies on the Possibilities of Socialism. Edited with an Introduction and a Concluding Essay by F. A. Hayek. Contributions by N. G. Pierson, Ludwig von Mises, Georg Halm, and Enrico Barone. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1935, v, 293 pp. (France 1939, Italy 1946.)

[Reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley (1967), 1970 from the 1935 edition; reprinted Clifton, New Jersey: Augustus M. Kelley, 1975. Hayek's Introductory Chapter 1 deals with “The Nature and History of The Problem” of socialist calculation. Hayek's concluding chapter concerns “The Present State of the Debate.” Mises’ (1881–1973) article “Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth” (translated from the German by S. Adler), chapter 3, had set off the debate when it appeared originally under the title “Die Wirtschaftsrechnung im sozialstischen Gemeinwesen” in the Archiv für Socialwissenschaften 47 (1920). N.G. Pierson's (1839–1909) article, “The Problem of Value in the Socialist Community,” chapter 2, originally appeared in Dutch in De Economist 41 (s'Gravenhage, 1902): 423–456.]

E-6 Boris Brutzkus. Economic Planning in Soviet Russia. Edited and prefaced by Friedrich A. Hayek. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1935; xvii, 234 pp.

E-7 The Collected Works of Carl Menger. 4 volumes with an Introduction by F. A. von Hayek. London: The London School of Economics and Political Science (Series of Reprints of Scarce Tracts in Economic and Political Science No. 17–20), 1933–1936.

Volume 1: Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre (1871) 1934.

Volume 2: Untersuchungen über die Methode der Socialwissenschaften (1883) 1933.

Volume 3: Kleinere Shriften zur Methode und Geschichte der Volkswirthschaftlehre (1884–1915) 1935.

Volume 4: Schriften über Geldtheorie und Währungspolitik (1889–1893), 1936.

[Vol. 1 contains a biographical introduction to Menger by Hayek. Vol. 4 contains a complete list of Menger's known writings.]

Later 2nd German edition: Carl Menger, Gesammelte Werke. 4 vols. Tübingen, 1968–1970.

[“Collected Works”]

E-8 Henry Thornton. An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain (1802). Edited and introduced by Friedrich A. Hayek. London: Allen and Unwin, 1939, 368 pp.

E-9 John Stuart Mill, The Spirit of the Age. Introduced by F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942, xxxiii, 93 pp.

[Hayek's Introduction is entitled, “John Stuart Mill at the Age of Twenty-Four,” and surveys Mill's intellectual development at the time of Mill's famous essay, “The Spirit of the Age,” which represented important deviations from Benthamite Utilitarian liberalism.]

E-10 Capitalism and the Historians. Edited and introduced by F. A. Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954, 188 pp. [The inspiration for the several papers presented was The Mont Pélèrin Society meetings held at Beauvallon in France in September 1951 on the distortions of historians and intellectuals in describing Capitalism and The Industrial Revolution. Hayek's Introduction (pp. 3–29) is entitled “History and Politics” and is reprinted in B-13 and (in German) as “Wirtschaftsgeschichte and Politik” [“Economic History and Politics”] in Ordo 7 (1955): 3–22. T. S. Ashton's first chapter is “The Treatment of Capitalism by Historians”; L. M. Hacker's second chapter is entitled “The Anticapitalist Bias of American Historians”; Bertrand de Jouvenel contributed chapter 3, “The Treatment of Capitalism by Continental Intellectuals”; T. S. Ashton's chapter 4, “The Standard of Life of the Workers in England, 1790–1830,” originally appeared in The Journal of Economic History, Supplement 9, 1949; the final article by W. H. Hutt, “The Factory System of The Early Nineteenth Century,” originally appeared in Economica (March 1926). Hayek's volume provoked many pro and con reviews. A sampling: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., The Reporter (March 30, 1954): 38–40; Oscar Handlin, The New England Quarterly (March 1955): 99–107; Charles Wilson, Economic History Review (April 1956); Asa Briggs, The Journal of Economic History (Summer 1954); W. T. Eastbrook, The American Economic Review (September 1954); Max Eastman, The Freeman (February 22, 1954); Helmut Schoek, U.S.A. (July 14, 1954); Eric E. Lampard, The American Historical Review (October 1954); and John Chamberlain, Barron's (January 4, 1954.)]

E-11 Louis Rougier. The Genius of the West. Introduction by F.A. v. Hayek. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing (published for the Principles of Freedom Committee), 1971, pp. xv-xviii.

E-12 Gerald P. O'Driscoll, Jr. Economics as a Coordination Problem. The Contributions of Friedrich A. Hayek. Foreward by F.A. Hayek. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, Inc., 1977, pp. xi-xii.

E-13 Ludwig von Mises. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Translated by Jacques Kahane. 1981 Introduction by F.A. Hayek. Indianapolis: LibertyClassics, 1981, pp. xix-xxiv. Dated August 1978.

[Hayek's Foreward pays tribute to Mises for the anti-socialist impact that Mises’ Die Gemeinwirtschaft: Untersuchungen über den Sozialismus (Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1922) created on many intellectuals after the First World War.]

E-14 Ewald Schams. Gesammelte Aufsätze. Prefaced by F.A. Hayek. Ready in Spring 1983. Munich: Philosophia Verlag.

Articles in Journals, Newspapers, or Collections of Essays

A-1a “Das Stabilisierungsproblem in Goldwährungsländern.” Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Sozialpolitik, N.S. 4 (1924).

[“The Stabilization Problem for Countries on the Gold Standard.” See note A-2a for the biographical context of Hayek's first two article publications. The journal in which Hayek published some of his first articles was closely associated with the Austrian School of economics through its editorial direction. It underwent several name changes:

  • 1892–1918: The journal was known as Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft, Socialpolitik und Verwaltung. Organ der Gesellschaft österreichischer Volkswirt. [“Journal of Political Economy, Social Policy, and Administration. Publication of the Society of Austrian Political Economy”], and was published in Vienna by F. Tempsky.
  • 1919–1920: Suspended publication.
  • 1921–1927: It was known as Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Socialpolitik. [“Journal of Political Economy and Social Policy”] and was published in Vienna and Leipsig by F. Deuticke.
  • After 1927, the journal was superseded by Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie. [“Journal of National Economy”]. See Bibliography A-22, etc.

The heavily Austrian School of economics-oriented editorial staff included:

  • 1892–1918 Ernst von Plener (1841–1923)
  • 1892–1914 Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1851–1914)
  • 1892–1907 Karl Theodor von Inama-Sternegg (1843–1908)
  • 1904–1916 Eugen von Philippovich (1858–1917)
  • 1904–1918 Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (1851–1926)
  • 1911–1916 Robert Meyer (1855–1914)
  • 1921–1927 R. Reisch (1866–?), Othmar Spann (1878–1950), and others.]

A-1b “Diskontopolitik und Warenpreise.” Der Österreichische Volkswirt 17 (1,2), (Vienna 1924).

[“Discount Policy and Commodity Prices.”]

A-2a “Die Währungspolitik der Vereinigten Staaten seit der Überwindung der Krise von 1920.” Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Sozialpolitik. N.S. 5 (1925).

[“The Monetary Policy in the United States Since Overcoming the Crisis of 1920.” Both this article and A-1a grew out of Hayek's post-graduate studies in America which he pursued from March 1923 to June 1924 at New York University. On the chronology of the Nobel Prize biography of Hayek: Official Announcement of the Royal Academy of Sciences, republished in the Swedish Journal of Economics 76 (December 1974): 469 ff. Also see Machlup, ed. (1976), pp. 16–17, as well as the annotation in the present Hayek Bibliography on item A-64. Hayek's American academic sojourn took place while he was on a leave of absence from his Austrian civil service position (1921–1926) as a legal consultant (along with Ludwig von Mises) for carrying out the provisions of the Treaty of St. Germain; see Bibliography A-145, p. 1 for Hayek's anecdote and background for his introduction to von Mises through von Wieser.]

A-2b “Das amerikanische Bankwesen seit der Reform von 1914.” Der Österreichische Volkswirt 17 (29–33), (Vienna 1925).

[“The American Banking System since the Reform of 1914.”]

A-3a “Bemerkungen zum Zurechnungsproblem.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 124 (1926): 1–18.

[“Comments on the Problem of Imputation.” On the valuation of Producer goods. Compare Wilhelm Vleugel's Die Lösung des wirtschaftlichen Zurechnungsproblem bei Böhm-Bawerk und Wieser. Halle: Neimeyer (Königsberger Gelehrte Gesellschaft, Geisteswissenschaftliche Klasse, Shriften, Vol. 7, part 5), 1930.]

A-3b “Die Bedeutung der Konjunkturforschung für das Wirtschaftsleben.” Der Österreichische Volkswirt 19 (2), (Vienna 1926).

[“The Meaning of Business Cycle Research for Economic Life.”]

A-4 “Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser.” Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 125 (1926): 513–530.

[Commemorative article on the occasion of the death of Hayek's Austrian School of economics mentor, von Wieser (1851–1926). Compare with Hayek's later article on von Wieser in The International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (1968, 1972). Also see E-2 (1929) Hayek's German introduction and edition of von Wieser's Collected Writings. A-4 translated into English in an abridged form appears in The Development of Economic Thought: Great Economists in Perspective. Edited by Henry William Spiegel. New York & London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1952, 1961, pp. 554–567.]

A-5a “Zur Problemstellung der Zinstheorie.” Archiv für Sozialwissenschaften und Sozialpolitik 58 (1927): 517–532.

[“On the Setting of the Problem of Rent Theory.”]

A-5b “Konjunkturforschung in Osterreich.” Die Industrie 32 (30), (Vienna 1927).

[“Business Cycle Research in Austria.”]

A-6 “Das intertemporale Gleichgewichtssystem der Preise und die Bewegungen des ‘Geldwertes.’” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 28 (1928): 33–76.

[“The Intertemporal Equilibrium System of Prices and the Movements of the ‘Value of Money.’”]

A-7a “Einige Bemerkungen über das Verhältnis der Geldtheorie zur Konjunkturtheorie.” Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik 173/2 (1928): 247–295. Also see same journal, Volume 175, for a discussion.

[“Some Remarks on the Relationship between Monetary Theory and Business Cycle Theory.”]

[See B-1 with annotation. The journal in which Hayek published this article was the publication of the influential Verein für Sozialpolitik, founded in 1872 by (among others) Gustav Schmoller (1838–1917). This organization for social reform did not express a monolithic unity of doctrine, but was, nevertheless, excoriated by its opponents as a union of ‘Professorial Socialists’ (Katheder Sozialisten). See the interesting group photograph of a meeting of the Verein at the University of Zurich, September 11–13, 1928, showing the wonderfully variegated grouping that includes Hayek, von Mises, Machlup, A. Rüstow, Hunold, Morgenstern, Strigl, and Sombart: in Albert Hunold, “How Mises Changed My Mind.” The Mont Pélèrin Quarterly 3 (October 1961): 16–19. For background on the Verein, see Haney (1949), pp. 546, 820, 885. It was at the September 1928 meeting of the Verein that Hayek presented his paper, A-7a, which eventually grew into his Geldtheorie (1929).]

A-7b “Diskussionsbemerkungen über ‘Kredit und Konjunktur.’” Shriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik 175, Verhandlungen 1928, (1928). [“Discussion Comments on ‘Credit and Business Cycle’”...(Transactions 1928).]

A-8 “Theorie der Preistaxen.” Közgazdasági Enciklopédia, Budapest, 1929.

[In Hungarian-German printing.]

A-9a “Gibt es einen ‘Widersinn des Sparens’? Eine Kritik der Krisentheorie von W.T. Foster und W. Catchings mit einigen Bemerkungen zur Lehre von de Beziehungen zwischen Geld und Kapital.” [“Is There a ‘Paradox of Saving’? A Critique of the Crises-Theory of W.T. Foster and W. Catchings with some Remarks on the Theory of the Relationship between Money and Capital.”] Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 1, no. 3 (1929): 125–169; revised and enlarged edition, Vienna: Springer, 1931. [English version: “The Paradox of Saving.” Economica 11, no. 32 (May 1931). Reprinted in B-4 (“Appendix”). The English translation was done by Nicholas Kaldor and Georg Tugendhat.]

A-9b “Wirkungen der Mietzinbeschränkungen.” Munich: Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik 182 (1930)

[“The Repercussions of Rent Restrictions.” See P-1 for different treatments of the effects of rent control. A-9b formed the substance of Hayek's article in the Hayek-Friedman volume mentioned in P-1.]

A-9c “Bemerkungen zur vorstehenden Erwiderung Prof. Emil Lederers.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 1 (5), (1930).

[“Comments on the Preceding Reply of Prof. Emil Lederer.”]

A-10 “Reflections on the Pure Theory of Money of Mr. J. M. Keynes.” Economica 11, no. 33 (August 1931 - Part I): 270–295.

[See also A-11b.]

A-11a “The Pure Theory of Money: A Rejoinder to Mr. Keynes.” Economica 11, no. 34 (November 1931): 398–403.

[In the same issue of Economica, pp. 387–397, Keynes’ article appears: “A Reply to Dr. Hayek.”]

A-11b “Reflections on the Pure Theory of Money of Mr. J. M. Keynes.” Economica 12 (February 1932 - Part II): 22–44.

[See also A-10 and A-11a.]

A-11c “Das Schicksal der Goldwährung.” Der Deutsche Volkswirt 6 (20), (1932).

[“The Fate of the Gold Standard.” See P-8.]

A-11d “Foreign Exchange Restrictions.” The Economist 6 (1932).

A-12 “Money and Capital: A Reply to Mr. Sraffa.” Economic Journal 42 (June 1932): 237–249.

A-13 “Kapitalaufzehrung.” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 36 (July 1932/II): 86–108.

[“Capital Consumption.”]

A-14 “A Note on the Development of the Doctrine of ‘Forced Saving’.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 47 (November 1932): 123–133.

[Reprinted in B-4.]

A-15 “Gossen, Hermann Heinrich.” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1932. Vol. 7, p. 3.

A-16 “Macleod, Henry D.” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1933. Vol. 2, p. 30.

[Henry Dunning Macleod (1821–1902) was a Scottish economist who wrote The Theory and Practice of Banking, 2 vols, (1856) and The Theory of Credit, 2 vols, (1889–1891).]

A-17 “Norman, George W.” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1933. Vol. 2.

A-18 “Philippovich, Eugen von.” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1934. Vol. 12, p. 116.

A-19 “Saving.” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1934. Vol. 13, pp. 548–552.

[Reprinted in revised form in B-4.]

A-20 “The Trend of Economic Thinking.” Economica 13 (May 1933): 121–137.

[Hayek's first inaugural lecture given at the University of London about a year after he assumed the Tooke professorship, in which speech he explained his general economic philosophy. See B-13, p. 254.]

A-21 Contribution to Gustav Clausing, ed. Der Stand und die nächste Zukunft der Konjunkturforschung. Festschrift für Arthur Spiethoff. Munich: Duncker & Humblot, 1933.

[Translated into English in B-4 (Chapter 6) as “The Present State and Immediate Prospects of the Study of Industrial Fluctuations.” Arthur Spiethoff, (1873–1957), who is honored in this Festschrift, was born in 1873, studied under Schmoller, and devised a “non-monetary overinvestment theory” of the business cycle. See Haney (1949), p. 673.]

A-22 “Über Neutrales Geld.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 4 (October 1933).

[“Concerning Neutral Money.”]

A-23 “Capital and Industrial Fluctuations.” Econometrica 2 (April 1934): 152–167.

A-24a “On the Relationship between Investment and Output.” Economic Journal 44 (1934): 207–231.

A-24b “The Outlook for Interest Rates.” The Economist 7 (1934).

A-24c “Stable Prices or Neutral Money.” The Economist 7 (1934).

A-25 “Carl Menger.” Economica N.S. 1 (November 1934): 393–420.

[This is an English translation of Hayek's Introduction to Menger's Grundsätze in E-7. Reprinted in The Development of Economic Thought: Great Economists in Perspective. Edited by Henry William Spiegel. New York and London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1952, 527–553. Also reprinted in Principles of Economics by Carl Menger. Translated by James Dingwall and Bert F. Hoselitz. With an Introduction by F. A. Hayek. New York & London: New York University Press, 1981, pp. 11–36. See A-131a.]

A-26 “Preiserwartungen, Monetäre Störungen und Fehlinvestitionen.” Nationalökonomisk Tidsskrift 73, no. 3 (1935).

[Reprinted in a revised form in B-4 as “Price Expectations, Monetary Disturbances and Malinvestments.” Originally delivered as a lecture on December 7, 1933 in the Sozialökonomisk Samfund in Copenhagen. First published in German and later in French in the Revue de Science Economique, Liège (October, 1935).]

A-27a “The Maintenance of Capital.” Economica N.S. 2 (1935): 241–276.

[Reprinted in B-4.]

A-27b “A Regulated Gold Standard.” The Economist (May 11, 1935).

A-28 “Spor miedzy szkola ‘Currency’ i szkola ‘Banking’.” Ekonomista 55 (Warsaw, 1935).

A-29 “Edwin Cannan” (Obituary). Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 6 (1935): 246–250.

[Cannan (1861–1935) is also celebrated by Hayek in A-72. Cannan associated himself at the London School of Economics with a group who developed liberal theory. This group included Lionel Robbins, Cannan's successor, and his colleague Sir Arnold Plant (see Plant, 1969), Sir Theodore Gregory (Athens), F.C. Benkam (Singapore), W.H. Hutt (South Africa), and F.W. Paish (Paris).

A-30 “Technischer Fortschritt und Überkapazität.” Österreichische Zeitschrift für Bankwesen 1 (1936).

[“Technical Progress and Overcapacity.”]

A-31 “The Mythology of Capital.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 50 (1936): 199–228.

[Reprinted in William Fellner and Bernard F. Haley, eds., Readings in the Theory of Income Distribution. Philadelphia: 1946.]

A-32 “Utility Analysis and Interest.” Economic Journal 46 (1936): 44–60.

A-33 “La situation monétaire internationale.” Bulletin Périodique de la Societé Belge d'Études et d'Expansion (Brussels), No. 103. (1936).

[“The International Monetary Situation.”]

A-34 “Economics and Knowledge.” Economica N.S. 4 (February 1937): 33–54.

[Reprinted in B-7. Also reprinted in J. M. Buchanan and G. F. Thirlby (eds.) L.S.E. Essays on Cost. New York and London: New York University Press, 1981 as chapter 3. Originally presented as a presidential address to the London Economic Club, 10 November 1936.]

A-35 “Einleitung zu einer Kapitaltheorie.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 8 (1937): 1–9.

[“Introduction to a Theory of Capital.”]

A-36 “Das Goldproblem.” Österreichische Zeitschrift für Bankwesen 2 (1937).

[“The Gold Problem.”]

A-37a “Investment that Raises the Demand for Capital.” Review of Economic Statistics 19 (November 1937).

[Reprinted in B-4.]

A-37b “Freedom and the Economic System.” Contemporary Review (April 1938).

[Reprinted in enlarged form in P-2.]

A-38 “Economic Conditions of Inter-State Federation.” New Commonwealth Quarterly 5 (London, 1939).

[Reprinted in B-7.]

A-39 “Pricing versus Rationing.” The Banker 51 (London, September 1939).

A-40 “The Economy of Capital.” The Banker 52 (London, October 1939).

A-41 “Socialist Calculation: The Competitive ‘Solution’.” Economica N.S. 7 (May 1940): 125–149.

[Reprinted in B-7.]

A-42 “The Counter-Revolution of Science.” Parts I-III. Economica N.S. 8 (February - August 1941): 281–320.

[Reprinted in B-9.]

A-43 “Maintaining Capital Intact: A Reply [to Professor Pigou.]” Economica N.S. 8 (1941): 276–280.

A-44 “Planning, Science and Freedom.” Nature 148 (November 15, 1941).

A-45 “The Ricardo Effect.” Economica N.S. 9 (1942).

[Reprinted in B-7. See also in B-17, Chapt. 11: “Three Elucidations of the Ricardo Effect,” and A-127.]

A-46 “Scientism and the Study of Society.” Part I: Economica N.S. 9 (1942). Part II: Economica 10 (1943). Part III: Economica 11 (1944).

[Reprinted in B-9.]

A-47 “A Comment on an Article by Mr. Kaldor: ‘Professor Hayek and the Concertina Effect’.” Economica N.S. 9 (November 1942): 383–385.

A-48 “A Commodity Reserve Currency.” Economic Journal 53 (1943).

[Reprinted in B-7 as chapter 10. Also reprinted in part as a pamphlet, “Material Relating to Proposals for an International Commodity Reserve Currency,” submitted to The International Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, N.H. by the Committee for Economic Stability (1944). #380 of the F. A. Harper Archives at The Institute for Humane Studies.]

A-49 “The Facts of the Social Sciences.” Ethics 54 (October 1943).

[Reprinted in B-7.]

A-50 “The Geometrical Representation of Complementarity.” Review of Economic Studies 10 (1942–1943): 122–125.

A-51 “Gospodarka planowa a idea planowania prawa.” Economista Polski (London, 1943).

[Cf. Chapter 6 of B-6: “Planning and the Rule of Law.”]

A-52 Edited: “John Rae and John Stuart Mill: A Correspondence.” Economica N.S. 10 (1943): 253–255.

A-53 “The Economic Position of South Tyrol.” In: Justice for South Tyrol. London: 1943.

[Compare with P-3.]

A-54 “Richard von Strigl” (Obituary). Economic Journal 54 (1944): 284–286.

[Strigl who died in 1944 was a “Neo-Austrian” who developed the theory of saving and investment and analyzed monopolistic competition theory.]

A-55 “The Use of Knowledge in Society.” American Economic Review 35 (September 1945): 519–530.

[Reprinted in B-7 and in a revised, abridged version as a pamphlet; Menlo Park, CA: Institute for Humane Studies. (Reprint No. 5), no date (1971, 1975).]

A-56 “Time-Preference and Productivity: A Reconsideration.” Economica, N.S. no. 4, 12 (February 1945): 22–25.

A-57 Edited: “‘Notes on N.W. Senior's Political Economy’ by John Stuart Mill.” Economica N.S. 12 (1945): 134–139.

A-58 “Nationalities and States in Central Europe.” Central European Trade Review 3 (London, 1945): 134–139.

A-59 “Fuld Beskaeftigelse.” Nationalökonomisk Tidsskrift 84 (1946): 1–31.

A-60 “The London School of Economics 1895–1945.” Economica N.S. 13 (February 1946): 1–31.

A-61 “Probleme und Schwierigkeiten der englischen Wirtschaft.” Schweizer Monatshefte 27 (1947).

[“Problems and Difficulties of the English Economy.”]

A-62 “Le plein emploi.” Economie Appliquée 1, no. 2–3, (Paris, 1948): 197–210.

[“Full Employment.”]

A-63a “Der Mensch in der Planwirtschaft.” In Simon Moser (ed.) Weltbild und Menschenbild. Innsbruck and Vienna: 1948.

[“Man in the Planned Economy.”]

A-63b “Die politischen Folgen der Planwirtschaft.” Die Industrie. Zeitschrift der Vereinigung Österreichischer Industrieller. No. 3 (Vienna, January 1948).

[“The Political Effects of the Planned Economy.”]

A-64 “Wesley Clair Mitchell 1874–1948” (Obituary). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 111 (1948).

[Compare with Arthur F. Burns’ commemoration of Mitchell in the Twenty-Ninth Report of The National Bureau of Economic Research. New York: 1969; adapted in The Development of Economic Thought. Edited by Henry William Spiegel. New York, 1952, 1961, pp. 414–442. Also note Hayek's personal association with Mitchell, as indicated in B-17, p. 3, note 3, during Hayek's stay in America during the early 1920s. Also note the correspondence between Wesley Mitchell and Hayek mentioned in Emil Kauder, A History of Marginal Utility Theory. Princeton University Press, 1965.]

A-65a “The Intellectuals and Socialism.” The University of Chicago Law Review 16, no. 3 (Spring 1949): 417–433. German translation in Schweizer Monatshefte 29 (1944–50); Norwegian translation (1951).

[Reprinted in B-13 and by the Institute for Humane Studies, 1971.]

A-65b “A Levy on Increasing Efficiency. The Economics of Development Charges.” The Financial Times (April 26–28, 1949).

A-66 “Economics.” Chambers’ Encyclopaedia 4 (Oxford 1950).

A-67 “Ricardo, David.” Chambers’ Encyclopaedia 11 (Oxford 1950).

A-68 “Full Employment, Planning and Inflation.” Institute of Public Affairs Review 4 (6) (Melbourne, Australia 1950).

[Reprinted as Chapter 19 in B-13. Also in German (1951) and Spanish (1960).]

A-69a “Capitalism and the Proletariat.” Farmand 7, no. 56 (Oslo: February 17, 1951).

A-69b “Gleichheit und Gerechtigkeit.” Jahresbericht der Züricher Volkswirt-schaftlichen Gesellschaft (1951).

[“Equality and Justice.”]

A-70 “Comte and Hegel.” Measure 2 (Chicago, July 1951).

[Reprinted in B-9.]

A-71 “Comments on ‘The Economics and Politics of the Modern Corporation’.” The University of Chicago Law School, Conference Series no. 8, (December 7, 1951).

A-72 “Die Überlieferung der Ideale der Wirtschaftsfreiheit.” Schweizer Monatshefte 31, No. 6 (1951).

[“The Transmission of the Ideals of Economic Freedom.” First in German (1951) and later in an English translation as “The Ideals of Economic Freedom: A Liberal Inheritance,” in The Owl (London 1951), pp. 7–12. A “corrected version” in English is reprinted as Chapter 13 of B-13. Published in The Freeman 2 (July 28, 1952): 729–731, as “A Rebirth of Liberalism.” A remarkably similar overview of the various liberal currents that flowed into modern economic liberalism is given by Carlo Mötteli (a financial editor for Neue Zücher Zeitung) in Swiss Review of World Affairs 1, no. 8 (November 1951) and entitled “The Regeneration of Liberalism,” reprinted in The Mont Pelerin Quarterly 3 (October 1961): 29–30.]

A-73a “Die Ungerechtigkeit der Steuerprogression.” Schweizer Monatshefte 32 (November 1952).

[“The Injustice of the Progressive Income Tax.” cf. A-79 and A-73b of which this is a translation.]

A-73b “The Case Against Progressive Income Taxes.” The Freeman 4 (December 28, 1953): 229–232.

A-74a “Leftist Foreign Correspondent.” The Freeman 3 (January 12, 1953): 275.

A-74b “The Actonian Revival.” Review of Lord Acton by Gertrude Himmelfarb and Acton's Political Philosophy by G. E. Fasnacht. The Freeman 3 (March 23, 1953): 461–462.

A-74c “Decline of the Rule of Law. Part I.” The Freeman 3 (April 20, 1953): 518–520; Part II The Freeman 3 (May 4, 1953): 561–563.

A-74d “Substitute for Foreign Aid.” The Freeman 3 (April 6, 1953): 482–484.

A-74e “Entstehung und Verfall des Rechtsstaatsideales.” In: Albert Hunold (ed.) Wirtschaft ohne Wunder. Volkswirtschaftliche Studien für das Schweizerische Institut für Auslandsforschung. Zurich, 1953.

[“The Rise and Fall of the Ideal of the Constitutional State.”]

A-75a “Marktwirtschaft und Wirtschaftspolitik.” Ordo 6 (February 1954): 3–18.

[“Market Economy and The Economic Policy.”]

A-75b “Wirtschaftsgeschichte und Politik.” Ordo 7 (March 1955).

[“Economic History and Politics.” See E-10.]

A-76 “Degrees of Explanation.” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 6, no. 23 (1955): 209–225.

[Received by journal Nov. 11, 1954. Hayek acknowledges indebtedness to Chester Barnand, Heinrich Klüver, Herbert Lamm, Michael Polanyi, Karl Popper, Warren Weaver and the members of a Faculty Seminar of the Committee of Social Thought in the University of Chicago “for reading and commenting on an earlier draft of this paper.” Reprinted in revised form in B-13, Chapter 1.]

A-77 “Towards a Theory of Economic Growth, Discussion of Simon Kuznets’ Paper.” In: National Policy for Economic Welfare at Home and Abroad. New York: Columbia University Bicentennial Conference, 1955.

A-78 “Comments.” In: Congress for Cultural Freedom (ed.) Science and Freedom. London: (Proceedings of the Hamburg Conference of the Congress for Cultural Freedom) 1955.

[Also printed in German.]

A-79 “Progressive Taxation Reconsidered.” In: Mary Sennholz (ed.) On Freedom and Free Enterprise: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises. Princeton: D. von Nostrand Co., 1956. Presented on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of his [von Mises'] Doctorate, February 26, 1956.

A-80 “The Dilemma of Specialization.” In Leonard D. White (ed.) The State of the Social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.

[Reprinted in B-13, Chapter 8.]

A-81a “Uber den ‘Sinn’ sozialer Institutionen.” Schweizer Monatshefte 36 (October 1956).

[“On the ‘Meaning’ of Social Institutions.”]

A-81b “Freedom & The Rule of Law.” (The Third Programme, BBC Radio; 1st of 2 talks.) The Listener (Dec. 13, 1956).

A-82a “Was ist und was heisst ‘sozial’?” In Albert Hunold (ed.) Masse und Demokratie. Zürich: 1957.

[“What is ‘Social’—What Does It Mean?” Translated in an unauthorized English translation in Freedom and Serfdom (ed. A. Hunold), Dordrecht, 1961. The reprint in B-13, Chapter 17 is a revised version of the unauthorized English translation “which in parts gravely misrepresented the meaning of the original.”]

A-82b Review of Mill and His Early Critics by J.C. Rees. Leicester: University College of Leicester, 1956. In Journal of Modern History (June 1957): 54.

A-83 “Grundtatsachen des Fortschritts.” Ordo 9 (1957): 19–42.

[“The Fundamental Facts of Progress.”]

A-84 “Inflation Resulting from the Downward Inflexibility of Wages.” In: Committee for Economic Development (ed.) Problems of United States Economic Development, New York: 1958, Vol. I, pp. 147–152.

[Reprinted in B-13, Chapter 21.]

A-85a “La Libertad, La Economia Planificada y el Derecho.” Temas Contemporaneos (Buenos Aires) 3 (1958).

[“Liberty, the Planned Economy, and the Law.”]

A-85b “Das Individuum im Wandel der Wirtschaftsordnung.” Der Volkswirt No. 51–52 (Frankfurt am Main 1958).

[“The Individual and Change of Economic System.”]

A-86 “The Creative Powers of a Free Civilization.” In: Felix Morley (ed.) Essays in Individuality. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958.

A-87 “Freedom, Reason, and Tradition.” Ethics 68 (1958).

A-88a “Gleichheit, Wert und Verdienst.” Ordo 10 (1958): 5–29.

[“Equality, Value, and Profit.”]

A-88b “Attualitá di un insegnamento,” In: Angelo Dalle Molle, ed. Il Maestro dell’ Economia di Domani (Festschrift for Luigi Einaudi on his 85th Birthday). Verona, 1958, pp. 20–24.

[“The Reality of a Teaching,” In The Master of the Economics of the Future. Luigi Einaudi (1874–1961), who is honored in this Festschrift, was a classical liberal Italian economist and statesman. He was the first president of Italy (1948–1955). Following World War II he was governor of the Bank of Italy and devised programs for monetary stabilization. Einaudi is celebrated by Hayek, in an allusion, in A-72.]

A-89 “Liberalismus (1) Politischer Liberalismus.” Handwörterbuch der Sozialwissenschaften 6 (Stuttgart-Tübingen-Göttingen, 1959).

[“Liberalism (1) Political Liberalism.” See Chapter 9 of B-17.]

A-90 “Bernard Mandeville.” Handwörterbuch der Sozialwissenschaften 7 (Stuttgart-Tübingen-Göttingen, 1959).

A-91 “Unions, Inflation and Profits.” In: Philip D. Bradley (ed.) The Public Stake in Union Power. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press: 1959.

[Reprinted in B-13.]

A-92 “Freiheit und Unabhängigkeit.” Schweizer Monatshefte 39 (1959).

[“Freedom and Independence.”]

A-93 “Verantwortlichkeit und Freiheit.” In: Albert Hunold (ed.) Erziehung zur Freiheit. Erlenbach-Zürich: E. Rentsch, 1959: 147–170.

[“Responsibility and Freedom.”]

A-94 “Marktwirtschaft und Strukturpolitik.” Die Aussprache 9 (1959).

[“Market Economy and Structural Policy.”]

A-95 “An Röpke.” In Wilhelm Röpke, Gegen die Brandung. Zürich: E. Rentsch, 1959.

[On Röpke.”]

A-96a “The Free Market Economy: The Most Efficient Way of Solving Economic Problems.” Human Events 16, no. 50 (Dec. 16, 1959).

[Reprinted in P-6.]

A-96b “The Economics of Abundance,” in Henry Hazlitt, ed. The Critics of Keynesian Economics. Princeton and London: Van Nostrand Co., 1960, pp. 126–130.

A-97a “The Social Environment.” In B. H. Bagdikian (ed.) Man's Contracting World in an Expanding Universe Providence, R.I.: 1960.

A-97b “Freedom, Reason and Tradition.” Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting: The Western Conference of Prepaid Medical Service Plans, (Winnipeg 1960).

A-97c “Progenitor of Scientism.” National Review (1960).

A-97d “Gobierno Democratico y Actividad Economica.” Espejo 1 (Mexico City 1960).

[“Democratic Government and Economic Activity.”]

A-98 “The Corporation in a Democratic Society: In Whose Interest Ought It and Will It Be Run?” In: M. Anshen and G. L. Bach (eds.) Management and Corporations 1985. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

[Reprinted in B-13.]

A-99a “The ‘Non Sequitur’ of the ‘Dependence Effect’.” The Southern Economic Journal 27 (April 1961).

[Reprinted in B-13, Chapter 23.]

A-99b “Freedom and Coercion: Some Comments and Mr. Hamowy's Criticism.” New Individualist Review 1, no. 2 (Summer 1961): 28–32.

A-100a “Die Ursachen der ständigen Gefährdung der Freiheit.” Ordo 12 (1961): 103–112.

[“The Origins of the Constant Danger to Freedom.”]

A-100b “How Much Education at Public Expense?” Context 1 (Chicago 1961).

A-101 “The Moral Element in Free Enterprise.” In: National Association of Manufacturers (eds.) The Spiritual and Moral Significance of Free Enterprise. New York: 1962.

[Reprinted in B-13 as Chapter 16. Originally delivered as an address to the 66th Congress of American Industry organized by the N.A.M. New York, December 6, 1961.]

A-102 “Rules, Perception and Intelligibility.” Proceedings of the British Academy 48 (1962), London, 1963, pp. 321–344.

[Reprinted as Chapter 3 in B-13.]

A-103a “Wiener Schule.” Handwörterbuch der Sozialwissenschaften 12 (Stuttgart-Tübingen-Göttingen, 1962).

[“The Vienna School.”]

A-103b “The Uses of ‘Gresham's Law’ as an Illustration of ‘Historical Theory’.” History and Theory 1 (1962).

[Reprinted in B-13, Chapter 24.]

A-104 “Alte Wahrheiten und neue Irrtümer.” In: Internationales Institut der Sparkassen, ed. Das Sparwesen der Welt, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Savings Banks. Amsterdam: 1963.

[“Old Truths and New Errors.” Reprinted in B-14; Italian translation in Il Risparmio (Milan) 11 (1963).]

A-105 “Arten der Ordnung.” Ordo 14 (1963).

English version under the title “Kinds of Order in Society.” New Individualist Review (University of Chicago) 3, no. 2 (Winter 1964): 3–12. [Reprinted in B-14.] [The five volumes of New Individualist Review (1961–1968) in which “Kinds of Order” appears have been published in one volume as New Individualist Review. Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1981. Reprinted as pamphlet: Menlo Park, California: The Institute for Humane Studies (Studies in Social Theory No. 5), 1975. Hayek used this essay as the basis of the second chapter of Vol. I of Law, Legislation and Liberty (B-15). Reprinted in German in B-14.]

A-106 “Recht, Gesetz und Wirtschaftsfreiheit.” In: Hundert Jahre Industrie und Handelskammer zu Dortmund 1863–1963. Dortmund, 1963.

[“Right, Law, and Economic Freedom.” Reprinted in B-14.]

A-107 Introduction to “The Earlier Letters of John Stuart Mill.” In F.E. Mineka, ed. John Stuart Mill, Vol. XII. Toronto: Toronto University Press and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.

A-108 “The Legal and Political Philosophy of David Hume.” Il Politico 28, no. 4 (December 1963): 691–704.

[Lecture delivered for the Faculty of Law and Political Science of the University of Freiburg im Breisgau on July 18, 1963. Reprinted as chapter 7 of B-13. Also (in German) in B-14.]

A-109 “The Theory of Complex Phenomena.” In Mario A. Bunge (ed.) The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy: Essays in Honor of Karl R. Popper. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1964.

[Reprinted in B-13; see P-11c.]

A-110 Parts of “Commerce, History of.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. VI. Chicago: 1964.

A-111 “Die Anschauungen der Mehrheit und die zeitgenössische Demokratie.” Ordo 15/16 (1965): 19–41.

[“The Perception of the Majority and Contemporary Democracy.” Reprinted in B-14.]

A-112 “Kinds of Rationalism.” The Economic Studies Quarterly 15, no. 3 (Tokyo, 1965).

[Reprinted in B-13, Chapter 5. Originally delivered as a lecture on April 27, 1964 at Rikkyo University, Tokyo. German translation in B-14.]

A-113 “Personal Recollections of Keynes and the ‘Keynesian Revolution’.” The Oriental Economist 34 (Tokyo, January 1966).

[German translation in B-14. Reprinted in B-17.]

A-114 “The Misconception of Human Rights as Positive Claims.” Farmand Anniversary Issue II/12 (Oslo, 1966): 32–35.

A-115 “The Principles of a Liberal Social Order.” Il Politico 31, no. 4 (December 1966): 601–618.

[Paper submitted to The Tokyo Meeting of the Mont Pélèrin Society, Sept. 5–10, 1966. German translation in Ordo 18 (1967); also reprinted in B-14. Reprinted as Chapter 11 of B-13 in a slightly altered version, deleting final poem linking spontaneous order to Lao-Tzu's Taoism of wu-wei. See Chiaki Nishiyama (1967) for a discussion of and reflection on Hayek's paper.]

A-116 “Dr. Bernard Mandeville.” Proceedings of the British Academy 52 (1966), London 1967.

[“Lecture on a Master Mind” delivered to the British Academy on March 23, 1966. Reprinted as Chapter 15 of B-17. German translation in B-14.]

A-117 “L'Etalon d'Or — Son Evolution.” Revue d'Economie Politique 76 (1966).

[“The Gold Standard—Its Evolution.”]

A-118 “Résultats de l'action des hommes mais non de leurs desseins.” In: Les Fondements Philosophiques des Systèmes Economiques. Textes de Jacques Rueff et essais rédiges en son honneur. (Paris 1967).

[Translated in English in B-13 as “The Results of Human Action but not of Human Design.” German translation in B-14.]

A-119 Remarks on “Ernst Mach und das sozialwissenschaftliche Denken in Wien.” In Ernst Mach Institut (ed.), Symposium aus Anlass des 50. Todestages von Ernst Mach. (Freiburg i. B., 1967.)

[See (B-10) for the influence of Mach (1838–1916) on Hayek. A-119 is part of a symposium commemorating the 50th anniversary of Mach's death: “Ernst Mach and Social Science Thought in Vienna.”]

A-120 “Rechtsordnung und Handelnsordnung.” In Eric Streissler (ed.), Zur Einheit der Rechts-und Staatswissenschaften, Vol. 27. Karlsruhe, 1967.

[“Legal Order and Commercial Order.” Reprinted in B-14.]

A-121 “The Constitution of A Liberal State.” Il Politico 32, no. 1 (Sept. 1967): 455–461.

[German translation in Ordo 19 (1968) and in B-14.]

A-122a “Bruno Leoni, the Scholar.” Il Politico 33, no. 1 (March 1968): 21–25. Also translated in the same journal as “Bruno Leoni lo studioso.” (pp. 26–30). In commemoration of Leoni's death (November 21, 1967).

A-122b “Ordinamento giuridico e ordine sociale.” Il Politico 33, no. 4 (December 1968): 693–724.

[“Juridical Regulation and Social Order.”]

A-123a “A Self-Generating Order for Society.” In John Nef (ed.), Towards World Community. The Hague, 1968.

A-123b Speech on the 70th Birthday of Leonard Reed. In: What's Past is Prologue. New York: Foundation for Economic Education, 1968.

A-124 “Economic Thought VI: The Austrian School.” In International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. Edited by David L. Sills. New York: The Macmillan Co. & Free Press, 1968, 1972; Volume 4, pp. 458–462.

A-125a “Menger, Carl.” In International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. Edited by David L. Sills. New York: The Macmillan Company & Free Press, 1968, 1972; Volume 10, pp. 124–127.

A-125b “Wieser, Friedrich von.” In International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. Edited by David L. Sills. New York: The Macmillan Co. & The Free Press, 1968, 1972; Volumes 15, 16, 17, pp. 549–550.

A-126 “Szientismus.” In W. Bernsdorf (ed.), Wörterbuch der Soziologie, Edited by W. Bernsdorf. 2nd ed. (Stuttgart, 1969).


A-127 “Three Elucidations of the ‘Ricardo Effect’.” Journal of Political Economy 77 (March-April 1969): 274–285.

[Reprinted in B-13 and (in German) in B-14.]

A-128a “The Primacy of the Abstract.” In Arthur Koestler and J. R. Smythies (eds.), Beyond Reductionism—The Alpbach Symposium. London, 1969.

[Reprinted in B-17.]

A-128b “Marktwirtschaft oder Syndikalismus?” In: Protokoll des Wirtschaftstages der CDU/DSU (Bonn 1969).

[“Market Economy or Syndicalism?”]

A-129a “Il sistema concorrenziale come strumento di conoscenza.” L'industria 1 (Turin, January-March 1970): 34–50.

[Translated with an English summary as “The Competitive System as a Tool of Knowledge.”]

A-129b “Principles or Expediency?” In Toward Liberty: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises on the Occasion of his 90th Birthday, September 29, 1971. Sponsoring Committee F. A. von Hayek; F. A. Harper, Secretary. Menlo Park, California: Institute for Humane Studies, 1971, vol I, pp. 29–45.

A-129c “Nature vs. Nurture Once Again.” A comment on C. D. Darlington, The Evolution of Man and Society, London, 1962 in Encounter (February 1971).

[Reprinted as Chapter 19 in B-17.]

A-130 “The Outlook for the 1970's: Open or Repressed Inflation.” In Sudha R. Shenoy (ed.) A Tiger by the Tail: The Keynesian Legacy of Inflation. A 40-Years’ Running Commentary on Keynesianism. London: Institute of Economic Affairs (Hobart Paperback 4), 1972.

[This actually appeared in a pamphlet format (P-11b) to which Hayek adds a new article, “The Campaign Against Keynesian Inflation.” This article is also reprinted as Chapter 13 of B-17.]

A-131a “Die Stellung von Mengers ‘Grundsätzen’ in der Geschichte der Volkswirtschaftslehre.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 32, no. 1 (Vienna, 1972.)

English version: “The Place of Menger's Grundsätze in the History of Economic Thought.” In J. R. Hicks and W. Weber (eds.), Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics. Oxford, 1973, pp. 1–14. Reprinted as Chapter 17 in B-17. Compare with E-7.

[The 1934 earlier and distinct biographical study entitled “Carl Menger” found in E-7 was “written as an Introduction to the Reprint of Menger's Grundsätze der Volkwirtschaftslehre which constitutes the first of a series of four reprints embodying Menger's chief published contributions to Economic Science and which were published by the London School of Economics as Numbers 17 to 20 of its Series of Reprints of Scarce Works in Economics and Political Science.” An English translation of this earlier “Carl Menger” Introduction can be found in Carl Menger, Principles of Economics. A translation of Menger's Grundsätze by James Digwall and Bert F. Hoselitz, with an Introduction (“Carl Menger”) by F. A. Hayek. New York and London: New York University Press, 1981, pp. 11–36.

A-131b “In Memoriam Ludwig von Mises 1881–1973.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 33 (Vienna 1973)

A-131c “Tribute to von Mises, Vienna Years.” National Review (Autumn 1973).

A-131d “Talk at the Mont Pélèrin.” Newsletter of the Mont Pélèrin Society 3 (Luxembourg 1973).

A-132a “Inflation: The Path to Unemployment.” Addendum 2 to Lord Robbins et. al. Inflation: Causes, Consequences, Cures: Discourses on the Debate between the Monetary and the Trade Union Interpretations. London: The Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA Readings, No. 14), 1974, pp. 115–120.

[Reprinted from The Daily Telegraph of London (October 15 and 16, 1974).]

A-132b “Inflation and Unemployment.” New York Times (Nov. 15, 1974).

[Reprinted from The Daily Telegraph of London.]

A-132c Hayek, F.A. “Introduction” to Catallaxy: The Science of Exchange. Paper read at the first meeting of The Carl Menger Society, London, December 1974. [Hayek did not continue his intention to complete this book. The “Introduction” along with comment and discussion by Hayek, Lionel Robbins, and others is available in transcription at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

A-132d “The Pretence of Knowledge.” An Alfred Nobel Memorial Lecture, delivered December 11, 1974 at the Stockholm School of Economics. In Les Prix Nobel en 1974. Stockholm: Nobel Foundation, 1975.

[Reprinted in Full Employment at Any Price [P-13]. (Occasional Paper 45), Institute of Economic Affairs, London 1975. Also reprinted in Unemployment and Monetary Policy: Government as Generator of the Business Cycle with a foreward by Gerald O'Driscoll Jr. San Francisco: Cato Institute, 1979, pp. 23–36. This has also been reprinted as Chapter 2 of B-17.]

A-132e “Freedom and Equality in Contemporary Society.” PHP 4 (The PHP Institute, Tokyo), (Tokyo 1975).

A-132f “Economics, Politics & Freedom: An Interview with F. A. Hayek.” Interview conducted by Tibor Machan in Salzburg, Austria. Reason 6 (February 1975): 4–12.

A-133a “Die Erhaltung des liberalen Gedankengutes.” In Friedrich A. Lutz (ed.) Der Streit um die Gesellschaftsordnung (Zurich 1975).

[“The Preservation of the Liberal Ideal of Thought.”]

A-133b T.V. interview on “NBC Meet the Press.” Sunday, June 22, 1975. Meet the Press 19, no. 25 (June 22, 1975) Washington D.C.: Merkle Press, Inc. 1975, 9 pp.

A-133c “The Courage of His Convictions.” In Tribute to Mises 1881–1973. The Session of the Mont Pélèrin Society at Brussels 1974 devoted to the Memory of Ludwig von Mises. Chislehurst, 1975.

A-133d “The Formation of the Open Society.” Address given by Professor Friedrich A. von Hayek at the University of Dallas Commencement Exercises, May 18, 1975. [Unpublished typescript, available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

A-134a “Types of Mind.” Encounter 45 (September 1975).

[This was revised and retitled “Two Types of Mind” in Chapter 4 of B-17.]

A-134b “Politicians Can't Be Trusted with Money.” [(Newspaper editor's title. Paper delivered in September at the Gold and Monetary Conference in Lausanne, Switzerland.) The Daily Telegraph of London, Part I (September 30, 1975); Part II “Financial Power to the People” (newspaper editor's title October 1, 1975).]

A-135a “A Discussion with Friedrich Hayek.” American Enterprise Institute. Domestic Affairs Studies 39 (Washington, D.C. 1975).

A-135b “World Inflationary Recession.” Paper presented to the International Conference on World Economic Stabilization, April 17–18, 1975, co-sponsored by the First National Bank of Chicago and the University of Chicago. First Chicago Report 5/1975.

A-136a “The New Confusion about Planning.” The Morgan Guaranty Survey (January 1976): 4–13.

[German translation in Die Industrie 10 (1976).]

A-136b “Institutions May Fail, but Democracy Survives.” U.S. News and World Report (March 8, 1976.)

A-136c “Adam Smith's Message in Today's Language.” Daily Telegraph, London (March 9, 1976.)

[Reprinted as Chapter 16 of B-17.]

[The gap in identification number (A-137 through A-141) will be supplied in subsequent revisions of this Hayek bibliography.]

A-142 “Il Problema della Moneta Oggi.” Academia Nationale dei Lincei. Atti de Convegni Rome (1976).

[“The Problem of Money Today.”]

A-143 “Remembering My Cousin Ludwig Wittgenstein.” Encounter (August 1977).

A-144a “Die Illusion der sozialen Gerechtigkeit.” In Schicksal? Grenzen der Machbarkeit. Eine Symposion. Munchen: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1977.

[“The Illusion of Social Justice.” Cf. B-16, Vol. II of Law, Legislation and Liberty: The Mirage of Social Justice esp. Chapt. 9, also note Chapter 5 of B-17: “The Atavism of Social Justice.”]

A-144b “Toward Free Market Money.” Wall Street Journal (August 19, 1977).

A-144c “Persona Grata: Interview with Friedrich Hayek.” Interviewed by Albert Zlabinger, World Research INK 1, no. 12 (September, 1977): 7–9. Also available as a 30 minute 16mm color movie, entitled “Inside the Hayek Equation,” from World Research, Inc.; Campus Studies Division; 11722 Sorrento Valley Rd., San Diego, CA 92121.

A-144d “An Interview with Friedrich Hayek.” by Richard Ebeling. Libertarian Review (September 1977): 10–16.

A-144e “Is There a Case for Private Property.” Firing Line. Columbia S.C.: Southern Educational Communications Association, 1977.

A-145 “Coping with Ignorance.” Ludwig von Mises Memorial Lecture. Imprimis (Hillsdale College) 7 (July 1978) 6 pp.

[Reprinted in Cheryl A. Yurchis (ed.) Champions of Freedom. Hillsdale, Michigan: Hillsdale College Press, (The Ludwig von Mises Lecture Series Vol. 5) 1979.]

A-146a “The Miscarriage of the Democratic Ideal.” Encounter (March 1978). [A slightly revised version later appeared as Chapter 16 of B-18.]

A-146b “Will the Democratic Ideal Prevail?” In Arthur Seldon, ed. The Coming Confrontation: Will the Open Society Survive to 1989? London: The Institute for Economic Affairs (Hobart Paperback No. 12), 1978, pp. 61–73.

[Revised version of an article which appeared in Encounter (March 1978).]

A-147 “Die Entthronung der Politik.” In Uberforderte Demokratie? hrsg. von D. Frei, Sozialwissenschaftliche Studien de schweizerischen Instituts für Auslandsforschung, N.F. 7, Zurich 1978.

[“The Dethronement of Politics” in Has Democracy Overextended Itself? See also Chapter 18 of B-18: “The Containment of Power and the Dethronement of Politics.”]

A-148a “Can we still avoid inflation?” In Richard M. Ebeling (ed.) The Austrian Theory of the Trade Cycle and Other Essays. New York: Center for Libertarian Studies (Occasional Paper Series 8) 1978.

A-148b “Exploitation of Workers by Workers.” The last of three talks given by Professor F. A. Hayek under the title, “The Market Economy” (Radio 3, BBC). The Listener (August 17, 1978): 202–203.

A-149 “Notas sobre la Evolución de Sistemas de Reglas de Conducta.” Teorema 9, no. 1 (1979): 57–77.

[“Notes on the Evolution of Systems of Rules of Conduct.” Spanish version of Chapt. 4 of B-13.]

A-150 “Towards a Free Market Monetary System.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 3, no. 1 (1979): 1–8.

[A lecture delivered at the Gold and Monetary Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana (November 10, 1977).]

A-151a “Freie Wahl de Währungen.” In Geldpolitik, ed. by J. Badura and O. Issing. Stuttgart and New York, 1980, pp. 136–146.

[“Free Choice of Currency Standards.”]

A-151b “An Interview with F. A. Hayek.” Conducted by Richard E. Johns. The American Economic Council Report (May 1980.)

[Reprinted in IRI Insights (publication of Investment Rarities, Inc.) 1 (November—December, 1980): 6–12, 14–15, 32.]

A-151c “Midju—Modid.” Frelsid (Journal of the Freedom Association of Iceland) 1 (1980): 6–15.

[“The Muddle of the Middle.”]

A-151d “Dankadresse.” In Erich Hoppmann, ed. Friedrich A. von Hayek. Baden—Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1980. pp. 37–42.

[See Hoppmann (1980) in the Bibliography of Works Relating to Hayek.]

A-151e Review of Thomas Sowell's Knowledge and Decisions. (New York: Basic Books, 1980). In Reason 13 (December 1981): 47–49.

A-151f “L'Hygiène de la démocratie.” French translation of the English text of a speech delivered April 12, 1980 at the l'Assemblée Nationale in Paris by Friedrich A. Hayek. [“The Health of Democracy.” In Liberté économique et progrès social (périodique d'information et de liaison des libéraux) No. 40 (December—January 1981): 20–23.]

A-151g “The Ethics of Liberty and Property.” Chapter 4 of a forthcoming book, The Fatal Conceit. Published in the proceedings of the Mont Pélèrin Society 1982 General Meeting, 5–10 September, Berlin. Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik an der Universität zu Köln, 1982.

Works about or relevant to Friedrich A. Hayek

Aaron, Raymond. “La Definition Libérale le Libérté.” Archiv europäischer Sociologen II (1961).

[“The Liberal Definition of Liberty.”]

Agonito, Rosemary. “Hayek Revisited: Mind as a Process of Classification.” In: Behaviorism: A Forum for Critical Discussions 3, no. 2 (Spring 1975): 162–171.

Allen, Henry. “Hayek, the Answer Man.” The Washington Post (December 2, 1982), pp. C1, C17.

Arnold, G. L. “The Faith of a Whig.” Twentieth Century London (August 1960).

Arnold, Roger A. “The Efficiency Properties of Institutional Evolution: With Particular Reference to the Social—Philosophical Works of F. A. Hayek.” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Ph.D. Dissertation, 1979. [Dissertation supervised by James M. Buchanan.]

———. “Hayek and Institutional Evolution.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 4 (Fall 1980): 341–352.

Barry, Norman P. “Austrian Economists on Money and Society.” National Westminster Bank Quarterly Review (May 1981): 20–31.

———. An Introduction to Modern Political Theory. London: MacMillan, 1981.

———. Hayek's Social and Economic Philosophy. London: Macmillan, 1979.

——— “The Tradition of Spontaneous Order.” Literature of Liberty 5 (Summer 1982): 7–58.

[A major section of this article deals with Hayek.]

Baumgarth, William P. “The Political Philosophy of F. A. von Hayek.” Harvard University Ph.D. Dissertation in Government, Cambridge, Mass., 1976

——— “Hayek and Political Order: The Rule of Law.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 2, no. 1 (Winter 1978): 11–28

Bay, Christian. “Hayek's Liberalism: The Constitution of Perpetual Privilege.” Political Science Review 1 (Fall 1971): 93–124.

Bettelheim, Charles. “Freiheit und Planwirtschaft.” In: Die Umschau. Internationale Revue, Mainz, 1 (1946): 83–192. [“Freedom and the Planned Economy.”]

Bianca, G. Verso la Schiavitù. Replica a von Hayek. Naples, 1979.

[“(The Road) to Serfdom. Reply to von Hayek.”]

Birner, Jack. “Hayek's Research Program in Economics.” Ph.D. dissertation for Erasmus University in Rotterdam, no date (1982?).

[In Dutch with a 36-page summary in English. The English summary is available at the Institute for Humane Studies, Menlo Park, CA 94025.]

Black, R.D., Collison Coats, A. W., and Goodwin, Craufurd D.W. (eds.) The Marginal Revolution in Economics: Interpretation and Evaluation. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1973.

Böhm, Stephan B. “Liberalism and Economics in the Hapsburg Monarchy,” 12 pp. Unpublished typescript. Paper presented to “The History of Economics Society Conference,” Kress Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, June 16–19, 1980.

[Paper available at the Institute for Humane Studies]

Boland, L.A. “Time in Economics vs. Economics in Time. The ‘Hayek Problem.’” In The Canadian Journal of Economics (Canadian Economic Association) Toronto, 2, no. 2 (1978): 240–262.

Bostaph, Samuel. “The Methodological Debate between Carl Menger and the German Historical School.” Atlantic Economic Journal 6 (September 1978): 3–16.

Bradley, Jr., Robert. “Market Socialism: A Subjectivist Evaluation.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 5, no. 1 (Winter 1981): 23–40.

Brell, K.H. “Zur Problematik der progressiven Einkommensbesteuerung. Eine Antikritik zu F.A. von Hayeks ‘Ungerechtigkeit der Steuerprogression’ und C. Fohls ‘Kritik der progressiven Einkommensbesteurung’.” Dissertation Karlsruhe (Berenz) 1957. [“On the Problematic of the Progressive Income Tax. A Counter—Critique to F.A. von Hayek's ‘The Injustice of the Progressive Income Tax’ and C. Fohl's ‘Critique of the Progressive Income Tax.’”]

Brittan, Samuel. “Hayek and the New Right.” Encounter 54 (January 1980): 30–46.

Broadbeck, M. “On the Philosophy of the Social Sciences.” Philosophy of Science 21, no. 2 (April 1959).

Brown, Pamela. “Constitution or Competition? Alternative Views on Monetary Reform.” Literature of Liberty 5 (Autumn 1982): 7–52.

[A major section of this article surveys Hayek's proposals for the ‘denationalization’ of money. See Hayek, P-14, P-16a, and P-16b.]

Brozen, Yale M. “The Antitrust Task Force Deconcentration Recommendation.” Journal of Law & Economics 13 (October 1970) 279–292.

Buchanan, James M. “Cultural Evolution and Institutional Reform.” Unpublished manuscript.

———. Cost and Choice. Chicago: Markham Publishing Co., 1969.

———. Freedom in Constitutional Contract. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University Press, 1979.

Buchanan, James M. and Thirlby G.F. (eds.) L.S.E. Essays on Cost. London: Weidenfield Nicolsen, 1973.

[Classic essays on cost from the London School of Economics, including Hayek.]

Buckley, Jr., William F. “The Road to Serfdom: The Intellectuals and Socialism.” In Fritz Machlup, ed. Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 95–106.

Business Week. “The Austrian School's Advice: ‘Hands Off!’” Business Week (August 3, 1974).

Campbell, William F. “Theory and History: The Methodology of Ludwig von Mises.” University of Minnesota M.A. thesis. Minneapolis, 1962.

Chambers, Raymond J. Accounting, Evaluation and Economic Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice—Hall, Inc., 1966.

[Also see Thomas Cullom Taylor, Jr. (1970).]

Congdon, Tim. “Is the Provision of a Sound Currency a Necessary Function of the State?” National Westminster Bank Quarterly Review. (London, August 1981): 2–21. [Deals with the assorted problems of Hayek's (P-16b). See Norman P. Barry (May, 1981).]

Corbin, Peter D. (Principal Investigator, Research Coordinator, American Geographic Society.) “Geoinflationary Variations in the U.S. Economy.”

[Examination of the Austrian theory of inflation which emphasizes the spatio—temporal aspects of the inflationary process. Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

Crespigny, Anthony de. “F.A. Hayek, Freedom for Progress.” in Anthony de Crespigny and Kenneth Minogue (eds.) Contemporary Political Philosophers. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1975; London: Methuen, 1976, pp. 49–66.

Cunningham, Robert L. (ed.) Liberty and the Rule of Law. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University Press, 1979.

[A collection of 13 papers delivered at a conference in honor of F.A. Hayek, Jan. 14–18, 1976 in San Francisco. Co—sponsored by Liberty Fund, Inc. and the University of San Francisco.]

Davenport, John. “An Unrepentant Old Whig.” Fortune (March 1960): 134–135, 192, 194, 197–198.

[Outline of Hayek's Social Philosophy on the occasion of the publication of B-12.]

Davis, Kenneth. Discretionary Justice: A Preliminary Inquiry. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

Delettres, J.M. Les récentes théories der crises foundées sur les disparités des prix. Paris: Pendone, 1941, pp. 195–276.

[“Recent Theories of Economic Crises Based on Disparities in Prices.”]

Diamond, Arthur M. “F.A. Hayek on Constructivism and Ethics.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 4 (Fall 1980): 353–366.

Dietze, Gottfried. “Hayek on The Rule of Law.” In Fritz Machlup, ed. Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 107–146.

———. “From the Constitution of Liberty to its Deconstruction by Liberalist Dissipation, Disintegration, Disassociation, Disorder.” In Fritz Meyer, ed., Zur Verfassung der Freiheit. Festgabe für Friedrich von Hayek. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag (Ordo, vol. 30), 1979, pp. 177–197.

Dolan, Edwin G., editor. The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, Inc. 1976.

[Exposition by several authors of the history, principles and applications of the Austrian School of Economics. Among the topics of interest are Israel M. Kirzner's “On the Method of Austrian Economics” and “The Theory of Capital;” Murray N. Rothbard's “The Austrian Theory of Money,” and Gerald P. O'Driscoll, Jr.'s and Sudha R. Shenoy's “Inflation, Recession, and Stagflation.”]

Dorn, J.A. “Law and Liberty: A Comparison of Hayek and Bastiat.” Unpublished paper (October 1980), 50 pp.

[Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

Dreyhaupt, K.F. and Siepmann U. “Privater Wettbewerb im Geldwesen. Uberlegungen zu einem Vorschlag von F.A. von Hayek.” Ordo 29 (1978).

[“Private Competition in Monetary Affairs. Reflections on a Proposal by F.A. von Hayek.”]

Dyer, P.W. and Hickman, R.H. “American Conservatism and F.A. Hayek.” Modern Age 23, no. 4 (Fall 1979).

Eagley, Robert V. The Structure of Classical Economic Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Eastman, Max. Review of Hayek's Capitalism and the Historians. The Freeman 4 (February 22, 1954): 385–387.

Eaton, Howard O. The Austrian Philosophy of Value. Norman, Okla.: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1930.

Ebeling, Richard. “An Interview with Friedrich Hayek.” Libertarian Review (September 1977): 10–16.

———. “Reflections on John Hick's ‘The Hayek Story.’” Unpublished manuscript, no date; 23 pp.: Available from the Institute for Humane Studies, Menlo Park, California 94025.

———. “Hayek on Inflation.” Unpublished Paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, Dec. 6, 1980.

Ellis, Howard S. German Monetary Theory, 1905–1933. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1934.

Fabrini, L. “La teoria del capitale e dell interesse di F.A. Hayek.” Revista internazionale de scienze sociali. Milano, Anno 58, Series 4, Volume 22 (1950): 250–286.

[“The Theory of Capital and Interest of F.A. Hayek.”]

Falconer, Robert T. “Capital Intensity and the Real Wage: A Critical Evaluation of Hayek's Ricardo Effect.” Texas A & M Ph.D. Dissertation. College Station, Texas, 1971.

Finer, H. Road to Reaction. London: Dobson, 1946.

[Reprinted Boston, 1945. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1973.]

Fingleton, Eamonn. “The Guru Who Came In From the Cold.” NOW! (January 30, 1981) 39–41.

Flanagan, T.E. “F.A. Hayek on Property and Justice.” Unpublished manuscript presented at the Theory of Property Summer Workshop at the University of Calgary, July 7–14, 1978.

Frankel, S. H. “Hayek on Money.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Hayek at University College, London, October 28, 1978. [This conference was structured around Hayek's newly published New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas. In addition to Frankel, it featured Thomas Torrance, Hillel Steiner and Jeremy Shearmur.]

Fridriksson, Fridrik. “Hayek á Íslandi 1940–1980.” Frelsid 3 (1981): 312–336. [“Hayek and Iceland, 1940–1980.”]

———. Friedrich A. Hayek. Forthcoming book developed from Fridriksson's Virginia Polytechnic Institute M.A. thesis in economics.

Garrigues, A. “El individualismo verdadero y falso, segun Hayek.” Moneda y credito, Revista de economie 34 (Madrid, 1950): 3–14.

[“Individualism: True and False, according to Hayek.”]

Garrison, Roger W. “The Austrian—Neoclassical Relation: A Study in Monetary Dynamics.” University of Virginia, Department of Economics, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1981.

Geddes, John M. “New Vogue for Critic of Keynes.” The New York Times (May 7, 1979).

Gerding, R. and Starbatty, J. “Zur ‘Entnationalisierung des Geldes.’ Eine Zwischenbilanz.” Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 78) (J.C.B. Mohr/Paul Siebeck), 1980.

[“On the ‘Denationalisation of Money.’ An Interim Statement.”]

Gilbert, J.C. “Professor Hayek's Contribution to Trade Cycle Theory.” Economic Essays in Commemoration of the Dundee School of Economics, 1931–1955. pp. 51–62.

Glasner, David. “Friedrich Hayek: An Appreciation.” Intercollegiate Review 7 (Summer 1971): 251–255.

Good, D.F. “The Great Depression and Austrian Growth after 1873.” The Economic History Review 31 (1978).

Gordon, Scott. “The Political Economy of F.A. Hayek.” Canadian Journal of Economics 14 (1981): 470–487.

Graf, Hans-Georg. “Muster-Voraussagen” und “Erklärungen des Prinzips” bei F.A. von Hayek. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 65) (J.C.B. Mohr/P. Siebeck.), 1978.

[“‘Pattern-Prediction’ and'Clarification of Principle’ in F.A. von Hayek.”]

———. “Nicht-nomologische Theorie bei Komplexen Sachverhalten.” Ordo, Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 26 (1975): 298–308.

[“Non-nomological Theory in Complex Phenomena.”]

Graham, F.D. “Keynes vs. Hayek on a Commodity Reserve Currency.” The Economic Journal 54 (1944): 422–429.

Grant, James. “Hayek: The Road to Stockholm.” The Alternative: An American Spectator 8, no. 8 (May 1975): 10–12.

Gray, John N. “F.A. Hayek on Liberty and Tradition.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 4 (Spring 1980): 119–137.

———. “Hayek on Spontaneous Order.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Hayek, London, Oct. 30, 1982.

Grinder, Walter E. Review of two books: Macro-economic Thinking & The Market Economy by Ludwig M. Lachmann; and A Tiger by the Tail: The Keynesian Legacy of Inflation. In Libertarian Review (November 1974): 4–5.

———. Review of 4 books: F.A. Hayek's The Counter-Revolution of Science; Individualism and Economic Order; Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics; and Ludwig M. Lachmann's The Legacy of Max Weber. In Libertarian Review 4, no. 4 (April 1975): 4–5.

———. “In Pursuit of the Subjective Paradigm” and “Austrian Economics in the Present Crisis of Economic Thought.” In Capital, Expectations and the Market Process by Ludwig M. Lachmann. Edited by Walter E. Grinder. Kansas City: Sheed, Andrews & McMeel, Inc., 1977.

———. “The Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle: Reflections on Some Socio-Economic Effects.” Unpublished paper presented at The Symposium on Austrian Economics, University of Hartford, June 22–28, 1975.

[Available at the Institute for Humane Studies, Menlo Park, CA 94025.]

Gross, N.T. The Industrial Revolution in the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1750–1914. Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 4, Part 1. London, 1973.

Haberler, Gottfried. “Mises’ Private Seminar: Reminiscences.” The Mont Pélèrin Quarterly 3 (October 1961): 20–21.

[See also an expanded version in Wirtschafts Politische Blätter (Journal of Political Economy, Vienna) 28, 4 (1981). A Festschrift issue on the Centennary of Luwig von Mises’ birth (1881–1981).]

Hagel III, John. “From Laissez Faire to Zwangswirtschaft: The Dynamics of Interventionism.” Unpublished paper presented to The Symposium on Austrian Economics. University of Hartford, June 22–28, 1975, 37 pp.

[Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

Hamowy, Ronald. “Hayek's Conception of Freedom: A Critique.” New Individualist Review 1, no. 1 (April 1961): 28–31.

———. “Freedom and The Rule of Law in F.A. Hayek.” Il Politico 36, no. 2 (June 1971): 349–377.

———. “Law and the Liberal Society: F.A. Hayek's Constitution of Liberty.” Journal of Libertarian Studies 2, no. 4 (1978): 287–297.

Hampshire, Stuart. Thought and Action. London: Chatto and Windar, 1970.

———. “On Having a Reason.” In G.A. Vesey, ed., Human Values. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures, Vol II 1976–1979: Harvester Press, 1976. Chapter 5.

Haney, Lewis H. History of Economic Thought. New York: Macmillan, 1949, 4th edition. [See especially pp. 607–634 (“Fully Developed Subjectivism: The Austrian School.”) and pp. 811–831 (“Economic Thought in Germany and Austria, from 1870 to World War II.”]

Harris, R. “On Hayek.” Swinton Journal (1970).

Harrod, R. Money. London: St. Martin's Press, 1969.

———. “Professor Hayek on Individualism.” In R. Harrod, ed. Economic Essays, 2nd edition. London and New York: 1972. pp. 293–301.

Hart, H.L.A. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Hartwell, Ronald Max. “Capitalism and the Historians.” In Fritz Machlup, ed. Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 73–94.

Hawtrey, Ralph G. Capital and Employment. London, 1937, especially chapter 8: “Professor Hayek's Prices and Production.”

———. “The Trade Cycle and Capital Intensity.” Economica n.s. 7 (February 1940): 1–15. [Hawtrey was an economist connected with the British Treasury from 1919 to 1937. He “developed a purely monetary theory of the business cycle on a macro-economic concept of equilibrium.” See citation under Sennholz.]

———. “Professor Hayek's Pure Theory of Capital.” Economic Journal (Royal Economic Society) 51 (London 1941): 281–290.

———. “Prof. Hayek's ‘Prices and Production’.” In Capital and Employment, 2nd edition. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1952, pp. 233–267.

Heimann, E. “Professor Hayek on German Socialism.” The American Economic Review. 35 (1945): 935–937.

[Compare with B. Hoselitz.]

Hicks, J.R. “Maintaining Capital Intact: A Further Suggestion.” Economica 9 (1942): 174–179.

———. “The Hayek Story.” In Critical Essays in Monetary Theory. Oxford University Press: 1967.

[See Richard M. Ebeling citation.]

Hicks, J.R. and Weber, W. Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Hoppmann, Erich (ed.) Friedrich A. von Hayek. Vorträge und Ansprächen auf der Festveranstaltung der Frieburger Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät zum 80. Geburtstag von Friedrich A. von Hayek. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1980.

[Festschrift with bibliography on F.A. Hayek's 80th birthday presented by the Faculty of Economics of the University of Freiburg. Contributors include: Erich Hoppmann, Berhard Stoeckle, Karl Brandt, Christian Watrin, Hans Otto Lenel, and Klaus Peter Krause. Hayek's “Dankadresse,” pp. 37–42, surveys highlights in Hayek's intellectual career and writings from the vantage point of his 80th year. The Hoppmann-edited Festschrift honoring Hayek also lists the contributors to the earlier 1979 Ordo Festschrift for Hayek, edited by Fritz Meyer, (p. 53), and contains valuable updatings on bibliography by and about Hayek (pp. 55–60.)]

Hoselitz, B.F. “Professor Hayek on German Socialism.” The American Economic Review 35 (1945): 926–934.

[Compare with E. Heimann.]

Housinden, Daniel M. Capital, Profits, and Prices: An Essay in The Philosophy of Economics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

Howey, Richard S. The Rise of the Marginal Utility School: 1870–1889. Lawrence, Kansas: The University of Kansas Press, 1960.

Hoy, Calvin M. “Hayek's Philosophy of Liberty.” Columbia University Ph.D. Dissertation. New York, 1982.

Hummel, Jeffrey Roger. “Problems with Austrian Business Cycle Theory.” Reason Papers No. 5 (Winter, 1979): 41–53.

Hunt, Lester. “Toward a Natural History of Morality.” Unpublished essay.

Hutchinson, T.W. The Politics and Philosophy of Economics: Marxians, Keynesians and Austrians. New York and London: New York University Press, 1981.

Janik, Allan and Toulmin, Stephen. Wittgenstein's Vienna. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973.

[Important along with Carl Schorske's volume on Fin-de-siècle Vienna for the cultural-historical context in which Hayek and his cousin Wittgenstein lived. See A-143.]

Johnson, Frank. “The Facts of Hayek.” Sunday Telegraph Magazine (London, no date, [1975?]) 30–34.

[Profile and biographical sketch along with photographs of F.A. Hayek.]

Johnston, William. The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1972.

Johr, W.A. “Note on Professor Hayek's ‘True Theory of Unemployment.’” Kyklos 30, no. 4 (1970): 713–723.

Jones, Harry W. “The Rule of Law and the Welfare State.” Columbia Law Review 58, no. 2 (February 1958).

Kaldor, N. “Prof. Hayek and the Concertina Effect.” In Economica N.S. 9 (1942): 148–176; reprinted in: Kaldor, Essays on Economic Stability and Growth. London: Duckworth, 1960.

Kasp, M.E. Die geldliche Wechsellagenlehre. Darstellung und Kritik de geldlichen Wechsellagentheorien von Hawtrey, Wicksell und Hayek. Jena: Fischer, 1939.

[“Monetary (Exchange) Models. Representation and Critique of the Monetary (Exchange) Theories of Hawtrey, Wicksell, and Hayek.”]

Kauder, Emil. “Intellectual and Political Roots of the Older Austrian School.” Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 17 (1957): 411–425.

———. A History of Marginal Utility Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Keizai, S. “Theories and Thoughts of Prof. Hayek.” The World Economy. Tokyo, 1964.

Keynes, J.M. “A Reply to Dr. Hayek.” Economica 12 (November 1931): 387–397. [Cf. Hayek: A-10, A-11a, A-11b.]

Kirzner, Israel M. The Economic Point of View: An Essay in The History of Economic Thought. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1960.

———. “Divergent Approaches in Libertarian Economic Thought.” The Intercollegiate Review 3 (January-February 1967): 101–108.

———. Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1973.

———. “Hayek, Knowledge and Market Processes.” Paper delivered at The Allied Social Science Association meetings in Dallas, Texas. New York: Xerox, 1975.

———. Perception, Opportunity and Profit. Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979. Chapter 2.

———. “Entrepreneurship, Choice, and Freedom.” In Verfassung der Freiheit: Festgabe für Friedrich A. von Hayek zur Vollendung seines achtzigstan Lebensjahres. Edited by Fritz W. Meyer, Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag (Ordo 30) 1979, pp. 245–256.

Knight, F.H. “Professor Hayek and the Theory of Investment.” The Economic Journal 45 (1935): 77–94.

Kristol, Irving. “Capitalism, Socialism and Nihilism.” In Two Cheers for Capitalism. New York, 1978. Chapter 7.

Lachmann, Ludwig M. Macro-economic Thinking and the Market Economy: An Essay on the Neglect of the Micro-Foundations and Its Consequences. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs (Hobart Paper 56), 1973, 56 pp. Reprinted, Menlo Park, California: Institute for Humane Studies (Studies in Economics, No. 6), 1978. [See also Lachmann's essay “Toward a Critique of Macroeconomics,” pp. 152–159, in Edwin G. Dolan, ed. The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics.]

———. “Methodological Individualism in The Market Economy.” In Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. Edited by Erich Streissler London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969.

[This essay is also reprinted in Capital, Expectations...]

———. “Reflections on Hayekian Capital Theory.” Paper delivered at The Allied Social Science Association meetings in Dallas, Texas. New York: Xerox, 1975.

———. Capital, Expectations, and the Market Process: Essays on The Theory of the Market Economy. Edited with an Introduction by Walter E. Grinder. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews & McMeel, Inc., 1977.

[See in this volume especially Walter E. Grinder's Introduction “In Pursuit of the Subjective Paradigm” (pp. 3–24) and his “Austrian Economics in the Present Crisis of Economic Thought” (pp. 25–41). Noteworthy among Lachmann's articles in this volume are: “The Significance of the The Austrian School of Economics in The History of Ideas” (pp. 45–64), and “A Reconsideration of the Austrian Theory of Industrial Fluctuations,” (pp. 267–286). The Appendix contains a useful Bibliography of “The Writings of Ludwig M. Lachmann,” (pp. 338–340.)]

———. “From Mises to Shackle: An Essay on Austrian Economics and the Kaleidic Society.” Journal of Economic Literature 14 (March 1976): 54–62.

———. “Austrian Economics under Fire: The Hayek-Sraffa Duel in Retrospect,” 18 pp. [Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

———. “Austrian Economics: An Interview with Ludwig Lachmann.” Interviewed by Richard Ebeling. Institute Scholar (Publication of the Institute for Humane Studies) 2, no. 2 (February 1982): 6–9.

[The Interview contains interesting facts about Hayek, The London School of Economics, and the Austrian approach to money and inflation.]

———. “Ludwig von Mises and The Extension of Subjectivism.” In Method, Process, and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises. Edited by Israel M. Kirzner. Lexington, Massachusetts & Toronto: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Company, 1982, pp. 31–40.

Lakatos, I. “Popper on Demarcation and Induction.” In P.A. Schilpp (ed.) The Philosophy of Karl Popper. LaSalle, Illinois; 1973, pp. 241–273.

Lavoie, Don. “A Critique of the Standard Account of the Socialist Calculation Debate.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 5, no. 1 (Winter 1981): 4–87.

——— “The Market as a Procedure for the Discovery and Convergence of Inarticulate Knowledge.” Paper presented at The Liberty Fund Conference on Thomas Sowell's Knowledge and Decisions. Savannah, Georgia; April 1982.

[See Literature of Liberty 5 (Summer 1982): 60, for a summary of Lavoie's paper.]

———. “Rivalry and Central Planning: A Reexamination of the Debate over Economic Calculation under Socialism.” Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1982.

Leduc, G. “En rélisant von Hayek.” Revue d'Economie Politique 86 (1976): 491–494. [“Rereading von Hayek.”]

Leoni, Bruno. Freedom and the Law. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand, 1961.

Lepage, Henri. “Hayek ou l’économie politique de la liberté.” [“Hayek or the Political Economy of Liberty”]. Part 6 of Demain le libéralism [“Tomorrow Liberalism”]. Paris: Le Livre de Poche (8358L), Collection Pluriel, 1980, pp. 409–453.

[Lepage, author of the influential Tomorrow, Capitalism, surveys the scholarly achievements of Hayek, covering the Austrian School of Economics, Hayek's theory of the business cycle, his rivalry with Keynes, the value of liberty, the Road to Serfdom, and Hayek's “Grand Synthesis” (Law, Legislation and Liberty). The article is sprinkled by anecdotes culled from a long interview with Hayek in February 1979.]

Letwin, Shirley Robin. “The Achievements of Friedrich A. Hayek.” In Fritz Machlup, ed. Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 147–162.

Leube, Kurt R. “Friedrich A. von Hayek—Nobelpreis für Wirtschaftswissenschaften.” (University of Salzburg Research Papers, 1974).

[“Friedrich A. von Hayek—Nobel Prize for Economic Science.”]

———. “F.A. von Hayek. Zu sienem 75. Geburtstag.” Salzburger Nachrichten 1975.

[“F.A. von Hayek. On His 75th Birthday.”]

———. “Inflationstheorie bei Hayek und Keynes.” (Paper prepared for a Seminar at the University of Salzburg, 1975).

[“Inflation Theory in Hayek and Keynes.”]

———. “Vorwort und Bibliographie zur Wiederauflage F.A. Hayek: Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie. Salzburg, 1975.

[“Foreward and Bibliography to the Second (German) Edition of F.A. Hayek, Geldtheorie,” (B-1).]

———. “Ausgewählte Bibliographie zur Wiederauflage F.A. Hayek: Preise und Produktion.” Vienna, 1975.

[“Selected Bibliography to the Second (German) Edition of F.A. Hayek's Prices and Production,” (B-2).]

———. “Hayek's Perception of the ‘Rule of Law’.” The Intercollegiate Review (Winter 1976/1977).

———. “Bibliographischer Anhang.” In F.A. Hayek, Geldtheorie und Konjunktur-theorie. Salzburg: 2. erw. Aufl., 1976, pp. 148–160.

[Kurt Leube was from 1969–1977 Hayek's Research Assistant and associate at the University of Salzburg. He currently is Managing Co-editor with Albert Zlabinger of The International Carl Menger Library, Philosophia-Verlag, and is working on a life of Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk. He has written and lectured extensively on Hayek and The Austrian School of Economics. The “Bibliographical Appendix” in this entry on the German reprinting of Hayek's Geldtheorie (B-1), is but one of an extensive number of scholarly and bibliographic contributions by Leube on Hayek. In subsequent editions of the present Bibliography we will cite the extensive writings by Leube.]

———. “Bibliographisches Nachwort zur Wiederauflage F.A. Hayek:” Individualismus und wirtschaftliche Ordnung. (Salzburg 1977).

[“Bibliographical Afterword to the Second (German) Edition of F.A. Hayek: (B-7).”]

———. “Böhm-Bawerk, Wieser und Hayek.” (Unpublished paper presented in Bonn, 1977.)

———. “Wer sind die ‘Austrians’.” Wirtschaftspolitsche Blatter, 1978. [“Who Are the ‘Austrians’.”]

———. “Ökonom und Philosoph: Zum 80. Geburtstag des grossen Österreichers Friedrich A. von Hayek.” Die Industrie 19 (1979).

[“Economist and Philosopher: On the 80th Birthday of the Austrian Friedrich A. von Hayek.”]

———. “F.A. Hayek—Zum 80. Geburtstag.” Zeitschrift für das gesamte Kreditwesen. Frankfurt/M. 1979.

[“F.A. Hayek—On His 80th Birthday.”]

———. “Hayek und die österr. Schule der Nationalökonomie.” Bayern Kurier, Munich 1979. [“Hayek and the Austrian School of Economics.”]

Liggio, Leonard P. “Hayek—An Overview.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, December 6, 1980.

[See also contributions at this conference by Pirie, Ebeling, Steele, Graham Smith, and Shearmur. The edited papers, in the possession of Laurie Rantala, may be published.]

Lippincott, Benjamin E., ed. On the Economic Theory of Socialism. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1970.

Loenen, J.H.M.M. “The Concept of Freedom in Berlin and Others: An Attempt at Clarification.” The Journal of Value Inquiry 10 (Winter 1976): 279–285.

Lutz, Friedrich A. “Professor Hayek's Theory of Interest.” Economica 10 (1943): 302–310.

———. “On Neutral Money.” In Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. Edited by Erich Streissler et. al. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 105–116.

Lynch, Thomas E. “Toward a Rational Political Philosophy: An Essay on the Origins of Hayek's Liberal Radicalism.” B.A. Honors Thesis for The Degree in Political Economy. Williamstown, Massachusetts; Williams College, January, 1981, 72 pp. [Available at the Institute for Humane Studies, Menlo Park, CA 94025.]

McClain, Stephen Michael. “The Political Thought of the Austrian School of Economics.” The Johns Hopkins University Ph.D. Dissertation. Baltimore, 1979.

[McClain's premise is that “the Austrian School, through the writings of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek, explicitly and comprehensively fashioned a political theory for capitalism.” Chapters on Hayek cover his political thought, concept of liberty, limits of knowledge and the spontaneous order, the rule of law, and constitutionalism.]

Macfie, A.L. Theories of the Trade Cycle. London: Macmillan, 1934.

[Deals with Hayek's Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie (B-1) and Preise und Produktion (B-2) on pp. 45–87.]

Machlup, Fritz. “Liberalism and the Choice of Freedom.” In Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. Edited by Erich Streissler London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 117–146.

[Machlup has been a close personal and intellectual friend of Hayek's since the early 1920s.]

———. “Friedrich von Hayek's Contribution to Economics.” The Swedish Journal of Economics 76 (December 1974): 498–531.

[Reprinted in revised, updated form as “Hayek's Contribution to Economics” in Machlup's Essays on Hayek (1976).]

——— ed. “Hayek's Contribution to Economics.” In Essays on Hayek with a Foreword by M. Friedman. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 13–59. [Contains the proceedings of a special regional meeting of the Mont Pélèrin Society (August 24–28, 1975) held at Hillsdale College (Michigan). Contributors to this quasi-Festschrift include Fritz Machlup, William F. Buckley, Jr., Gottfried Dietze, Ronald Max Hartwell, Shirley Robbin Letwin, George C. Roche III, and Arthur Shenfield. This volume contains “Excerpts of The Official Announcement of the (Swedish) Royal Academy of Sciences” (p. xv, ff) pertaining to Hayek's Nobel Prize in Economics. Also included is Hayek's brief banquet speech reprinted from the Nobel Foundation's volume Les Prix Nobel 1974, pp. 38–39.]

———. “Friedrich von Hayek on Scientific and Scientistic Attitudes.” The Swedish Journal of Economics 76 (1974).

[Reprinted in Machlup, Methodology of Economics and Other Social Sciences. New York and London, 1978, pp. 513–519.]

———. Würdigung der Werke von Friedrich August von Hayek. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze, Heft 62), 1977, pp. 63–75.

[“Assessment of the Works of Friedrich August von Hayek.”]

Mackie, J.L. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong London: Penguin Books, 1977, pp. 83–102.

Maling, Charles E. “Austrian Business Cycle Theory and Its Implications.” Reason Papers No. 2 (Fall 1975): 65–90.

Marget, Arthur W. “Review of Friedrich A. Hayek, Prices and Production and Preise und Produktion.” Journal of Political Economy 40 (April 1932): 261–266.

Matis, H. Osterreichs Wirtschaft 1848–1913. [“Austria's Economy, 1848–1913.”] Berlin, 1972.

———. “Sozioökonomische Aspekte des Liberalismus in Osterreich 1848–1918.” [“Socio-economic Aspects of Liberalism in Austria, 1848–1918.”] In H.-U. Wehler, ed. Sozialgeschichte Heute. Göttingen, 1974.

May, Arthur. Vienna in the Age of Franz Josef. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966.

[See especially Chapter 3, “The Kingdom of Learning,” and Chapter 7, “Science and Scholarship.”]

Melis, R. “Rettifiche al neutralismo economico.” Il Politico 16 (1951) 275–284.

[“Alterations in Economic Neutrality.”]

Meyer, Fritz W. et. al, eds. Zur Verfassung der Freiheit: Festgabe für Friedrich A. von Hayek zur Vollendung seines achtzigsten Lebensjahres. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag. (Ordo: Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, vol. 30), 1979.

[“On the Constitution of Liberty: A Gift for Friedrich A. von Hayek on the Completion of his 80th Year.” This Festschift honoring Hayek contains contributions from Karl Popper, Chiaki Nishiyama, George J. Stigler, Ludwig M. Lachmann, Charles K. Rowley, Arthur Seldon, Christian Watrin, Israel Kirzner, James M. Buchanan, Milton Friedman, and others.]

Milgate, M. “On the Origin of the Notion of ‘Intertemporal Equilibrium’.” Economica 46 (Fall 1979).

[Cf. Hayek, A-6.]

Miller, David. “Review of Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. II: The Mirage of Social Justice.” British Journal of Law and Society 4 (Summer 1977): 142–145.

Miller, Eugene F. “Hayek's Critique of Reason.” Modern Age 20, no. 4 (Fall 1976): 383–394.

———. “The Cognitive Basis of Hayek's Political Thought.” In Robert L. Cunningham Liberty and the Rule of Law. College Station and London: Texas A & M University Press, 1979. pp. 242–267.

Miller, Robert. “Hayek, the Inter-War Years and the Gold Standard.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society, June 10, 1978.

Minard, Lawrence. “Wave of the Past? Or Wave of the Future?” Forbes (October 1, 1979): 45–50, 52

[Profile on Hayek with painting of Hayek featured in the cover of this issue of Forbes. This painting is now at the Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C.]

Mises, Ludwig von. Bureaucracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1944.

———. Human Action. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1966.

———. The Historical Setting of the Austrian School. New Rochelle, New York, 1969.

———. The Theory of Money and Credit. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York: Foundation for Economic Education, 1971; Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1981. [Foreward by Murray N. Rothbard, (1981); Preface by Lionel Robbins (1934)]

———. On the Manipulation of Money and Credit. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Free Market Books, 1978.

Molsberger, G. “Grundsätzliches über Freiheit, Ordnung und Wettbewerb.” In Ordo, Jahrbuch 24 (1973): 315–325.

[“Basic Principle of Freedom, Order and Competition.”]

Morrell, Stephen O. “In Search of a New Monetary Order: An Open Discussion on Aspects of a Freely Competitive Monetary Arrangement.” Institute Scholar (Publication of the Institute for Humane Studies) 1, no. 1, (1980): 1–2.

Morris, M.W. “The Political Thought of F.A. Hayek.” Political Studies 2 (1972): 169–184.

Moss, Lawrence S., ed. The Economics of Ludwig von Mises: Toward a Critical Reappraisal. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, Inc., 1976.

[This volume resulted from the Symposium on the Economics of Ludwig von Mises, Atlanta, Georgia, November 5, 1974 to assess the recently deceased Mises’ (Sept. 29, 1881-Oct. 10, 1973) contributions to economic and social thought. Among the interesting essays included in this volume are Fritz Machlup's “The Monetary Economics of Ludwig von Mises” and Israel M. Kirzner's “Ludwig von Mises and Economic Calculation under Socialism.” Since Hayek's life and writings are intimately connected with those of von Mises, this volume offers a valuable research tool in Fritz Machlup's two Appendices on Mises: “Chronology” and “Major Translated Writings of Ludwig von Mises.”]

Murray, A.H. “Professor Hayek's Philosophy.” Economica 12 (August 1945): 149–162.

Nawroth, E.E. Die Sozial-und Wirtschaftsphilosophie des Neoliberalismus. Heidelberg: Kerle and Lowen: Nauwelaerts, 1961.

[“The Social and Economic Philosophy of Neoliberalism.”]

Nishiyama, Chiaki. “The Theory of Self-Love. An Essay on the Methodology of the Social Sciences, and Especially of Economics, with Special Reference to Bernard Mandeville.” University of Chicago Ph.D. Dissertation, 1960.

[Nishiyama's dissertation was done under Hayek's supervision. From 1950–1962 Hayek was professor of social and moral science in the Committee of Social Thought headed by John U. Nef at the University of Chicago. 1960 also saw the publication of Hayek's B-12.]

———. “Hayek's Theory of Sensory Order and the Methodology of the Social Sciences.” The Journal of Applied Sociology 7 (Tokyo 1964).

———. “Revival of the Philosophy of Economics: A Critique of Hayek's System of Liberty.” The Economics Studies Quarterly 15, no. 2. (Tokyo 1965).

———. “Arguments for the Principles of Liberty and the Philosophy of Science.” Il Politico 32 (June 1967): 336–347.

[Commentary on and response to Hayek, A-115.]

———. “Anti-Rationalism or Critical Rationalism.” In Zur Verfassung der Freiheit: Festgabe für Friedrich A. von Hayek zur Vollendung seines achtzigsten Lebensjahres. Edited by Fritz W. Meyer Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag (Ordo 30) 1979, pp. 21–42.

———. Human Capitalism. A Presidential Lecture delivered at the 1981 Stockholm Regional Meeting of The Mont Pélèrin Society, August 30, 1981. Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1982, 33 pp.

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

———. “On Austrian Methodology.” Synthese 36 (1977): 353–392.

Oakeshott, Michael. Rationalism in Politics. London: Methuen, 1962.

O'Driscoll, Jr. Gerald P. “Hayek and Keynes: A Retrospective Assessment.” Iowa State University Department of Economics Staff Paper No. 20. Ames, Iowa: Xerox 1975. [Paper prepared for the Symposium on Austrian Economics, University of Hartford, June 22–28, 1975.]

———. “Comments on Professor Machlup's Paper.” Unpublished manuscript presented at a special regional meeting of the Mont Pélèrin Society, held August 24–28, 1975, at Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, Michigan.

[The quasi-Festschrift volume (Essays on Hayek. Edited by Fritz Machlup. New York: New York University Press, 1975) was a product of the Hillsdale Mont Pélèrin meeting and included the important Fritz Machlup bibliographical essay (in revised form) to which Prof. O'Driscoll alludes in his title. O'Driscoll's comments in this unpublished manuscript assess Hayek's contributions to economic and social theory.]

———. “Spontaneous Order and the Coordination of Economic Activities.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 1, no. 2 (Spring 1977): 137–151.

———. Economics as a Coordination Problem: The Contributions of Friedrich A. Hayek with a foreward by F.A. Hayek. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews & McMeel, 1977.

———. “Frank A. Fetter and ‘Austrian’ Business Cycle Theory.” History of Political Economy 12, 4 (1980): 542–557.

O'Driscoll, Gerald P. and Rizzo, Mario J. “What Is Austrian Economics?” Presented at The American Economic Association meetings in Denver, October 1980, 70 pp. [A revised and enlarged version will be forthcoming as a book: Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983, to be entitled The Economics of Time and Ignorance.]

O'Neill, John, ed. Modes of Individualism and Collectivism. London: Heinemann, 1973. [A wide-ranging anthology of articles, including Hayek's “Scientism and the Study of Society” (A-46), sections from Karl Popper's The Poverty of Historicism (1961), etc. The O'Neill anthology presents the methodological debate in the social sciences over scientism and the confrontation between methodological individualism and its opponents. Contains a valuable bibliography on these issues, pp. 339–346. See also Jeffrey Paul (1974).]

Palmer, G.G.D. “The Rate of Interest in the Trade Cycle Theories of Prof. Hayek.” The South African Journal of Economics 23 (1955): 1–18.

Pasour, Jr., E.C. “Cost and Choice—Austrians vs. Conventional Views.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies (Winter 1978): 327–336.

Paul, Jeffrey Elliott. “Individualism, Holism, and Human: An Investigation into Social Scientific Methodology.” Brandeis University (Department of Philosophy) Ph.D. Dissertation [74–16, 832] 1974.

[See also John O'Neill, ed. (1973).]

Peel, J.D.Y. Herbert Spencer: The Evolution of a Sociologist. London: Heinemann, 1971.

Pigou, A.C. “Maintaining Capital Intact, on F.A. von Hayek: The Pure Theory of Capital.” Economica 8 (1941): 271–275.

Pirie, Madsen. “Hayek—An Introduction.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, December 6, 1980.

Plant, Sir Arnold. “A Tribute to Hayek—The Rational Persuader.” Economic Age 2, no. 2 (Jan.-Feb. 1970): 4–8.

Polanyi, Michael. “The Determinants of Social Action.” In Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. Edited by Erich Streissler London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 145–179.

[A paper on the polycentric self-regulating processes of the spontaneous order vs. central planning. Polanyi was the first to coin the term 'spontaneous order’ and originally presented the present essay at the University of Chicago in 1950, the year in which Hayek joined the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. See also Polanyi's The Logic of Liberty. London and Chicago, 1951.]

Quine, W.V. Ontological Relativity. New York, 1969.

Raico, Ralph. “A Libertarian Maestro.” The Alternative: An American Spectator 8, no. 8 (May 1975): 21–23.

[Analysis of Hayek.]

Ranulf, Sv. “On the Survival Chances of Democracy.” Aarhus (Universitetsforlaget). Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1948.

Raz, Joseph. “The Rule of Law and Its Virtues.” Law Quarterly Review 93 (April, 1977): 185–211.

[Reprinted in Cunningham (1979), pp. 3–21.]

Reekie, W. Duncan. Industry, Prices and Markets. Oxford: Philip Allan Publishers, Ltd. 1979. American Publisher, John Wiley, 1979.

Rees, J.C. “Hayek on Liberty.” Philosophy (1961).

Rhees, Rush. Without Answers. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.

Rizzo, Mario J. Time, Uncertainty and Equilibrium—Explorations on Austrian Themes. Lexington, Mass.: Heath and Co., 1979.

Robbins, Lionel. “Hayek on Liberty.” Economica (February 1961): 66–81. [Cf. following version of this article.]

———. “Hayek on Liberty.” Economics and Politics. London: Macmillan, 1963.

[Cf. preceding version of this article.]

———. Autobiography of an Economist. London: Macmillan & Co., 1971.

Roberts, Paul Craig. Alienation in the Soviet Economy. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971.

Robertson, David J. “Why I Am a Conservative.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society, March 11, 1978.

[A critique of Hayek's “Why I am not a Conservative.”]

Roche III, George C. “The Relevance of Friedrich A. Hayek.” In Fritz Machlup, ed., Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, 1–12.

Rothbard, Murray N. Man, Economy and State. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1962.

———. “The Case for a 100 Percent Gold Dollar.” In Leland B. Yeager (ed.) In Search of Monetary Constitution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962, pp. 94–136.

———. “Money, The State and Modern Mercantilism.” Modern Age (Summer 1963): 279–289.

———. “Von Mises, Ludwig.” In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Edited by David L. Sills. New York: The Macmillan Company & The Free Press, 1968, 1972, vol. 15, 16, 17, pp. 379–382.

———. “Conservatives Gratified by Nobel Prize to Von Hayek.” Human Events (November 16, 1974).

———. America's Great Depression. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1975.

———. “The Austrian Theory of Money.” In Edwin G. Dolan (ed.) The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1976, pp. 160–184.

———. “The New Deal and The International Monetary System.” In Watershed of Empire: Essays on New Deal Foreign Policy. Edited by Leonard P. Liggio and James J. Martin. With a Preface by Felix Morley. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles, Publisher, 1976, pp. 19–64.

———. “Inflation and the Business Cycle: The Collapse of the Keynesian Paradigm.” In For a New Liberty. New York: Collier Macmillan, 1978, pp. 171–193.

———. What Has Government Done to Our Money? Novato, California: Libertarian Publishers, 1978.

———. “F.A. Hayek and the Concept of Coercion.” Ordo 31 (Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1980), pp. 43–50.

[See following citation.]

———. “F.A. Hayek and the Concept of Coercion.” In The Ethics of Liberty. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press 1981. Chapter 28.

[See preceding citation for original publication of this essay.]

———. “The Laissez-Faire Radical: A Quest for the Historical Mises.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 5, no. 3 (Summer 1981): 237–254.

Roy, Subroto. “On Liberty and Economic Growth: Preface to a Philosophy for India.” Cambridge University Ph.D. Dissertation, 1982.

Rueff, Jacques. “Laudatio: Un Message pour le siècle.” In Erich Streissler et al., eds. Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 1–3.

[Tribute to Hayek's intellectual achievements: “Laudatio: a Message for the Age,” presented for the Hayek 70th birthday Festschrift.]

Rupp, Hanns Heinrich. “Zweikammersystem und Bundesverfassungsgericht. Bermerkungen zu einem verfassungspolitischen Reformvorschlag F.A. von Hayeks.” In Zur Verfassung der Freiheit: Festgabe für Friedrich A. von Hayek zur Vollendung seines achtzigsten Libensjahres. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1979, pp. 95–104.

[“A Two-Chamber System and the Federal Constitutional Court—Notes on a Proposition of F.A. von Hayek for a Constitutional Reform.”]

Ryle, Gilbert. “Knowing How and Knowing That.” Proceedings on the Aristotelian Society 46, (1945/1946): 1–16.

Sabrin, Murray and Corbin, Peter B. (American Geographical Society.) “Geographical Implications of Austrian Trade-Cycle Theory: An Analysis of the U.S. Economy, 1947–1972.” A Preliminary Report to the Fred C. Koch Foundation. Wichita, Kansas (February 1976), 68 pp.

[Empirical studies testing Austrian trade cycle theory, accompanied by computer graphic print-out. See Corbin. Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

Sacristan, A. “Friedrich August von Hayek o el intento de romper con la neoclassica.” In Comercio Esterior 25 (1975), pp. 193–195.

[“Friedrich August von Hayek on the Intention of Breaking with Neoclassicism.”]

Sampson, Geoffrey. “Nozick vs. Hayek; Retrospective vs. Anticipant Liberalism.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Nozick, Oct. 27, 1979.

Sarduski, W. “The Political Doctrine of Neoliberalism and the Problem of Democracy.” Panstwo i Prawo 3 (1978): 90–100.

Saulnier, R.J. Contemporary Monetary Theory: Studies on Some Recent Theories of Money, Prices and Production. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938 and London: King, 1938.

Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-siècle Vienna, Politics and Culture. New York: Basic Books, 1980. [See also Allan Janik and Stephen Toulmin, Wittgenstein's Vienna (1973); Arthur May, Vienna in the Age of Franz Josef (1966); and William Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1972.]

Schuller, A. “Konkurrenz der Wahrungen als geldwirtschaftliches Ordnungsprinzip.” In Wirtschaftspolitische Chronik (Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik an der Universitat Koln) 26 (1977): 23–50.

[“Concurrent Monetary Standards as an Ordering Principle of Monetary Economics.”]

Schumpeter, Joseph. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Unwin, 1974. New York: Harper and Row, 1950.

———. History of Economic Analysis. Edited from manuscript by Elizabeth Boody Schumpeter. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954, 1966.

Scott, K.J. “Methodological and Epistemological Individualism.” The British Journal of the Philosophy of Science 2 (1960/1961).

Seldon, Arthur. “Hayek on Liberty and Liberalism.” Contemporary Review 200 (1961): 399–406.

———, ed. “Philosophy” Agenda for a Free Society: Essays on Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty. London: Published for the Institute of Economic Affairs by Hutchinson, 1961.

Seligman, Ben B. Main Currents in Modern Economics: Economic Thought Since 1870. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962.

Sennholz, Hans F. “Chicago Monetary Tradition in the Light of Austrian Theory.” Reason 3, no. 7 (October 1971): 24–30.

Shackle, G.L.S. Epistemics and Economics: A Critique of Economic Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972, 1976.

Shearmur, Jeremy. “Hayek, Smith (and Hume).” Unpublished manuscript of paper presented at one-day Conference on Hayek at University College, London, October 28, 1978, and sponsored by The Carl Menger Society.

———. “Libertarianism and Conservatism in the Work of F.A. von Hayek.” Unpublished manuscript; lecture originally presented to the Carl Menger Society in London, 1976.

———. “Menger, Hayek & Methodological Individualism.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society, February 11, 1978.

———. “Abstract Institutions in an Open Society.” In H. Berghel and others, eds. Wittgenstein, The Vienna Circle and Critical Materialism. Vienna: Hölder-Richler-Tempsky, 1979, pp. 349–354.

———. “Hayek and the Invisible Hand.” Unpublished paper presented to the Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy at Carl Menger joint conference on Austrian Philosophy & Austrian Politics, London, April 26, 1980.

———. “Hayek on Politics.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, Dec. 6, 1980.

———. “Hayek on Law.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Hayek, London, October 30, 1982.

———. Adam Smith's Second Thoughts. (pamphlet). London: Adam Smith Club, 1982.

———. “The Austrian Connection: F.A. Hayek and the Thought of Carl Menger.” In B. Smith and W. Grassl, eds. Austrian Philosophy and Austrian Politics. Munich: Philosophia Verlag, forthcoming (1982–1983).

Shenfield, Arthur. “Scientism and the Study of Society.” In Fritz Machlup, ed. Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, 61–72.

———. “Friedrich A. Hayek: Nobel Prizewinner.” In Fritz Machlup, ed., Essays on Hayek. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 171–176.

———. “The New Thought of F.A. Hayek.” Modern Age 20 (Winter 1976): 54–61.

Shenoy, Sudha R. “Introduction: The Debate, 1931–71.” in F.A. Hayek, A Tiger by the Tail: The Keynesian Legacy of Inflation. Compiled and Introduced by Sudha Shenoy.

London: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1972, pp. 1–12.

Shibata, K. A Dynamic Theory of World Capitalism, 2nd edition. Kyoto: Sanwa Shobo, September 1954.

Silverman, Paul. “Law and Economics in Interwar Vienna: Kelsen, Mises, and the Geistkreis.” University of Chicago Dissertation.

———. “Science and Liberalism in Interwar Vienna: The Mises and Vienna Circles.” Paper prepared for the Liberty Fund Seminar on Austrian Economics and its Historical and Philosophical Background, Graz, Austria. July 28–31, 1980, 53 pp. Available at the Institute for Humane Studies, Menlo Park, CA 94025. [This Conference had contributions by Israel Kirzner, Ludwig Lachmann, Carl Schorshe, and other.]

Simson, W. von “Zu F.A. Hayeks verfassungsrechtlichen Ideen.” Der Staat, Zeitschrift für Staatslehre, Offentliches Recht un Verfassungeschichte. Berlin 18, no. 3, (1979): 403–421.

[“On F.A. Hayek's Ideas of Constitutional Justice.”]

Smith, Graham. “Hayek on Law.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, Dec. 6, 1980.

Sowell, Thomas. Knowledge and Decisions. New York: Basic Books, 1980.

Spadero, Louis M. ed. New Directions in Austrian Economics. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews & McMeel, 1978.

Spencer, Roger W. “Inflation, Unemployment and Hayek.” Review (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.) 57 (1975): 6–10.

Spiegel, Henry William. The Growth of Economic Thought. Chapter 23: “The Austrian School Accent on Utility.”

[Also note Spiegel's valuable annotated Bibliography.]

Sraffa, Piero. “Dr. Hayek on Money and Capital [on F.A. von Hayek's Prices and Production] London 1931.” The Economic Journal 42 (1932): 42–53, 249–251.

Stadler, M. “Vollbeschaftigung um jeden Preis?” Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 3 (1978).

[“Full Employment at any Price?”]

Steedman, Ian. “On Some Concepts of Rationality in Economics.” No date, 27 pp.

[Deals with Hayek's notion of economic rationality and cites Hayek's (A-34) and (A-46). Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.]

Steele, David Ramsey. “Spontaneous Order and Traditionalism in Hayek.” Expanded version of a paper delivered to The Colloquium on Austrian Philosophy and Austrian Politics, organized jointly by The Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy & The Carl Menger Society, at The Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, April 26–27, 1980, 75 pp. (Available at the Institute for Humane Studies.)

———. “Hayek on Socialism.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference entitled “Hayek—An Introductory Course,” London, Dec. 6, 1980.

———. “Posing The Problem: The Impossibility of Economic Calculation under Socialism.” The Journal of Libertarian Studies. 5, no. 1 (Winter 1981): 7–22.

Steiner, Hillel. “Hayek and Liberty.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Hayek, Oct. 28, 1978.

Stewart, William P. “Methodological Individualism: A Commentary on F.A. von Hayek.” Unpublished paper presented at the First Libertarian Scholars Conference. New York, September 23–24, 1972.

Stigler, George J. “The Development of Utility Theory.” Journal of Political Economy 58 (1950): 307–327, 372–396.

Streeten, P. “Principles and Problems of a Liberal Order of the Economy.” Weltwirt-schaftliches Archiv 104 (1970): 1–5.

Streissler, Erich et al. eds. Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.

[This Festschrift of “honorary essays” presented to Hayek on his 70th birthday includes essays by Streissler, Jacques Rueff, Peter T. Bauer, James M. Buchanan, Gottfried Haberler, George N. Halm, Ludwig M. Lachmann, Friedrich A. Lutz, Fritz Machlup, Frank W. Paish, Michael Polanyi, Karl R. Popper, Günter Schmölders, and Gordon Tulloch. This Festschrift also contains the first extensive Hayek bibliography, pp. 309–315, composed in the early months of 1969. Streissler's own contributions in Roads to Freedom include a useful “Introduction” to Hayek's life and writings and the essay “Hayek on Growth: A Reconsideration of His Early Theoretical Work,” pp. 245–285.]

———, ed. “Bibliography of the Writings of Friedrich A. von Hayek.” Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 309–315.

[This bibliography is the earliest of the extensive Hayek bibliographies, presented as part of a Festschrift to Hayek on his 70th birthday. See previous citation.]

Streissler, Erich and Watrin, Christian, eds. with the collaboration of Monika Streissler. Zur Theorie marktwirtschaftlicher Ordnungen. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1980.

[“On the Theory of Market Economic Orders.” Twelve articles and 9 commentaries on the philosophical, evolution-theoretical, economic and social dimensions of market-economic thought.]

Swan, George Steven. “The Libertarian Future: Biologically Impossible?” Individual Liberty (Newsletter of The Society for Individual Liberty) 12 (November 1981): 4–5.

[Commentary on Hayek's P-19.]

Taylor, Fred M. “The Guidance of Production in a Socialist State.” Benjamin E. Lippincott (ed.) On The Economic Theory of Socialism. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1970.

Taylor, Jr., Thomas Cullom. “Accounting Theory in the Light of Austrian Economic Analysis.” The Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. (Accounting) Ph.D. Dissertation, [70–18, 565], 1970

Taylor, Thomas C. The Fundamentals of Austrian Economics. London: Published by the Adam Smith Institute in association with The Carl Menger Society, 1980, 2nd edition. (First published by the Cato Institute.)

Torrance, J. “The Emergence of Sociology in Austria, 1885–1935.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 17 (1976).

Torrence, Thomas. “Hayek's Critique of Social Injustice.” Unpublished paper presented to The Carl Menger Society Conference on Hayek, October 28, 1978.

Tsiang, S. Ch. “The Variations of Real Wages and Profit Margins in Relation to the Trade Cycle.” Dissertation. London: Pittman, 1947.

Ullmann-Margalit, Edna. “Invisible Hand Explanations.” Synthese 30 (1978): 263–281. [See Vernon (1979) and Barry (1982).]

Vaughn, Karen I. “Does It Matter That Costs are Subjective?” Southern Economic Journal (Summer 1980): 702–715.

Vernon, R. “The ‘Great Society’ and the ‘Open Society’: Liberalism in Hayek and Popper.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 9 (June 1976).

———. “Unintended Consequences.” Political Theory 7 (1979): 57–74.

Viner, Jacob. “Hayek on Freedom and Coercion.” Southern Economic Journal 27 (January 1961): 230–236.

Walter Eucken Institut (Mohr, J.C.B. & Siebeck, P.). “Bibliographie der Schriften von F.A. von Hayek.” In Freiburger Studien, Gesammelte Aufsätze, Wirtschaft-swissenschaftliche und wirtschaftsrechtliche Untersuchungen 5, Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut, 1969, pp. 279–284.

Weber, Wilhelm. “Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Wirtschaftspolitik in Österreich, 1848–1948.” [“Economic Science Economics Policy in Austria, 1848–1948.”] In Hans Mayer, ed. Hundert Jahre österreichischer Wirtschaftsentwicklung, 1848–1948. Vienna: Springer, 1949, pp. 624–678.

Weiler, Gershon. Mauthner's Critique of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

[Also see Janik & Toulmin, Wittgenstein's Vienna.]

Weimer, W.B. and Palerma, D.S. (eds.) Cognition and Symbolic Processes, Vol. II. New York, 1978.

Welinder, C. “Hayek och ‘Ricardo-effekten’” In Ekonomisk Tidsskrift (Uppsala och Stockholm) 42 (1940): 33–39.

[“Hayek on the ‘Ricardo-Effect.’”]

White, Lawrence H. “Mises, Hayek, Hahn and The Market Process: Comment on Littlechild.” In Method, Process, and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludwig von Mises. Edited by Israel M. Kirzner. Lexington, Mass. & Toronto: Lexington-Books, D.C. Heath and Company, 1982, pp. 103–110.

Widmer, Kingsley. “Utopia and Liberty: Some Contemporary Issues Within Their Tradition.” Literature of Liberty 4, no. 4 (Winter 1981): 5–62, especially pp. 8–10, with notes.

Wien-Claudi, F. Austrian Theories of Capital, Interest and the Trade Cycle. London: Nott: 1936.

Wieser, Friedrich Frieherr von. “The Austrian School and the Theory of Value.” Economic Journal (England) (1891).

———. “The Theory of Value (A Reply to Professor Macvane).” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1891).

———. Social Economics. Translated by A. Ford Himrichs. With a Preface by Wesley Clair Mitchell. New York: Adolphis Co., 1927. Reprinted New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1967.

[In his preface, Mitchell refers to von Weiser's recent death (July 23, 1926) and to von Weiser's “pupil and friend, Dr. Friedrich A. von Hayek.” The translator, Himrichs, states: “Dr. Friedrich A. von Hayek, a pupil and close friend of von Weiser, has read the proofs and submitted many suggestions.”]

Wilde, Olga. “Bibliographie der wissenschaftlichen Veröffenlichungen von Friedrich von Hayek.” In Friedrich A. von Hayek, edited by Erich Hoppmann. Baden—Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1980, pp. 55–56.

[“Bibliography of the Scholarly Publications of Friedrich A. von Hayek.”]

Wilhelm, Morris M. “The Political Philosophy of Friedrich A. Hayek.” Columbia University Ph.D. Dissertation in Political Science, New York, 1969. An article based on this, in condensed form, appears as “The Political Thought of Friedrich A. Hayek,” in Political Studies 20, no. 2 (June 1972): 169–184.

Willgerodt, H. “Liberalismus zwischen Spontaneitat und Gestaltung. Zu v. Hayek's gesammelten Aufsatzen.” In Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts-und Sozialwissenschaften. Berlin 92, no. 4, (1972): 461–465.

[“Liberalism between Spontaneity and Organization. On von Hayek's Collected Articles.” Refers to B-14.]

Winch, Peter. “Nature and Convention.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60 (1959–1960): 231–252. Reprinted as Chapter 3 of Winch's Ethics and Action. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976.

Winterberger, G. “Friedrich August von Hayek—Zum Achtzigsten Geburtstag des grossen Nationalökonomen, Stadts- und Rechtsphilosophen.” Schweizer Monatshefte 5 (1979): 359–363.

[“Friedrich August von Hayek: On the 80th Birthday of the Great Economist, Social Scientist, and Moral Philosopher.”]

Wootton, B. Freedom Under Planning. London: Allen & Unwin, 1946.

Worsthorne, Peregrine. “F. A. Hayek: Next Construction for the Giant.” In: Prophets of Freedom and Enterprise. Edited by Michael Ivens. London: Kogan Page, Ltd., for Aims of Industry, 1975. pp. 70–80.

Zöller, Michael. “Handeln in Ungewissheit. F.A. v. Hayek's Grundlegung einer freiheitlichen Sozialphilosphie.” [“Acting under Uncertainty. F.A. von Hayek's Foundation of a Liberal Social Philosophy.”] In Zur Verfassung der Freiheit: Festgabe für Friedrich A. von Hayek zur Vollendung seines achtzigsten Lebensjahres. Stuttgart, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag (Ordo 30), 1979, pp. 117–129.