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Francis Newton Thorpe, The Federal and State Constitutions, Vol. I United States-Alabama-District of Columbia [1909]

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Francis Newton Thorpe, The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the States and Territories now or heretofore forming the United States of America, compiled and edited by Francis Newton Thorpe (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909). Vol. I United States-Alabama-District of Columbia. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2674

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About this Title:

Thorpe was commissioned by the U.S. Congress to edit a 7 volume collection of Colonial, Federal and State constitutions in 1906. The volumes are in alphabetical order, with Volume 1 dealing with Alabama through the District of Columbia.

Copyright information:

The text is in the public domain.

Fair use statement:

This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.

Table of Contents:

Edition: current; Page: [I]
THE FEDERAL AND STATE CONSTITUTIONS COLONIAL CHARTERS, AND OTHER ORGANIC LAWS OF THE STATES, TERRITORIES, AND COLONIES NOW OR HERETOFORE FORMING THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Compiled and Edited under the Act of Congress of June 30, 1906 By FRANCIS NEWTON THORPE, Ph. D., LL. D.

Member of the Pennsylvania Bar; Fellow and Professor of American Constitutional History at the University of Pennsylvania, 1885-1898; Member of the American Historical Association; Author of The Constitutional History of the United States, 1765-1895; A (State) Constitutional History of the American People, 1776-1850; A Short Constitutional History of the United States; A (Social and Economic) History of the American People; A History of the Civil War; Editor of the History of North America, Volumes IX, XV, XVI, XVIII, XIX, XX; Author of The Government of the People of the United States; Benjamin Franklin and the University of Pennsylvania; The Life of William Pepper, etc.

VOL. I
United States—Alabama—District of Columbia
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1909
Edition: current; Page: [II] Edition: current; Page: [III]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

[an alphabetical index will be found at the end of the last volume.]

  • List of Authorities____________________ Page. xv
  • The United States:
    • The Declaration of Independence—1776____________________ 3
    • Articles of Confederation—1777____________________ 9
    • Constitution of the United States—1787 ____________________ 19
    • Amendments to the Constitution of 1787 ____________________ 29
  • Commissions, charters, and plans of Union:
    • Privileges and prerogatives granted to Christopher Columbus—1492____________________ 39
    • Bull of Pope Alexander—1493____________________ 41
    • Letters patent to John Cabot—1496____________________ 45, 46
    • Letters patent to Sir Humfrey Gylberte—1578____________________ 49
    • Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh—1584____________________ 53
    • Charter of the Dutch West India Company—1621____________________ 59
    • Sir Robert Heath’s patent—1629 ____________________ 69
    • New England articles of confederation—1643____________________ 77
    • The Albany plan—1754 ____________________ 83
  • Alabama:
    • Charter of Carolina—1663 ____________________ 2753
    • Proprietary proposals, North Carolina—1663 ____________________ 2743
    • Charter of Carolina—1665 ____________________ 2761
    • Fundamental constitutions, Carolina—1669____________________ 2772
    • Charter of Georgia—1732____________________ 765
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1776 ____________________ 3241
    • Constitution of Georgia—1777 ____________________ 777
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1778 ____________________ 3248
    • Constitution of Georgia—1789____________________ 785
    • Territory south of the Ohio—1790____________________ 3413
    • Territorial government, Mississippi—1798 ____________________ 2025
    • Territorial government, Mississippi—1800 ____________________ 2027
    • Territorial government, Mississippi—1808 ____________________ 2029
    • Proclamation, occupation of [Louisiana] Territory—1810____________________ 1375
    • Territorial government, Alabama—1817____________________ 89
    • Treaty with Spain—1819____________________ 649
    • Enabling act, Alabama—1819____________________ 92
    • Resolution for admission of Alabama—1819____________________ 95
    • Constitution, Alabama—1819____________________ 96
    • Constitution, Alabama—1865____________________ 116
    • Constitution, Alabama—1867____________________ 132
    • Constitution, Alabama—1875____________________ 153
    • Constitution, Alabama—1901____________________ 182
  • Alaska:
    • Treaty ceding Alaska—1867____________________ 235
    • Civil government in Alaska—1884 ____________________ 238
    • Civil government in Alaska—1900 ____________________ 243
  • Arizona:
    • Treaty with Mexico—1848 ____________________ 377
    • Territorial government of New Mexico—1850____________________ 2615
    • Treaty with Mexico—1853 ____________________ 255
    • Territorial government—1863 ____________________ 259
    • Enabling act—1906 (see Oklahoma) ____________________ 2960
    Edition: current; Page: [IV]
  • Arkansas:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Arkansas—1819____________________ 261
    • Constitution of Arkansas—1836____________________ 268
    • Act of Congress enabling Arkansas to become a State—1836____________________ 264
    • Supplementary act of Congress enabling Arkansas to become a State—1836____________________ 266
    • Ordinance of acceptance by Arkansas—1836____________________ 267
    • Constitution of Arkansas—1864____________________ 288, 4157
    • Constitution of Arkansas—1868____________________ 306
    • Constitution of Arkansas—1874____________________ 333
  • California:
    • Treaty with Mexico ceding California—1848____________________ 377
    • Constitution of California—1849____________________ 391
    • Act for admission of California—1850____________________ 390
    • Constitution of California—1879____________________ 412
  • Charters and Commissions (see Commissions, Charters, and Plans of Union—1492-1754) ____________________ 39-86
    • See also Charters under respective States.
  • Colorado:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Organic acts, Mexico-Texas—1824-1845____________________ 3475-3547
    • Government of the Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Convention between the United States and Texas—1838____________________ 3543
    • Treaty with Mexico ceding Texas—1848____________________ 377
    • Territory of Mexico—1850____________________ 2615
    • Territory of Utah—1850____________________ 3687
    • Territories, Kansas and Nebraska—1854____________________ 1161
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Colorado—1861____________________ 463
    • Act of Congress enabling Colorado to become a State—1875____________________ 470
    • Proclamation announcing the admission of Colorado—1876____________________ 473
    • Constitution of Colorado—1876____________________ 474
  • Connecticut:
    • Virginia charter—1606____________________ 3783
    • Council for New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Fundamental orders of Connecticut—1638-39____________________ 519
    • Commission to Andros—1688____________________ 1863
    • Fundamental agreement or original constitution of the Colony of New Haven, June 4, 1639____________________ 523
    • Government of New Haven Colony—1643____________________ 526
    • Charter of Connecticut—1662____________________ 529
    • Constitution of Connecticut—1818____________________ 536
  • Delaware:
    • Virginia charter—1606____________________ 3783
    • Dutch West India Company’s patent—1621____________________ 59
    • Maryland charter—1632____________________ 1669
    • Grant to Duke of York—1664____________________ 1637
    • Grant to Duke of York—1674____________________ 1641
    • Grant to William Penn—1681____________________ 3044
    • Frames of government, Pennsylvania—1682, 1683, 1696____________________ 3052, 3064, 3070
    • Charter of Delaware—1701____________________ 557
    • Constitution of Delaware—1776____________________ 562
    • Constitution of Delaware—1792____________________ 568
    • Constitution of Delaware—1831____________________ 582
    • Constitution of Delaware—1897____________________ 600
  • District of Columbia:
    • Act fixing the seat of government—1790____________________ 637
    • Government of the District of Columbia—1801____________________ 638
    • Permanent government for District of Columbia—1878____________________ 641
    Edition: current; Page: [V]
  • Florida:
    • Prerogatives granted to Christopher Columbus—1492____________________ 39
    • Bull of Pope Alexander conceding America to Spain—1493____________________ 41
    • Treaty with Spain fixing boundaries—1795____________________ 649
    • Treaty with Spain ceding Florida—1819____________________ 649
    • Temporary government of Florida—1819____________________ 656
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Florida—1822____________________ 657
    • Constitution of Florida—1838____________________ 664
    • Act of Congress enabling Florida to become a State—1845____________________ 662
    • Constitution of Florida—1865____________________ 685
    • Constitution of Florida—1868____________________ 704
    • Constitution of Florida—1885____________________ 732
  • Georgia:
    • Charter of Virginia—1606 ____________________ 3783
    • Charter of Carolina—1663____________________ 2743
    • Proprietary proposals—1663 ____________________ 2753
    • Charter of Carolina—1665 ____________________ 2761
    • Fundamental constitutions, Carolina—1669____________________ 2772
    • Charter of Georgia—1732____________________ 765
    • Constitution of Georgia—1777 ____________________ 777
    • Constitution of Georgia—1789 ____________________ 785
    • Constitution of Georgia—1798 ____________________ 791
    • Constitution of Georgia—1865 ____________________ 809
    • Constitution of Georgia—1868 ____________________ 822
    • Constitution of Georgia—1877 ____________________ 842
  • Guam (see Philippines) ____________________ 877
  • Hawaii:
    • Joint resolution for annexation of Hawaiian Islands—1898____________________ 879
    • Territorial government of Hawaii—1900____________________ 881
  • Idaho:
    • Convention with Great Britain—1818____________________ 2983
    • Convention with Russia—1824____________________ 2983
    • Treaty with Great Britain—1846____________________ 2985
    • Territorial government, Oregon—1848____________________ 2986
    • Territorial government, Washington—1853____________________ 3963
    • Temporary government, Idaho—1863____________________ 905
    • Temporary government, Idaho—1864____________________ 912
    • Act for admission of Idaho—1890____________________ 913
    • Constitution of Idaho—1889____________________ 918
  • Illinois:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783____________________ 955
    • Deed of cession from Virginia—1784____________________ 957
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1787 ____________________ 957
    • Act of ratification by Virginia—1788____________________ 963
    • Supplementary act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territory—1789 ____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress dividing the Northwest Territorial government—1800____________________ 964
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Illinois—1809 ____________________ 966
    • Act of Congress enabling Illinois to become a State—1818____________________ 967
    • Ordinance by Illinois accepting the enabling act—1818____________________ 970
    • Resolution of Congress—1818____________________ 971
    • Constitution of Illinois—1818____________________ 972
    • Resolution of Congress declaring the admission of Illinois—1818____________________ 985
    • Constitution of Illinois—1848____________________ 985
    • Constitution of Illinois—1870____________________ 1013
  • Indiana:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783 ____________________ 955
    • Deed of cession from Virginia—1784____________________ 957
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1787 ____________________ 957
    • Act of ratification by Virginia—1788 ____________________ 963
    • Supplementary act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territory—1789____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress dividing the Northwest Territorial government—1800____________________ 964Edition: current; Page: [VI]
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Indiana—1809____________________ 966
    • Supplementary act of Congress establishing the Territory of Indiana—1814 ____________________ 1053
    • Act of Congress enabling Indiana to become a State—1816 ____________________ 1053
    • Ordinance by Indiana accepting the enabling act—1816____________________ 1056
    • Constitution of Indiana—1816____________________ 1057
    • Resolution of Congress declaring the admission of Indiana—1816____________________ 1057
    • Constitution of Indiana—1851____________________ 1073
  • Indian Territory:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Lousiana—1805 ____________________ 1371
    • Territory of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Territory of Arkansas—1819____________________ 261
    • Act for government of the Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Court in Indian Territory—1889 ____________________ 1104
    • Enabling act for Oklahoma and Indian Territory—1906____________________ 2960
  • Iowa:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Michigan—1834 ____________________ 1111
    • Territorial government of Wisconsin—1836 ____________________ 4065
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Iowa—1838____________________ 1111
    • Act of Congress enabling Iowa to become a State—1845____________________ 662, 1118
    • Supplementary enabling act for Iowa—1845____________________ 1118
    • Act of Congress defining the boundaries of Iowa—1846____________________ 1121
    • Constitution of Iowa—1846 ____________________ 1123
    • Act of Congress declaring the admission of Iowa—1846____________________ 1122
    • Constitution of Iowa—1857____________________ 1136
  • Kansas:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804 ____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Treaty with Spain—1819____________________ 649
    • Act for government of Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Resolution admitting Texas—1845____________________ 3544
    • Treaty with Spain ceding California—1848____________________ 377
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Kansas—1854 ____________________ 1161
    • Act for the admission of Kansas—1861____________________ 1176
    • Constitution of Kansas—1855____________________ 1179
    • Constitution of Kansas—1857____________________ 1201
    • Constitution of Kansas—1858____________________ 1221
    • Constitution of Kansas—1859____________________ 1241, 4157
  • Kentucky:
    • The three charters of Virginia—1606, 1609, 1611-12____________________ 3783, 3810-3812
    • Constitution of Virginia—1776____________________ 3812
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government south of the Ohio—1790 ____________________ 1263
    • Act of Congress declaring the admission of Kentucky—1791____________________ 1264
    • Constitution of Kentucky—1792____________________ 1264
    • Constitution of Kentucky—1799____________________ 1277
    • Constitution of Kentucky—1850____________________ 1292
    • Constitution of Kentucky—1890____________________ 1316
    Edition: current; Page: [VII]
  • Louisiana:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Convention between the United States and the French Republic—1803 ____________________ 1362
    • Act of Congress for taking possession of Louisiana—1803____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804 ____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Orleans—1805 ____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1373
    • Proclamation respecting taking possession of part of Louisiana—1810 ____________________ 1375
    • Act of Congress enabling Louisiana to become a State—1811____________________ 1376
    • Act of Congress declaring the admission of Louisiana—1812____________________ 1378
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1812____________________ 1380
    • Act of Congress enlarging the limits of Louisiana—1812____________________ 1380
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1845____________________ 1392
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1852____________________ 1411
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1864____________________ 1429
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1868____________________ 1449
    • Constitution of Louisiana—1879____________________ 1471
  • Maine:
    • The charter of Acadia—1603____________________ 1619
    • The first charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • Charter to Council of New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Charter, Massachusetts Bay—1629 ____________________ 1846
    • Commission of Andros—1688 ____________________ 1863
    • Grant of Province of Maine to Gorges and Mason—1622____________________ 1621
    • Royal grant of the Province of Maine—1639____________________ 1625
    • Royal grant of the Province of Maine—1664____________________ 1637
    • Royal grant of the Province of Maine—1674____________________ 1641
    • The second charter of Massachusetts Bay—1691____________________ 1870
    • Explanatory charter, Massachusetts—1725____________________ 1886
    • Constitution, Massachusetts—1780 ____________________ 1888
    • The constitution of Maine—1819____________________ 1646, 4159
    • Cession of Maine by the State of Massachusetts—1820____________________ 1644
    • Act of Congress declaring the admission of Maine—1820____________________ 1645
  • Maryland:
    • Virginia charter—1606 ____________________ 3783
    • Virginia charter—1609 ____________________ 3790
    • Virginia charter—1612 ____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances of Virginia—1621 ____________________ 3810
    • Charter, Dutch West India Company—1621 ____________________ 59
    • The charter of Maryland—1632____________________ 1669 [Translation, 1677.]
    • Charter to Penn—1681 ____________________ 3035
    • Constitution of Maryland—1776____________________ 1686
    • Constitution of Maryland—1851____________________ 1712
    • Constitution of Maryland—1864____________________ 1741
    • Constitution of Maryland—1867____________________ 1779
  • Massachusetts:
    • The first charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • The charter of New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Agreement between the settlers at New Plymouth—1620____________________ 1841
    • Charter of Plymouth to William Bradford and his associates—1629____________________ 1841
    • The charter of Massachusetts Bay—1629____________________ 1846
    • Act of surrender of the great charter of New England to His Majesty—1635 ____________________ 1860
    • Bradford’s surrender of his patent of Plymouth to the Freemen—1640 ____________________ 1861
    • Commission of Sir Edmund Andros—1688____________________ 1863
    • The charter of Massachusetts Bay—1691____________________ 1870
    • Explanatory charter of Massachusetts Bay—1725____________________ 1886
    • Constitution of Massachusetts—1780____________________ 1888
  • Michigan:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783____________________ 955
    • Deed of cession from Virginia—1784____________________ 957 Edition: current; Page: [VIII]
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1787____________________ 957
    • Act of ratification by Virginia—1788____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1789____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress dividing the Northwest Territorial government—1800 ____________________ 964
    • Enabling act, Illinois—1818____________________ 967
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Michigan—1805____________________ 1925
    • Extension of Michigan Territory—1834____________________ 1111
    • Constitution of Michigan—1835 ____________________ 1930
    • Act of Congress enabling Michigan to become a State—1836____________________ 1926
    • Supplementary act for the admission of Michigan—1836____________________ 1928
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Michigan—1837____________________ 1929
    • Constitution of Michigan—1850 ____________________ 1944, 4204
  • Minnesota:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783____________________ 955
    • Virginia deed of cession—1784____________________ 957
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territory—1787____________________ 957
    • Virginia act of ratification—1788____________________ 963
    • Northwest Territorial government—1789____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Indiana—1800____________________ 964
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Michigan—1805____________________ 1925
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Louisiana—1805____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Illinois—1809____________________ 966
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Enabling act, Illinois—1818____________________ 967
    • Extension of Michigan Territory—1834____________________ 1111
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin—1836 ____________________ 4065
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Iowa—1838____________________ 1111
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Minnesota—1849____________________ 1981
    • Act of Congress enabling Minnesota to become a State—1857____________________ 1988
    • Constitution of Minnesota—1857____________________ 1991
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Minnesota—1858____________________ 1990
  • Mississippi:
    • Proprietary charter of Carolina—1663 ____________________ 2743
    • Proprietary proposals, North Carolina—1663____________________ 2753
    • Proprietary charter, Carolina—1665____________________ 2756
    • Fundamental constitutions, Carolina—1669 ____________________ 2772
    • Proprietary charter of Georgia—1732____________________ 765
    • Constitution, South Carolina—1776____________________ 3241
    • Constitution, Georgia—1777 ____________________ 777
    • Constitution, South Carolina—1778____________________ 3248
    • Constitution, Georgia—1789 ____________________ 785
    • Territory south of Ohio River—1790____________________ 3409
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Mississippi—1798 ____________________ 2025
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Mississippi—1800 ____________________ 2027
    • Act of Congress extending the right of suffrage in the Territory of Mississippi—1808 ____________________ 2029
    • Proclamation, occupation of Territory—1810 ____________________ 1375
    • Act of Congress enabling Mississippi to become a State—1817____________________ 2029
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Mississippi—1817____________________ 2032
    • Constitution of Mississippi—1817____________________ 2032
    • Constitution of Mississippi—1832____________________ 2049
    • Constitution of Mississippi—1868____________________ 2069
    • Constitution of Mississippi—1890____________________ 2090
    Edition: current; Page: [IX]
  • Missouri:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804 ____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Act of Congress amending the act establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1816____________________ 2144
    • Act of Congress enabling Missouri to become a State—1820____________________ 2145
    • Constitution of Missouri—1820____________________ 2150
    • Resolution for the admission of Missouri—1821____________________ 2148
    • Proclamation admitting Missouri—1821____________________ 2149
    • Ordinances of the convention of Missouri—1861-1863____________________ 2174
    • Constitution of Missouri—1865____________________ 2191
    • Constitution of Missouri—1875____________________ 2229
  • Montana:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Convention with Great Britain—1818____________________ 2983
    • Convention with Russia—1824 ____________________ 2983
    • Act for the government of the Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Territory of Oregon—1848 ____________________ 2986
    • Territory of Washington—1853____________________ 3963
    • Territory of Nebraska—1854____________________ 1161
    • Territory of Idaho—1863 ____________________ 905
    • Temporary government, Territory of Montana—1864____________________ 2281
    • Enabling act for Montana—1889____________________ 2289
    • Proclamation announcing admission of Montana—1889____________________ 2299
    • Constitution of Montana—1889____________________ 2300
  • Nebraska:
    • Treaty with France ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • Act of Congress establishing the district government of Louisiana—1804 ____________________ 1364
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Louisiana—1805____________________ 1371
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Act of Congress enabling Missouri to become a State—1820____________________ 2145
    • Act for government of Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo with Spain—1848____________________ 377
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Nebraska and Kansas—1854 ____________________ 1161
    • Act of Congress enabling Nebraska to become a State—1864____________________ 2343
    • Constitution of Nebraska—1866-67____________________ 2349
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Nebraska—1867____________________ 2346
    • Proclamation announcing the admission of Nebraska—1867____________________ 2347
    • Constitution of Nebraska—1875____________________ 2361
  • Nevada:
    • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo with Spain—1848____________________ 377
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Utah—1850 ____________________ 3687
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Nevada—1861 ____________________ 2391
    • Act of Congress enabling Nevada to become a State—1864____________________ 2397
    • Proclamation announcing the admission of Nevada—1864____________________ 2400
    • Constitution of Nevada—1864____________________ 2401
  • New Hampshire:
    • Virginia charter—1606____________________ 3783
    • Council for New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Grant of New Hampshire to Mason—1629____________________ 2433
    • Charter of Massachusetts Bay—1629____________________ 1846
    • Grant of New Hampshire to Wollaston—1635____________________ 2437
    • Grant from Wollaston to Mason—1635____________________ 2439
    • Grant to Mason [Masonia]—1635____________________ 2441 Edition: current; Page: [X]
    • Grant to Mason [New Hampshire]—1635____________________ 2443
    • Agreement of settlers at Exeter—1639____________________ 2445
    • Piscataqua River government—1641 ____________________ 2445
    • Commission of John Cutt—1680____________________ 2446
    • Commission to Andros—1688____________________ 1863
    • Constitution of New Hampshire—1776____________________ 2451
    • Constitution of New Hampshire—1784____________________ 2453
    • Constitution of New Hampshire—1792____________________ 2471
    • Amended constitution of 1792 [1906]____________________ 2491
    • Bibliographical outline____________________ 2513
  • New Jersey:
    • Virginia charter—1606 ____________________ 3783
    • Council for New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Dutch West India Company—1621____________________ 59
    • Grant to the Duke of York—1664____________________ 1637
    • Duke of York’s release to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret—1664 ____________________ 2533
    • Concession and agreement [Nova Cæsarea]—1664____________________ 2535
    • Declaration of the lords proprietors—1672____________________ 2544
    • Grant to the Duke of York—1674____________________ 1641
    • Duke of York’s grant to Carteret—1674____________________ 2546
    • Charter, or fundamental laws, West New Jersey—1676____________________ 2548
    • Duke of York’s second grant to Penn and others—1680____________________ 2560
    • Province of West New Jersey—1681____________________ 2565
    • Duke of York’s confirmation to the proprietors—1682____________________ 2567
    • Fundamental constitutions, East New Jersey—1683____________________ 2574
    • The Queen’s acceptance of the surrender of government—1702____________________ 2584
    • Surrender of the Jerseys by the proprietors—1702____________________ 2585
    • Charles II’s grant of New England to the Duke of York—1672-1712____________________ 2590
    • Constitution of New Jersey—1776____________________ 2594
    • Constitution of New Jersey—1844____________________ 2599, 4186
  • New Mexico:
    • Mexican constitution—1824____________________ 3475
    • Constitution of Coahuila and Texas—1827____________________ 3495
    • Constitution of Texas—1835____________________ 3520
    • Texas declaration of independence—1836____________________ 3520
    • Ordinances of Texas—1836____________________ 3530
    • Annexation of Texas—1845____________________ 3544
    • Admission of Texas—1845____________________ 3546
    • Territorial government of New Mexico—1850____________________ 2615
    • Mexican treaty of cession—1853 ____________________ 255
    • Enabling act for New Mexico and Arizona—1906____________________ 2960
  • New York:
    • Virginia charter—1606 ____________________ 3783
    • Council for New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Dutch West India Company’s patent—1621____________________ 59
    • Charter of Massachusetts Bay—1629____________________ 1846
    • Charter of Connecticut—1662____________________ 529
    • Royal grant to the Duke of York—1664____________________ 1637
    • Royal grant to the Duke of York—1674____________________ 1641
    • Charter of Pennsylvania—1681____________________ 3035
    • Commission of orders—1688 ____________________ 1863
    • Constitution of New York—1777 ____________________ 2623
    • Constitution of New York—1821 ____________________ 2639
    • Constitution of New York—1846____________________ 2653
    • Constitution of New York—1894____________________ 2694
  • North Carolina:
    • Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh—1584 ____________________ 53
    • Charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • Charter of Virginia—1609____________________ 3790
    • Charter of Virginia—1612____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances for Virginia—1621 ____________________ 3810
    • Charter of Carolina—1663 ____________________ 2743
    • Charter of Carolina—1665 ____________________ 2756
    • The fundamental constitutions of North Carolina—1669____________________ 2772
    • The Mecklenburgh resolutions—1775____________________ 2786 Edition: current; Page: [XI]
    • Constitution of North Carolina—1776____________________ 2787
    • Ordinance of the convention of North Carolina—1865____________________ 2799
    • Constitution of North Carolina—1868____________________ 2800
    • Constitution of North Carolina—1876____________________ 2822
  • North Dakota:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1373
    • Territory of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Act extending Michigan Territory—1834____________________ 1111
    • Territory of Wisconsin—1836____________________ 4065
    • Territory of Iowa—1838____________________ 1111
    • Territory of Minnesota—1849____________________ 1981
    • Territory of Nebraska—1854____________________ 1161
    • Temporary government of Dakota—1861 ____________________ 2845
    • Enabling act, North Dakota—1889____________________ 2281
    • Proclamation, admission of North Dakota—1889____________________ 2852
    • Constitution of North Dakota—1889____________________ 2854
  • Ohio:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783____________________ 955
    • Deed of cession from Virginia—1784 ____________________ 957
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1787____________________ 957
    • Act of ratification by Virginia—1788 ____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1789____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress dividing the Northwest Territorial government—1800 ____________________ 964
    • Act of Congress enabling Ohio to become a State—1802____________________ 2897
    • Constitution of Ohio—1802 ____________________ 2901
    • Act of Congress recognizing the State of Ohio—1803____________________ 2900
    • Constitution of Ohio—1851____________________ 2913, 4157, 4158
  • Oklahoma:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Louisiana—1805 ____________________ 1373
    • Territory of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Territory of Arkansas—1819____________________ 261
    • Florida treaty—1819 ____________________ 649
    • Government of the Indian country—1834____________________ 1097
    • Organic acts, Mexico, Texas—1824-1845 ____________________ 3475-3569
    • New Mexico, Texas—1850 ____________________ 2615
    • Territorial government for Oklahoma—1890 ____________________ 2939
    • Enabling act, Oklahoma—1906____________________ 2960
    • Proclamation admitting Oklahoma ____________________ 4269
    • Constitution of Oklahoma—1907 ____________________ 4271
  • Oregon:
    • Convention with Great Britain—1818____________________ 2983
    • Convention with Russia—1824____________________ 2983
    • Treaty with Great Britain—1846____________________ 2985
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Oregon—1848 ____________________ 2986
    • Constitution of Oregon—1857 ____________________ 2998
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Oregon—1859____________________ 2996
  • Panama Canal Zone:
    • Act for construction of Isthmian Canal—1902____________________ 3021
    • Isthmian Canal convention—1903____________________ 3024
  • Pennsylvania:
    • Charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • Council of New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Dutch West India Company—1921____________________ 59
    • Charter of Maryland—1632____________________ 1669
    • Charter of Connecticut—1662____________________ 529
    • Grant to Duke of York—1664____________________ 1637
    • Grant to Duke of York—1674____________________ 1641
    • Charter for the province of Pennsylvania—1861____________________ 3035
    • Concessions to the province of Pennsylvania—1681____________________ 3044 Edition: current; Page: [XII]
    • Penn’s charter of liberties—1682____________________ 3047
    • Frame of government of Pennsylvania—1682____________________ 3052
    • Frame of government of Pennsylvania—1683____________________ 3064
    • Frame of government of Pennsylvania—1696____________________ 3070
    • Charter of privileges for Pennsylvania—1701____________________ 3076
    • Constitution of Pennsylvania—1776____________________ 3081
    • Constitution of Pennsylvania—1790____________________ 3092
    • Constitution of Pennsylvania—1838____________________ 3104
    • Constitution of Pennsylvania—1873____________________ 3121
  • Philippine Islands, The:
    • Treaty with Spain—1898____________________ 3153
    • Philippine Commission, the—1900____________________ 3158
    • Extension of powers of the Philippine Commission—1901____________________ 3165
    • Civil government of the Philippines—1902____________________ 3166
  • Plans of Union:
    • New England confederation—1643____________________ 77
    • Albany plan—1754____________________ 83
    • Articles of confederation—1777 ____________________ 9
    • Constitution of the United States—1787 ____________________ 19
  • Porto Rico:
    • Treaty of cession—1898 ____________________ 3153
    • Civil government of Porto Rico—1900____________________ 3191
    • Temporary provision for civil affairs of—1900____________________ 3202
  • Rhode Island:
    • Charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • Council for New England—1620____________________ 1827
    • Commission of Andros—1688 ____________________ 1863
    • Agreement at Providence—1640____________________ 3205
    • Government of Rhode Island—1641____________________ 3207
    • Patent for Providence Plantations—1643____________________ 3209
    • Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations—1663____________________ 3211
    • Constitution of Rhode Island—1842 ____________________ 3222
  • Samoa (see Tutuila) ____________________ 3675
  • South Carolina:
    • Charter to Raleigh—1584____________________ 53
    • Charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • Charter of Virginia—1609____________________ 3790
    • Charter of Virginia—1612____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances for Virginia—1621 ____________________ 3810
    • Charter of Carolina—1663____________________ 2743
    • Charter of Carolina—1665____________________ 2756
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1776____________________ 3241
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1778____________________ 3248
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1790____________________ 3258
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1865____________________ 3269
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1868____________________ 3281
    • Constitution of South Carolina—1895____________________ 3307
  • South Dakota:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Louisiana—1805____________________ 1373
    • Territory of Missouri—1812 ____________________ 2139
    • Act extending Michigan Territory—1834____________________ 1111
    • Territory of Wisconsin—1836____________________ 4065
    • Territory of Iowa—1838____________________ 1111
    • Territory of Nebraska—1854____________________ 1161
    • Enabling act for South Dakota—1889____________________ 2289
    • Proclamation of admission of South Dakota—1889____________________ 3355
    • Constitution of South Dakota—1889____________________ 3357
    • Virginia charter—1609 ____________________ 3790
    • Virginia charter—1612 ____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances for Virginia—1621____________________ 3810
    • Proprietary charter of Carolina—1663____________________ 2743
    • Proprietary proposals—1663 ____________________ 2753
    • Fundamental constitutions of Carolina—1669____________________ 2772
    • Constitution of North Carolina—1776____________________ 2787
    Edition: current; Page: [XIII]
  • Tennessee:
    • Act of Congress accepting the cession of Tennessee—1790____________________ 3409
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government south of the Ohio—1790 ____________________ 3413
    • Act admitting Tennessee—1796 ____________________ 3414
    • Constitution of Tennessee—1796 ____________________ 3414
    • Constitution of Tennessee—1834 ____________________ 3426
    • Constitution of Tennessee—1870 ____________________ 3448
  • Texas:
    • Spanish claim of dominion in America—1492-93 (Papal Bull) ____________________ 41
    • Constitution of the Republic of Mexico—1824____________________ 3475
    • Constitution of Coahuila and Texas—1827 ____________________ 3495
    • Provisional constitution of Texas—1835____________________ 3520
    • Declaration of Texan independence—1836 ____________________ 3528
    • Executive ordinance of Texas—1836____________________ 3530
    • Constitution of the Republic of Texas—1836____________________ 3532
    • Convention between the United States and Texas—1838____________________ 3543
    • Consent of Texas to annexation—1845____________________ 3546
    • Constitution of Texas—1845____________________ 3547
    • Joint resolution of Congress admitting Texas into the Union—1845____________________ 3568
    • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo with Mexico—1848____________________ 377
    • Constitution of Texas—1866____________________ 3569
    • Constitution of Texas—1868____________________ 3591
    • Constitution of Texas—1876____________________ 3621
  • Tutuila (Samoa):
    • General act for the Samoan Islands—1889____________________ 3675
    • Convention for the partition of Samoa—1899____________________ 3685
  • Utah:
    • Organic acts for Mexico and Texas—1824-1845____________________ 3475-3547
    • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo—1848____________________ 377
    • Territory of Utah—1850 ____________________ 3687
    • Enabling act for Utah—1894 ____________________ 3693
    • Proclamation of admission of Utah—1896____________________ 3699
    • Constitution of Utah—1895____________________ 3700
  • Vermont:
    • Constitution of Vermont—1777 ____________________ 3737
    • Constitution of Vermont—1786____________________ 3749
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Vermont into the Union—1791____________________ 3761
    • Constitution of Vermont—1793____________________ 3762
    • Historical note____________________ 3778
  • Virginia:
    • Grant to Sir Walter Raleigh—1584____________________ 53
    • The first charter of Virginia—1606____________________ 3783
    • The second charter of Virginia—1609____________________ 3790
    • The third charter of Virginia—1611-12____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances for Virginia—1621____________________ 3810
    • Declaration of rights by Virginia—1776____________________ 3812
    • Constitution of Virginia—1776____________________ 3812
    • Constitution of Virginia—1830____________________ 3819
    • Constitution of Virginia—1850____________________ 3829
    • Constitution of Virginia—1864____________________ 3852
    • Constitution of Virginia—1870____________________ 3871
    • Constitution of Virginia—1902____________________ 3904
  • Washington:
    • Convention with Great Britain—1818____________________ 2983
    • Convention with Russia—1824____________________ 2983
    • Territorial government of Oregon—1848____________________ 2986
    • Territorial government of Washington—1853____________________ 3963
    • Enabling act for Washington—1889____________________ 2289
    • Proclamation of admission of Washington—1889____________________ 3971
    • Constitution of Washington—1889____________________ 3973
  • West Virginia:
    • Charter to Raleigh—1584____________________ 53
    • Charter of Virginia—1609____________________ 3790
    • Charter of Virginia—1612____________________ 3802
    • Ordinances of Virginia—1621____________________ 3810
    • Constitution of Virginia—1776____________________ 3812 Edition: current; Page: [XIV]
    • Constitution of Virginia—1830____________________ 3819
    • Constitution of Virginia—1850____________________ 3829
    • Constitution of West Virginia—1861-1863____________________ 4013
    • Act of Congress for the admission of West Virginia—1862____________________ 4011
    • Proclamation of admission of West Virginia—1863____________________ 4012
    • Joint resolution transferring territory to West Virginia—1866____________________ 4013
    • Constitution of West Virginia—1872____________________ 4033, 4235
  • Wisconsin:
    • Act of cession by Virginia—1783____________________ 955
    • Deed of cession from Virginia—1784____________________ 957
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1787 ____________________ 957
    • Act of ratification by Virginia—1788____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress establishing the Northwest Territorial government—1789____________________ 963
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Indiana—1800-1809____________________ 964, 966
    • Act of Congress enabling Illinois to become a State—1818 ____________________ 967
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin—1836 ____________________ 4065
    • Act of Congress establishing the Territorial government of Iowa—1838____________________ 1111
    • Act of Congress enabling Wisconsin to become a State—1846____________________ 4071
    • Act of Congress for the admission of Wisconsin—1848____________________ 4074
    • Constitution of Wisconsin—1848____________________ 4077
  • Wyoming:
    • Treaty ceding Louisiana—1803____________________ 1359
    • District of Louisiana—1804____________________ 1364
    • Territory of Louisiana—1805____________________ 1373
    • Territory of Missouri—1812____________________ 2139
    • Convention with Great Britain—1818____________________ 2983
    • Treaty ceding Florida and fixing boundaries—1819____________________ 649
    • Convention with Russia—1824____________________ 2983
    • Organic acts, Mexico, Texas—1824-1845 ____________________ 3475-3547
    • Act for government of Indian Territory—1834____________________ 1097
    • Annexation of Texas—1845 ____________________ 3544
    • Treaty with Great Britain—1846____________________ 2985
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo—1848 ____________________ 377
    • Treaty of Oregon—1848____________________ 2986
    • Territory of Utah—1850____________________ 3687
    • Territory of Washington—1853____________________ 3963
    • Territory of Nebraska—1854 ____________________ 1161
    • Territory of Idaho—1863 ____________________ 905
    • Territory of Montana—1864____________________ 2281
    • Temporary government of Wyoming—1868 ____________________ 4105
    • Act for admission of Wyoming—1890 ____________________ 4111
    • Constitution of Wyoming—1889 ____________________ 4117
Edition: current; Page: [XV]

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

ADAMS

John Adams. Works. Edited by Charles Francis Adams. 10 vols. Boston: 1850-1856.

Adoption and Amendment of Constitutions in Europe and America. Charles Borgeaud. New York: 1897.

Journal of the Convention of the Alabama Territory. Begun July 5, 1819 [and ended August 2, 1819]. Huntsville: 1819. 8vo. 40 pp.

ALABAMA

The History and Debates of the Convention of the People of Alabama. Begun and held in the city of Montgomery, on the seventh day of January, 1861, In which is preserved the speeches of the secret sessions and many valuable State papers. By William R. Smith, one of the delegates from Tuscaloosa. Montgomery: Tuscaloosa: Atlanta: 1861. 464 pp. Index.

The Constitution and Ordinances adopted by the State Convention of Alabama, which Assembled at Montgomery on the twelfth day of September, ad 1865; with Index, Analysis, and Table of titles. By J. W. Shepherd. Montgomery: 1865, 88 pp. 80 pp.

Journal [and Ordinances] of the Constitutional Convention of Alabama, November 5-December 6, 1867. Montgomery: 1868. 3+291 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Alabama. Assembled in the city of Montgomery, September 6, 1875. Montgomery, Ala.: 1875. 231 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Alabama. Held in the city of Montgomery, commencing May 1, 1901. Montgomery, Ala.: 1901. 1888 pp.

Two New Southern Constitutions [Alabama, 1901; Virginia, 1901]. By Albert E. McKinley. Political Science Quarterly. Vol. XVIII, No. 3. Boston: 1903.

Alabama Historical Society. Transactions.

ALMON

The Charters of the British Colonies in America. John Almon, London: 1775.

ARCHÆOLGIA AMERICANA

American Antiquarian Society. Archæolgia Americana.

AMERICAN COMMONWEALTHS

American Commonwealths Series. Edited by H. E. Scudder. Boston.

ANDREWS

Colonial Self-Government. C. M. Andrews. New York: 1904.

ARKANSAS

Ordinances of the State Convention which convened in Little Rock, May 6, 1861. Little Rock: 1861. 128 pp.

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention, January 4-23, 1864. Little Rock: 1870. 58 pp.

The Constitution of the State of Arkansas. Framed and adopted by the convention which assembled at Little Rock, July 14, 1874, and ratified by the people of the State at the elections held October 13, 1874. With an appendix containing the Constitution of the United States and the Constitutions of Arkansas of 1836, 1861, 1864, and 1868. With notes by U. M. Rose. Little Rock, Ark.: 1891. 399 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XVI]

BANCROFT

History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States of America. 2 vols. George Bancroft. New York: 1882.

A History of the United States. 6 vols. George Bancroft. New York: 1883-1885.

BELNAP

The History of New Hampshire. Jeremy Belnap. 3 vols. Boston: 1742. Appendix [documentary].

BURGESS

Political Science and Constitutional Law. 2 vols. J. W. Burgess. New York: 1890.

CALIFORNIA

Report of the Debates in the Convention of California on the Formation of the State Convention in September and October, 1849. By J. Ross Browne. Washington: 1850, 479 pp. App.

Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of California. Convention at the city of Sacramento, Saturday, September 28, 1878. E. B. Willis and P. K. Stockton, official stenographers. Sacramento: 1880. 3 vols. 4°. 640, 512, 425 pp.

California Historical Society. Papers and Publications.

CHALMERS

A Collection of Treaties between Great Britain and other Powers. George Chalmers. 2 vols. London: 1790.

CHANNING AND HART

Guide to the Study of American History. Edward Channing and Albert Bushnell Hart. Boston: 1903.

CONFEDERATION

For data in rc The formation of the Articles of Confederation, consult the writings of John Adams, Franklin, John Dickinson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton.

CONGRESS

Secret Journals of the Acts and Proceedings of Congress. 4 vols. Boston: 1821.

CONNECTICUT

The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut (1636-1776). James Hammond Trumbull and Charles J. Hoodly. Hartford: 1850-1890.

New Haven [Conn.] Colony Historical Society. Papers.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates convened at Hartford, August 26, 1818, for the Purpose of Forming a Constitution of Civil Government for the People of the State of Connecticut. Printed by Order of the General Assembly. Hartford: 1873. 121 pp.

Historical Notes of the Constitutions of Connecticut, 1639-1818, particularly on the Origin and Progress of the Movement which Resulted in the Convention of 1818 and the Adoption of the Present Constitution. By J. Hammond Trumbull. Hartford: 1873. 60 pp.

Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Adoption of the First Constitution of the State of Connecticut. By the Connecticut Historical Society and the Towns of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. Thursday, January 24, ad 1889. Hartford, Conn.: 1889. 98 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Connecticut, 1902. Hartford: 1902. 493 pp.

Preliminary Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Connecticut. 467 pp. Hartford: 1902.

Collected Documents of the Constitutional Convention of Connecticut. Hartford: 1902.

Printed Resolutions, Constitutional Convention of Connecticut. Hartford: 1902.

Connecticut Historical Society. Papers.

Edition: current; Page: [XVII]

CONSTITUTIONAL

Constitutional History of the United States as seen in the Development of American Law. T. M. Cooley (and others). New York: 1890.

Constitutional Limitations. T. M. Cooley.

The Constitutional Decisions of John Marshall. 2 vols. New York: 1905.

CURTIS

Constitutional History of the United States. 2 vols. G. T. Curtis. New York: 1889.

CONVENTION, 1827

Statement on the Part of The United States of the Case Referred in Pursuance of the Convention of 29th September, 1827, Between the said States and Great Britain, to His Majesty, the King of the Netherlands, For his Decision Thereon. Printed but not published. Washington: Printed at the Office of the United States’ Telegraph, 1829. 96 pp.

Appendix to the Two Statements on the Part of the United States, Respecting the Disputed Points of Boundary Between the United States and Great Britain; Referred to His Majesty, the King of the Netherlands, for His Decision Thereon. Written and Printed Evidence Adduced On the Part of the United States. (With map) and Appendixes LXI-LXIX. 438 pp.

First Statement On the Part of Great Britain, According to the Provisions of The Convention Concluded Between Great Britain and the United States, On the 29th September, 1827. For Regulating the Reference to Arbitration of the Disputed Points of Boundary Under the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Ghent. 43 pp.

Second Statement On the Part of Great Britain, According to the Provisions of The Convention Concluded Between Great Britain and the United States, On the 29th September, 1827, for Regulating the Reference To Arbitration of the Disputed Points of Boundary Under the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Ghent. 41 pp. Appendixes, 30 pp.

Decision of the Arbiter, 13 pp. Protest (of the United States) pp. 14-16.

DELAWARE

Our State Constitutions. James Q. Dealey, American Academy of Political and Social Science. Philadelphia, March, 1907. 98 pp.

Colonial Records (1683-1790). 16 vols. Philadelphia: 1852-53.

Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Delaware. 1853. Dover, Del. 318 pp. Index.

Delaware Historical Society. Papers. (See also Constitutional Pennsylvania.)

DICKINSON

John Dickinson. Political Writings. 2 vols. Wilmington: 1801.

DOYLE

The English Colonies in America. J. A. Doyle. 5 vols. New York: 1882-1906.

FEDERALIST

The Federalist. (Edited by H. C. Lodge; by P. L. Ford; by Henry B. Dawson; by J. C. Hamilton.)

FLORIDA

Constitution and Ordinances Adopted at the Convention [of Florida], January 3-21. 1861. Tallahassee: 1861. 68 pp.

The Constitution [of Florida] as Amended and Ordinances Adopted at Called Session, January 14-27, 1862. 48 pp. n. p. n. d. The Proceedings of the Called Sessions, February 26-March 1, 1861; April 18-27, 1861. 70 pp.

Journal [and Ordinances] of the Convention held January 3-21, 1861. [Florida.] Tallahassee: 1861. 112 pp.

Journal of the Convention, January 14-27, in Called Session. [Florida.] 110 pp. n. p. n. d.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Florida [and Constitution Adopted]. Tallahassee: 1865. 34, 22, 167 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XVIII]

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention [of Florida], January 20-February 25, 1868. Tallahassee: 1868. 134 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Florida. Begun and held at the capitol, at Tallahassee, on Monday, January 20, 1808. Tallahassee: 1868. 134 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Florida. Which convened at the capitol, at Tallahassee, on Tuesday, June 9, 1885. Tallahassee, Fla.: 1885. 631 pp.

FORCE

American Archives. A Documentary History of the North American Colonies. 9 vols. Compiled by Peter Force. Washington: 1837-1853.

FRANKLIN

Benjamin Franklin’s Works. Edited by Jared Sparks. 10 vols. Boston: 1836-1850.

Benjamin Franklin’s Works. Edited by John Bigelow. 10 vols. New York: 1887-1888.

Benjamin Franklin’s Works. Edited by Albert H. Smythe. 10 vols. New York. 1905-1907.

GALLATIN

Albert Gallatin. Writings. Edited by Henry Adams. 3 vols. Philadelphia: 1879.

GEORGIA

Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia. H. Marbury, W. H. Crawford. Savannah: 1802.

Journal of the Convention to Reduce and Equalize the Representation of the General Assembly of the State of Georgia. Assembled in Milledgeville, on the 6th Day of May, eighteen hundred and thirty-nine. Published by authority. Milledgeville: 1839. 74 pp.

Journal of the State Convention. Held in Milledgeville in December, 1850. Milledgeville: 1850. 34 pp.

Journal of the Public and Secret Proceedings of the Convention of the People of Georgia. Held in Milledgeville and Savannah in 1861. Together with the ordinances adopted. Published by order of the convention. Milledgeville, Ga.: 1861. 416 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of the People of Georgia. Held in Milledgeville in October and November, 1865. Together with the ordinances and resolutions adopted. Published by order of the convention. Milledgeville, Ga.: 1865. 269 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the People of Georgia. Held in the city of Atlanta in the months of December, 1867, and January, February, and March, 1868. And ordinances and resolutions adopted. Published by order of the convention. Augusta, Ga.: 1868. 636 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the People of Georgia. Held in city of Atlanta in the months of July and August, 1877. Atlanta, Ga.: 1877. 701 pp.

A Stenographic Report of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention. Held in Atlanta, Georgia, 1877. Giving debates in full on all questions before the convention. Reported by Samuel W. Small for The Atlanta Constitution. Atlanta, Ga.: 1877. 502 pp.

Georgia Historical Society. Collections.

GERARD

The Peace of Utrecht. J. W. Gerard. New York: 1885.

GOODNOW

Comparative Administrative Law. 2 vols. F. J. Goodnow. New York: 1893.

GRAHAME

The History of the Rise and Progress of the United States of North America, Till the British Revolution in 1688. 2 vols. James Grahame. London: 1827.

Edition: current; Page: [XIX]

GREENE

Colonial Commonwealths. E. B. Greene. New York: 1904.

HAMILTON

Alexander Hamilton. Works. Edited by Henry Cabot Lodge. 12 vols. New York: 1904.

The Colonization of the South. P. J. Hamilton. Philadelphia: 1904.

HAZARD

Historical Collections: Consisting of State Papers and Other Documents. Ebenezer Hazard. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1792-1794.

HILDRETH

The History of the United States. Richard Hildreth. 6 vols. New York: 1851-1856. [Contains brief accounts of State constitutions.]

HOUGH

American Constitutions: Comprising the Constitution of each State in the Union, and of the United States, with the Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation. Each accompanied by a historical introduction and notes, together with a classified analysis of the constitutions. By Franklin B. Hough. 2 vols. Albany: 1871.

HOWARD

Local Constitutional History. G. E. Howard.

HOPKINS (UNIVERSITY)

The Johns Hopkins “Studies” in History and Political Science. Johns Hopkins University.

HINSDALE

The Old Northwest: With a View of the Thirteen Colonies as Constituted by the Royal Charters. B. A. Hinsdale. New York: 1891.

HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION

Historical Societies. For complete list see Annual Report, American Historical Association, 1905, vol. 2.

HORACK

Constitutional Amendments in the Commonwealth of Iowa. Frank E. Horack. Iowa City, Iowa: 1899. 8 vo. 33 pp. [Reprinted from The Iowa Historical Record.]

ILLINOIS

Journal of the Convention Assembled at Springfield, June 7, 1847, in pursuance of an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled “An act to provide for the call of a convention,” approved February 20, 1847, for the Purpose of Altering, Amending, or Revising the Constitution of the State of Illinois. Published by authority of the convention. Springfield: 1847. 592 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Illinois. Convened at Springfield, January 7, 1862. Springfield: 1862. 1,131 pp. Index.

Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Illinois. Convened at the city of Springfield, Tuesday, December 13, 1869. 2 vols. 4to. Springfield: 1870. 1,076, 819 pp. Index.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Illinois. Convened at Springfield, December 13, 1869. Springfield: 1870. 1,022 pp. Index.

Chicago Historical Society. Collections.

Edition: current; Page: [XX]

INDIANA

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Indiana [at Corydon], June 2, 1816. Louisville: 1816. 69 pp.

Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision of the Constitution of the State of Indiana, 1850. Indianapolis, Ind: 1850. 2 vols. 1,008, 1,099 pp.

IOWA

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention of Iowa. May 4-19, 1846. Iowa City: 1846. 120 pp.

Fragments of the Debates of the Iowa Constitutional Conventions of 1844 and 1846; along with press comments and other materials on the constitutions of 1844 and 1846. Compiled and edited by Benjamin F. Shambaugh, A. M., Ph. D. Iowa City, Iowa: 1900. 415 pp.

The Debates of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Iowa. Assembled at Iowa City, Monday, January 19, 1857. 2 vols. Davenport: 1857. 644, 422 pp. Index.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Iowa. In session at Iowa City from the nineteenth day of January, ad one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, to the fifth day of March of the same year, inclusive. Muscatine: 1857. 389 pp. Index.

State Historical Society of Iowa. Publications.

JAMES

The Colonization of New England. B. B. James. Philadelphia: 1904.

JAMESON

A Treatise on Constitutional Conventions; their History, Powers, and Modes of Proceeding. By John Alexander Jameson. 4th ed. Chicago: 1887.

William Usselinx, J. Franklin Jameson.

JAY

John Jay. Correspondence and Public Papers. Edited by H. P. Johnston. 4 vols. New York: 1890-1893.

JEFFERSON

Thomas Jefferson. Writings. Edited by H. A. Washington. 9 vols. Washington: 1853-54.

Thomas Jefferson. Edited by P. L. Ford. 12 vols. New York: 1892-1896.

JENNESS

Transcripts of Original Documents in the English Archives Relating to New Hampshire. John S. Jenness. New York: 1876. (Privately printed.)

JONES

The Colonization of the Middle States and Maryland. F. R. Jones. Philadelphia: 1904.

KANSAS

Report of the Committee on Territories, to whom were referred the Constitution adopted by the people of Kansas on the 4th day of October, ad 1859, and the Memorial of the convention praying Congress to Admit Kansas as a State into the aforesaid Confederacy. (36th Cong., 1st sess., H. report 255. 55 pp.)

Proceedings and Debates of the Constitutional Convention of Kansas [Territory], Wyandot, July 5, 1859. Wyandot: 1859. (Constitution and Ordinances.) 4+46+439+16 pp.

Kansas State Historical Society. Transactions.

Edition: current; Page: [XXI]

KELLOGG

The American Colonial Charter. Louise Phelps Kellogg. Report of the American Historical Association, 1903. vol. 1. pp. 187-341.

KENTUCKY

Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision of the Constitution of the State of Kentucky, 1849. Frankfort, Ky.: 1849. 1,168 pp.

Journal and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of Kentucky. Frankfort, Ky.: 1849. 531 pp.

Official Report of the Proceedings and Debates in the Convention Assembled at Frankfort on the Eighth day of September, 1890, to Adopt, Amend, or Change the Constitution of the State of Kentucky. Frankfort, Ky.: 1890. 4 vols. 6,480 pp.

LINCOLN

The Constitutional History of New York from the beginning of the Colonial Period to the year 1905; showing the origin, development, and judicial construction of the Constitution. Charles Z. Lincoln. 5 vols. Rochester: 1906.

LOUISIANA

Journal de la Convention de la Louisiane. Nouvelle-Orléans: 1845. 367 pp. (Constitution. 1845.)

Rapports Officiels des Débats de la Convention de la Louisiane. Imprimeur de la Convention. Nlle.-Orléans. 1845. 460 pp. (Constitution. 1845. 11 pp.)

Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of Louisiana, which Assembled at the City of New Orleans, January 14, 1844. New Orleans: 1845. 960 pp. Index.

Journal of the Convention to Form a New Constitution for the State of Louisiana. Official. New Orleans: 1852. 109 pp.

Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of the State of Louisiana. By authority. New Orleans: 1861. 330 pp.

Journal of the Senate of the State of Louisiana. New Orleans: 1864. 197 pp.

Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana. New Orleans: 1864. 226 pp.

Debates in the Convention for the Revision and Amendment of the Constitution of the State of Louisiana. Assembled at Liberty Hall, New Orleans, April 6, 1864. New Orleans: 1864. 643 pp.

Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision and Amendment of the Constitution of the State of Louisiana. By authority. New Orleans: 1864. 184 pp. Index.

Journal Officiel des Travaux de la Convention réunie pour reviser et amender la Constitution de l’Etat de la Louisiane. Par autorité. Nouvelle Orléans: 1864. 187 pp. Index.

Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention for Framing a Constitution for the State of Louisiana. By authority. New Orleans: 1867-1868. 315 pp.

Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Louisiana. Held in New Orleans, Monday, April 21, 1879. By authority. New Orleans: 1879. 337 pp. Appendix. 156 pp.

Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Louisiana. Held in New Orleans, Tuesday, February 8, 1898. And calendar. By authority. New Orleans: 1898. 385 pp. 77 pp.

MADISON

James Madison. Letters and Other Writings. Edited by H. D. Gilpin. 3 vols. Washington: 1840.

James Madison. Letters and Writings. 4 vols. Philadelphia: 1865.

Journal of the Federal Convention Kept by James Madison. Edited by E. H. Scott. Chicago: 1893. 805 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XXII]

McLAUGHLIN

The Federal Constitution. A. C. McLaughlin. New York: 1905. 355 pp.

McMASTER

A History of the People of the United States. John Bach McMaster. 6 vols. New York: 1883-. [Contains some account of new State constitutions.]

MAGAZINES

Magazine of American History. New York: 1877-1894.

Magazine of Western History. 14 vols. The National Magazine.

The American Historical Review.

MAINE

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the District of Maine; with the articles of separation and Governor Brook’s proclamation prefixed, 1819-1820. August: 1856. 112 pp.

The Debates and Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Maine, 1819-1820; and amendments subsequently made to the constitution. Augusta: 1894. 412, 135, 120 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the District of Maine; with the articles of separation and Governor Brook’s proclamation prefixed, 1819-1820. Augusta: 1894. 135 pp.

The Debates, Resolutions, and other Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates Assembled at Portland on the 11th, and Continued until the 29th day of October, 1819, for the Purpose of Forming a Constitution for the State of Maine; to which is prefixed the constitution. Taken in Convention. Portland: 1820. 300 pp.

The Documentary History of Maine.

Maine Historical Society. Collections.

MARTENS AND CUSSY

Traités et Conventions Diplomatiques, Charles de Martens et Ferdinand de Cussy. 7 vols. Leipzig: 1846-1857.

MARYLAND

Laws of Maryland at Large [1637-1763]. Thomas Bacon. Annapolis: 1765.

Archives of Maryland. William Hand Browne, editor. 13 vols. Baltimore: 1883-1894.

Maryland as a Proprietary Province. Newton D. Mereness. New York: 1903.

Proceedings of the Conventions of the Province of Maryland, Held at Annapolis in 1774, 1775, 1776. Baltimore: 1836. 378 pp.

Proceedings of the Maryland State Convention, to Frame a New Constitution, Commenced at Annapolis, November 4, 1850. Annapolis: 1850. 895 pp. Vote; List of Delegates. 6 pp. Constitution. 36 pp.

Debates and Proceedings of the Maryland Reform Convention to Revise the State Constitution; to which are Prefixed the Bill of Rights and Constitution as Adopted. Published by order of the convention. 2 vols. Annapolis: 1851. 890 pp.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland. Reported and adopted by the convention of delegates assembled at the city of Annapolis, November 4, 1850, and submitted to and ratified by the people on the first Wednesday in June, 1851; with marginal notes and references to acts of the general assembly and decisions of the court of appeals, and an appendix and index. By Edward Otis Hinkley, esq., of the Baltimore Bar. Baltimore: 1855. 108 pp.

The Debates of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Maryland. Assembled at the city of Annapolis, Wednesday, April 27, 1864. 3 vols. Annapolis: MDCCCLXIV.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland. Reported and adopted by the convention of delegates assembled at the city of Annapolis, April 27, 1864, and submitted to and ratified by the people on the 12th and 13th days of October, 1864; with marginal notes and references to acts of the general assembly and decisions of the court of appeals, and an appendix and index. By Edward Otis Hinkley, esq., of the Baltimore Bar. Annapolis: 1865. 102 pp.

Maryland Historical Society. Fund Publications.

Edition: current; Page: [XXIII]

MASSACHUSETTS

A Collection of Original Papers Relative to the History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. Thomas Hutchinson. Boston: 1769.

The Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay. Nathan Dane, William Prescott, Joseph Story. Boston: 1814.

Debates, Resolutions, and other proceedings of the Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Convened at Boston, on the 9th of January, 1788, and continued until the 7th of February following, for the purpose of assenting to and ratifying the constitution recommended by the grand Federal convention; together with the yeas and nays on the division of the grand question, to which the Federal Constitution is prefixed. Boston: MDCCLXXVIII. 219 pp.

Journal of Debates and Proceedings in the Convention of Delegates Chosen to Revise the Constitution of Massachusetts. Begun and Holden at Boston, November 15, 1820, and Continued by Adjournment to January 9, 1821. Reported for the Boston Daily Advertiser. Boston: 1821. 292 pp.

The Same. New edition, revised and corrected. Boston: 1853. 677 pp.

Journal of the Convention for Framing a Constitution of Government for the State of Massachusetts Bay. From the commencement of their first session, September 1, 1779, to the close of their last session, June 16, 1780; including a list of the members, with an appendix containing (1) The resolve for ascertaining the sense of the people on the subject of a new constitution; (2) The form of government originally reported by the general committee of the convention; (3) The address to the people; (4) the constitution as finally agreed upon by the convention and ratified by the people, with the amendments since adopted; (5) The rejected constitution of 1778. Published by order of the legislature. Boston: 1832. 264 pp.

The Journals of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in 1774 and 1775 and of the Committee of Safety. With an appendix containing the Proceedings of the county conventions; Narratives of the events of the nineteenth of April, 1775; Papers relating to Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and other documents, illustrative of the early history of the American Revolution. Published agreeably to a resolve passed March 10, 1837, under the supervision of William Lincoln. Boston: 1838. 778 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Begun and held in Boston on the fourth day of May, 1853. Printed by order of the Convention. Boston: 1853. 560 pp.

Discussion on the Constitution proposed to the People of Massachusetts by the Convention of 1853. Boston: 1854. 306 pp.

Official Report of the Debates and Proceedings in the State Convention Assembled May 4, 1853, to Revise and Amend the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston: 1853. 3 vols.

Official Report of the Debates and Proceedings in the State Convention Assembled May 4, 1853, to Revise and Amend the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston: 1853. 2 vols. 4°. 644, 724 pp.

Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England. Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, Editor. 5 vols. Boston: 1853-1854.

Debates and Proceedings in the Convention of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Held in the year 1788, and which finally ratified the Constitution of the United States. Printed by authority of resolves of the legislature, 1856. Boston: 1856. 442 pp.

History of Plymouth Plantation. William Bradford. Boston: 1856. [Charles Deane’s edition.]

Massachusets Historical Society. Collections.

MICHIGAN

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention to Form a Constitution for the State of Michigan. Begun and held in the city of Detroit on Monday, the 11th day of May, ad 1835. Printed by order of the convention. Detroit: 1835. 224 pp. Index.

Journal of the Convention (of Michigan), September 26-31, 1836, to Consider the Admission of Michigan into the Union. Pontiac: 1836. 36 pp.

Journal of the Convention (of Michigan), December 14, 15, 1836, to Give Assent Required by Act of Congress, Previous to Admission. Ann Arbor: 1836. 20 pp.

Report of the Proceedings and Debates in the Convention to Revise the Constitution of the State of Michigan, 1850. Lansing: 1850. 937 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XXIV]

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Michigan, 1850. Lansing: 1850. 581 pp. Appendix.

Journal of Convention (of Michigan), June 3-August 15, 1850. Lansing: 1850. 581 pp. (With documents.)

The Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Michigan. Convened at the city of Lansing, Wednesday, May 15, 1867. Lansing: 1867. 2 vols. 4°. 664, 1070 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Michigan, 1867. By authority. Lansing: 1867. 943 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Commission of Michigan. By authority. Lansing: 1873. 243 pp. Appendix.

Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Michigan. Extra session, 1874. Lansing: 1874. 320 pp.

Journal of the Senate of the State of Michigan. Extra session, 1874. Lansing: 1874. 271 pp.

Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan. Reports and “Pioneer collections.

MINNESOTA

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the Territory of Minnesota. Begun and held in the city of Saint Paul, capital of said Territory, on Monday, the thirteenth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven. St. Paul: 1857. 209 pp.

Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention for the Territory of Minnesota, to Form a State Constitution Preparatory to Its Admission into the Union as a State. T. F. Andrews, official reporter to the convention. St. Paul: George W. Moore, Printer, Minnesotian Office, 1858. 596 pp. Appendix.

The Debates and Proceedings of the Minnesota Constitutional Convention; including the Organic Act of the Territory; with the enabling act of Congress, the act of the Territorial legislature relative to the convention, and the vote of the people on the constitution. Reported officially by Francis H. Smith. St. Paul: Earl S. Goodrich, Territorial printer, Pioneer and Democrat Office, 1857. 685 pp.

Minnesota Historical Society. Collections.

MISSISSIPPI

Journal of the (Constitutional) Convention of the Western Part of Mississippi Territory. Held in Washington July 7-August 15, 1817. Port Gibson (reprint): 1831. 108 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Mississippi, September 10 to October 26, 1832. Jackson: 1832. 304 pp.

Journal of the Convention of the State of Mississippi, and the Act Calling the Same; with the Constitution of the United States, and Washington’s Fairwell Address. Published by order of the convention. Jackson: 1851. 79 pp.

Journal of the State Convention and Ordinances and Resolutions Adopted in January, 1861; with an appendix. Published by order of the convention. Jackson, Miss.: 1861. 256 pp.

Journal of the State Convention [Mississippi] and Ordinances and Resolutions Adopted in March, 1861. Published by order of the convention. Jackson: 1861. 104 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings and Debates in the Constitutional Convention of the State of Mississippi. August, 1865. By order of the convention. Jackson, Miss.: 1865. 296 pp. Appendix.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of Mississippi. Begun at the city of Jackson on August 12, 1890, and concluded November 1, 1890. Printed by authority. Jackson: 1890. 757 pp.

MISSOURI

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of Missouri (Territory), St. Louis, June 12-July 19, 1820. St. Louis: 1820. 48 pp.

Journal of Convention of State of Missouri; assembled at the city of Jefferson, on Monday the seventeenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-five, pursuant to an act of the general assembly of the State of Missouri, entitled “An act to provide for the call of a convention,” approved February 27, 1843. Printed by order of the convention. City Edition: current; Page: [XXV] of Jefferson: 1845. 366 pp. Appendix. 64 pp. Index. Appendix. 24, 32 pp. Prepared by the constitution of 1845. 26 pp.

Journal and Proceedings of the Missouri State Convention. Held at Jefferson City and St. Louis, March, 1861. St. Louis: 1861. 269 pp.

Journal of the Missouri State Convention. Held at the city of St. Louis, October, 1861. St. Louis: 1861. 111 pp.

Journal of the Missouri State Convention. Held at Jefferson City, July, 1861. St. Louis: 1861. 136 pp.

Journal [and Proceedings] of the Missouri State Convention. Held in Jefferson City, June, 1862. S. Louis: 1862. 253 pp.

Journal of the Missouri State Convention. Held in Jefferson City, June, 1863. St. Louis: 1863. 380 pp.

Journal of the Missouri State Convention. Held at the city of St. Louis, January 6-April 10, 1865. St. Louis: 1865. 287 pp.

MORAN

The Formation and Development of the Constitution, T. F. Moran, Philadelphia: 1904.

MOREY

The First State Constitutions. By William C. Morey. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science. Publication No. 98.

MOURT

H. M. Dexter’s notes (edition) to Mourt’s Relation. (Plymouth Colony.)

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Records of New Hampshire. 17 vols.

Portsmouth Records [Frank Warren Hackett]. 1645-1656. Portsmouth: 1886.

State Papers, New Hampshire [Hon. A. S. Batchellor, Editor]. Vol. XXIX. [Charters.] Concord: 1896.

Laws of New Hampshire. Vol. I. Province Period, 1679-1702. Manchester, N. H.: 1904.

The History of the Convention for Ratifying the Federal Constitution (in New Hampshire), June 18-21, 1788. J. B. Walker. Boston: 1888. 128 pp.

Proceedings of the Bar Association of the State of New Hampshire, Concord, N. H., 1906. The Constitutional History of New Hampshire, 1775-1792. W. F. Dodd. pp. 379-400.

Proceedings and Debates of the Convention (of New Hampshire), November 6, 1850-January 3, 1851, as reported for the Daily Patriot. Concord: November 7, 1850-January 4, 1851.

Journal of the Convention Which Assembled in Concord to Revise the Constitution of New Hampshire, 1791-1792. Edited by Nathaniel Bouton, D. D. Concord: 1876. 198 pp.

New Hampshire Historical Society. Collections.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of New Hampshire, December, 1876. Concord: 1877. 280 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of New Hampshire, January, 1889. Manchester: 1889. 308 pp.

State of New Hampshire, Convention to Revise the Constitution, December, 1902. Concord, N. H.: 1903. 949 pp.

NEW JERSEY

The Grants, Concessions, and Original Constitutions of the Province of New Jersey (1664-1682). Leaming and Spicer, Philadelphia: 1758.

The Model of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey. George Scot, Edinburgh: 1685.

Archives of the State of New Jersey: Documents relating to the colonial history (1631-1775). 18 vols. Trenton: 1880-1895.

Extracts from the Journal of Proceedings of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey. Held at Trenton in the months of May, June, and August, 1775. Published by order. Burlington, MDCCLXXV, Woodbury, N. J.: 1835. 241 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XXVI]

Journal of the Votes and Proceedings of the Convention of New Jersey. Begun at Burlington the tenth of June, 1776, and thence continued by adjournment at Trenton and New Brunswick, to the twenty-first of August following; to which is annexed sundry ordinances and the constitution. Published by order. Burlington, MDCCLXXVI. Trenton: 1831. 100 pp.

Eumenes; being a collection of papers written for the purpose of exhibiting some of the more prominent Errors and Omissions of the constitution of New Jersey, as established on the second day of July, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, and to prove the necessity of calling a convention for revision and amendment. Trenton: 1799. 149 pp. Postscript. Table of contents.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention to form a Constitution for the Government of the State of New Jersey. Begun at Trenton on the fourteenth day of May, ad 1844, and continued to the twenty-ninth day of June, ad 1844. Trenton: 1844. 293 pp.

New Jersey Historical Society. Proceedings.

NEW PLYMOUTH

Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England, 1620-1692. 12 vols. Boston: 1855-1861.

The Compact with the Charter and Laws of New Plymouth. William Brigham. Boston: 1836.

NEVADA

Official Report of the Debates and Proceedings in the Constitutional Convention of the State of Nevada. Assembled at Carson City, July 4, 1864, to form a constitution and State government. San Francisco: 1866. 943 pp.

NEWSPAPERS (FILES OF)

Newspaper Files (Proceedings and Debates of Constitutional Conventions)—

(Alabama.) The Age Herald. 1901. Montgomery Advertiser, 1901.

(Delaware.) Every Evening. Wilmington, 1896-97. Morning News, Wilmington, 1896-97.

(Idaho.) Daily Statesman, 1889.

(Kentucky.) Louisville Courier-Journal, 1890-91.

(Louisiana.) Daily Picayune, 1898.

(Montana.) Helena Journal, 1889. Helena Independent, 1889. Helena Daily Herald, 1889.

(New Hampshire.) The Manchester Union, 1902. Concord Evening Monitor, 1902.

(North Dakota.) Sioux Falls Daily Press, 1889. Bismarck Daily Tribune, 1889. Sioux City Journal, 1889.

(South Carolina.) News and Courier. Charleston, 1895-96.

(South Dakota.) See North Dakota.

(Utah.) Salt Lake City Tribune, 1895.

(Virginia.) Richmond Times, 1901-2.

(Washington.) Morning Oregonian, Portland, Oreg., 1889.

NEW NETHERLAND

Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland (1638-1674). E. B. O’Callaghan, Albany: 1868.

NEW YORK

The Documentary History of the State of New York. E. B. O’Callaghan, 15 vols. Albany: 1856-1887.

Journals of the Provincial Congress, Provincial Convention, etc., of the State of New York (1775-1777). 2 vols. Albany: 1842.

Journal of the Convention of the State of New York. Begun and held at the city of Albany on the 13th day of October, 1801. Albany: MDCCCI. 42 pp.

Journal of the Convention of the State of New York. Begun and held at the capitol, in the city of Albany, on the twenty-eighth day of August, 1821. Albany: 1821. (Contine and Leake, printers to the convention.) 564 pp. Index.

Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New York. Held at the capitol, in the city of Albany, on the 28th day of August, Edition: current; Page: [XXVII] 1821. By L. H. Clarke. New York: Printed by J. Seymour, 49 John street, Nov., 1821. 367 pp.

Reports of the Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of 1821, assembled for the purpose of amending the Constitution of the State of New York. Albany: 1821. (By Nathaniel H. Carter and William L. Stone, reporters, and Marcus T. C. Gould, stenographer.) 703 pp.

Manual for the Use of the Convention to Revise the Constitution of the State of New York. Convened at Albany, June 1, 1846. Prepared pursuant to order of the convention, by the secretaries, under supervision of a select committee. New York: 1846. 371 pp.

Journal of the Convention of the State of New York. Begun and held at the capitol, in the city of Albany, on the first day of June, 1846. Albany: 1846. 1,648 pp.

Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision of the Constitution of the State of New York, 1846. Reported by William G. Bishop and William H. Attree. Albany: 1846. (Printed at the office of the Evening Star.) 1,143 pp.

Debates and Proceedings in the New York State Convention for the Revision of the Constitution. By S. Croswell and R. Sutton, reporters for the Argus. Printed at the office of the Albany Argus, 1846. 948 pp.

Constitution of the State of New York. Adopted in 1846. With a comparative arrangement of the constitutional provisions of other States, classified by their subjects. Prepared under the direction of a committee of the New York Constitutional Convention of 1867. By Franklin B. Hough. Albany, N. Y.: 1867. 4°. 239 pp.

Documents of the Convention of the State of New York, 1867-68. 5 vols. Albany: 1868.

Journal of the Convention of the State of New York. Begun and held at the capitol, in the city of Albany, on the 4th day of June, 1867. Albany: 1867. 1,547 pp.

Revision Documents of the Constitutional Convention of the State of New York, 1867-1868. Albany N. Y.: 1868. 4°.

Long Island Historical Society. Publications.

New York Historical Society. Collections.

Albany Institute. Transactions.

The Convention Manual for the Sixth New York State Constitutional Convention, 1894. American constitutions, comprising the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution of the United States, and the State constitutions. Prepared in pursuance of chapter 8 of laws of 1893, and chapter 228 of laws of 1894, under the direction of John Palmer, secretary of state; James A. Roberts, comptroller; Theo. E. Hancock, attorney-general, by George A. Glynn, Syracuse, compiler. 2 vols. Albany: 1894.

Development of Constitutional Law in New York, and the Constitutional Convention of 1894. H. W. Hill. Buffalo: 1896.

NORTH CAROLINA

The Colonial Records of North Carolina. (1662-1776.) 10 vols. Raleigh: 1886-1890.

Laws of North Carolina. F. X. Martin. 1715-1790. New Bern: 1804.

North Carolina: A Study in English Colonial Government. C. L. Raper, New York: 1906.

Proceeding and Debates of the Convention held July 21-August 4, 1788, to Ratify the Constitution of the United States. (North Carolina.) Edenton: 1789. 280 pp.

Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of North Carolina called to Amend the Constitution of the State. Raleigh, June 4, 1835. Raleigh: 1836. 424 pp. Index.

History of North Carolina. 2 vols. Francis Lester Hawks. Fayetteville: 1857-58.

Journal of the Convention of North Carolina, May 20, 1861. Raleigh: 1862. 193 pp.

Journal of Second Session, November and December, 1861. Raleigh: 1862. 86 pp.

Journal of Third Session, January and February, 1862. Raleigh: 1862. 119 pp.

Journal of Fourth Session, April and May, 1862. Raleigh: 1862. 109 pp. Index.

Edition: current; Page: [XXVIII]

Journal of the Convention of North Carolina, Session of 1865. Raleigh: 1865. 94 pp. Index.

Journal of the Convention of North Carolina, Adjourned Session, 1866. Raleigh: 1866. 192 pp. Index.

Convention Documents, Session of 1865. Raleigh: 1865. With constitution and ordinances.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of North Carolina, 1868. Raleigh: 1868. 488 pp. Index.

Constitution, Ordinances. Resolutions of Same. Raleigh: 1868. 129 pp. Index.

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention [of North Carolina], January 14-March 17, 1868. Raleigh: 1868. 488 pp.

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention, September 6-October 11, 1875. Raleigh: 1875. 278+20 pp.

NORTH DAKOTA

Journal of the [Constitutional] Convention [of North Dakota], July 4-August 17, 1889, with enabling act of Congress and proceedings of the joint high commission for dividing Territorial property. Bismarck: 1889. 400+16+32+7 pp.

OHIO

Journal of the Convention of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio. Begun and held at Chillicothe, on Monday the first day of November, 1802, and of the Independence of the United States the twenty-seventh. Published by authority. Columbus: (Ohio) 1827. 42 pp.

Reprint of same in Annual Report of the Secretary of State to the Governor of the State of Ohio, 1876. Columbus: 1877. pp. 35-74.

Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention for the Revision of the Constitution of the State of Ohio, 1850-51. J. V. Smith, official reporter to the convention. Columbus: 1851. 2 vols. 751, 897 pp.

Official Report of the Proceedings and Debates of the Third Constitutional Convention of Ohio, Assembled in the City of Columbus, on Tuesday, May 13, 1873. Cleveland: 1873. (Four volumes; 2d vol. in 3 parts.)

Ohio Historical and Archaeological Society. Quarterly.

OREGON

Published by Authority. Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Oregon. Held at Salem, commencing August 17, 1857; together with the Constitution adopted by the people, November 9, 1857. Salem, Oregon: 1882. 130 pp.

OSGOOD

The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. Herbert L. Osgood. New York: 1906.

PENNSYLVANIA

The Charters and Acts of Assembly of the Province of Pennsylvania [1744-1759]. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1762.

Pennsylvania Colonial Records [1683-1790]. 16 vols. Philadelphia: 1852-53.

Pennsylvania Archives [1664-1790]. Samuel Hazard. 12 vols. Philadelphia: 1852-1856. Second Series. 19 vols. Edited by J. B. Linn and W. H. Egle. Harrisburg: 1874-1890.

Charter to William Penn, and Laws of the Province of Pennsylvania. Passed between the years 1682 and 1700. Preceded by Duke of York’s laws in force from the year 1682; with an appendix containing laws relating to the organization of the provincial courts and historical matter. Published under the direction of John Blair Linn, secretary of the Commonwealth. Compiled and edited by Staughton George, Benjamin M. Nead, Thomas McCamant. Harrisburg: 1879. 614 pp.

The Proceedings Relative to Calling the Conventions of 1776 and 1790. The minutes of the convention that formed the present constitution of Pennsylvania, together with the charter to William Penn, the constitutions of 1776 and 1790, Edition: current; Page: [XXIX] and a view of the proceedings of the convention of 1776, and the council of censors. Harrisburg: 1825. 384 pp. Index.

Minutes of the Convention of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which commenced at Philadelphia, on Tuesday, the twenty-fourth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, for the purpose of reviewing, and if they see occasion, altering and amending the constitution of the State. Philadelphia; MDCCLXXXIX. 146 pp. 4°.

Minutes of the Grand Committee of the Whole Convention of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania which commenced at Philadelphia on Tuesday, the twenty-fourth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, for the purpose of reviewing and, if they see occasion, altering and amending the constitution of this State. Philadelphia: Printed by Zachariah Paulson, jun., in Fourth street, between Market street and Arch street. (n. d.) 4°. 101 pp.

Minutes of the Second Session of the Convention of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which commenced at Philadelphia on Monday, the ninth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety. (n. d.) 4°. 147-222 pp.

Pennsylvania and the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788. Edited by John Bach McMaster and Frederick D. Stone. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania: 1888. 803 pp.

Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to Propose Amendments to the Constitution. Commenced and held at Harrisburg on the second day of May, 1837. Reported by John Agg, stenographer to the convention, assisted by Messrs. Kingman, Drake, and M’Kinley. Harrisburg: 1837. 14 vols.

Journal of the Convention of the State of Pennsylvania to Propose Amendments to the Constitution. Commenced and held at the State capitol, in Harrisburg, on the second day of May, 1837. Harrisburg: 1837. 852 pp.

Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention, 1872-1873: Its Members and Officers and the Result of their Labors. By ad Harlan. Philadelphia: 1873. 175 pp.

Debates of the Convention to Amend the Constitution of Pennsylvania. Convened at Harrisburg, November 12, 1872; adjourned November 27, to meet at Philadelphia, January 7, 1873. Harrisburg: 1873. 9 vols. Index.

Journal of the Convention to Amend the Constitution of Pennsylvania. Convened at Harrisburg, November 12, 1872; adjourned November 27, to meet at Philadelphia, January 7, 1873. In two parts. Harrisburg: 1873. 1,424 pp. Index.

The Power of the Constitutional Convention, containing the pleadings, briefs, arguments of counsel, and opinion of the judges of the supreme court of Pennsylvania in the cases of Wells and Others vs. The Election Commissioners. The arguments are published from the stenographic report of R. A. West. Philadelphia: 1873. 206 pp.

An Examination of the Constitution of Pennsylvania, exhibiting the derivation and history of its several provisions, with observations and occasional notes thereon, references to judicial and other opinions upon their construction and application, to statutes for their enforcement, and to parallel provisions in the constitutions of other American States. By Charles R. Buckalew. Philadelphia: 1883. 349 pp.

Report of the Commission to Revise the Constitution of Pennsylvania. Made to the legislature January 29, 1875. Harrisburg: 1875. 23 pp.

Pennsylvania Historical Society. Collections and Publications.

PERRY

Historical Collections relating to the American Colonial Church. William Stevens Perry. 5 vols. Hartford: 1870-1878.

PRESTON

Documents Illustrative of American History. H. W. Preston. New York: 1886.

PRINCE SOCIETY

Prince Society. Publications.

Edition: current; Page: [XXX]

RHODE ISLAND

Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation in New England. 10 vols. Providence: 1856-1865. (To be used with caution.)

Interference of the Executive in the Affairs of Rhode Island. (28th Cong., 1st sess. H. Rept. No. 546. 1,075 pp.)

Journal of the Convention Assembled to Frame a Constitution for the State of Rhode Island, at Newport, Sept. 12, 1842. Printed by order of the house of representatives, at its January session, 1859. Providence: 1859. 69 pp.

Rhode Island Historical Society. Collections, Proceedings, and Publications.

SAINSBURY

Calendar of (British) State Papers. Colonial Series (1574-1676). 9 vols. W. N. Sainsbury. London: 1860-1893.

Scribner’s Statistical Atlas of the United States. New York: 1885.

SEWARD

William H. Seward. Works. Edited by G. E. Baker. 5 vols. New York: 1853-54.

STEVENS

Sources of the Constitution of the United States. Considered in relation to colonial and English history. C. E. Stevens. New York: 1894.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Historical Collections of South Carolina (1492-1776). 2 vols. B. R. Carroll. New York: 1836.

The History of South Carolina. Edward McCrady. New York: 1906.

Documents Connected with the History of South Carolina. C. J. Weston. London: 1856.

South Carolina as a Royal Province. W. R. Smith. New York: 1906.

Journal of the Provincial Congress of South Carolina, 1776. (With the constitution.) Charles-Town (reprint). London: 1776. 134 pp.

Journal of the Convention of the People of South Carolina, held in 1860, 1861, and 1862, together with the ordinances, reports, resolutions, etc. Published by order of the convention. Columbia, S. C.: 1862. 873 pp.

Journal of the Convention of the People of South Carolina, held in Columbia, S. C., September, 1865, together with the ordinances, reports, resolutions, etc. Published by order of the convention. Columbia, S. C.: 1865. 216 pp.

Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina, held at Charleston, S. C., beginning January 14 and ending March 17, 1868, including the debates and proceedings. Reported by J. Woodruff, phonographie reporter. Published by order of the convention. Charleston, S. C.: 1868. 926 pp. Constitution. 46 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of South Carolina. Begun to be holden at Columbia, S. C., on Tuesday, the tenth day of September, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and ninety-five, and continued, with divers adjournments, until Wednesday, the fourth day of December, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and ninety-five, when finally adjourned. Columbia, S. C.: 1895. 741 pp. Index.

South Carolina Historical Society. Collections.

STATUTES AT LARGE

The Statutes at Large of the United States of America. 17 vols. [1789-1873.] Boston: 1850-1873. Vols. 18-34. [1873-1907.] Washington, Government Printing Office: 1873-1907.

STORY

Commentaries on the Constitution. 4 vols. Joseph Story. 4th ed. (T. M. Cooley, editor.)

TENNESSEE

Proceedings of the Legislative Council of the Territory of the United States of America South of the River Ohio. Begun and held at Knoxville the 25th day of August, 1794. Knoxville: 1794; Nashville: 1852. 35 pp.

Edition: current; Page: [XXXI]

Journal of the Proceedings of the House of Representatives of the Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio. Begun and held at Knoxville the 25th day of August, 1794. Knoxville: 1794; Nashville: 1852. 43 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Legislative Council of the Territory of the United States of America South of the River Ohio. Begun and held at Knoxville the 29th day of June, 1795. Knoxville: 1795; Nashville: 1852. 14 pp.

Journal and Proceedings of the House of Representatives of the Territory of the United States of America South of the River Ohio. Begun and held at Knoxville the 29th day of June, 1795. Knoxville: 1795; Nashville: 1852. 19 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of a Convention begun and held at Knoxville January 11, 1796. Knoxville: 1796; Nashville: 1852. 32 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates, Elected by the People of Tennessee to Amend, Revise, or Form and Make a New Constitution for the State. Assembled in the city of Nashville, January 10, 1870. Nashville: 1870. 467 pp.

TEXAS

Convention at San Felipe, 1832. (Pres. S. F. Austin.) Proceedings of the general convention of delegates representing the citizens and inhabitants of Texas. Held at the town of San Felipe, in Austin’s Colony, October 1-6, 1832. 35 pp. 8°. Brazoria: 1832.

The First Political Convention held in Texas. Memorial of, to the General Congress, that Texas be separated from Coahuila and be admitted as a State into the Mexican Confederacy.

Convention of the People of Texas at San Felipe de Austin, April 1, 1833. (Pres. Wm. H. Wharton.) No published account. Sam Houston made his début as a delegate from Nacogdoches. Burnet’s memorial to U. S. Cong. to admit Texas into the Union. Reported by Houston, who was chosen to present it. Mission a failure.

Convention at Washington, 1836. (Pres. Rich’d Ellis.) Journal of the convention held at Washington, on the Brazos, March 1-17, 1836. Pamphlet. 8°. 109 pp. Houston: 1836.

The Constitution of the Republic of Mexico and of the State of Coahuila and Texas. Containing also an abridgment of the laws of the general and State governments relating to colonization, with sundry other laws and documents not before published, particularly relating to Coahuila and Texas. The documents relating to the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company; the grants to Messrs. Wilson and Exeter and to Col. John Dominguez, with a description of the soil, climate, productions, local and commercial advantages of that interesting country. New York: Ludwig & Tolefree, printers. 1832. 113 pp.

Journals of the Convention Assembled at the City of Austin, July 4, 1845, for the Purpose of Forming a Constitution for the State of Texas. 8°. 378 pp.

Debates in Same. 8°. 759 pp. Constitution and ordinances. 32, 1,169 pp. Austin: 1845.

Record of the Journal of the Convention of the People of Texas which Assembled at the City of Austin on the 28th day of January, ad 1861, and which abrogated the Articles of Convention between the State and the Government of the United States of America, and annexed the State of Texas to the Confederate States of America. Recorded by order of the convention, 1861. In MSS., 223 pp., 50 lines to p., 10 words to line; never printed. Appendix, pp. 225-354. (Reports of committee of public safety.) Index, pp. 357-380. O. M. Roberts, pres. Adjourned, March 26, 1861. Secy. state’s office.

Journal of the Texas State Convention. Assembled at Austin Feb. 7, 1866; adjourned April 2, 1866. Austin: 1866. 391 pp.

The Constitution, as Amended, and Ordinances of the Convention of 1866; together with the proclamation of the governor declaring the ratification of the amendments to the constitution and the general laws of the regular session of the eleventh legislature of the State of Texas. By authority. Austin: 1866. 272 pp. Index.

Journal Reconstruction Convention, State of Texas, First Session, June 1 to Aug. 31, 1868. 944 pp. 8°. App. pp. 947-992. Index, pp. 995-1089. Austin: 1870.

The Same, second session. (Dec. 7, 1868, to Feb. 6, 1869.) 529 pp. List of delegates, pp. 533-535. Index, pp. 539-576.

Journal of the Reconstruction Convention which met at Austin, Texas, Dec. 7, ad 1868. Second session. Austin: 1870. 576 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Texas. Begun and held at the city of Austin September 6, 1875. Galveston: 1875. 821 pp. Index.

Edition: current; Page: [XXXII]

Reports of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Texas. J. D. Logan & Co., book and job printers: 1875. 10 pp.

THORPE

A Constitutional History of the American People [1776-1850]. 2 vols. Francis Newton Thorpe. New York: 1898. [Devoted wholly to the constitutional development of the States.]

A Constitutional History of the United States, 1765-1895. 3 vols. Francis Newton Thorpe. Chicago: 1901.

A Short Constitutional History of the United States. Francis N. Thorpe. Boston: 1904. [Treats of state and national constitutions.]

TILDEN

Samuel J. Tilden. Writings and speeches. Edited by John Bigelow. 2 vols. New York: 1885.

TREATIES (AND CONVENTIONS)

Treaties and Conventions Concluded between the United States and other Powers since July 4, 1776. Washington: 1889.

UNITED STATES (CONSTITUTION)

Elliot’s Debates. 5 vols. Philadelphia: 1881.

(The bibliography of the sources is well covered by the notes in the constitutional histories of the United States cited in this list of authorities.)

Studies in the History of the Federal Convention of 1787. John F. Jameson. Report of the American Historical Association, 1902. vol. 1. pp. 89-167.

Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Convention Assembled at Philadelphia in the Year 1787 for the Purpose of Forming the Constitution of the United States of America. From the notes taken by the late Robert Yates, esq., chief justice of New York, and copied by John Lansing, jun., esq., late chancellor of that State, members of that convention. Including the “Genuine information” laid before the legislature of Maryland, by Luther Martin, esq., then attorney-general of that State, and a member of the same convention. Also other historical documents relative to the Federal Compact of the North American Unions. Albany: 1821. 308 pp.

Alexander Hamilton’s Notes on the Federal Convention of 1787. American Historical Review. October, 1904.

Portions of Charles Pinckney’s Plan for a Constitution, 1787. American Historical Review. April, 1903.

Sketch of Pinckney’s Plan for a Constitution, 1787. American Historical Review. July, 1904.

Papers of William Paterson on the Federal Convention. American Historical Review. January, 1904.

Papers of Dr. James McHenry on the Federal Convention of 1787. American Historical Review. April, 1906.

Documentary History of the Constitution of the United States of America, 1787-1790. Derived from the records, manuscripts, and rolls deposited in the Bureau of Rolls and Library of the Department of State. 3 vols. Washington: Department of State, 1894.

Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States. Published during its discussion by the people, 1787-1788. Edited with notes and a bibliography by Paul Leicester Ford. Brooklyn, N. Y.: 1888. 451 pp.

The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. 2 pts. Washington, Government Printing Office: [Compiled by Ben: Perley Poore] 1877.

UTAH

Official Report of the Proceedings and Debates of the Convention Assembled March 4, 1895, to Adopt a Constitution for the State of Utah. 2 vols. Salt Lake City: 1898.

VERMONT

Vermont State Papers; Being a Collection of Records and Documents Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Edition: current; Page: [XXXIII] Vermont; together with the journal of the council of safety, the first constitution, the early journals of the general assembly, and the laws from the year 1779 to 1786, inclusive. To which are added the Proceedings of the first and second councils of censors. Compiled and published by William Slade, jun., Secretary of State. Middlebury: 1823. 567 pp.

Journal of the Council of Censors, at their Sessions in June and October, 1820, and March, 1821. Published by order of council. Danville (Vt.): 1821. 64 pp.

Journal of the Convention of Vermont Assembled at the State House, at Montpelier, on the 21st day of February, and dissolved on the 23d day of February, 1822. Published by order of convention. Burlington: 1822. 39 pp.

Journal of the Council of Censors, at their Sessions at Montpelier and Burlington, in June, October, and November, 1827. Published by order of council. Montpelier, Vt.: 1828. 48 pp.

Journal of the Convention Holden at Montpelier on the 6th day of January, ad 1836, Agreeable to the Ordinance of the Council of Censors, Made on the 16th day of January, 1835; together with the amendments of the constitution, as adopted by the convention, and the whole of the constitution of the State of Vermont as now in force. Published by order of the convention. St. Albans: 1836. 124 pp.

Journal of the Sessions of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont, held at Montpelier in June and October, ad 1841, and at Burlington in February, ad 1842. Burlington: 1842. 75 pp.

Journal of the Convention Holden at Montpelier on the Fourth day of January, ad 1843, agreeable to the Ordinance of the Council of Censors. Published by order of the convention. Montpelier: 1843. 84 pp.

The Journal of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont, at their Several Sessions in Montpelier and Burlington, 1848-49. Published by authority. Burlington: 1849. 87 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention Holden at Montpelier on the second day of January, ad 1850. Published by order of the convention. Burlington: 1850. 114 pp.

The Journal of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont, at their Several Sessions in Montpelier and Middlebury, 1855-56. Published by authority. Middlebury: 1856. 108 pp.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention Assembled at Montpelier on the first Wednesday of January, 1857. Burlington: 1856. 39 pp.

Journal of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont, at its first Session in Montpelier, June, 1862. Published by order of council. Montpelier: 1862. 24 pp.

Journal of the Council of Censors of the State of Vermont, at its several Sessions held in Montpelier, 1869. Published by order of council. Montpelier: 1869.

Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the People of Vermont. Begun and held at the State House in Montpelier on the 8th of June. 1870. Printed by authority. Burlington: 1870. 75 pp. Appendix.

Collections of the Vermont Historical Society. Prepared and published by the printing and publishing committee in pursuance of a vote of the society. 2 vols. Montpelier: 1870.

Vermont Historical Society. Proceedings.

VIRGINIA

The Statutes at Large (1619-1692). 13 vols. W. W. Hening. Philadelphia and New York: 1823.

Colonial Records of Virginia. Th. H. Wynne, W. S. Gilman. Richmond: 1874.

Ordinances Passed at a General Convention of Delegates and Representatives from the Several Counties and Corporations of Virginia. Held at the capitol in the city of Williamsburg on Monday, the 6th of May, anno Dom. 1776. Reprinted by a resolution of the house of delegates, of the 24th February, 1816. Richmond: 1816. 19 pp.

The Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates for the Counties and Corporations in the Colony of Virginia. Held at Richmond Town, in the county of Henrico, on the 20th March, 1775. Reprinted by a resolution of the house of delegates of the 24th February, 1816. Richmond: 1816. 4°. 116 pp.

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The Proceedings of the Convention of Delegates Held at the Capitol, in the City of Williamsburg, in the Colony of Virginia, on Monday, the 6th of May, 1776. Reprinted by a resolution of the house of delegates of the 24th February, 1816. Richmond: 1816. 4°. 86 pp.

Debates and Other Proceedings of the Convention of Virginia. Convened at Richmond on Monday the second day of June, 1878, for the purpose of deliberating on the constitution recommended by the Grand Federal Convention; to which is prefixed the Federal Constitution. 2d ed. Richmond: 1805. 479 pp.

Journal of the Convention of Virginia. Held in the city of Richmond on the first Monday in June in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight. Richmond: 1827. 39 pp.

Journal, Acts and Proceedings of a General Convention of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Assembled in Richmond on Monday, the fifth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine. Richmond: 1829. 302 pp. Reports in appendix.

Proceedings and Debates of the Virginia State Convention of 1829-30. Richmond: 1830. 919 pp.

Journal, Acts and Proceedings of a General Convention of the State of Virginia, Assembled at Richmond on Monday the 14th day of October, 1850. Richmond: 1850. 422 pp. Appendix.

Documents Containing Statistics of Virginia. Ordered to be printed by the State convention, sitting in the city of Richmond, 1850-51. Richmond: 1851.

Journal of the House of Delegates of the State of Virginia for the Extra Session, 1861. Wheeling: 1861. 104 pp.

Journal of the Acts and Proceedings of a General Convention of the State of Virginia, Assembled at Richmond on Wednesday the thirteenth day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one. Richmond: 1861. (With ordinances adopted at various sessions.)

Journal of the Constitutional Convention which convened at Alexandria on the 13th day of February, 1864. Alexandria: 1864. 52 pp. Constitution and Ordnances of the Same. 30 pp.

The Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Virginia, Assembled at the City of Richmond, Tuesday, December 3, 1867. vol. 1. Richmond: 1868. 750 pp.

Journal of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Virginia. Convened in the City of Richmond, December 3, 1867. Richmond: 1867. 391 pp.

Documents of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Virginia. Richmond: 1867. 310 pp.

The History of Virginia Conventions, with the Constitutions of 1867-68 and 1901-2. J. N. Brenaman. Richmond: 1902.

Journal [and Documents] of the Convention at Richmond, June 12, 1901-(June 26, 1902). Richmond: 1901. 574 pp.

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography.

Virginia Historical Register.

Virginia Historical Society. Collections.

WASHINGTON

George Washington. Writings. Edited by Jared Sparks. 12 vols. Boston: 1837.

George Washington. Writings. Edited by W. C. Ford. 14 vols. New York: 1889-1893.

WEBSTER

Daniel Webster. Works. 6 vols. Boston: 1851.

Daniel Webster. Private Correspondence. Edited by Fletcher Webster. 2 vols. Boston: 1857.

WEST VIRGINIA

Journal of the Constitutional Convention, assembled at Charleston, West Virginia, January 16, 1872. Charleston: 1872. 353 pp. Standing committees and rules: Reports, &c.

WILSON

James Wilson. Works. 3 vols. Philadelphia: 1804.

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WINSOR

The Narrative and Critical History of America. Edited by Justin Winsor. 8 vols. Boston: 1886-1889.

WISCONSIN

Journal of the Convention to form a Constitution for the State of Wisconsin. Begun and held at Madison on the fifth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. Madison, W. T.: 1847. 506 pp.

Journal of the Convention to form a Constitution for the State of Wisconsin; with a sketch of the debates, begun and held at Madison, on the fifteenth day of December, eighteen hundred and forty-seven. By authority of the convention. Madison, W. T.: 1848. 678 pp.

State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Collections.

WOODBURY

Levi Woodbury. Writings. 3 vols. Boston: 1852.

WYOMING

Journal and Debates of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Wyoming. Begun at the City of Cheyenne on September 2, 1889, and concluded September 30, 1889. Printed by authority. Cheyenne, Wyo.: 1893. 864 pp. Constitution. Index.

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The Federal and State Constitutions
Colonial Charters, and other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies, Volume I

Organic Laws of the United States of America

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DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE*a

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, Edition: current; Page: [4] That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.—Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, lets Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Edition: current; Page: [5] Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws: giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the Lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

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He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People.

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock.
New Hampshire JOSIAH BARTLETT, MATTHEW THORNTON. WM. WHIPPLE,
Massachusetts Bay SAML. ADAMS, ROBT. TREAT PAINE. JOHN ADAMS, ELBRIDGE GERRY.
Rhode Island STEP. HOPKINS, WILLIAM ELLERY.
Connecticut ROGER SHERMAN, WM. WILLIAMS, SAM’EL HUNTINGTON, OLIVER WOLCOTT.
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New York WM. FLOYD, FRANS. LEWIS, PHIL. LIVINGSTON, LEWIS MORRIS.
New Jersey RICHD. STOCKTON, JOHN HART, JNO. WITHERSPOON, ABRA. CLARK. FRAS. HOPKINSON,
Pennsylvania ROBT. MORRIS, JAS. SMITH, BENJAMIN RUSH, GEO. TAYLOR, BENJA. FRANKLIN, JAMES WILSON, JOHN MORTON, GEO. ROSS. GEO. CLYMER,
Delaware CÆSAR RODNEY, THO. M’KEAN. GEO. READ,
Maryland SAMUEL CHASE, CHARLES CARROLL of Carrollton. WM. PACA, THOS. STONE,
Virginia GEORGE WYTHE, THOS. NELSON, jr., RICHARD HENRY LEE, FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE, TH JEFFERSON, CARTER BRAXTON. BENJA. HARRISON,
North Carolina WM. HOOPER, JOHN PENN. JOSEPH HEWES,
South Carolina EDWARD RUTLEDGE, THOMAS LYNCH, Junr., THOS. HEYWARD, Junr., ARTHUR MIDDLETON.
Georgia BUTTON GWINNETT, GEO. WALTON. LYMAN HALL,

Note.—Mr. Ferdinand Jefferson, Keeper of the Rolls in the Department of State, at Washington, says: “The names of the signers are spelt above as in the fac-simile of the original, but the punctuation of them is not always the same; neither do the names of the States appear in the fac-simile of the original. The names of the signers of each State are grouped together in the fac-simile of the original, except the name of Matthew Thornton, which follows that of Oliver Wolcott.”

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ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION—1777*a

To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.

Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled did on the fifteenth day of November in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventyseven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America agree to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of Newhampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhodeisland and Providence Plantations, Edition: current; Page: [10] Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia in the Words following, viz.

“Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of Newhampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhodeisland and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina and Georgia.

Article I. The stile of this confederacy shall be “The United States of America.”

Article II. Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

Article III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

Article IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall upon demand of the Governor or Executive power, of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offence.

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Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

Article V. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State, to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court, or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

Article VI. No State without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conferrence, agreement, alliance or treaty with any king prince or state; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince or foreign state; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any king, prince or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defence of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State, in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgment of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

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No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay, till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted: nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.

Article VII. When land-forces are raised by any State for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the Legislature of each State respectively by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.

Article VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States, in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.

The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the Legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.

Article IX. The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article—of sending and receiving ambassadors—entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever—of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated—of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace—appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that Edition: current; Page: [13] hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress, stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commisioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the Secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State where the cause shall be tried, “well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection or hope of reward:” provided also that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.

All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdiction as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective States.—fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the Edition: current; Page: [14] United States.—regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated—establishing and regulating post-offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing thro’ the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office—appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers—appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States—making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated “a Committee of the States,” and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction—to appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses—to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted,—to build and equip a navy—to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the Legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a soldier like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled: but if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota therof, such extra number shall be number of men that the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be Edition: current; Page: [15] built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.

The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment requiry secresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be military operations, as in their judgment require secresy; and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the Legislatures of the several States.

Article X. The committe of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.

Article XI. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union: but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.

Article XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.

And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union. Know ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: Edition: current; Page: [16] and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we re[s]pectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of America.a

On the part & behalf of the State of New Hampshire JOSIAH BARTLETT, JOHN WENTWORTH, Junr., August 8th, 1778.
On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay JOHN HANCOCK, FRANCIS DANA, SAMUEL ADAMS, JAMES LOVELL, ELBRIDGE GERRY, SAMUEL HOLTEN.
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations WILLIAM ELLERY, JOHN COLLINS. HENRY MARCHANT,
On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut ROGER SHERMAN, TITUS HOSMER, SAMUEL HUNTINGTON, ANDREW ADAMS. OLIVER WOLCOTT,
On the part and behalf of the State of New York JAS. DUANE, WM. DUER, FRA. LEWIS, GOUV. MORRIS.
On the part and in behalf of the State of New Jersey, Nov. 26, 1778 JNO. WITHERSPOON, NATHL. SCUDDER.
On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania ROBT. MORRIS, WILLIAM CLINGAN, DANIEL ROBERDEAU, JOSEPH REED, 22d July, 1778. JONA. BAYARD SMITH,
On the part & behalf of the State of Delaware THO. M’KEAN, Feby. 12, 1779. NICHOLAS VAN DYKE. JOHN DICKINSON, May 5th, 1779.
On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland JOHN HANSON, March 1, 1781. DANIEL CARROLL, Mar. 1, 1781.
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On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia RICHARD HENRY LEE, JNO. HARVIE, JOHN BANISTER, FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE. THOMAS ADAMS,
On the part and behalf of the State of No. Carolina JOHN PENN, July 21st, 1778. JNO. WILLIAMS. CORNS. HARNETT,
On the part & behalf of the State of South Carolina HENRY LAURENS, RICHD. HUTSON, WILLIAM HENRY DRAYTON, THOS. HEYWARD, Junr. JNO. MATHEWS,
On the part & behalf of the State of Georgia JNO. WALTON, 24th July, 1778. EDWD. TELFAIR, EDWD. LANGWORTHY.
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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA—1787a

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of Free persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

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The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4. The Times, Places and manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of Edition: current; Page: [21] either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8. The Congress shall have Power to lay and collect Taxes. Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

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To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Edition: current; Page: [23] Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II

Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Edition: current; Page: [24] Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse, by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List, the said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Edition: current; Page: [25] Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next session.

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4. The President, Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;—between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving Edition: current; Page: [26] them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.

Article IV

Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year Edition: current; Page: [27] One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article VII

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word, “the”, being interlined between the Seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, The Word “Thirty” being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words “is tried” being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word “the” being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

[Note by Printer.—The interlined and rewritten words, mentioned in the above explanation, are in this edition, printed in their proper places in the text.]

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Go: WashingtonPresidt. and deputy from Virginia
Attest William Jackson Secretary
New Hampshire { JOHN LANGDON } { NICHOLAS GILMAN } Massachusetts { NATHANIEL GORHAM { RUFUS KING Connecticut { WM: SAML. JOHNSON { ROGER SHERMAN New York ALEXANDER HAMILTON New Jersey { WIL: LIVINGSTON { DAVID BREARLEY. { WM. PATERSON. { JONA: DAYTON Pennsylvania { B FRANKLIN { THOMAS MIFFLIN { ROBT. MORRIS { GEO. CLYMER { THOS. FITZ SIMONS { JARED INGERSOLL { JAMES WILSON { GOUV MORRIS Delaware { GEO: READ { GUNNING BEDFORD jun { JOHN DICKINSON { RICHARD BASSETT { JACO: BROOM Maryland { JAMES MCHENRY { DAN OF ST THOS. JENIFER { DANL CARROLL Virginia { JOHN BLAIR { JAMES MADISON Jr. North Carolina { WM: BLOUNT { RICHD. DOBBS SPAIGHT. { HU WILLIAMSON South Carolina { J. RUTLEDGE, { CHARLES PINCKNEY, { CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, { PIERCE BUTLER. Georgia { WILLIAM FEW, { ABR. BALDWIN.
Attest: William Jackson, Secretary.
Edition: current; Page: [29]

AMENDMENTS

ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Proposed by Congress, and Ratified by the Legislatures of the Several States Pursuant to the Fifth Article of the Original Constitution

[Article I]

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

[Article II]

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

[Article III]

No Soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

[Article IV]

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

[Article V]

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

[Article VI]

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district Edition: current; Page: [30] wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

[Article VII]

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

[Article VIII]

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

[Article IX]

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

[Article X]

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

[Article XI]

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

[Article XII]

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be Edition: current; Page: [31] taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

[Article XIII*]

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

[Article XIV†]

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or Edition: current; Page: [32] rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.*

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION*

The Constitution was adopted by a Convention of the States September 17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the several States, in the following order, viz.:

  • Delaware, December 7, 1787.
  • Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787.
  • New Jersey, December 18, 1787.
  • Georgia, January 2, 1788.
  • Connecticut, January 9, 1788.
  • Massachusetts, February 6, 1788.
  • Maryland, April 28, 1788.
  • South Carolina, May 23, 1788.
  • New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.
  • Virginia, June 26, 1788.
  • New York, July 26, 1788.
  • North Carolina, November 21, 1789.
  • Rhode Island, May 29, 1790.

The State of Vermont, by convention, ratified the Constitution on the 10th of January, 1791, and was, by an act of Congress of the 18th of February, 1791, “received and admitted into this Union as a new and entire member of the United States of America.”

RATIFICATIONS OF THE AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

The first ten articles of amendment (with two others which were not ratified by the requisite number of States) were submitted to the several State Legislatures by a resolution of Congress which passed on the 25th of September, 1789, at the first session of the First Congress, and were ratified by the Legislatures of the following States:

  • New Jersey, November 20, 1789.
  • Maryland, December 19, 1789.
  • North Carolina, December 22, 1789.
  • South Carolina, January 19, 1790.
  • New Hampshire, January 25, 1790.
  • Delaware, January 28, 1790.
  • Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790.
  • New York, March 27, 1790.
  • Rhode Island, June 15, 1790. Edition: current; Page: [33]
  • Vermont, November 3, 1791.
  • Virginia, December 15, 1791.

The acts of the Legislatures of the States ratifying these amendments were transmitted by the governors to the President, and by him communicated to Congress. The Legislatures of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Georgia, do not appear by the record to have ratified them.

The eleventh article was submitted to the Legislatures of the several States by a resolution of Congress passed on the 5th of March, 1794, at the first session of the Third Congress; and on the 8th of January, 1798, at the second session of the Fifth Congress, it was declared by the President, in a message to the two Houses of Congress, to have been adopted by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the States, there being at that time sixteen States in the Union.

The twelfth article was submitted to the Legislatures of the several States, there being then seventeen States, by a resolution of Congress passed on the 12th of December, 1803, at the first session of the Eighth Congress; and was ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the States, in 1804, according to a proclamation of the Secretary of State dated the 25th of September, 1804.

The thirteenth article was submitted to the Legislatures of the several States, there being then thirty-six States, by a resolution of Congress passed on the 1st of February, 1865, at the second session of the Thirty-eighth Congress, and was ratified, according to a proclamation of the Secretary of State dated December 18, 1865, by the Legislatures of the following States:

  • Illinois, February 1, 1865.
  • Rhode Island, February 2, 1865.
  • Michigan, February 2, 1865.
  • Maryland, February 3, 1865.
  • New York, February 3, 1865.
  • West Virginia, February 3, 1865.
  • Maine, February 7, 1865.
  • Kansas, February 7, 1865.
  • Massachusetts, February 8, 1865.
  • Pennsylvania, February 8, 1865.
  • Virginia, February 9, 1865.
  • Ohio, February 10, 1865.
  • Missouri, February 10, 1865.
  • Indiana, February 16, 1865.
  • Nevada, February 16, 1865.
  • Louisiana, February 17, 1865.
  • Minnesota, February 23, 1865.
  • Wisconsin, March, 1, 1865.
  • Vermont, March 9, 1865.
  • Tennessee, April 7, 1865.
  • Arkansas, April 20, 1865.
  • Connecticut, May 5, 1865.
  • New Hampshire, July 1, 1865.
  • South Carolina, November 13, 1865.
  • Alabama, December 2, 1865.
  • North Carolina, December 4, 1865.
  • Georgia, December 9, 1865.
Edition: current; Page: [34]

The following States not enumerated in the proclamation of the Secretary of State also ratified this amendment:

  • Oregon, December 11, 1865.
  • California, December 20, 1865.
  • Florida, December 28, 1865.
  • New Jersey, January 23, 1866.
  • Iowa, January 24, 1866.
  • Texas, February 18, 1870.

Mississippi rejected the amendment December 4, 1865; Kentucky, February 22, 1865; Delaware, February 7, 1867; Maryland, March 23, 1867.

The fourteenth article was submitted to the Legislatures of the several States, there being then thirty-seven States, by a resolution of Congress passed on the 16th of June, 1866, at the first session of the Thirty-ninth Congress; and was ratified, according to proclamation of the Secretary of State dated July 28, 1868, by the Legislatures of the following States:

  • Connecticut, June 30, 1866.
  • New Hampshire, July 7, 1866.
  • Tennessee, July 19, 1866.
  • New Jersey, September 11, 1866.a
  • Oregon, September 19, 1866.b
  • Vermont, November 9, 1866.
  • New York, January 10, 1867.
  • Ohio, January 11, 1867.c
  • Illinois, January 15, 1867.
  • West Virginia, January 16, 1867.
  • Kansas, January 18, 1867.
  • Maine, January 19, 1867.
  • Nevada, January 22, 1867.
  • Missouri, January 26, 1867.
  • Indiana, January 29, 1867.
  • Minnesota, February 1, 1867.
  • Rhode Island, February 7, 1867.
  • Wisconsin, February 13, 1867.
  • Pennsylvania, February 13, 1867.
  • Michigan, February 15, 1867.
  • Massachusetts, March 20, 1867.
  • Nebraska, June 15, 1867.
  • Iowa, April 3, 1868.
  • Arkansas, April 6, 1868.
  • Florida, June 9, 1868.
  • North Carolina, July 4, 1868.
  • Louisiana, July 9, 1868.
  • South Carolina, July 9, 1868.
  • Alabama, July 13, 1868.
  • Georgia, July 21, 1868.
Edition: current; Page: [35]

The State of Virginiaa ratified this amendment on the 8th of October, 1869; Mississippi, January 17, 1870; Texas, February 18, 1870, subsequent to the date of the proclamation of the Secretary of State.

The States of Delaware, Maryland, and Kentucky rejected the amendment.

The fifteenth article was submitted to the Legislatures of the several States, there being then thirty-seven States, by a resolution of Congress passed on the 27th of February, 1869, at the first session of the Forty-first Congress; and was ratified, according to a proclamation of the Secretary of State dated March 30, 1870, by the Legislatures of the following States:

  • Nevada, March 1, 1869.
  • West Virginia, March 3, 1869.
  • North Carolina, March 5, 1869.
  • Louisiana, March 5, 1869.
  • Illinois, March 5, 1869.
  • Michigan, March 8, 1869.
  • Wisconsin, March 9, 1869.
  • Massachusetts, March 12, 1869.
  • Maine, March 12, 1869.
  • South Carolina, March 16, 1869.
  • Pennsylvania, March 26, 1869.
  • Arkansas, March 30, 1869.
  • New York, April 14, 1869.b
  • Indiana, May 14, 1869.
  • Connecticut, May 19, 1869.
  • Florida, June 15, 1869.
  • New Hampshire, July 7, 1869.
  • Virginia, October 8, 1869.
  • Vermont, October 21, 1869.
  • Alabama, November 24, 1869.
  • Missouri, January 10, 1870.
  • Mississippi, January 17, 1870.
  • Rhode Island, January 18, 1870.
  • Kansas, January 19, 1870.
  • Ohio, January 27, 1870.c
  • Georgia, February 2, 1870.
  • Iowa, February 3, 1870.
  • Nebraska, February 17, 1870.
  • Texas, February 18, 1870.
  • Minnesota, February 19, 1870.

The State of New Jersey ratified this amendment on the 21st of February, 1871, subsequent to the date of the proclamation of the Secretary of State.

The States of California, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Tennessee rejected this amendment.

Edition: current; Page: [36] Edition: current; Page: [37]

Commissions, Charters and Plans of Union
1492-1754

Edition: current; Page: [38] Edition: current; Page: [39]

PRIVILEGES AND PREROGATIVES GRANTED BY THEIR CATHOLIC MAJESTIES TO CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS—1492*

Ferdinand and Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, of Leon, of Arragon, of Sicily, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Majorca, of Minorca, of Sevil, of Sardinia, of Jaen, of Algarve, of Algezira, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands, Count and Countess of Barcelona, Lord and Lady of Biscay and Molina, Duke and Duchess of Athens and Neopatria, Count and Countess of Rousillion and Cerdaigne, Marquess and Marchioness of Oristan and Gociano, &c.

For as much of you, Christopher Columbus, are going by our command, with some of our vessels and men, to discover and subdue some Islands and Continent in the ocean, and it is hoped that by God’s assistance, some of the said Islands and Continent in the ocean will be discovered and conquered by your means and conduct, therefore it is but just and reasonable, that since you expose yourself to such danger to serve us, you should be rewarded for it. And we being willing to honour and favour you for the reasons aforesaid; Our will is, That you, Christopher Columbus, after discovering and conquering the said Islands and Continent in the said ocean, or any of them, shall be our Admiral of the said Islands and Continent you shall so discover and conquer; and that you be our Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour in them, and that for the future, you may call and stile yourself, D. Christopher Columbus, and that your sons and successors in the said employment, may call themselves Dons, Admirals, Vice-Roys, and Governours of them; and that you may exercise the office of Admiral, with the charge of Vice-Roy and Governour of the said Islands and Continent, which you and your Lieutenants shall conquer, and freely decide all causes, civil and criminal, appertaining to the said employment of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour, as you shall think fit in justice, and as the Admirals of our kingdoms use to do; and that you have power to punish offenders; and you and your Lieutenants exercise the employments of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour, in all things belonging to the said offices, or any of them; and that you enjoy the perquisites and salaries belonging to the said employments, and to each of them, in the same manner as the High Admiral of our kingdoms does. And by this our letter, or a copy of it signed by a Public Notary: We command Prince John, our most dearly beloved Son, the Infants, Dukes, Prelates, Marquesses, Great Masters and Military Orders, Priors, Commendaries, our Counsellors, Judges, and other Officers of Edition: current; Page: [40] Justice whatsoever, belonging to our Household, Courts, and Chancery, and Constables of Castles, Strong Houses, and others; and all Corporations, Bayliffs, Governours, Judges, Commanders, Sea Officers; and the Aldermen, Common Council, Officers, and Good People of all Cities, Lands, and Places in our Kingdoms and Dominions, and in those you shall conquer and subdue, and the captains, masters, mates, and other officers and sailors, our natural subjects now being, or that shall be for the time to come, and any of them, that when you shall have discovered the said Islands and Continent in the ocean; and you, or any that shall have your commission, shall have taken the usual oath in such cases, that they for the future, look upon you as long as you live, and after you, your son and heir, and so from one heir to another forever, as our Admiral on our said Ocean, and as Vice-Roy and Governour of the said Islands and Continent, by you, Christopher Columbus, discovered and conquered; and that they treat you and your Lieutenants, by you appointed, for executing the employments of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and Governour, as such in all respects, and give you all the perquisites and other things belonging and appertaining to the said offices; and allow, and cause to be allowed you, all the honours, graces, concessions, prehaminences, prerogatives, immunities, and other things, or any of them which are due to you, by virtue of your commands of Admiral, Vice-roy, and Governour, and to be observed completely, so that nothing be diminished; and that they make no objection to this, or any part of it, nor suffer it to be made; forasmuch as we from this time forward, by this our letter, bestow on you the employments of Admiral, Vice-Roy, and perpetual Governour forever; and we put you into possession of the said offices, and of every of them, and full power to use and exercise them, and to receive the perquisites and salaries belonging to them, or any of them, as was said above. Concerning all which things, if it be requisite, and you shall desire it, We command our Chancellour, Notaries, and other Officers, to pass, seal, and deliver to you, our Letter of Privilege, in such form and legal manner, as you shall require or stand in need of. And that none of them presume to do any thing to the contrary, upon pain of our displeasure, and forfeiture of 30 ducats for each offence. And we command him, who shall show them this our Letter, that he summon them to appear before us at our Court, where we shall then be, within fifteen days after such summons, under the said penalty. Under which same, we also command any Public Notary whatsoever, that he give to him that shows it him, a certificate under his seal, that we may know how our command is obeyed.

Given at Granada, on the 30th of April, in the year of our Lord, 1492.—

I, The King, I, The Queen.

By their Majesties Command,
John Coloma,
Secretary to the King and Queen.

Entered according to order.

Roderick. Doctor.
Sebastian Dolona,
Francis de Madrid,
Councellors.

Registered

Edition: current; Page: [41]

BULL OF POPE ALEXANDER CONCEDING AMERICA TO SPAIN—1493*

Exemplar Bulle seu Donationis Authoritate cujus, Epsicopus Romanus Alexander, ejus nominis Sextus, concessit et donavit Castelle Regibus et suis successoribus, Regiones et Insulas Novi Orbis in Oceano occidentali Hispanorum navigationibus repertas.

Alexander Episcopus, Servus Servorum Dei, Charissimo in Christo Filio, Ferdinando Regi, et Charissimæ in Christo Filiæ Elizabeth Reginæ Castellæ, Legionis, Arragonum, Siciliæ, et Granatæ, Illustribus, Salutem et Apostolicam Benedictionem.

Inter cætera Divinæ Majestati bene placita opera et cordis nostri desiderabilia, illud profecto potissimum existit, ut Fides Catholica et Christiana Religio nostris præsertim temporibus exaltetur, ac ubilibet amplietur ac dilatetur, animarumque salus procuretur, ac barbaræ nationes deprimantur et ad Fidem ipsam reducantur. Unde cum ad hanc Sacram Petri Sedem Divina favente clementia (meritis licet imparibus) evocati fuerimus, cognoscentes vos tanquam vere Catholicos Reges et Principes: Quales semper fuisse novimus, et a vobis præclare gesta, toti pæne orbi notissima demonstrant, nedum id exoptare, sed omni conatu, studio, & diligentia, nullis laboribus, nullis impensis, nullisque parcendo periculis, etiam proprium sanguinem effundendo efficere, ac omnem animum vestrum, omnesque conatus ad hoc jamdudum dedicasse, quem admodum recuperatio Regni Granatæ a Tyrannide Saracenorum hodiernis temporibus per vos, cum tanta Divini nominis gloria facta, testatur. Digne ducimur non immerito, et debemus illa vobis etiam sponte, ac favorabiliter concedere, per quæ hujusmodi sanctum ac laudabile ab immortali Deo acceptum propositum, indies ferventiori animo ad ipsus Dei honorem et Imperii Christiani propagationém, prosequi valeatis. Sane accepimus quod vos qui dudum animum proposueratis aliquas Insulas et Terras firmas remotas et incognitas, ac per alios hactenus non repertas, quærere et invenire, ut illarum incolas et habitatores ad colendum redemptorem nostrum et fidem Catholicam profitendum reduceritis, hactenus in expugnatione et recuperatione ipsius, Regni Granatæ plurimum occupati, hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile propositum vestrum ad optatum finem perducere nequivistis. Sed tandem sicut Domino placuit, Regno prædicto recuperato, volentes desiderium vestrum adimplere, dilectum filium Christophorum Colonum, virum utique dignum, et plurimum commendatum, ac tanto negotio aptum, cum navigiis et hominibus ad similia instructis, non sine maximis laboribus, ac periculis, et expensis destinastis ut Terras Edition: current; Page: [42] firmas et Insulas remotas et incognitas, hujusmodi per mare ubi hactenus navigatum non fuerat, diligenter inquireret. Qui tandem (Divino auxilio facta extrema diligentia in mari oceano navigantes) certas Insulas remotissimas, et etiam Terras firmas, quæ per alios hactenus repertæ non fuerant, invenerunt. In quibus plurimæ gentes pacifice viventes, et (ut asseritur) nudi incedentes, nec carnibus vescentes, inhabitant. Et ut præfati nuntii vestri possunt opinari, gentes ipsæ in insulis, et terris prædictis habitantes, credunt unum Deum Creatorem in Cœlis esse, ac ad fidem Catholicam amplexandum et bonis moribus imbuendum, satis apti videntur: Spesque habetur, quod si erudirentur, nomen salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christi in terris et insulis prædictis facile induceretur. Ac præfatus Christophorus in una ex principalibus insulis prædictis, jam unam turrim satis munitam, in qua certos Christianos qui secum iverant, in custodiam, et ut alias insulas ac terras firmas remotas et incognitas inquirerent, posuit, construi et ædificari fecit. In quibus quidem insulis, et terris jam repertis, aurum, aromata, et aliæ quamplurimæ res prætiosæ diversi generis et diversæ qualitatis reperiuntur. Unde omnibus diligenter, et præsertim fidei Catholicæ exaltatione et dilatatione (prout decet Catholicos Reges et Principes) consideratis, more progenitorum vestrorum claræ memoriæ Regum, terras firmas et insulas prædictas, illarumque incolas et habitatores, vobis Divina favente clementia subjicere, et ad fidem Catholicam reducere proposuistis. Nos itaque hujusmodi vestrum sanctum et laudabile propositum plurimum in Domino commendantes, ac cupientes ut illud ad debitum finem perducatur, et ipsum nomen salvatoris nostri in partibus illis inducatur, hortamur vos quamplurimum in Domino, et per sacri lavacri susceptionem, qua mandatis apostolicis obligati estis, et per viscera misericordiæ Domini nostri Jesu Christi attente requirimus, ut cum expeditionem hujusmodi omino prosequi et assumere prona mente orthodoxæ fidei zelo intendatis, populos in hujusmodi insulis et terris degentes, ad Christianam religionem suscipiendum inducere velitis et debeatis, nec pericula nec labores ullo unquam tempore vos deterreant, firma spe fiduciaque conceptis, quod Deus omnipotens conatus vestros fœliciter prosequetur. Et ut tanti negotii provinciam apostolicæ gratiæ largitate donati, liberius et audacius assumatis, motu proprio non ad vestram vel alterius pro vobis super hoc nobis oblatæ petitionis instantiam sed de nostra mera liberalitate, et ex certa scientia, ac de apostolicæ potestatis plenitudine, omnes insulas et terras firmas inventas et inveniendas, detectas et detegendas versus occidentem et meridiem, fabricando et construendo unam lineam a polo arctico, scilicet septentrione, ed polum antarcticum, scilicet meridiem, sive terræ firmæ et insulæ inventæ, et inveniendæ, sint versus Indiam, aut versus aliam quamcunque partem, quæ linea distet a qualibet insularum, quæ vulgariter nuncupantur de los Azores, et Cabo Verde, centum leucis versus occidentem et meridiem. Itaque omnes insulæ et terræ firmæ repertæ et reperiendæ, detectæ et detegendæ, a præfata linea versus occidentem et meridiem, quæ per alium Regem aut Principem Christianum non fuerint actualiter possessæ usque ad diem nativitatis Domini nostri Jesu Christi proxime præteritum, a quo incipit annus præsens millesimus quadringentesimus nonagesimus tertius, quando fuerunt per nuncios et capitaneos vestros inventæ aliquæ prædictarum insularum autoritate omnipotentis Dei Edition: current; Page: [43] nobis in beato Petro concessa, ac Vicariatus Jesu Christi qua fungimur in terris, cum omnibus illarum Dominiis, Civitatibus, Castris, Locis, et Villis, juribusque et jurisdictionibus ac pertinentiis universis vobis, hæredibusque, et successoribus vestris (Castellæ et Legionis Regibus) in perpetuum tenore præsentium donamus, concedimus et assignamus: Vosque, et hæredes ac successores præfatos illarum Dominos, cum plena, libera et omnimoda potestate, autoritate et jurisdictione, facimus, constituimus, et deputamus. Decernentes nihilo minus per hujusmodi donationem, concessionem, et assignationem nostram, nullo Christiano Principi, qui actualiter præfatas insulas et terras firmas possederit usque ad prædictum diem nativitatis Domini nostri Jesu Christi jus quæsitum, sublatum intelligi posse, aut auferri debere.

Et insuper mandamus vobis in virtute sanctæ obedientiæ (ut sicut pollicemini, et non dubitamus pro vestra maxima devotione et regia magnanimitate vos esse facturos) ad terras firmas et insulas prædictas, viros probos et Deum timentes, doctos, peritos, et expertos ad instruendum incolas et habitatores praefatos in fide Catholica, et bonis moribus imbuendum, destinare debeatis, omnem debitam diligentiam in præmissis adhibentes. Ac quibuscunque personis, cujuscunque dignitatis, etiam Imperalis et Regalis status, gradus, ordinis vel conditionis, sub excommunicationis latae sententiæ pœna quam eo ipso, si contra fecerint incurrant, districtus inhibemus ne ad insulas et terras firmas inventas et inveniendas, detectas et detegendas, versus occidentem et meridiem, fabricando et construendo lineam a polo artico ad polum antarcticum, sive terræ firmae et insulæ inventæ et inveniendæ sint versus Indiam aut versus aliam quamcunque partem, quæ linea distet a qualibet insularum, quæ, vulgariter nuncupantur de los Azores et Cabo Verde centum leucis versus occidentem et meridiem ut præfertur pro mercibus habendis, vel quavis alia causa accedere præsumat, absque vestra ac hæredum et successorum vestrorum prædictorum licentia speciali: Non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, cæterisque quibuscunque, in illo in quo imperia et dominationes et bona cuncta procedunt: confidentes quod dirigente Domino actus vestros, si hujusmodi sanctum ac laudabile propositum prosequamini, brevi tempore cum felicitate et gloria totius populi Christiani, vestri labores et conatus exitum felicissimum consequenter. Verum quia difficile foret præsentes literas ad singula quæque loca in quibus expediens fuerit deferri, volumus ac motu et scientia similibus decernimus, quod illarum transumptis manu publici notraii inde rogati subscriptis, et sigillo alicujus personæ in ecclesiastica dignitate constituæt, seu curiæ ecclesiasticæ munitis, ea prorsus fides in judicio et extra, ac alias ubilibet adhibeatur, quæ præsentibus adhiberetur si essent adhibitæ vel ostensæ.

Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc Paginam nostræ commendationis, hortationis, requisitionis, donationis, concessionis, assignationis, constitutionis, deputationis, decreti, mandati, inhibitionis, et voluntatis, infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Se quis autem hoc attentare præsumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei, ac beatorum Petri et Pauli Apostolorum ejus, se noverit incursurum.

Datum Romæ, apud Sanctum Petrum, anno incarnationis Dominicæ 1493, quarto nonas Maii, Pontificatus nostri anno primo.

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King Henry VII
Henry, King VII
1496, March 5,
John Cabot
Cabot, John

LETTERS PATENT TO JOHN CABOT

Pro Johanne Caboto & Filiis suis super Terra Incognita Investiganda

Rex omnibus, ad quos &c. Salutem.

Notum sit et manifestum quòd Dedimus & Concessimus, ac per Præsentes Damus & Concedimus, pro Nobis & Hæredibus nostris, Dilectis Nobis Johanni Cabotto Civi Venetiarum, ac Lodovico, Sebastiano, & Sancto, Filiis dicti Johannis, & eorum ac cujuslibet eorum Hæredibus & Deputatis, plenam ac liberam Auctoritatem, Facultatem & Protestatem Navigandi ad omnes Partes, Regiones, & Sinus Maris Orientalis Occidentalis, & Septentrionalis, sub Banneris Vexillis & Insigniis nostris, cum Quinque Navibus sive Navigiis, cujuscumque Portituræ & Qualitatis existant, & cum tot & tantis Nautis & Hominibus, quot & quantis in dictis Navibus secum ducre voluerint, suis & eorum propriis Sumptibus & Expensis.

Ad inveniendum, Discooperiendum & Investigandum quascumque Insulas, Patrias, Regiones sive Provincias Gentilium & Infidelium, in quacumque Parte Mundi prositas, quæ Christianis omnibus ante hæc tempora fuerunt incognitæ.

Concessimus etiam eisdem & eorum cuilibet, eorumque & cujuslibet eorum Hæredibus & Deputatis, ac Licentiam dedimus Affigendi prædictas Banneras nostras & Insignia in quacumque Villa, Oppido, Castro, Insula seu Terra firma a se noviter inventis.

Et quòd prænominati Johannes & Filii ejusdem, seu Hæredes & eorum Deputati quibuscumque hujusmodi Villas, Castra, Oppida & Insular a se inventas, quæ Subjugari, Occupari & Possideri possint, Subjugare, Occupare & Possidere valeant, tanquam Vasalli nostri & Gubernatores, Locatenentes & Deputati eorumdem, Dominium Titulum & Jurisdictionem eorumdem Vallarum, Castrorum, Oppidorum, Insularum, ac Terræ firmæ sic inventarum, Nobis acquirendo;

Ita tamen ut ex omnibus Fructubus, Proficuis, Emolumentis Commodis, Lucris & Obventionibus, ex hujusmodi Navigatione provenientibus, præfati Johannes & Filii, ac Hæredes & eorum Deputati teneantur & sint obligati Nobis, pro omno Viagio suo, totiens quotiens ad Portum nostrum Bristolliæ applicuerint, ad quem omninò applicare teneantur & sint astricti, deductis omnibus Sumptibus & Impensis necessariis per eosdem factis, Quintam Partem totius Capitalis Lucri sui facti sive in Mercibus sive in Pecuniis persolvere;

Dantes Nos & Concendentes eisdem suisque Hæredibus & Deputatis ut ab omni Solutione Custumarum omnium & singulorum Bonorum ac Mercium, quas secum report arint ab illis Locis sic noviter inventis, Liberi sint & Immunes.

Et insuper Dedimus & Concessimus Eisdem ac suis Hæredibus & Deputatis, quòd Terræ omnes Firmæ, Insulæ, Villæ, Oppida, Castra, & Loca quæcumque, a se inventa, quotquot ab eis inveniri Edition: current; Page: [46] contigerit non possint ab aliis quibusvis nostris Subditis frequentari seu visitari, absque Licentia prædictorum Johannis & ejus Filiorum, suorumque Deputatorum, sub Pœna Amissionis tàm Navium sive Navigiorum quàm Bonorum omnium quorumcumque ad ea Loca sic inventa Navigare præsumentium;

Volentes & strictissimè Mandantes omnibus & singulis nostris Subditis, tàm in Terra quàm in Mare constitutis, ut præfacto Johanni & ejus Filiis ac Deputatis bonam Assistentiam faciant, & tàm in Armandis Navibus seu Navigiis quàm in Provisione Commeatûs & Victualium pro sua Pecunia emendorum, atque aliarum Rerum sibi providendarum, pro dictâ Navigatione sumendarum, suos omnes Favores & Auxilia impartiantur.

In cujus &c.

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, quinto die Martii.

Per ipsum Regem.

Rymer’s Fœdera, Vol. XII., pp. 595, 596.

Also, H. Harisen, John Cabot the Discoverer of North America, p. 313.

King Henry
Henry, King
Iohn Cabot
Cabot, Iohn

The Letters patents of King Henry the seuenth granted vnto Iohn Cabot and his three sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancius for the the discouerie of new and vnknowen lands.*

HEnry, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting.

Be it knowen that we haue giuen and granted, and by these presents do giue and grant for vs and our heires, to our welbeloued Iohn Cabot citizen of Venice, to Lewis, Sebastian, and Santius, sonnes of the sayd Iohn, and to the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, full and free authority, leaue, and power to saile to all parts, countreys, and seas of the East, of the West, and of the North, vnder our banners and ensignes, with fiue ships of what burthen or quantity soeuer they be, and as many mariners or men as they will haue with them in the sayd ships, vpon their owne proper costs and charges, to seeke out, discouer, and finde whatsoeuer isles, countreys, regions or prouinces of the heathen and infidels whatsoeuer they be, and in what part of the world soeuer they be, which before this time haue bene vnknowen to all Christians: we haue granted to them, and also to euery of them, the heires of them, and euery of them, and their deputies, and haue giuen them licence to set vp our banners and ensignes in euery village, towne, castle, isle, or maine land of them newly found. And that the aforesayd Iohn and his sonnes, or their heires and assignes may subdue, occupy and possesse all such townes, cities, castles and isles of them found, which they can subdue, occupy and possesse, as our vassals, and lieutenants, getting vnto vs the rule, title, and iurisdiction of the same villages, townes, castles, & firme land so found. Yet so that the aforesayd Iohn, and his sonnes and heires, and their deputies, be holden and bounden of all the fruits, profits, gaines, and commodities growing of such nauigation, for euery their voyage, as often as they shall arriue at our port of Bristoll (at the which port they shall be bound Edition: current; Page: [47] and holden onely to arriue) all maner of necessary costs and charges by them made, being deducted, to pay vnto vs in wares or money the fift part of the capitall gaine so gotten. We giuing and granting vnto them and to their heires and deputies, that they shall be free from all paying of customes of all and singular such merchandize as they shall be free from all paying of customes of all and singular they shall bring with them from those places so newlie found.

And moreouer, we haue giuen and granted to them, their heires and deputies, that all the firme lands, isles, villages, townes, castles and places whatsoeuer they be that they shall chance to finde, may not of any other of our subjects be frequented or visited without the licence of the foresayd Iohn and his sonnes, and their deputies, vnder payne of forfeiture as well of their ships as of all and singular goods of all them that shall presume to saile to those places so found. Willing, and most straightly commanding all and singular our subjects as well on land as on sea, appointed officers, to giue good assistance to the aforesaid Iohn, and his sonnes and deputies, and that as well in arming and furnishing their ships or vessels, as in prouision of quietnesse, and in buying of victuals for their money, and all other things by them to be prouided necessary for the sayd nauigation, they do giue them all their helpe and fauour. In witnesse whereof we haue caused to be made these our lettres patents. Witnesse our selfe at Westminister, the fift day of March, in the eleuenth yeere of our reigne.—

SECOND CABOT PATENT

REFERENCES

Letters Patent. February 3, 1498.
Latin text in Harrise, John and Sebastian Cabot. (1896.) pp. 393, 394.
In English—
Harrise, Jean and Sebastian Cabot. (Paris, 1882.) pp. 327, 328.
Biddle, Richard. A Memoir of Sebastian Cabot. (Phila., 1831.) pp. 74, 75.
Beazley, John and Sebastian Cabot. pp. 95, 96.
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LETTERS PATENT TO SIR HUMFREY GYLBERTEa

Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, &c. To all people to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

Know ye that of our especiall grace, certaine science and meere motion, we have given and granted, and by these presents for us, our heires and successours, doe give and graunt to our trustie and welbeloved servaunt Sir Humphrey Gilbert of Compton, in our castle of Devonshire Knight, and to his heires and assignes for ever, free libertie and licence from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter, to discover, finde, search out, and view such remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countreys and territories not actually possessed of any Christian prince or people, as to him, his heirs & assignes, and to every or any of them, shall seeme good: and the fame to have, hold, occupie and enjoy to him, his heires and assignes for ever, with all commodities, iurisdictions, and royalties both by sea and land; and the said sir Humfrey and all such as from time to time by licence of us, our heiress and successours, shall goe and travell thither, to inhabite or remaine there, to build and fortifie at the discretion of the sayde Sir Humfrey, and of his heires and assignes, the statutes or actes of Parliament made against Fugitives, or against such as shall depart, remaine or continue out of our Realme of England without licence, or any other acte, statute, lawe or matter whatsoever to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. And wee doe likewise by these presents, for us, our heires and successours, give full authoritie and power to the saide Sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and every of them, that hee and they, and every of any of them, shall and may at all and every time and times hereafter, have, take and lead in the same voyages, to travell thitherward, and to inhabite there with him, and every or any of them, such and so many of our subjects as shall willingly accompany him and them, and every or any of them, with sufficient shipping and furniture for their transportations, so that none of the same persons, nor any of them be such as hereafter shall be specially restrained by us, our heires and successors. And further, that he the said Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and every or any of them shall have, hold, occupy and enjoy to him, his heires and assignes, and every of them for ever, all the soyle of all such lands, countries, & territories so to be discovered or possessed as aforesaid, and of all Cities, Castles, Townes and Villages, and places in the same, with the rites, royalties and Edition: current; Page: [50] jurisdictions, as well marine as other, within the sayd lands or countreys of the seas thereunto adjoyning, to be had or used with ful power to dispose thereof, & of every part thereof in fee simple or otherwise, according to the order of the laws of England, as near as the same conveniently may be, at his, and their will & pleasure, to any person then being, or that shall remaine within the allegiance of us, our heires and successours, paying unto us for all services, dueties and demaunds, the fift part of all the oare of gold and silver, that from time to time, and at all times after such discoverie, subduing and possessing shall be there gotten: all which kands, countreys and territories, shall for ever bee holden by the said Sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes of us, our heires and successors by homage, and by the sayd payment of the sayd fift part before reserved onely for all services.

And moreover, we doe by these presents for us, our heires and successours, give and graunt licence to the sayde Sir Humfray Gilbert, his heires or assignes, and to every of them, that hee and they, and every or any of them shall, and may from time to time, and all times for ever hereafter, for his and their defence, encounter, expulse, repell and resift, as well by Sea as by land, and by all other wayes whatsoever, all and every such person and persons whatsoever, as without the special licence and liking of the sayd Sir Humfrey, and of his heires and assignes, shall attempt to inhabite within the sayd countreys, or any of them, or within the space of two hundreth leagues nerre to the place or places within such countreys as aforesayd, if they shall not bee before planted or inhabited within the limites aforesayd, with the subjects of any Christian prince, being amitie with her Majesty, where the said sir Humfrey, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or his, or their or any of their associates or companies, shall within sixe yeeres next ensuing, make their dwellings and abidings, or that shall enterprise or attempt at any time hereafter unlawfully to annoy either by Sea or land, the said sir Humfrey, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or his, or their, or any of their companies: giving and graunting by these presents, further power and authorite to the sayd sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and every of them from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter to take and surprise by all maner of meanes whatsoever, all and every person and persons, with their shippes, vessels, and other goods and furniture, which without the licence of the sayd sir Humfrey, or his heires or assignes as aforesayd, shall bee found traffiquing into any harborough or harboroughs creeke or creekes within the limites aforesayde, the subjects of our Realmes and dominions, and all other persons in amitie with us, being driven by force of tempest or shipwracke onely excepted, and those persons and every of them with their ships, vessels, goods, and furniture, to detaine and possesse, as of good and lawful prize, according to the discretion of him the sayd sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and of every or any of them. And for uniting in more perfect league and amitie of such countreys, landes and territories so to bee possessed and inhabited as aforesayde, with our Realmes of England and Ireland, and for the better encouragement of men to this enterprise: wee doe by these presents graunt, and declare, that all such countreys so hereafter to bee possessed and inhabited as aforesayd, from thencefoorth shall bee of the allegiance of us, our heires, and successours. And wee Edition: current; Page: [51] doe graunt to the sayd sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and to all and every of them, and to all and every other person and persons, being of our allegiance, whose names shall be noted or entred in some of our courts of Record, within this our Realme of England, and that with the assent of the said sir Humfrey, his heires or assignes, shall nowe in this journey for discoverie, or in the second journey for conquest hereafter, travel to such lands, countries and territories as aforesaid, and to their and every of their heires: that they and every or any of them being either borne within our sayd Realmes of England or Ireland, or within any other place within our allegiance, and which hereafter shall be inhabiting within any the lands, countreys and territories, with such licence as aforesayd, shall and may have, and enjoy all the priveleges of free denizens and persons native of England, and within our allegiance: any law, custome, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

And forasmuch, as upon the finding out, discovering and inhabiting of such remote lands, countreys and territories, as aforesayd, it shall be necessarie for the safetie of all men that shall adventure themselves in those journeys or voiages, to determine to live together in Christian peace and civil quietnesse each with other, whereby every one may with more pleasure and profit, enjoy that whereunto they shall attaine with great paine and perill: wee for us, our heires and successours are likewise pleased and contented, and by these presents doe give and graunt to the sayd sir Humfrey and his heires and assignes for ever, that he and they, and every or any of them, shall and may, from time to time, for ever hereafter within the sayd mentioned remote lands and countreys, and in the way by the Seas thither, and from thence, have full and meere power and authoritie to correct, punish, pardon, governe and rule by their, and every or any of their good discretions and policies, as well in causes capitall or criminall, as civill, both marine and other, all such our subjects and others, as shall from time to time hereafter adventure themselves in the sayd journeys or voyages habitative or possessive, or that shall at any time hereafter inhabite any such lands, countreys or territories as aforesayd, or that shall abide within two hundred leagues of any sayd place or places, where the sayd sir Humfrey or his heires, or assignes, or any of them, or any of his, or their associats or companies, shall inhabite within sixe yeers next ensuing the date hereof, according to such statutes, lawes and ordinances, as shall be by him the said sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, or every, or any of them, devised or established for the better governement of the said people as aforesayd: so alwayes that the sayd statutes, lawes and ordinances may be as neere as conveniently may, agreeable to the forme of the lawes & pollicy of England: and also, that they be not against the true Christian faith or religion now professed in the Church of England, nor in any wise to withdraw any of the subjects or people of those lands or places from the allegiance of us, our heires or successours, as their immediate Soveraignes under God. And further we do by these presents for us, our heires and successours, give and graunt full power and authority to our trustie and well-beloved counsellor, sir William Cecill Knight, lord Burleigh, our high treasurer of England, and to the lord treasurer of England of us, for the time being, and to the privie counsell of us, our heires and successours, or Edition: current; Page: [52] any foure of them, for the time being that he, they, or any foure of them, shall, and may from time to time, and at all times hereafter, under his or their handes or seales by vertue of these presents, authorize and licence the sayd sir Humfrey Gilbert, his heires and assignes, and every or any of them by him and themselves, or by their or any of their sufficient atturneys, deputies, officers, ministers, factors and servants, to imbarke and transport out of our Realmes of England and Ireland, all, or any of his or their goods, and all or any of the goods or his or their associates and companies, and every or any of them, with such other necessaries and commodities of any of our Realmes, as to the said lord treasurer or foure of the privie counsell of us, our heires, or successours for the time being, as aforesayd, shall be from time to time by his or their wisedoms or discretions thought meete and convenient for the better reliefe and supportation of him the sayd sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and every or any of them, and his and their, and every or any of their said associates and companies, any act, statute, lawe, or other thing to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.

Provided alwayes, and our will and pleasure is, and wee doe hereby declare to all Christian Kings, princes and states, that if the said sir Humfrey, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or any other by their licence or appointment, shall at any time or times hereafter robbe or spoile by Sea or by land, or doe any act of unjust and unlawfull hostilitie to any of the Subjects of us, our heires, or successours, or any of the Subjects of any King, prince, ruler, governour or state being then in perfect league and amitie with us, our heires or successours: and that upon such injurie, or upon just complaint of any such prince, ruler, governour or state, or their subjects, wee, our heires or successours shall make open proclamation within any of the portes of our Realme of England commodious, that the said Sir Humfrey, his heires or assignes, or any other to whom these our Letters patents may extend, shall within the terme to be limited by such proclamations, make such restitution and satisfaction of all such injuries done, so as both we and the said Princes, or others so complayning, may holde us and themselves fully contented: And if the saide Sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, shall not make or cause to bee made satisfaction accordingly, within such time so to be limited; that then it shall be lawfull to us, our heires and successours, to put the said Sir Humfrey, his heires and assignes, and adherents, and all the inhabitants of the said places to be discovered as is aforesaide, or any of them out of our allegiance and protection, and that from and after such time of putting out of protection the saide Sir Humfrey, and his heires, assignes, adherents and others so to be put out, and the said places within their habitation, possession and rule, shall be out of our protection and allegiance, and free for all princes and others to pursue with hostilitie as being not our Subjects, nor by us any way to be advowed, maintained or defended, nor to be holden as any of ours, nor to our protection, dominion or allegiance any way belonging, for that expresse mention, &c. In witnesse whereof, &c. Witnesse ourselfe at Westminster the 11, day of June, the twentieth yeere of our raigne. Anno Dom. 1578.

Per ipsam Reginam, &c.
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CHARTER TO SIR WALTER RALEIGH—1584*a

Elizabeth by the Grace of God of England, Fraunce and Ireland Queene, defender of the faith, &c. To all people to whome these presents shall come, greeting.

Knowé yee that of our especial grace, certaine science, and meere motion, we haue given and graunted, and by these presents for us, our heires and successors, we giue and graunt to our trustie and welbeloued seruant Walter Ralegh, Esquire, and to his heires assignes for euer, free libertie and licence from time to time, and at all times for euer hereafter, to discouer, search, finde out, and view such remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited by Christian People, as to him, his heires and assignes, and to euery or any of them shall seeme good, and the same to haue, holde, occupie and enjoy to him, his heires and assignes for euer, with all prerogatiues, commodities, jurisdictions, royalties, priuileges, franchises, and preheminences, thereto or thereabouts both by sea and land, whatsoeuer we by our letters patents may graunt, and as we or any of our noble progenitors haue heretofore graunted to any person or persons, bodies politique or corporate: and the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and all such as from time to time, by licence of us, our heires and successors, shall goe or trauaile thither to inhabite or remaine, there to build and fortifie, at the discretion of the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, the statutes or acte of Parliament made against fugitiues, or against such as shall depart, remaine or continue out of our Realme of England without licence, or any other statute, acte, lawe, or any ordinance whatsoeuer to the contrary in anywise notwithstanding.

And we do likewise by these presents, of our especial grace, meere motion, and certain knowledge, for us, our heires and successors, giue and graunt full authoritie, libertie and power to the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and euery of them, that he and they, and euery or any of them, shall and may at all and euery time, and times hereafter, haue, take, and leade in the saide voyage, and trauaile thitherward, or to inhabit there with him, or them, and euery or any of them, such and so many of our subjects as shall willingly accompanie him or them, and euery or any of them to whom also we doe by these presents, giue full libertie and authority in that behalfe, and also to haue, take, and employ, and vse sufficient shipping and furniture for the Transportations and Nauigations in that behalfe, so that none of the same persons or any of them, be such as hereafter shall be restrained by us, our heires, or successors.

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And further that the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and euery of them, shall haue holde, occupie, and enioye to him, his heires and assignes, and euery of them for euer, all the soile of all such lands, territories, and Countreis, so to bee discouered and possessed as aforesaide, and of all such Cities, castles, townes, villages, and places in the same, with the right, royalties, franchises, and iurisdictions, as well marine as other within the saide landes, or Countreis, or the seas thereunto adioyning, to be had, or used, with full power to dispose thereof, and of euery part in fee-simple or otherwise, according to the order of the lawes of England, as neere as the same conueniently may bee, at his, and their will and pleasure, to any persons then being, or that shall remaine within the allegiance of us, our heires, and successors: reseruing always to us our heires, and successors, for all seruices, duties, and demaundes, the fift part of all the oare of golde and siluer, that from time to time, and at all times after such discouerie, subduing and possessing, shal be there gotten and obtained: All which landes, Countreis, and territories, shall for euer be holden of the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, of us, our heirs and successors, by homage, and by the said paiment of the said fift part, reserued onely for all services.

And moreouer, we doe by these presents, for us, our heires and successors, giue and graunt licence to the said Walter Ralegh, his heirs, and assignes, and euery of them, that he, and they, and euery or any of them, shall and may from time to time, and at all times for euer hereafter, for his and their defence, encounter and expulse, repell and resist as well by sea as by lande, and by all other wayes whatsoeuer, all, and every such person and persons whatsoeuer, as without the especiall liking and licence of the saide Walter Ralegh, and of his heires and assignes, shall attempt to inhabite within the said Countreis, or any of them, or within the space of two hundreth leagues neere to the place or places within such Countreis as aforesaide (if they shall not bee before planted or inhabited within the limits as aforesaide with the subjects of any Christian Prince being in amitie with us) where the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires, or assignes, or any of them, or his, or their or any of their associates or company, shall within sixe yeeres (next ensuing) make their dwellings or abidings, or that shall enterprise or attempt at any time hereafter unlawfully to annoy, either by sea or lande, the saide Walter Ralegh, his heirs or assignes, or any of them, or his or their, or any of his or their companies: giuing, and graunting by these presents further power and authoritie, to the said Walter Ralegh, his heirs and assignes, and euery of them from time to time, and at all times for euer hereafter, to take and surprise by all maner of meanes whatsoeuer, all and euery those person or persons, with their shippes, vessels, and other goods and furniture, which without the licence of the saide Walter Ralegh, or his heires, or assignes, as aforesaide, shalbe founde trafiquing into any harbour, or harbors, creeke, or creekes, within the limits aforesaide, (the subjects of our Realms and Dominions, and all other persons in amitie with us, trading to the Newfound lands for fishing as heretofore they haue commonly used, or being driuen by force of a tempest, or shipwracke onely excepted:) and those persons, and euery of them, with their shippes, vessels, goods and furniture to deteine and possesse as of good and lawfull prize, according to the discretion of him the saide Edition: current; Page: [55] Walter Ralegh, his heires, and assignes, and euery, or any of them. And for vniting in more perfect league and amitie, of such Countreis, landes, and territories so to bee possessed and inhabited as aforesaide with our Realmes of Englande, and Ireland, and the better incouragement of men to these enterprises: we do by these presents, graunt and declare that all such Countreis, so hereafter to be possessed and inhabited as is aforesaide, from thencefoorth shall bee of the allegiance of vs, our heires and successours. And wee doe graunt to the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires, and assignes, and to all, and euery of them, and to all and euery other person, and persons being of our allegiance, whose names shall be noted or entred in some of our Courtes of recorde within our Realme of Englande, that with the assent of the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires or assignes, shall in his journeis for discouerie, or in the iourneis for conquest, hereafter traueile to such lands, countreis and territories, as aforesaide, and to their, and to euery of their heires, that they, and every or any of them, being either borne within our saide Realmes of Englande, or Irelande, or in any other place within our allegiance, and which hereafter shall be inhabiting within any the lands, Countreis, and territories, with such licence (as aforesaide) shall and may haue all the priuiledges of free Denizens, and persons natiue of England, and within our allegiance in such like ample maner and fourme, as if they were borne and personally resident within our saide Realme of England, any lawe, custome, or vsage to the contrary notwithstanding.

And for asmuch as upon the finding out, discouering, or inhabiting of such remote lands, countreis, and territories as aforesaid, it shal be necessary for the safetie of al men, that shal aduenture them selues in those iournies or voyages, to determine to liue together in Christian peace, and ciuil quietnes ech with other, whereby euery one may with more pleasure and profit enioy that whereunto they shall attaine with great paine and perill, we for vs, our heires and successors, are likewise pleased and contented, and by these presents do giue and graunt to the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes for ever, that hee and they, and euery or any of them, shall and may from time to time for euer hereafter, within the said mentioned remote landes and Countreis in the way by the seas thither, and from thence, haue full and meere power and authoritie to correct, punish, pardon, gouerne, and rule by their and euery or any of their good discretions and pollicies, as well in causes capital, or criminall, as ciuil, both marine and other, all such our subiects as shall from time to time aduenture themselves in the said iournies or voyages, or that shall at any time hereafter inhabite any such landes, countreis, or territories as aforesaide, or shall abide within 200. leagues of any of the saide place or places, where the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or any of his or their associates or companies, shall inhabite within 6. yeeres next ensuing the date hereof, according to such statutes, lawes and ordinances, as shall bee by him the saide Walter Ralegh his heires and assignes, and euery or any of them deuised, or established, for the better government of the said people as aforesaid. So always as the said statutes, lawes, and ordinances may be as neere as conueniently may be, agreeable to the forme of the lawes, statutes, governement, or pollicie of England, and also so as they be not against the true Christian faith, nowe professed in the Edition: current; Page: [56] Church of England, nor in any wise to withdrawe any of the subiects or people of those landes or places from the allegiance of vs, our heires and successours, as their immediate Soueraigne vnder God.

And further, wee doe by these presents for vs, our heires and successors, giue and graunt full power and authoritie to our trustie and welbeloued counsailer sir William Cicill knight, Lorde Burghley, our high Treasourer of England, and to the Lorde Treasourer of England, for vs, our heires and successors for the time being, and to the priuie Counsell, of us, our heirs and successours, or any foure or more of them for the time being, that hee, they, or any foure or more of them, shall and may from time to time, and at all times hereafter, vnder his or their handes or seales by vertue of these presents, authorise and licence the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and euery or any of them by him, and by themselues, or by their, or any of their sufficient Atturnies, deputies, officers, ministers, factors, and seruants, to imbarke and transport out of our Realme of England and Ireland, and the Dominions thereof all, or any of his, or their goods, and all or any the goods of his and their associats and companies, and euery or any of them, with such other necessaries and commodities of any our Realmes, as to the saide Lorde Treasourer, or foure or more of the priuie Counsaile, of vs, our heires and successors for the time being (as aforesaide) shalbe from time to time by his or their wisdomes, or discretions thought meete and conuenient, for the better reliefe and supportation of him the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires, and assignes, and euery or any of them, and of his or their or any of their associats and companies, any acte, statute, lawe, or other thing to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.

Provided alwayes, and our will and pleasure is, and wee do hereby declare to all Christian kings, princes and states, that if the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or any other by their licence or appointment, shall at any time or times hereafter, robbe or spoile by sea or by lande, or do any acte of unjust or unlawful hostilitie, to any of the subjects of vs, our heires or successors, or to any of the subjects of any the kings, princes, rulers, governors, or estates, being then in perfect league and amitie with us, our heires and successors, and that upon such injury, or upon iust complaint of any such prince, ruler, governoir, or estate, or their subiects, wee, our heires and successours, shall make open proclamation within any the portes of our Realme of England, that the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and adherents, or any to whome these our letters patents may extende, shall within the termes to be limitted, by such proclamation, make full restitution, and satisfaction of all such injuries done, so as both we and the said princes, or other so complayning, may holde vs and themselues fully contented. And that if the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, shall not make or cause to be made satisfaction accordingly, within such time so to be limitted, that then it shall be lawfull to us our heires and successors, to put the saide Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes and adherents, and all the inhabitants of the said places to be discouered (as is aforesaide) or any of them out of our allegiance and protection, and that from and after such time of putting out of protection the said Walter Ralegh, his heires, assignes and adherents, and others so to be put out, Edition: current; Page: [57] and the said places within their habitation, possession and rule, shal be out of our allegeance and protection, and free for all princes and others, to pursue with hostilitie, as being not our subiects, nor by vs any way to be auouched, maintained or defended, nor to be holden as any of ours, nor to our protection or dominion, or allegiance any way belonging, for that expresse mention of the cleer yeerely value of the certaintie of the premisses, or any part thereof, or of any other gift, or grant by vs, or any our progenitors, or predecessors to the said Walter Ralegh, before this time made in these presents be not expressed, or any other grant, ordinance, prouision, proclamation, or restraint to the contrarye thereof, before this time giuen, ordained, or prouided, or any other thing, cause, or matter whatsoeuer, in any wise notwithstanding. In witness whereof, we haue caused these our letters to be made patents. Witnesse our selues, at Westminster, the 25. day of March, in the sixe and twentieth yeere of our Raigne.

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CHARTER OF THE DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY—1621a

The States-General of the United Netherlands, to all who shall see these Presents, or hear them read, Greeting.

references

Charter of Privileges and Exemptions of the Dutch West India Company. June 7, 1629.
Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. Vol. II. pp. 553-557.
O’Callaghan, History of New Netherland, I, 112-120.
Modified Concessions of 1640. Doc. Relative to Col. Hist. of N. Y. Vol. I.

Be it known, that we knowing the prosperity of these countries, and the welfare of their inhabitants depends principally on navigation and trade, which in all former times by the said Countries were carried on happily, and with a great blessing to all countries and kingdoms; and desiring that the aforesaid inhabitants should not only be preserved in their former navigation, traffic, and trade, but also that their trade may be encreased as much as possible in special conformity to the treaties, alliances, leagues and covenants for traffic and navigation formerly made with other princes, republics and people, which we give them to understand must be in all parts punctually kept and adhered to: And we find by experience, that without the common help, assistance, and interposition of a General Company, the people designed from hence for those parts cannot be profitably protected and mantained in their great risque from pirates, extortion and otherwise, which will happen in so very long a voyage. We have, therefore, and for several other important reasons and considerations as thereunto moving, with mature deliberation of counsel, and for highly necessary causes, found it good, that the navigation, trade, and commerce, in the parts of the West-Indies, and Africa, and other places hereafter described, should not henceforth be carried on any otherwise than by the common united strength of the merchants and inhabitants of these countries; and for that end there shall be erected one General Company, which we out of special regard to their common well-being, and to keep and preserve the inhabitants of those places in good trade and welfare, will maintain and strengthen with our Help, Favour and assistance as far as the present state and condition of this Country will admit: and moreover furnish them with a proper Charter, and with the following Priveleges and Exemptions, to wit, That for the Term of four and twenty Years, none of the Natives or Inhabitants of these countries shall be permitted to sail to or from the said lands, or to traffic on the coast and countries of Africa from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope, nor in the countries of America, or the West-Indies, beginning Edition: current; Page: [60] at the fourth end of Terra Nova, by the streights of Magellan, La Maire, or any other streights and passages situated thereabouts to the streights of Anian, as well on the north sea as the south sea, nor on any islands situated on the one side or the other, or between both; nor in the western or southern countries reaching, lying, and between both the meridians, from the Cape of Good Hope, in the East, to the east end of New Guinea, in the West, inclusive, but in the Name of this United Company of these United Netherlands. And whoever shall presume without the consent of this Company, to sail or to traffic in any of the Places within the aforesaid Limits granted to this Company, he shall forfeit the ships and the goods which shall be found for sale upon the aforesaid coasts and lands; the which being actually seized by the aforesaid Company, shall be by them kept for their own Benefit and Behoof. And in case such ships or goods shall be sold either in other countries or havens they may touch at, the owners and partners must be fined for the value of those ships and goods: Except only, that they who before the date of this charter, shall have sailed or been sent out of these or any other countries, to any of the aforesaid coasts, shall be able to continue their trade for the sale of their goods, and come back again, or otherwise, until the expiration of this charter, if they have had any before, and not longer: Provided, that after the first of July sixteen hundred and twenty one, the day and time of this charter’s commencing, no person shall be able to send any ships or goods to the places comprehended in this charter, although that before the date hereof, this Company was not finally incorporated: But shall provide therein as is becoming, against those who knowingly by fraud endeavour to frustrate our intention herein for the public good: Provided that the salt trade at Ponte del Re may be continued according to the conditions and instructions by us already given, or that may be given respecting it, any thing in this charter to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. That, moreover, the aforesaid Company may, in our name and authority, within the limits herein before prescribed, make contracts, engagements and alliances with the limits herein before prescribed, make contracts, engagements and alliances with the princes and natives of the countries comprehended therein, and also build any forts and fortifications there, to appoint and discharge Governors, people for war, and officers of justice, and other public officers, for the preservation of the places, keeping good order, police and justice, and in like manner for the promoting of trade; and again, others in their place to put, as they from the situation of their affairs shall see fit: Moreover, they must advance the peopling of those fruitful and unsettled parts, and do all that the service of those countries, and the profit and increase of trade shall require: and the Company shall successively communicate and transmit to us such contracts and alliances as they shall have made with the aforesaid princes and nations; and likewise the situation of the fortresses, fortifications, and settlements by them taken.

III. Saving, that they having chosen a governor in chief, and prepared instructions for him, they shall be approved, and a commission given by us, And that further, such governor in chief, as well as other deputy governors, commanders, and officers, shall be held to take an oath of allegiance to us and also to the Company.

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IV. And if the aforesaid Company in any of the aforesaid places shall be cheated under the appearance of friendship, or badly treated, or shall suffer loss in trusting their money or Goods, without having restitution, or receiving payment for them, they may use the best methods in their power, according to the situation of their affairs, to obtain satisfaction.

V. And if it should be necessary for the establishment, security and defence of this trade, to take any troops with them, we will, according to the constitution of this country, and the situation of affairs furnish the said Company with such troops, provided they be paid and supported by the Company.

VI. Which troops, besides the oath already taken to us and to his excellency, shall swear to obey the commands of the said Company, and to endeavour to promote their interest to the utmost of their ability.

VII. That the provosts of the Company on shore may apprehend any of the military, that have inlisted in the service of the aforesaid company, and may confine them on board the ships in whatever city, place, or jurisdiction they may be found; provided, the provosts first inform the officers and magistrates of the cities and places where this happens.

VIII. That we will not take any ships, ordnance, or ammunition belonging to the company, for the use of this country, without the consent of the said company.

IX. We have moreover incorporated this company, and favoured them with privileges, and we give them a charter besides this, that they may pass freely with all their ships and goods without paying any toll to the United Provinces; and that they themselves may use their liberty in the same manner as the free inhabitants of the cities of this country enjoy their freedom, notwithstanding any person who is not free may be a member of this company.

X. That all the goods of this company during the eight next ensuing years, be carried out of this country to the parts of the West-Indies and Africa, and other places comprehended within the aforesaid limits, and those which they shall bring into this country, shall be from outward and home convoys; provided, that if at the expiration of the aforesaid eight years, the state and situation of these Countries will not admit of this Freedom’s continuing for a longer time, the said goods, and the merchandises coming from the places mentioned in this Charter, and exported again out of these countries, and the outward convoys and licenses, during the whole time of this Charter, shall not be rated higher by us than they have formerly been rated, unless we should be again engaged in a war, in which case, all the aforesaid goods and merchandises will not be rated higher by us than they were in the last list in time of war.

XI. And that this company may be strengthened by a good government, to the greatest profit and satisfaction of all concerned, we have ordained, that the said government shall be vested in five chambers of managers; one at Amsterdam,—this shall have the management of four-ninths parts; one chamber in Zealand, for two-ninth parts; one chamber at the Maeze, for one-ninth part; one chamber in North Holland, for one-ninth-part; and the fifth chamber in Friesland, with the city and country, for one-ninth part; upon the condition entered in the record of our resolutions, and the Act past respecting Edition: current; Page: [62] it. And the Provinces in which there are no chambers shall be accommodated with so many managers, divided among the respective chambers, as their hundred thousand guilders in this company shall entitle them to.

XII. That the chamber of Amsterdam shall consist of twenty managers; the chamber of Zealand of twelve; the chambers of Maeze and of the North Part, each of fourteen, and the chamber of Friesland, with the city and country, also of fourteen managers; if it shall hereafter appear, that this work cannot be carried on without a greater number of persons; in that case, more may be added, with the knowledge of nineteen, and our approbation, but not otherwise.

XIII. And the States of the respective United Provinces are authorized, to lay before their High Mightinesses’ ordinary deputies, or before the magistrates of the cities of these Provinces, any order for registering the members, together with the election of managers, if they find they can do it according to the constitution of their Provinces. Moreover, that no person in the chamber of Amsterdam shall be chosen a manager who has not of his own in the funds of the company, the sum of five thousand guilders; and the Chamber of Zealand four thousand guilders, and the chamber of Maeze, of the North Part, and of Friesland, with the city and country, the like sum of four thousand guilders.

XIV. That the first managers shall serve for the term of six years, and then one-third part of the number of managers shall be changed by lot; and two years after a like third part, and the two next following years, the last third part; and so on successively the oldest in the service shall be dismissed; and in the place of those who go off, or of any that shall die, or for any other reason be dismissed, three others shall be nominated by the managers, both remaining and going off, together with the principal adventures in person, and at their cost, from which the aforesaid Provinces, the deputies, or the magistrates, shall make a new election of a manager, and successively supply the vacant places; and it shall be held before the principal adventurers, who have as great a concern as the respective managers.

XV. That the accounts of the furniture and outfit of the vessels, with their dependencies, shall be made up three months after the departure of the vessels, and one month after, copies shall be sent to to us, and to the respective chambers: and the state of the returns, and their sales, shall the chambers (as often as we see good, or they are required thereto by the chambers) send to us and to one another.

XVI. That evry six years they shall make a general account of all outfits and returns, together with all the gains and losses of the company; to wit, one of their business, and one of the war, each separate; which accounts shall be made public by an advertisement, to the end that every one who is interested may, upon hearing of it, attend; and if by the expiration of the seventh year, the accounts are not made out in manner aforesaid, the managers shall forfeit their commissions, which shall be appropriated to the use of the poor, and they themselves be held to render their account as before, till such time and under such penalty as shall be fixed by us respecting offenders. And notwithstanding there shall be a dividend made of the profits of the business, so long as we find that ten per cent shall have been gained.

XVII. No one shall, during the continuance of this charter, withdraw his capital, or sum advanced, from this company; nor shall any Edition: current; Page: [63] new members be admitted. If at the expiration of four and twenty years it shall be found good to continue this company, or to erect a a new one, a final account and estimate shall be made by the nineteen, with our knowledge, of all that belongs to the company, and also of all their expences, and any one, after the aforesaid settlement and estimate, may withdraw his money, or continue it in the new company, in whole or in part, in the same proportion as in this; And the new company shall in such case take the remainder, and pay the members which do not think fit to continue in the company their share, at such times as the nineteen, with our knowledge and approbation, shall think proper.

XVIII. That so often as it shall be necessary to have a general meeting of the aforesaid chambers, it shall be by nineteen persons, of whom eight shall come from the chamber of Amsterdam; from Zealand, four; from the Maeze, two; from North Holland, two; from Friesland, and the city and country, two, provided, that the nineteen persons, or so many more as we shall at any time think fit, shall be deputed by us for the purpose of helping to direct the aforesaid meeting of the company.

XIX. By which general meeting of the aforesaid chambers, all the business of this Company which shall come before them shall be managed and finally settled, provided, that in case of resolving upon a war, our approbation shall be asked.

XX. The aforesaid general meeting being summoned, it shall meet to resolve when they shall fit out, and how many vessels they will send to each place, the company in general observing that no particular chamber shall undertake any thing in opposition to the foregoing resolution, but shall be held to carry the same effectually into execution. And if any chamber shall be found not following the common resolution, or contravening it, we have authorized, and by these presents do authorize, the said meeting, immediately to cause reparation to be made of every defect or contravention, wherein we, being desired, will assist them.

XXI. The said general meeting shall be held the first six years in the city of Amsterdam, and two years thereafter in Zealand, and so on from time to time in the aforesaid two places.

XXII. The managers to whom the affairs of the company shall be committed, who shall go from home to attend the aforesaid meeting or otherwise, shall have for their expences and wages, four guilders a day, besides boat and carriage hire; Provided, that those who go from one city to another, to the chambers as managers and governors, shall receive no wages or travelling charges, at the cost of the company.

XXIII. And if it should happen that in the aforesaid general meeting, any weighty matter should come before them wherein they cannot agree, or in case the vote are equally divided, the same shall be left to our decision; and whatever shall be determined upon shall be carried into execution.

XXIV. And all the inhabitants of these countries, and also of other countries, shall be notified by public advertisements within one month after the date hereof, that they may be admitted into this Company, during five months from the first of July this year, sixteen hundred and twenty one, and that they must pay the money they put into the Stock in three payments; to wit, one third part at the expiration of the aforesaid five months, and the other two-thirds Edition: current; Page: [64] parts within three next succeeding years. In case the aforesaid general meeting shall find it necessary to prolong the time, the members shall be notified by an advertisement.

XXV. The ships returning from a voyage shall come to the place they sailed from; and if by stress of weather, the vessels which sailed out from one part shall arrive in another; as those from Amsterdam, or North Holland, in Zealand, or in the Maeze; or from Zealand, in Holland; or those from Friesland, with the city and country, in another part; each chamber shall nevertheless have the direction and management of the vessels and goods it sent out, and shall send and transport the goods to the places from whence the vessels sailed, either in the same or other vessels: Provided, that the managers of that chamber shall be held in person to find the place where the vessels and goods are arrived, and not appoint factors to do this business; but in case they shall not be in a situation for travelling, they shall commit this business to the chamber of the place where the vessels arrived.

XXVI. If any chamber has got any goods or returns from the places included within the Limits of this charter, with which another is not provided, it shall be held to send such goods to the chamber which is unprovided, on its request, according to the situation of the case, and if they have sold them, to send to another chamber for more. And in like manner, if the managers of the respective chambers have need of any persons for fitting out the vessels, or otherwise, from the cities where there are chambers or managers, they shall require and employ the managers, of this company, without making use of a factor.

XXVII. And if any of the Provinces think fit to appoint an agent to collect the money from the inhabitants, and to make a fund in any chamber, and for paying dividends, the chamber shall be obliged to give such agent access, that he may obtain information of the state of the disbursements and receipts, and of the debts; provided, that the money brought in by such agent amount to fifty thousand guilders or upwards.

XXVIII. The managers shall have for commissions one per cent. on the outfits and returns, besides the Prince’s; and an half per cent. on gold and silver: which commission shall be divided; to the Chamber of Amsterdam, four-ninth parts; the Chamber of Zealand, two-ninth parts; the Maeze, one-ninth part; North Holland, one-ninth part, and Friesland, with the city and country, a like ninth part.

XXIX. Provided that they shall not receive commissions on the ordnance and the ships more than once. They shall, moreover, have no commissions on the ships, ordnance, and other things with which we shall strengthn the Company; nor on the money which they shall collect for the Company, nor on the profits they receive from the goods, nor shall they charge the Company with any expenses of traveling or provisions for those to whom they shall committ the providing a cargo, and purchasing goods necessary for it.

XXX. The book-keepers and cashiers shall have a salary paid them by the managers out of their commissions.

XXXI. The manager shall not deliver or sell to the Company, in whole or in part, any of their own ships, merchandise or goods; nor buy or cause to be bought, of the said Company, directly or indirectly, any goods or merchandize, nor have any portion or part therein, on Edition: current; Page: [65] forfeiture of one year’s commissions for the use of the poor, and the loss of Office.

XXXII. The managers shall give notice by advertisement, as often as they have a fresh importation of goods and merchandize, to the end that every one may have seasonable knowledge of it, before they proceed to a final sale.

XXXIII. And if it happens that in either Chamber, an of the managers shall get into such a situation, that he cannot make good what was entrusted to him during his administration, and in consequence thereof any loss shall happen, such Chamber shall be liable for the damage, and shall also be specially bound for their administration, which shall also be the case with all the members, who, on account of goods purchased, or otherwise, shall become debtors to the Company, and so shall be reckoned all cases relating to their stock and what may be due to the Company.

XXXIV. The managers of the respective chambers shall be responsible for their respective cashiers and book-keepers.

XXXV. That all the goods of this Company which shall be sold by weight shall be sold by one weight, to wit, that of Amsterdam; and that all such goods shall be put on board ship, or in store without paving any excise, import or weigh-money; provided, that they being sold, shall not be delivered in any other way than by weight; and provided that the impost and weigh-money shall be paid as often as they are alienated, in the same manner as other goods subject to weigh-money.

XXXVI. That the persons or goods of the managers shall not be arrested, attached or encumbered, in order to obtain from them an account of the administration of the Company, nor for the payment of the wages of those who are in the service of the Company, but those who shall pretend to take the same upon them, shall be bound to refer the matter to their ordinary judges.

XXXVII. So when any ship shall return from a voyage, the generals or commanders of the fleets, shall be obliged to come and report to us the success of the voyage of such ship or ships, within ten days after their arrival, and shall deliver and leave with us a report in writing, if the case requires it.

XXXVIII. And if it happens (which we by no means expect) that any person will, in any manner, hurt or hinder the navigation, business, trade, or traffic of this Company, contrary to the common right, and the contents of the aforesaid treaties, leagues, and covenants, they shal defend it against them, and regulate it by the instructions we have given concerning it.

XXXIX. We have moreover promised and do promise, that we will defend this Company against every person in free navigation and traffic, and assist them with a million of guilders, to be paid in five years, whereof the first two hundred thousand guilders shall be paid them when the first payment shall be made by the members; Provided that we, with half the aforesaid million of guilders, shall receive and bear profit and risque in the same manner as the other members of this Company shall.

XL. And if by a violent and continued interruption of the aforesaid navigation and traffic, the business within the limits of their Company shall be brought to an open war, we will, if the situation of this country will in any wise admit of it, give them for their assistance Edition: current; Page: [66] sixteen ships of war, the least one hundred and fifty lasts burthen; with four good well sailing yachts, the least, forty lasts burthen, which shall be properly mounted and provided in all respects, both with brass and other cannon, and a proper quantity of ammunition, together with double suits of running and standing rigging, sails, cables, anchors, and other things thereto belonging, such as are proper to be provided and used in all great expeditions; upon condition, that they shall be manned, victualled, and supported at the expense of the Company, and that the Company shall be obliged to add thereto sixteen like ships of war, and four yachts, mounted and provided as above, to be used in like manner for the defence of trade and all exploits of war: Provided that all the ships of war and merchant-men (that shall be with those provided and manned as aforesaid) shall be under an admiral appointed by us according to the previous advise of the aforesaid General Company, and shall obey our commands, together with the resolutions of the Company, if it shall be necessary, in the same manner as in time of war; so notwithstanding that the merchantmen shall not unnecessarily hazard their lading.

XLI. And if it should happen that this country should be remarkably eased of its burthens, and that this Company should be laid under the grievous burthen of a war, we have further promised, and do promise, to encrease the aforesaid subsidy in such a manner as the situation of these countries will admit, and the affairs of the Company shall require.

XLII. We have moreover ordained, that in case of a war, all the prizes which shall be taken from enemies and pirates within the aforesaid limits, by the Company or their assistants; also the goods which shall be seized by virtue of our proclamation, after deducting all expenses and the damage which the Company shall suffer in taking each prize, together with the just part of his excellency the admiral, agreeable to our resolution of the first of April sixteen hundred and two; and the tenth part for the officers, sailors and soldiers, who have taken the prize, shall await the disposal of the managers of the aforesaid Company; Provided that the account of them shall be kept separate and apart from the account of trade and commerce; and that the nett proceeds of the said prizes shall be employed in fitting our ships, paying the troops, fortifications, garrisons, and like matters of war and defence by sea and land; but there shall be no distribution unless the said nett proceeds shall amount to so much that a notable share may be distributed without weakening the said defence, and after paying the expenses of the war, which shall be done separate and apart from the distributions on account of Trade: And the distribution shall be made one-tenth part for the use of the United Netherlands, and the remainder for the members of this Company, in exact proportion to the capital they have advanced.

XLIII. Provided nevertheless, that all the prizes and goods, taken by virtue of our proclamation, shall be brought in, and the right laid before the judicature of the counsellors of the admirality for the part to which they are brought, that they may take cognizance of them, and determine the legality or illegality of the said prizes: the process of the administration of the goods brought in by the Company remaining nevertheless pending, and that under a proper Edition: current; Page: [67] inventory; and saving a revision of what may be done by the sentence of the admirality, agreeable to the instruction given the admiralty in that behalf. Provided that the vendue-masters and other officers of the Admiralty shall not have or pretend to any right to the prizes taken by this Company, and shall not be employed respecting them.

XLIV. The managers of this Company shall solemnly promise and swear, that they will act well and faithfully in their administration, and make good and just accounts of their trade: That they in all things will consult the greatest profit of the Company, and as much as possible prevent their meeting with losses: That they will not give the principal members any greater advantage in the payments or distribution of money than the least: That they, in getting in and receiving outstanding debts, will not favour one more than another: that they for their own account will take, and, during the continuance of their administration, will continue to take such sum of money as by their charter is allotted to them; and moreover, that they will, as far as concerns them, to the utmost of their power, observe and keep, and cause to be observed and kept, all and every the particulars and articles herein contained.

XLV. All which privileges, freedoms and exemptions, together with the assistance herein before mentioned, in all their particulars and articles, we have, with full knowledge of the business, given, granted, promised and agreed to the aforesaid Company; giving, granting, agreeing and promising moreover that they shall enjoy them peaceably and freely; ordaining that the same shall be observed and kept by all the magistrates, officers and subjects of the United Nethelands, without doing anything contrary thereto directly or indirectly, either within or out of these Netherlands, on penalty of being punished both in life and goods as obstacles to the common welfare of this country, and transgressors of our ordinance: promising moreover that we will maintain and establish the Company in the things contained in this charter, in all treaties of peace, alliances and agreements with the neighboring princes, kingdoms and countries, without doing anything, or suffering any thing to be done which will weaken their establishment. Charging and expressly commanding all governors, justices, officers, magistrates and inhabitants of the aforesaid United Netherlands, that they permit the aforesaid Company and managers peaceably and freely to enjoy the full effect of this charter, agreement, and privilege, without any contradiction or impeachment to the contrary. And that none may pretend ignorance hereof, we command that the contents of this charter shall be notified by publication, or an advertisement, where, and in such manner, as is proper; for we have found it necessary for the service of this country.

Given under our Great Seal, and the Signature and Seal of our Recorder, at the Hague, on the third day of the month of June, in the year sixteen hundred and twenty one.

Was countersigned

J. MAGNUS, Secr.

Underneath was written,

The ordinance of the High and Mighty Lords the States General.

It was subscribed,

C. AERSSEN.

And has a Seal pendant, of red Wax, and a string of white silk.

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SIR ROBERT HEATH’S PATENT 5 CHARLES 1ST

Charles by the grace of God of England Scotland France & Ireland King Defender of the faith &c: To all to whom these present lres shall come, greeting

We have seen the inrolement of certaine of our lres patents under our great seale of England made to Sr Robert Heath Knight our Atturney Generall, bearing date at Westminster the 30. day of October in the 5 yeare of our reigne & inrolled in our Court of Chancery, & remaining upon Record among the Roles of the Said Court in these words: The king to all to whom these present &c: greeting. Whereas our beloved and faithful subject and servant Sr Robert Heath Knight our Atturney Generall, kindled with a certain laudable and pious desire as well of enlarging the Christian religion as our Empoire & encreasing the Trade & Commerce of this our kingdom: A certaine Region or Territory to bee hereafter described, in our lands in the parts of America betwixt one & thirety & 36 degrees of northerne latitude inclusively placed (yet hitherto untild, neither inhabited by ours or the subjects of any other Christian king, Prince or state But some parts of it inhabited by certain Barbarous men who have not any knowledge of the Divine Dietye) He being about to lead thither a Colonye of men large & plentifull, professing the true religion; seduously & industriously applying themselves to the culture of the sayd lands & to merchandising to be performed by industry & at his owne charges & others by his example. And in this his purpose in this affayer for our service and honour he hath given us full satisfaction, which purpose of his being soe laudable & manifestly tending to our honour, & the profit of our kingdome of England Wee with a Royal regard considering these things doe thinke meete to approve & prosecute them, for which end the sayd Sr Robert Heath hath humbly supplicated that all that Region with the Isles thereunto belonging with certain sorts of privileges & jurisdictions for the wholesome government of his Colonye & Region aforesaid & for the estate of the appurtenances may be given granted and confirmed to him, his heires & Assignes by our Royall Highnesse.

Know therefore that wee prosecuting with our Royall favor the pious & laudable purpose & desire of our aforesaid Atturney of our especiall grace certaine knowledge & meere motion, have given, granted Edition: current; Page: [70] & confirmed & by this our present charter to the said Sr Robert Heath Knight his heirs & assignes for ever, doe give, grant & confirme all that River or Rivelett of St Matthew on the South side & all that River or Rivelett of the great passe on the North side, & all the lands Tenements & Hereditaments lying, beeing & extending within or between the sayd Rivers by that draught or Tract to the Ocean upon the east side & soe to the west & soe fare as the Continent extends itselfe with all & every their appurtenances & alsoe all those our Islands of beayus Bahama & all other Isles & Islands lying southerly there or neare upon the foresayd continent all which lye inclusively within the degrees of 31 & 36 of Northerne latitude; And all & singular the ports & stations of shippes & the Creeks of the sea belonging to the Rivers, Islands & lands aforesaid; with the fishings of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons & of other Royaltyes in the sea or in the rivers moreover all veines, mines or pits either upon or conceald of Gold, Silver Jewells & precious stones & all other things whatsoever, whither of stones or metalls or any other thing or matter found or to be found in the Region Territory Isles or limitts aforesaid. And furthermore the patronages and advowsons of all churches which shall happen to be built hereafter in the said Region Territory & Isles and limitts by the increase of the religion & worship of Christ Together with all & singular these & these soe amply, Rights Jurisdictions, priviledges prerogatives Royaltyes libertyes immunityes with Royall rights & franchises whatsoever as well by sea as by land, within that Region Territory Isles & limitts aforesaid To have exercise use & enjoy in like manner as any Bishop of Durham within the Bpricke or County palatine of Durham in our kingdome of England ever heretofore had held used or enjoyed or of right ought or could have hold use or enjoy. And by the presents we make create & constitute the same Sr Robert Heath his heires & assignes true and absolute Lords & Proprietors of the Region & Territory aforesaid & all other the premises for us our heires & successors saveing alwaies the faith & allegiance due to us our heires & successors. To have hold possess & enjoy the said Region Isles Rivers & the rest of the premises to the said Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes to the sole & proper use & behoofe of him Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes for ever with that meaning that the said Sr Robert Heath his heires & assignes shall plant the premisses according to certaine instructions & directions of oures signed with our Royall hand of the date of the presents remaining with our principall Secretary to our use our heires & successors To be held of us our heires & successors Kings of England in Cheife by knights service & by paying for it to us our heires & successors one Circle of Gold formed in the fashion of a crowne of the weight of twenty Ounces with this inscription ingraved upon it Deos Coronet Opus Suum whensoever & as often as it shall happen, that we our heires or successors shall enter the said Region, & also the fifth & part of all the metall of Gold & Silver (which in English is called Gold & Silver Oare) which shall from time to time happen to be found within the foresayd limits & such a proportion of the profitts & commodityes out of the premises as are fully conteined in the instructions & declarations aforesaid.

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But that the aforesaid region or Territory soe granted & described may be more illustrious by us than all the other Regions of that land & may be adorned with more ample Titles.

Know that we of our free grace certain knowledge & meere motion doe thinke fit to erect the sayd Region Territory & Isles into a Province & by the fulness of our power & Kingly Authority for us our heires & successors, we doe erect & incorporate them into a province & name the same Carolina or the province of Carolina, & the foresaid Isles the Carolarns Islands & soe we will that in all times hereafter they shall be named. And because we herebefore have ordained & made the foresd Sr Robert Heath Knight true lord & proprietor of all the aforenamed Province. Furthermore know yee that we for ourselves our heires & successors doe give power to the said Sr Robert (of whose faith prudence industry & provident circumspection we have great confidence) & to his heires & assignes for the good & happy Government of the said Province to forme make & enact & publish under the seale of the said Sr Robert his heires & assignes what lawes soever may concerne the publicke state of the said province or the private profitt of all according to the wholesome directions of & with the counsell assent & approbation of the Freeholders of the same Province or the Major part of them who when & as often as need shall require shall by the aforesaid Sr Robert Heath his Heires & Assignes & in that forme which to him or them shall seem best, be called together to make lawes & those to be for all men within the said province & the bounds of it for the time beeing or under his or their Government or power either sayling towards Carolana or returning from thence either outward to England or outward to any other dominion of ours whatsoever constituted by imposition of fines imprisonment or any other constraint whatsoever & we grant to the said Sr Robert his heires & assignes free full & all kind of power by the Tenour of these presents if the qualitye of the offence requires it to punish by the losse of life or limbe by himself his heires or assignes, or by their Deputyes Lieutenants Judges Justices Magestrates Officers & ministers to be constituted & made according to the tenour & true intent of these presents duely to be executed: And also to the said Sr Robert Heath his heires & assignes as to them shall seem most meet power of constituting & ordaining Judges & Justices Magestrates & officers whatsoever for whatsoever causes and with what power soever & in what forme by sea or by land. Alsoe crimes & all excesses whatsoever against such lawes either before judgement received or after, power of remitting releasing pardoning & abolishing; & all & singular complements of justice courts tribunalls forms of judgements & manners of processe belonging to them although there be not mention made nor expression of them in these presents which laws as aforesaid to be proclaimed & to be endowed with the most absolute firmnesse of right, we will injoyne command & order that they be inviolably observed & kept by all men the Lieges & Subjects of us our heires & successors (as farre as it may concerne them) & under the paines in them expressed & to be expressed yet soe that the foresaid lawes & ordinances be consonant to Reason and not repugnant or contrary but (as conveniently as may be done) consonant to the lawes, statutes, customes & rights of our Realme of England.

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And because in the Government of soe great a Province sudden chances many times happen to which it will be necessary to apply a remedy before that the Freeholders of the sayd province can be called together to make lawes, neither will it be convenient, upon a continued title in an emergent occasion to gather together soe great a people therefore for the better Government of the sayd Province, we will & ordaine & by these presents for Us our Heires & Successors; doe grant unto the said Sr Robert Heath his Heires & Assignes by himself or by magistrates & officers duly constituted for that purpose (as before is sayd) shall & may have power from time to time to make & constitute wholesome & convenient Ordinances within the Province aforesaid & be kept & observed as well for the preserving the peace as for the better Government of the people there liveing; & to give publicke notice of them to all whom it doth or may concerne: which Ordinances we will that they be inviolably observed within the sayd Province under the paines expressed in them soe as the sayd Ordinances be consonant to Reason & not repugnant nor contrary, but (as conveniently as may be done) consonant to the laws, statutes & rights of our Realme of England as is aforesaid soe alsoe that the same Ordinances extend not themselves against the right or interest of any person or persons or to distrayne bind or burden in or upon his freehold goods or chattels: or to be received any where there in the same Province or the Isles aforesayd.

Moreover that New Carolana may happily increase by the multitude of people thronging thither & alsoe that they be firmely defended from the incursions of the Barbarous & of others practicall or plundering enemyes. Therefore we for ourselves our Heires & Successors at the will & pleasure of the sayd Sr Robert Heath his heires and assignes, doe give & grant by these presents to all men & our subjects, leiges of our heires and successors both those in present & to come (unless it shall be in an especiall manner forbidden) power, licence & libertye to build & fortifye themselves & their familyes in the sayd Province of Carolana for the publicke safety of their seats there planted, tilled & inhabited with forts castles & other fortifications, with fitting shipes alsoe & convenient furniture for transportation the statute of fugitives or any other whatsoever contrary to these premises in any wise notwithstanding. We will alsoe & for Us our Heires & successors out of our great favour we firmely comand constitute ordaine & require that the said Province be in our Allegiance & that all & every our subjects & leiges & of our heires & successors brought or to be brought into the said Province, their children either their already borne or hereafter to be borne are & shall be Naturall and leiges to us our Heires & successors & in all things shall be held, treated reputed & accounted as faithfull leiges of us, our heires & successors borne in our Kingdom of England. And alsoe that they shall possesse lands, tenements, rents services & Hereditaments whatsoever with our Kingdome of England & other our Dominions to purchase, receive, take, have, hold, buy and possesse & them to use & enjoy & alsoe then to give sell alienate & bequeath & alsoe all libertyes, franchises & priviledges of this our Realme, to have & possess freely quietly & peaceably & that they may use & Edition: current; Page: [73] enjoy them as our leiges borne or to be borne within our Kingdom of England, without impediment, molestation or vexation, claime or grievance from us our Heires & successors whatsoever; any statute, act Ordinance or provision here upon to the contrary notwithstanding: furthermore that our subjects may be incited with a ready & cheerful mind, to undertake this expedition with the hope of gaine & the meeknesse of priviledges. Know that we out of our especiall favour, certain knowledge & meere motion doe give license & grant free power, as well to the said Sr Robert Heath Knight his Heires & assignes as to all others who shall goe from time to time to inhabite in Carolana aforesaid, all & singular their goods as well moveable as immoveable wares, merchandize alsoe weapons & warlicke instruments offensive & defensive in any ports of ours, our Heires & successors to be laded in shippes, for to be transported into the province of Corolana, by him or his, or their assignes & this without molestation by us our Heires & successors or any officers of us our Heires or successors, or farmers to us, our Heires & successors: paying notwithstanding to us, our Heires & successors all & all manner of impositions, subsidyes, customes & other Dues for the sayd things wares & merchandises soe exported as are usuall & accustomed, any statute act Ordinance or other thing whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. Alwaies provided that before the sayd Goodes, things & merchandises are carried to & loaded in the shippes that licence for them be desired & obtained from the High Treasurer of the Kingdome of England to us, our heires & successors, or the commissioners for our Treasurye or from six or more of the Privy Councell, of us our Heires & successors inscribed under their hands To which Treasurer Commissioners & privy Councell of us our heirs & successors or to any sixe or more of them; we for ourselves our Heires & successors have given & granted as by these presents we doe give & grant power to grant licence in the form aforesayd. And because in soe remote a Region, seated among so many barbarous nations it is probable that the incursions as well of those Barbarous as of other enemyes Pirates & Robbers may cause feare. Therefore we for ourselves our Heires & successors have given to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes by himself his Captains or other his officers, that all men of whatever condition, or wherever borne, being at that time in the Province of Carolana power to call to their colours, to cause Musters to make warre, to pursue enemyes & Robbers aforesaid by land & sea, even beyond the bounds of his province, and then (with Gods blessing) to overcome & to take, & being taken by right of warre to slay, or according to his pleasure to preserve, & all & every thing which doe appertaine to the right & office of a Captaine Generall or have been used to appertaine to be done & by these presents doe give full & free power as any Captaine Generall ever had.

Will will also & by this our charter doe give power, liberty and Authority to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes that in case of Rebellion sudden tumult or sedition, if any such shall chance to be which (God forbid) either upon the land within this Province aforesayd, or upon the wide Ocean, either Edition: current; Page: [74] makeing a journey towards Carolana aforesayd or returning from thence, we by these presents for us our heires & successors doe give & grant power and authoritye most ample to himself or by Captaines Deputyes or other their officers authorised to this purpose under their seales, against all authors of innovations, seditions against the Government of him or them, withdrawing themselves speakers evill of the militia, renegadors, deserters______ or any others whatsoever offending against the matter manner & discipline military shall by them be punished by law militarye soe freely and in such ample manner & forme as any Captaine Generall by the vertue of his office may or could doe.

Furthermore least the way to Honours & Dignityes may seem to be shutt & altogether barr’d up to men honestly borne, & are willing to undertake this present expedition & are desirous in soe remote and far distant a Region to deserve well of us & of our kingdomes in peace & warre for that doe for ourselves our heires & successors give full & free power to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes to confere favours graces & honours upon those well deserveing citizens that inhabit within the foresayd province & the same with whatever Titles & dignityes (provided they be not the same as are now used in England) to adorne at his pleasure alsoe to erect villages into Borowes & Borowes into Cittyes for the meritts of the inhabitants and conveniency of the places with priviledges & befitting immunityes to be erected & incorporated, & to doe all other & singular upon the premises which shall seem most convenient to him or them, although they be such which of their owne natures doe require mandates or warrant more especiall then is expressed in these presents. And because the beginnings of Colonys & all publicke goods & affayres doe want to labour under divers inconveniences & difficutyes, therefore wee favoring the beginning of this present Colonye, & that those that are molested in one thing may be relieved in another providing by our kingly care, out of our espetiall grace, certaine knowledge & moor motion, by this our charter do give and grant licence to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath his heires & assignes & to all the Dwellers & inhabits of Carolana aforesayd whatsoever both present & to come: That whatsoever wares and merchandises out of the growth & increase of the sayd Province by land or sea, freely to bring by himselfe or his factors or assignes into whatever port of us, our heires & successors of our kingdomes of England or Ireland & them to unlode and otherwise thereof to dispose, or if need be continually to keep for a whole yeare the sayd merchandises from being unloaded, or them againe into the same or other shippes to lode, & to export them into what Regions soever they please whither ours or others strangers. Alwayes provided that soe many & such customes impositions subsidyes & Toles & other dutyes which they are bound to pay to us, our heires and successors & onely such & the like as our other subjects for the time beeing are bound to pay, beyond what & which by noe meanes we will that the inhabitants of the aforesayd Carolana be molested or grieved.

And furthermore of our more ample & espetial favour & out of our certaine knowledge & meer motion we for ourselves our heires & successors doe grant to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath King his Heires Edition: current; Page: [75] & Assignes full & absolute power and authority of makeing erecting & constituting within the foresayd province of Carolana & the Isles aforesayd soe many or such sea-ports stations of shippes creeks & other places of lodeing for shippes boats & other vessels & in soe many & in such like places & with such rights jurisdictions libertyes & priviledges belonging to the like ports as to him or them shall seeme most expedient & that all & singular shippes boates & other vessells whatsoever, for whatever cause of merchandising comeing to or goeing from the sayd Province shall be loded & unloded only at such ports as shall be erected & appointed soe by the sayd Sr Robert Heath his Heires or assignes any use or custome or any other thing notwithstanding. Alwaies saveing & reserveing to all our subjects of our Kingdom of England our Heires & successors liberty of fishing as well in the sea as in the creeks of the foresayd Province & priveledge to salt harden & drye fishes upon the shores of the said province; as it hath been reasonably used & enjoyed heretofore anything in these presents to the contrary notwithstanding. All which libertyes & priveledges the subjects of us our heires & successors as is aforesd shall enjoy yer without doeing any notable hurt or injury in any way to the aforesd Sr Robert Heath his heires & assignes or to the Dwellers or inhabitants on the ports, creeks & shores aforesayd of the same Province; & more especiall in their Trees there growing; And if any one committe any such harme or injury he shall undergoe the peril & danger of the highest displeasure of us our heires & successors & the due chastisem of the Law. And if by chance hereafter some doubts & questions may be framed about the true sence & meaning of any word clause or sentence contain’d in this our present charter we will, enjoyne & comand that alwaies & in all things that interpretation be used & shall be received in all our Courtes which shall be judged more benigne profitable & favourable to the foresayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his Heires & assignes & to the Dwellers & inhabitants of the foresayd Province, provided alwaies that noe interpretation be made by which the religion of the holy God & true christian, or the Allegiance due to us our heires & successors may suffer in the least any lessening prejudice or losse. Neverthelesse we will & our trust in the aforesayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes is & the aforesaid Sr Robert Heath Knight for himselfe, his heires executors & assignes doth agree & grant to & with us our heires & successors that the sayd Sr Robert Heath Knight his heires & assignes in the Province & foresayd Isles to be planted & inhabited shall soe behave themselves in all things as we by our instructions and directions signed with our Royall hand as aforesaid most espetially to instruct & direct them, shall thinke most convenient and necessary for our honour & service.

Neverthelesse alwaies provided that it shall happen the River or Rivelett or Isles aforesayd or other the premises or any part or parcell of the same to be now granted to any person or persons by us or by our deare father King James, or is now actually possessed or inhabited by any of our subjects or by the subjects of any other Christian Prince or State, that then those our letters patents & all in them conteined, soe farre as the conteine soe much of the premises soe granted, and are now so actually possessed & inhabited as is Edition: current; Page: [76] aforesayd shall be void & of noe effect. These our letters patents or anything in them conteined to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. And that expresse mention &c.; In witnesse whereof &c: Witnesse the King at Westminster the thirtyeth day of Oct: & yre de privato sigillo And we have thought fit by these presents to exemplifye the Tenour and inrollment of our foresayd letters patents, at the request of the foresayd Sr Robert Heath Knight.

In Testimony whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents witnesse our selfe at Canbury the fourth day of August in the seventh year of our Reign.

Exam: by us { Jo: Mychell et Rob: Rich } clerckes.
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THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION OF THE UNITED COLONIES OF NEW ENGLAND—1643-1684*

The Articles of Confederation between the Plantations under the Government of the Massachusetts, the Plantations under the Government of New Plymouth, the Plantations under the Government of Connecticut, and the Government of New Haven with the Plantations in Combination therewith:

Whereas we all came into these parts of America with one and the same end and aim, namely, to advance the Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ and to enjoy the liberties of the Gospel in purity with peace; and whereas in our settling (by a wise providence of God) we are further dispersed upon the sea coasts and rivers than was at first intended, so that we can not according to our desire with convenience communicate in one government and jurisdiction; and whereas we live encompassed with people of several nations and strange languages which hereafter may prove injurious to us or our posterity. And forasmuch as the natives have formerly committed sundry insolence and outrages upon several Plantations of the English and have of late combined themselves against us: and seeing by reason of those sad distractions in England which they have heard of, and by which they know we are hindered from that humble way of seeking advice, or reaping those comfortable fruits of protection, which at other times we might well expect. We therefore do conceive it our bounden duty, without delay to enter into a present Consociation amongst ourselves, for mutual help and strength in all our future concernments: That, as in nation and religion, so in other respects, we be and continue one according to the tenor and true meaning of the ensuing articles: Wherefore it is fully agreed and concluded by and between the parties or Jurisdictions above named, and they jointly and severally do by these presents agree and conclude that they all be and henceforth be called by the name of the United Colonies of New England.

2. The said United Colonies for themselves and their posterities do jointly and severally hereby enter into a firm and perpetual league of friendship and amity for offence and defence, mutual advice and succor upon all just occasions both for preserving and propagating the truth and liberties of the Gospel and for their own mutual safety and welfare.

3. It is further agreed that the Plantations which at present are or hereafter shall be settled within the limits of the Massachusetts shall be forever under the Massachusetts and shall have peculiar Edition: current; Page: [78] jurisdiction among themselves in all cases as an entire body, and that Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven shall each of them have like peculiar jurisdiction and government within their limits; and in reference to the Plantations which already are settled, or shall hereafter be erected, or shall settle within their limits respectively; provided no other Jurisdiction shall hereafter be taken in as a distinct head or member of this Confederation, nor shall any other Plantation or Jurisdiction in present being, and not already in combination or under the jurisdiction of any of these Confederates, be received by any of them; nor shall any two of the Confederates join in one Jurisdiction without consent of the rest, which consent to be interpreted as is expressed in the sixth article ensuing.

4. It is by these Confederates agreed that the charge of all just wars, whether offensive or defensive, upon what part or member of this Confederation soever they fall, shall both in men, provisions, and all other disbursements be borne by all the parts of this Confederation in different proportions according to their different ability in manner following, namely, that the Commissioners for each Jurisdiction from time to time, as there shall be occasion, bring a true account and number of all their males in every Plantation, or any way belonging to or under their several Jurisdictions, of what quality or condition soever they be, from sixteen years old to three-score, being inhabitants there. And that according to the different numbers which from time to time shall be found in each Jurisdiction upon a true and just account, the service of men and all charges of the war be borne by the poll: each Jurisdiction or Plantation being left to their own just course and custom of rating themselves and people according to their different estates with due respects to their qualities and exemptions amongst themselves though the Confederation take no notice of any such privilege: and that according to their different charge of each Jurisdiction and Plantation the whole advantage of the war (if it please God so to bless their endeavors) whether it be in lands, goods, or persons, shall be proportionably divided among the said Confederates.

5. It is further agreed, that if any of these Jurisdictions or any Plantation under or in combination with them, be invaded by any enemy whomsoever, upon notice and request of any three magistrates of that Jurisdiction so invaded, the rest of the Confederates without any further meeting or expostulation shall forthwith send aid to the Confederate in danger but in different proportions; namely, the Massachusetts an hundred men sufficiently armed and provided for such a service and journey, and each of the rest, forty-five so armed and provided, or any less number, if less be required according to this proportion. But if such Confederate in danger may be supplied by their next Confederates, not exceeding the number hereby agreed, they may crave help there, and seek no further for the present: the charge to be borne as in this article is expressed: and at the return to be victualled and supplied with powder and shot for their journey (if there be need) by that Jurisdiction which employed or sent for them; but none of the Jurisdictions to exceed these numbers until by a meeting of the Commissioners for this Confederation a greater aid appear necessary. And this proportion to continue till upon knowledge of greater numbers in each Jurisdiction which shall be Edition: current; Page: [79] brought to the next meeting, some other proportion be ordered. But in any such case of sending men for present aid, whether before or after such order or alteration, it is agreed that at the meeting of the Commissioners for this Confederation, the cause of such war or invasion be duly considered: and if it appear that the fault lay in the parties so invaded then that Jurisdiction or Plantation make just satisfaction, both to the invaders whom they have injured, and bear all the charges of the war themselves, without requiring any allowance from the rest of the Confederates towards the same. And further that if any Jurisdiction see any danger of invasion approaching, and there be time for a meeting, that in such a case three magistrates of the Jurisdiction may summon a meeting at such convenient place as themselves shall think meet, to consider and provide against the threatened danger; provided when they are met they may remove to what place they please; only whilst any of these four Confederates have but three magistrates in their Jurisdiction, their requests, or summons, from any two of them shall be accounted of equal force with the three mentioned in both the clauses of this article, till there be an increase of magistrates there.

6. It is also agreed, that for the managing and concluding of all affairs proper, and concerning the whole Confederation two Commissioners shall be chosen by and out of each of these four Jurisdictions: namely, two for the Massachusetts, two for Plymouth, two for Connecticut, and two for New Haven, being all in Church-fellowship with us, which shall bring full power from their several General Courts respectively to hear, examine, weigh, and determine all affairs of our war, or peace, leagues, aids, charges, and numbers of men for war, division of spoils and whatsoever is gotten by conquest, receiving of more Confederates for Plantations into combination with any of the Confederates, and all things of like nature, which are the proper concomitants or consequents of such a Confederation for amity, offence, and defence: not intermeddling with the government of any of the Jurisdictions, which by the third article is preserved entirely to themselves. But if these eight Commissioners when they meet shall not all agree yet it [is] concluded that any six of the eight agreeing shall have power to settle and determine the business in question. But if six do not agree, that then such propositions with their reasons so far as they have been debated, be sent and referred to the four General Courts; namely, the Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven; and if at all the said General Courts the business so referred be concluded, then to be prosecuted by the Confederates and all their members. It is further agreed that these eight Commissioners shall meet once every year besides extraordinary meetings (according to the fifth article) to consider, treat, and conclude of all affairs belonging to this Confederation, which meeting shall ever be the first Thursday in September. And that the next meeting after the date of these presents, which shall be accounted the second meeting, shall be at Boston in the Massachusetts, the third at Hartford, the fourth at New Haven, the fifth at Plymouth, the sixth and seventh at Boston; and then Hartford, New Haven, and Plymouth, and so in course successively, if in the meantime some middle place be not found out and agreed on, which may be commodious for all the Jurisdictions.

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7. It is further agreed that at each meeting of these eight Commissioners, whether ordinary or extraordinary, they or six of them agreeing as before, may choose their President out of themselves whose office and work shall be to take care and direct for order and a comely carrying on of all proceedings in the present meeting: but he shall be invested with no such power or respect, as by which he shall hinder the propounding or progress of any business, or any way cast the scales otherwise than in the precedent article is agreed.

8. It is also agreed that the Commissioners for this Confederation hereafter at their meetings, whether ordinary or extraordinary, as they may have commission or opportunity, do endeavor to frame and establish agreements and orders in general cases of a civil nature, wherein all the Plantations are interested, for preserving of peace among themselves, for preventing as much as may be all occasion of war or differences with others, as about the free and speedy passage of justice in every Jurisdiction, to all the Confederates equally as to their own, receiving those that remove from one Plantation to another without due certificate, how all the Jurisdictions may carry it towards the Indians, that they neither grow insolent nor be injured without due satisfaction, lest war break in upon the Confederates through such miscarriages. It is also agreed that if any servant run away from his master into any other of these confederated Jurisdictions, that in such case, upon the ceritficate of one magistrate in the Jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled, or upon other due proof; the said servant shall be delivered, either to his master, or any other that pursues and brings such certificate or proof. And that upon the escape of any prisoner whatsoever, or fugitive for any criminal cause, whether breaking prison, or getting from the officer, or otherwise escaping, upon the certificate of two magistrates of the Jurisdiction out of which the escape is made, that he was a prisoner, or such an offender at the time of the escape, the magistrates, or some of them of that Jurisdiction where for the present the said prisoner or fugitive abideth, shall forthwith grant such a warrant as the case will bear, for the apprehending of any such person, and the delivery of him into the hands of the officer or other person who pursues him. And if there be help required, for the safe returning of any such offender, then it shall be granted to him that craves the same, he paying the charges thereof.

9. And for that the justest wars may be of dangerous consequence, especially to the smaller Plantations in these United Colonies, it is agreed that neither the Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, nor New Haven, nor any of the members of them, shall at any time hereafter begin, undertake, or engage themselves, or this Confederation, or any part thereof in any war whatsoever (sudden exigencies, with the necessary consequents thereof excepted), which are also to be moderated as much as the case will permit, without the consent and agreement of the forementioned eight Commissioners, or at least six of them, as in the sixth article is provided: and that no charge be required of any of the Confederates, in case of a defensive war, till the said Commissioners have met, and approved the justice of the war, and have agreed upon the sum of money to be levied, which sum is then to be paid by the several Confederates in proportion according to the fourth article.

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10. That in extraordinary occasions, when meetings are summoned by three magistrates of any Jurisdiction, or two as in the fifth article, if any of the Commissioners come not, due warning being given or sent, it is agreed that four of the Commissioners shall have power to direct a war which cannot be delayed, and to send for due proportions of men out of each Jurisdiction, as well as six might do if all met; but not less than six shall determine the justice of the war, or allow the demands or bills of charges, or cause any levies to be made for the same.

11. It is further agreed that if any of the Confederates shall hereafter break any of these present articles, or be any other ways injurious to any one of the other Jurisdictions; such breach of agreement or injury shall be duly considered and ordered by the Commissioners for the other Jurisdictions, that both peace and this present Confederation may be entirely preserved without violation.

12. Lastly, this perpetual Confederation, and the several articles and agreements thereof being read and seriously considered, both by the General Court for the Massachusetts, and by the Commissioners for Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, were fully allowed and confirmed by three of the forenamed Confederates, namely, the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven; only the Commissioners for Plymouth having no commission to conclude, desired respite until they might advise with their General Court; whereupon it was agreed and concluded by the said Court of the Massachusetts, and the Commissioners for the other two Confederates, that, if Plymouth consent, then the whole treaty as it stands in these present articles is, and shall continue, firm and stable without alteration: but if Plymouth come not in yet the other three Confederates do by these presents confirm the whole Confederation, and all the articles thereof; only in September next when the second meeting of the Commissioners is to be at Boston, new consideration may be taken of the sixth article, which concerns number of Commissioners for meeting and concluding the affairs of this Confederation to the satisfaction of the Court of the Massachusetts, and the Commissioners for the other two Confederates, but the rest to stand unquestioned.

In testimony whereof, the General Court of the Massachusetts by their Secretary, and the Commissioners for Connecticut and New Haven, have subscribed these present articles of this nineteenth of the third month, commonly called May, Anno Domini 1643.

At a meeting of the Commissioners for the Confederation held at Boston the 7th of September, it appearing that the General Court of New Plymouth and the several townships thereof have read, considered, and approved these Articles of Confederation, as appeareth by commission of their General Court bearing date the 29th of August, 1643, to Mr. Edward Winslow and Mr. William Collier to ratify and confirm the same on their behalf: we therefore, the Commissioners for the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Haven, do also from our several Governments subscribe unto them.

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THE ALBANY PLAN—1754a

PLAN OF UNION ADOPTED BY THE CONVENTION AT ALBANY

It is proposed, that humble application be made for an act of Parliament of Great Britain, by virtue of which one general government may be formed in America, including all the said colonies, within and under which government each colony may retain its present constitution, except in the particulars wherein a change may be directed by the said act, as hereafter follows.

PRESIDENT-GENERAL AND GRAND COUNCIL

That the said general government be administered by a President-General, to be appointed and supported by the crown; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several colonies met in their respective Assemblies.

ELECTION OF MEMBERS

That within ——— months after the passing of such act, the House of Representatives that happens to be sitting within that time, or that shall be especially for that purpose convened, may and shall choose members for the Grand Council in the following proportion—that is to say:

Massachusetts Bay 7 New Hampshire 2 Connecticut 5 Rhode Island 2 New York 4 New Jersey 3 Pennsylvania 6 Maryland 4 Virginia 7 North Carolina 4 South Carolina 4 48

PLACE OF FIRST MEETING

——— who shall meet for the first time at the city of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, being called by the President-General as soon as conveniently may be after his appointment.

NEW ELECTION

That there shall be a new election of the members of the Grand Council every three years; and on the death or resignation of any member, his place should be supplied by a new choice at the next sitting of the Assembly of the colony he represented.

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PROPORTION OF MEMBERS AFTER THE FIRST THREE YEARS

That after the first three years, when the proportion of money arising out of each colony to the general treasury can be known, the number of members to be chosen for each colony shall from time to time, in all ensuing elections, be regulated by that proportion, yet so as that the number to be chosen by any one province be not more than seven, nor less than two.

MEETINGS OF THE GRAND COUNCIL, AND CALL

That the Grand Council shall meet once in every year, and oftener if occasion require, at such time and place as they shall adjourn to at the last preceding meeting, or as they shall be called to meet by the President-General on any emergency, he having first obtained in writing the consent of seven of the members to such call, and sent due and timely notice to the whole.

CONTINUANCE

That the Grand Council have power to choose their speaker and shall neither be dissolved, prorogued, nor continued sitting longer than six weeks at one time, without their own consent or the special command of the crown.

MEMBERS’ ALLOWANCE

That the members of the Grand Council shall be allowed for their service ten shillings sterling per diem during their session and journey to and from the place of meeting; twenty miles to be reckoned a day’s journey.

ASSENT OF PRESIDENT-GENERAL AND HIS DUTY

That the assent of the President-General be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried into execution.

POWER OF PRESIDENT-GENERAL AND GRAND COUNCIL; TREATIES OF PEACE AND WAR

That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties in which the general interest of the colonies may be concerned; and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.

INDIAN TRADE

That they make such laws as they judge necessary for regulating all Indian trade.

INDIAN PURCHASES

That they make all purchases, from Indians for the crown, of lands not now within the bounds of particular colonies, or that shall not be within their bounds when some of them are reduced to more convenient dimensions.

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NEW SETTLEMENTS

That they make new settlements on such purchases, by granting lands in the King’s name, reserving a quit-rent to the crown for the use of the general treasury.

LAWS TO GOVERN THEM

That they make laws for regulating and governing such new settlements till the crown shall think it fit to form them into particular governments.

RAISE SOLDIERS AND EQUIP VESSELS, &C

That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of the colonies, and equip vessels of force to guard the coasts and protect the trade on the ocean, lakes, or great rivers; but they shall not impress men in any colony without the consent of the legislature.

POWER TO MAKE LAWS, LAY DUTIES, &C

That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes as to them shall appear most equal and just (considering the ability and other circumstances of the inhabitants in the several colonies), and such as may be collected with the least inconvenience to the people; rather discouraging luxury than loading industry with unnecessary burthens.

GENERAL TREASURER AND PARTICULAR TREASURER

That they may appoint a General Treasurer and Particular Treasurer in each government, when necessary; and from time to time may order the sums in the treasuries of each government into the general treasury, or draw on them for special payments, as they find most convenient.

MONEY, HOW TO ISSUE

Yet no money to issue but by joint orders of the President-General and Grand Council; except where sums have been appropriated to particular purposes, and the President-General is previously empowered by an act to draw such sums.

ACCOUNTS

That the general accounts shall be yearly settled and reported to the several Assemblies.

QUORUM

That a Quorum of the Grand Council, empowered to act with the President-General, do consist of twenty-five members, among whom there shall be one or more from a majority of the colonies.

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LAWS TO BE TRANSMITTED

That the laws made by them for the purposes aforesaid shall not be repugnant, but, as near as may be, agreeable to the laws of England, and shall be transmitted to the King in Council for approbation as soon as may be after their passing; and if not disapproved within three years after presentation, to remain in force.

DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT-GENERAL

That in case of the death of the President-General, the Speaker of the Grand Council for the time being shall succeed, and be vested with the same powers and authorities, to continue till the King’s pleasure be known.

OFFICERS, HOW APPOINTED

That all military commission officers, whether for land or sea service, to act under this general constitution, shall be nominated by the President-General; but the approbation of the Grand Council is to be obtained before they receive their commissions. And all civil officers are to be nominated by the Grand Council, and to receive the President-General’s approbation before they officiate.

VACANCIES, HOW SUPPLIED

But in case of vacancy by death or removal of any officer, civil or military, under this constitution, the Governor of the province in which such vacancy happens may appoint, till the pleasure of the President-General and Grand Council can be known.

Each Colony May Defend Itself On Emergency, &c. That the particular military as well as civil establishments in each colony remain in their present state, the general constitution notwithstanding; and that on sudden emergencies any colony may defend itself, and lay the accounts of expense thence arising before the President-General and General Council, who may allow and order payment of the same, as far as they judge such accounts just and reasonable.

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Organic Laws State, Territorial, and Colonial

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ALABAMAa

For organic acts issued before 1817 relating to the land now included within the limits of Alabama, see in this work:

Proprietary Charter of Carolina, 1663 (North Carolina, p. 2743).
Proprietary Proposals, 1663 (North Carolina, p. 2753).
Proprietary Charter of Carolina, 1665 (North Carolina, p. 2761).
Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, 1669 (North Carolina, p. 2772).
Proprietary Charter of Georgia, 1732 (Georgia, p. 765).
Constitution of South Carolina, 1776 (South Carolina, p. 3241).
Constitution of Georgia, 1777 (Georgia, p. 777).
Constitution of South Carolina, 1778 (South Carolina, p. 3248).
Constitution of Georgia, 1789 (Georgia, p. 785).
Territory South of Ohio River, 1790 (Tennessee, p. 3413).
Territorial Government of Mississippi, 1798 (Mississippi, p. 2025).
Territorial Government of Mississippi, 1800 (Mississippi, p. 2027).
Territorial Government of Mississippi, 1808 (Mississippi, p. 2029).
Proclamation respecting Occupation of Territory, 1810 (Louisiana, p. 1375).

TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT OF ALABAMA—1817b

[Fourteenth Congress, Second Session]

An Act to establish a separate Territorial Government for the eastern part of the Mississippi Territory

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all that part of the Mississippi Territory which lies within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the point where the line of the thirty-first degree of north latitude intersects the Perdido River, thence east to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia, thence along said line to the southern boundary-line to the State of Tennessee, thence west along said boundary-line to the Tennessee River, thence up the same to the mouth of Bear Creek, thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington County, thence due Edition: current; Page: [90] south to the Gulf of Mexico, thence eastwardly, including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River, and thence up the same to the beginning; shall, for the purpose of a temporary government, constitute a separate Territory, and be called “Alabama.”

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That all offices which may exist, and all laws which may be in force, in said Territory, within the boundaries above described, at the time this act shall go into effect, shall continue to exist, and be in force, until otherwise provided by law. And the President of the United States shall have power to appoint a governor and secretary for the said Alabama Territory, who shall, respectively, exercise the same power, perform the same duties, and receive for their services the same compensation, as are provided for the governor and secretary of the Mississippi Territory: Provided, That the appointment of said governor and secretary shall be submitted to the Senate, for their advice and consent, at the next session of Congress.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That there shall be appointed an additional judge for the Mississippi Territory, who shall reside in the eastern part thereof, and receive the same compensation as the other judges; and that the judge appointed by virtue of an act, passed the twenty-seventh day of March, one thousand eight hundred and four, for the appointment of an additional judge for the Mississippi Territory, together with the judge appointed for Madison County, and the judge to be appointed by virtue of this act, shall possess and exercise exclusive original jurisdiction in the superior courts of Washington, Baldwin, Clarke, Monroe, Montgomery, Wayne, Greene, Jackson, Mobile, Madison, and of such new counties as may be formed out of them, and shall arrange the same among themselves, from time to time: Provided, That no judge shall sit more than twice in succession in the same court, and that the other judges of the Mississippi Territory shall exercise, as heretofore authorized by an act of Congress, or of the territorial legislature, exclusive jurisdiction in the superior courts of the other counties. That a general court, to be composed of the judge appointed by virtue of the act of twenty-seventh of March, one thousand eight hundred and four, the judge appointed for Madison County, and the judge to be appointed by virtue of this act, or any two of them, shall be holden at Saint Stephens, commencing on the first Mondays in January and July, annually, who shall have the same power of issuing writs of error to the superior courts of the counties mentioned in this section, or which shall hereafter be formed in the eastern division of the Territory, which was given by the act for the appointment of an additional judge, passed the year one thousand eight hundred and four, to the superior court of Adams district, and which shall possess, exclusively of the courts of the several counties, the Federal jurisdiction given to the superior courts of the Territories, by an act passed the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and five, entitled “An act to extend jurisdiction in certain cases to the territorial courts.”

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the governor, to be appointed under the authority of this act, shall, immediately after entering into office, convene, at the town of Saint Stephens, such of the members of the legislative council and house of representatives Edition: current; Page: [91] of the Mississippi Territory, as may then be the representatives from the several counties within the limits of the Territory to be established by this act; and the said members shall constitute the legislative council and house of representatives for the aforesaid Alabama Territory, whose powers, in relation to the said Territory, shall be, until the expiration of the term for which they shall have been chosen, or until Congress shall otherwise provide, the same, in all respects, as are now possessed by the legislative council and house of representatives of the Mississippi Territory; and the said legislative council and house of representatives of the Alabama Territory, so formed, shall have power to nominate six persons to the President of the United States, three of whom shall be selected by him for members of the legislative council, in addition to the number which the said Territory may possess agreebly to the foregoing provisions of this section. The said legislative council and house of representatives shall also have power to elect a Delegate to Congress, who shall, in all respects, possess the same rights and immunities as other Delegates from Territories of the United States.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That this act shall commence and be in force so soon as the convention, the appointment whereof has been authorized by Congress at their present session, shall have formed a constitution and State government for that part of the Mississippi Territory lying west of the Territory herein described; of which act of convention the governor of the Mississippi, for the time being, shall give immediate notice to the President of the United States, who shall thereupon forthwith proceed to the execution of the powers vested in him by the second section of this act; but in case said convention shall fail to form a constitution and State government, as aforesaid, then this act shall become null and void, except so far as relates to the third section thereof, which shall take effect, and be in force, from and after the passage of this act.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That all persons who shall be in office, within the Territory hereby established, when the said convention shall have formed a constitution and State government, as aforesaid, shall continue to hold and exercise their offices, in all respects, as if this act had never been made; and the governor and secretary of the Mississippi Territory, for the time being, shall continue to exercise the duties of their respective offices, in relation to the Territory hereby established, until a governor and secretary shall be appointed therefor, in pursuance to this act.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That all judicial process in the said Territory of Alabama shall be issued, and bear test, as heretofore; nor shall any suit be discontinued, or the proceedings of any cause stayed, or in any wise affected, by anything contained in this act, or in the act entitled “An act to enable the people of the western part of the Mississippi Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States.”

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That the town of Saint Stephens shall be the seat of government for the said Alabama Territory, until it shall be otherwise ordered by the legislature thereof.

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That whatever balance may remain in the treasury of the Mississippi Territory, at the time when Edition: current; Page: [92] the convention authorized to form a constitution and State government for the western part of said Territory, may have formed a constitution and State government for the same, shall be divided between the new State and Territory, according to the amount which may have been paid into said treasury from the counties lying within the limits of such State and Territory respectively.

TREATY WITH SPAIN CEDING FLORIDA—1819

[See “Florida,” page 649.]

ENABLING ACT FOR ALABAMA—1819

[Fifteenth Congress, Second Session.]

An Act to enable the people of the Alabama Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into Union on an equal footing with the original States.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the inhabitants of the Territory of Alabama be, and they are hereby, authorized to form for themselves a constitution and State government, and to assume such name as they may deem proper; and that the said Territory, when formed into a State, shall be admitted into the Union, upon the same footing with the original States, in all respects whatever.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude intersects the Perdido River; thence, east, to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia; thence, along said line, to the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee; thence, west, along said boundary-line, to the Tennessee River; thence, up the same, to the mouth of Bear Creek; thence, by a direct line, to the northwest corner of Washington County; thence, due south, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence, eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River; and thence, up the same, to the beginning.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the surveyor of the lands of the United States south of the State of Tennessee, and the surveyor of the public lands in the Alabama Territory, to run and cut out the line of demarcation, between the State of Mississippi and the State to be formed of the Alabama Territory; and if it should appear to said surveyors that so much of said line designated in the preceding section, running due south, from the northwest corner of Washington County to the Gulf of Mexico, will encroach on the counties of Wayne, Greene, or Jackson, in said State of Mississippi, then the same shall be so altered as to run in a direct line from the northwest corner of Washington County to a point on the Gulf of Mexico, ten miles east of the mouth of the river Pascagola.

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Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That all white male citizens of the United States, who shall have arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and have resided in said Territory three months previous to the day of election, and all persons having, in other respects, the legal qualifications to vote for representatives in the general assembly of the said Territory, be, and they are hereby, authorized to choose representatives to form a constitution, who shall be appointed among the several counties as follows:

  • From the county of Madison, eight representatives.
  • From the county of Monroe, four representatives.
  • From the county of Blount, three representatives.
  • From the county of Limestone, three representatives.
  • From the county of Shelby, two representatives.
  • From the county of Montgomery, two representatives.
  • From the county of Washington, two representatives.
  • From the county of Tuscaloosa, two repesentatives.
  • From the county of Lawrence, two representatives.
  • From the county of Franklin, two representatives.
  • From the county of Cotaco, two representatives.
  • From the county of Clark, two representatives.
  • From the county of Baldwin, one representative.
  • From the county of Cawhauba, one representative.
  • From the county of Conecah, one representative.
  • From the county of Dallas, one representative.
  • From the county of Marengo, one representative.
  • From the county of Marion, one representative.
  • From the county of Mobile, one representative.
  • From the county of Lauderdale, one representative.
  • From the county of Saint Clair, one representative.
  • From the county of Autauga, one representative.

And the election for the representatives aforesaid shall be holden on the first Monday and Tuesday in May next, throughout the several counties in the said Territory, and shall be conducted in the same manner, and under the same regulations, as prescribed by the laws of the said Territory regulating elections therein for the members of the House of Representatives.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the members of the convention, thus duly elected, be, and they are hereby, authorized to meet, at the town of Huntsville, on the first Monday in July next; which convention, when met, shall first determine, by a majority of the whole number elected, whether it be, or be not, expedient, at that time, to form a constitution and State government for the people within the said Territory; And if it be determined to be expedient, the convention shall be, and hereby are, authorized to form a constitution and State government: Provided, That the same, when formed shall be republican, and not repugnant to the principles of the ordinance of the thirteenth of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, between the people and States of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, so far as the same has been extended to the said territory, by the articles of agreement between the United States and the State of Georgia, or of the Constitution of the United States.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the following propositions be, and the same are hereby, offered to the convention of the said Territory Edition: current; Page: [94] of Alabama, when formed, for their free acceptance or rejection, which, if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory upon the United States.

First. That the section numbered sixteen in every township, and when such section has been sold, granted, or disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and most contiguous to the same, shall be granted to the inhabitants of such townships for the use of schools.

Second. That all salt-springs within the said Territory, and the lands reserved for the use of the same, together with such other lands as may, by the President of the United States, be deemed necessary and proper for working the said salt-springs, not exceeding in the whole the quantity contained in thirty-six entire sections, shall be granted to the said State, for the use of the people of the said State, the same to be used, under such terms, conditions, and regulations, as the legislature of the said State shall direct: Provided, The said legislature shall never sell nor lease the same for a longer term than ten years at any one time.

Third. That five per cent. of the net proceeds of the lands lying within the said Territory, and which shall be sold by Congress, from and after the first day of September, in the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, after deducting all expenses incident to the same, shall be reserved for making public roads, canals, and inproving the navigation of rivers, of which three-fifths shall be applied to those objects within the said State, under the direction of the legislature thereof, and two-fifths to the making of a road or roads leading to the said State, under the direction of Congress.

Fourth. That thirty-six sections, or one entire township, to be designated by the Secretary of the Treasury, under the direction of the President of the United States, together with the one heretofore reserved for that purpose, shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of learning, and vested in the legislature of the said State, to be appropriated solely to the use of such seminary by the said legislature. And the Secretary of the Treasury, under the direction as aforesaid, may reserve the seventy-two sections, or two townships, hereby set apart for the support of a seminary of learning, in small tracts: Provided, That no tract shall consist of less than two sections: And provided always, That the said convention shall provide, by an ordinance irrevocable without the consent of the United States, that the people inhabitating the said Territory, do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the waste or unappropriated lands lying within the said Territory; and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire disposition of the United States; and, moreover, that each and every tract of land sold by the United States, after the first day of September, in the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, shall be and remain exempt from any tax laid by the order, or under the authority, of the State, whether for State, county, township, parish, or any other purpose whatever, for the term of five years, from and after the respective days of the sales thereof; and that the lands belonging to citizens of the United States, residing without the said State, shall never be taxed higher than the lands belonging to persons residing therein; and that no tax shall be imposed on lands, the property of the United States; and that all navigable waters within the said State shall forever remain public highways, free to the Edition: current; Page: [95] citizens of said State and of the United States, without any tax, duty, impost, or toll, therefor, imposed by the said State.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That, in lieu of a section of land, provided to be reserved for the seat of government of the said Territory, by an act, entitled “An act respecting the surveying and sale of the public lands in the Alabama Territory,” there be granted to the said State, for the seat of the government thereof, a tract of land containing sixteen hundred and twenty acres, and consisting of sundry fractions and a quarter-section, in sections thirty-one and thirty-two, in township sixteen, and range ten, and in sections five and six, in township fifteen, and range ten, and in sections twenty-nine and thirty, in the same township and range, lying on both sides of the Alabama and Cahawba Rivers, and including the mouth of the river Cahawba, and which heretofore has been reserved from the public sale, by order of the President of the United States.

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That, until the next general census shall be taken, the said State shall be entitled to one Representative in the House of Representatives of the United States.

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, in case the said convention shall form a constitution and State government for the people of the Territory of Alabama, the said convention, as soon thereafter as may be, shall cause a true and attested copy of such constitution or frame of government as shall be formed or provided, to be transmitted to Congress, for its approbation.

RESOLUTION FOR THE ADMISSION OF ALABAMA—1819

[Sixteenth Congress, First Session]

Resolution declaring the admission of the State of Alabama into the Union.

Whereas, in pursuance of an act of Congress, passed on the second day of March, one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, entitled “An act to enable the people of the Alabama territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original States,” the people of the said territory did, on the second day of August, in the present year, by a convention called for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution and state government, which constitution and state government, so formed, is republican, and in conformity to the principles of the articles of compact between the original states and the people and states in the territory northwest of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, so far as the same have been extended to the said territory by the articles of agreement between the United States and the state of Georgia:—

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the State of Alabama shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one, of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatever.

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CONSTITUTION OF ALABAMA—1819*

We, the people of the Alabama Territory, having the right of admission into the General Government, as a member of the Union, consistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States, by our representatives, assembled in convention at the town of Huntsville, on Monday, the fifth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, in pursuance of an act of Congress, entitled “An act to enable the people of the Alabama Territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union, on an equal footing with the original States;” in order to establish justice, insure tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the rights of life, liberty, and property, do ordain and establish the following constitution or form of government; and do mutually agree with each other to form ourselves into a free and independent State, by the name of “the State of Alabama.” And we do hereby recognize, confirm, and establish the boundaries assigned to said State by the act of Congress aforesaid, “to wit: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude intersects the Perdido River, thence, east, to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia; thence, along said line, to the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee; thence, west, along said boundary-line, to the Tennessee River; thence, up the same, to the mouth of Bear Creek; thence, by a direct line, to the northwest corner of Washington County; thence, due south, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence, eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River; and thence, up the same, to the beginning”—subject to such alteration as is provided in the third section of said act of Congress, and subject to such enlargement as may be made by law, in consequence of any cession of territory by the United States, or either of them.

Article I: DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:

Section 1. That all freemen, when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive, separate public emoluments or privileges, but in consideration of public services.

Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit: and, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their form of government, in such manner as they may think expedient.

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Sec. 3. No person within this State shall, upon any pretence, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God in the manner most agreeable to his own conscience; nor be compelled to attend any place of worship; nor shall any one ever be obliged to pay any tithes, taxes, or other rate, for the building or repairing any place of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry.

Sec. 4. No human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience.

Sec. 5. No person shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasions, provided he does not disturb others in their religious worship.

Sec. 6. The civil rights, privileges, or capacities of any citizen, shall in no way be diminished or enlarged, on account of his religious principles.

Sec. 7. There shall be no establishment of religion by law; no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination, or mode of worship; and no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.

Sec. 8. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 9. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable seizures or searches; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation, and have a copy thereof; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and, in all prosecutions, by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offence shall have been committed; he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor shall he be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by due course of law.

Sec. 11. No person shall be accused, arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the forms which the same has prescribed; and no person shall be punished, but in virtue of a law, established and promulgated prior to the offence, and legally applied.

Sec. 12. No person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally, by information; except in cases arising in the land and naval forces, or the militia when in actual service, or, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.

Sec. 13. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall any person’s property be taken or applied to public use, unless just compensation be made therefor.

Sec. 14. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done him, in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered, without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 15. No power of suspending laws shall be exercised, except by the general assembly, or its authority.

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Sec. 16. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.

Sec. 17. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient securities, except for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

Sec. 18. The person of a debtor, when there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be detained in prison, after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 19. No ex post facto law, nor law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be made.

Sec. 20. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the general assembly. No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 21. The estates of suicides shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death; if any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

Sec. 22. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Sec. 23. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the State.

Sec. 24. No standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the general assembly; and, in that case, no appropriation of money for its support shall be for a longer term than one year; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 25. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 26. No title of nobility, or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor, or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; nor shall any office be created, the appointment of which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.

Sec. 27. Emigration from this State shall not be prohibited, nor shall any citizen be exiled.

Sec. 28. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

Sec. 29. No person shall be debarred from prosecuting or defending any civil cause, for or against him or herself, before any tribunal in this State, by him or herself, or counsel.

Sec. 30. This enumeration of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and to guard against any encroachments on the rights herein retained, or any transgression of any of the high powers herein delegated, we declare, that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, or to the following provisions, shall remain void.

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Article II: DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS

Section 1. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments; and each of them confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

Article III: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in two distinct branches: the one to be styled the Senate, the other the House of Representatives, and both together “the General Assembly of the State of Alabama;” and the style of their laws shall be, “Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the State of Alabama, in general assembly convened.

aSec. 2. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen by the qualified electors, and shall serve for the term of [one year] from the day of the commencement of the general election, and no longer.

aSec. 3. The representatives shall be chosen [every year] on the first Monday and the day following in August, until otherwise directed by law.

Sec. 4. No person shall be a representative, unless he be a white man, a citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a resident of the county, city, or town, for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained the age of twenty-one years.

Sec. 5. Every white male person of the age of twenty-one years, or upward, who shall be a citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this State one year next preceding an election, and the last three months within the county, city, or town, in which he offers to vote, shall be deemed a qualified elector: Provided, That no soldier, seaman, or marine, in the regular Army or Navy of the United States, shall be entitled to vote at any election in this State; And provided, also, That no elector shall be entitled to vote except in the county, city, or town (entitled to separate representation) in which he may reside at the time of the election.

Sec. 6. Electors shall, in all cases except in those of treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

Sec. 7. In all elections by the people, the electors shall vote by ballot, until the general assembly shall otherwise direct.

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Sec. 8. Elections for representatives for the several counties shall be held at the place of holding their respective courts, and at such other places as may be prescribed by law: Provided, That when it shall appear to the general assembly that any city or town shall have a number of white inhabitants equal to the ratio then fixed, such city or town shall have a separate representation, according to the number of white inhabitants therein; which shall be retained so long as such city or town shall contain a number of white inhabitants equal to the ratio which may from time to time be fixed by law; and thereafter, and during the existence of the right of separate representation, in such city or town, elections for the county in which such city or town (entitled to such separate representation) is situated, shall not be held in such city or town; but it is understood, and hereby declared, that no city or town shall be entitled to separate representation, unless the number of white inhabitants in the county in which such city or town is situated, residing out of the limits of said city or town, be equal to the existing ratio; or unless the residuum or fraction of such city or town shall, when added to the white inhabitants of the county residing out of the limits of said city or town, be equal to the ratio fixed by law for one representative: And provided, That if the residuum or fraction of any city or town, entitled to separate representation, shall, when added to the residuum of the county in which it may lie, be equal to the ratio fixed by law for one representative, then the aforesaid county, city, or town, having the largest residuum, shall be entitled to such representation: And provided, also, That when there are two or more counties adjoining, which have residuums or fractions over and above the ratio then fixed by law, if said residuums or fractions, when added together, will amount to such ratio, in that case one representative shall be added to that county having the largest residuum.

[Sec. 9.a The general assembly shall, at their first meeting, and in the years one thousand eight hundred and twenty, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, and every six years thereafter, cause an enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the State, and the whole number of the representatives shall, at the first session held after making every such enumeration, be fixed by the general assembly, and apportioned among the several counties, cities, or towns, entitled to separate representation, according to their respective numbers of white inhabitants; and the said apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration, until after the next census shall be taken. The house of representatives shall not consist of less than forty-four, nor more than sixty members, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred thousand; and after that event, the whole number of representatives shall never be less than sixty, nor more than one hundred: Provided, however, That each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.]

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall, at the first session after making every such enumeration, fix by law the whole number of senators, and shall divide the State into the same number of districts, as nearly equal, in the number of white inhabitants, as may be, each of which districts shall be entitled to one senator and no more: Provided, That Edition: current; Page: [101] the whole number of senators shall never be less than one-fourth, nor more than one-third of the whole number of representatives.

Sec. 11. When a senatorial district shall be composed of two or more counties, the counties of which such district consists, shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a district.

Sec. 12. Senators shall be chosen by the qualified electors, for the term of three years, at the same time, in the same manner, and at the same places, where they may vote for members of the house of representatives; and no person shall be a senator, unless he be a white man, a citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this State two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a resident of the district for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained to the age of twenty-seven years.

a[Sec. 13. The senators chosen according to the apportionment under the census ordered to be taken in one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, when convened, shall be divided by lot into three classes, as nearly equal as may be. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, those of the second class at the expiration of the second year, and those of the third class at the expiration of the third year, so that one-third may be annually chosen thereafter, and a rotation thereby kept up perpetually. Such mode of classifying new additional senators shall be observed as will, as nearly as possible, preserve an equality of members in each class.]

Sec. 14. The house of representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, and its other officers; and the senate shall, annually, choose a president, and its other officers; each house shall judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns, of its own members: but a contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law.

Sec. 15. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

Sec. 16. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent State.

Sec. 17. Each house, during the session, may punish, by imprisonment, any person, not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly behavior in its presence, or for obstructing any of its proceedings: Provided, That such imprisonment shall not, at any time, exceed forty-eight hours.

Sec. 18. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals. Any member of either house shall have liberty to dissent from, or protest against, any act or resolution which he may think injurious Edition: current; Page: [102] to the public or an individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journals.

Sec. 19. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during the session of the general assembly, and in going to and returning from the same; allowing one day for every twenty miles such member may reside from the place at which the general assembly is convened; nor shall any member be liable to answer for anything spoken in debate in either house, in any court or place elsewhere.

Sec. 20. When vacancies happen in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the powers of the governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

Sec. 21. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions, as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy.

Sec. 22. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.

Sec. 23. Bills may originate in either house, and be amended, altered, or rejected, by the other; but no bill shall have the force of a law, until on three several days it be read in each house, and free discussion be allowed thereon, unless, in case of urgency, four-fifths of the house in which the bill shall be depending may deem it expedient to dispense with this rule: and every bill, having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speaker and president of their respective houses: Provided, That all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives, but the senate may amend or reject them, as other bills.

Sec. 24. Each member of the general assembly shall receive from the public treasury such compensation for his services as may be fixed by law; but no increase of compensation shall take effect during the session at which such increase shall have been made.

Sec. 25. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people.

Sec. 26. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States (the office of postmaster excepted), this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to the general assembly: Provided, That the offices in the militia to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or that of the quorum, or county court, while it has no salary, shall not be deemed lucrative.

Sec. 27. No person, who may hereafter be a collector or holder of public moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the general assembly, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this State, until he shall have accounted for, and paid into the treasury, all sums for which he may be accountable.

Sec. 28. The first election for senators and representatives shall be general throughout the State; and shall be held on the third Monday and Tuesday in September next.

[Sec. 29.a The first session of the general assembly shall commence on the fourth Monday in October next, and be held at the town of Edition: current; Page: [103] Huntsville, and all subsequent sessions at the town of Cahawba, until the end of the first session of the general assembly to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five; during that session the general assembly shall have power to designate by law (to which the executive concurrence shall not be required) the permanent seat of government, which shall not thereafter be changed: Provided, however, That unless such designation be then made by law, the government shall continue permanently at the town of Cahawba; And provided also, That the general assembly shall make no appropriations, previous to the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, for the building of any other State-house than that now provided for by law.]

Article IV: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the State of Alabama.

Sec. 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and places when they shall respectively vote for representatives.

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up, and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the general assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor, but if two or more shall be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the joint vote of both houses. Contested elections for governor shall be determined by both houses of the general assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 4. The governor shall hold his office for the term of two years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be duly qualified, but shall not be eligible for more than four years in any term of six years; he shall be at least thirty years of age, shall be a native citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this State at least four years next preceding the day of his election.

Sec. 5. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 6. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this State, and of the militia thereof, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. And when acting in the service of the United States, the general assembly shall fix his rank.

Sec. 7. He may require information in writing from the officers of the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. 8.a He may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place, if that shall have become, since their last adjournment, dangerous from an enemy, or from contagious disorders; in case of disagreement Edition: current; Page: [104] between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next [annual] meeting of the general assembly.

Sec. 9. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient.

Sec. 10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

Sec. 11. In all criminal and penal cases, except in those of treason and impeachment, he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by law. In cases of treason he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to grant reprieves and pardons; and he may, in the recess of the senate, respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the general assembly.

Sec. 12. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially, and the present seal of the Territory shall be the seal of the State, until otherwise directed by the general assembly.

Sec. 13. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, be sealed with the State seal, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of state.

Sec. 14. There shall be a secretary of state, appointed by joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, who shall continue in office during the term of two years. He shall keep a fair register of all official acts and proceedings of the governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before the general assembly; and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by law.

Sec. 15. Vacancies that may happen in offices, the appointment to which is vested in the general assembly, shall be filled by the governor, during the recess of the general assembly, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of the next session.

Sec. 16. Every bill which shall have passed both houses of the general assembly, shall be presented to the governor: If he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journals, and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house, it shall become a law: but in such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively: if any bill shall not be returned by the governor within five days, Sundays excepted, after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Sec. 17. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, except on questions of adjournment, shall be presented to the governor, and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or being disapproved, shall be repassed by both Edition: current; Page: [105] houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the cases of a bill.

Sec. 18. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, resignation, or absence from the State, the president of the senate shall exercise all the power and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until the time pointed out by this constitution for the election of governor shall arrive, unless the general assembly shall provide by law for the election of a governor to fill such vacancy, or until the governor absent or impeached shall return or be acquitted.

Sec. 19. If, during the vacancy of the office of governor, the president of the senate shall be impeached, removed from office, refuse to qualify, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the speaker of the house of representatives shall, in like manner, administer the government.

Sec. 20. The president of the senate and speaker of the house of representatives during the time they respectively administer the government, shall receive the same compensation which the governor would have received, had he been employed in the duties of his office.

Sec. 21. The governor shall always reside, during the session of the general assembly, at the place where their session may be held, and at all other times, wherever, in their opinion, the public good may require.

Sec. 22. No person shall hold the office of governor, and any other office or commission, civil or military, either in this State, or under any State, or the United States, or any other power, at one and the same time.

Sec. 23. A State treasurer and a comptroller of public accounts shall be annually elected, by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly.

Sec. 24. A sheriff shall be elected in each county by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold his office for the term of three years, unless sooner removed, and who shall not be eligible to serve either as principal or deputy for the three succeeding years. Should a vacancy occur subsequent to an election, it shall be filled by the governor, as in other cases, and the person so appointed shall continue in office until the next general election, when such vacancy shall be filled by the qualified electors, and the sheriff then elected shall continue in office three years.

MILITIA

Section 1. The general assembly shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia of this State, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the Constitution and laws of the United States in relation thereto.

Sec. 2. Any person, who conscientiously scruples to bear arms, shall not be compelled to do so, but shall pay an equivalent for personal service.

Sec. 3. The governor shall have power to call forth the militia to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and to repel invasions.

Sec. 4. All officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed in such manner as may be prescribed by law: Provided, That the general Edition: current; Page: [106] assembly shall not make any such elections or appointments, other than those of adjutants-general and quartermasters-general.

Sec. 5. The governor shall appoint his aides-de-camp; major-generals, their aides-de-camp, and all other division and staff-officers; brigadier-generals shall appoint their aides, and all other brigade staff-officers; and colonels shall appoint their regimental staff-officers.

Sec. 6. The general assembly shall fix by law the method of dividing the militia into brigades, regiments, battalions, and companies, and shall fix the rank of all staff-officers.

Article V: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one supreme court, circuit courts to be held in each county in the State, and such inferior courts of law and equity, to consist of not more than five members, as the general assembly may, from time to time, direct, ordain and establish.

Sec. 2. The supreme court, except in cases otherwise directed by this constitution, shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with the State, under such restrictions and regulations, not repugnant to this constitution, as may, from time to time, be prescribed by law: Provided, That the supreme court shall have power to issue writs of injunction, mandamus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdictions.

Sec. 3. Until the general assembly shall otherwise prescribe, the powers of the supreme court shall be vested in, and its duties shall be performed by, the judges of the several circuit courts within this State; and they, or a majority of them, shall hold such sessions of the supreme court, and at such times as may be directed by law: Provided, That no judge of the supreme court shall be appointed before the commencement of the first session of the general assembly, which shall be begun and held after the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five.

Sec. 4. The supreme court shall be holden at the seat of government, but may adjourn to a different place, if that shall have become dangerous from an enemy or from disease.

Sec. 5. The State shall be divided into convenient circuits, and each circuit shall contain not less than three, nor more than six counties; and for each circuit there shall be appointed a judge, who shall, after his appointment, reside in the circuit for which he may be appointed.

Sec. 6. The circuit court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, within this State, not otherwise excepted in this constitution; but in civil cases, only when the matter or sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars.

Sec. 7. A circuit court shall be held in each county in the State, at least twice in every year, and the judges of the several circuit courts may hold courts for each other, when they may deem it expedient, and shall do so when directed by law.

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Sec. 8. The general assembly shall have power to establish a court or courts of chancery, with original and appellate equity jurisdiction; and until the establishment of such court or courts, the said jurisdiction shall be vested in the judges of the circuit courts respectively: Provided, That the judges of the several circuit courts shall have power to issue writs of injunction, returnable into the courts of chancery.

Sec. 9. The general assembly shall have power to establish, in each county within this State, a court of probate, for the granting of letters testamentary and of administration, and for orphans’ business.

Sec. 10. A competent number of justices of the peace shall be appointed in and for each county, in such mode and for such term of office as the general assembly may direct. Their jurisdiction in civil cases shall be limited to causes in which the amount in controversy shall not exceed fifty dollars. And in all cases, tried by a justice of the peace, right of appeal shall be secured, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 11. Judges of the supreme and circuit courts, and courts of chancery, shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall be fixed by law, and shall not be diminished during their continuance in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold any other office of profit or trust under this State, the United States, or any other power.

Sec. 12.a Chancellors, judges of the supreme court, [judges of the circuit courts, and judges of the inferior courts,] shall be elected by joint vote of both houses of the general assembly.

[Sec. 13.b The judges of the several courts in this State shall hold their offices during good behavior; and for wilful neglect of duty, or other reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the governor shall remove any of them, on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly; Provided, however, That the cause or causes for which such removal shall be required, shall be stated at length in such address, and entered on the journals of each house: And provided further, That the cause or causes shall be notified to the judge so intended to be removed, and he shall be admitted to a hearing in his own defence, before any vote for such address shall pass; and in all such cases the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the journals of each house respectively; And provided, also, That the judges of the several circuit courts, who shall be appointed before the commencement of the first session of the general assembly, which shall be begun and held after the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, shall only hold their offices during good behavior, until the end of the said session, at which time their commissions shall expire.]

Sec. 14. No person who shall have arrived at the age of seventy years shall be appointed to, or continue in, the office of judge in this State.

Sec. 15. Clerks of the circuit and inferior courts in this State shall be elected by the qualified electors in each county, for the term of four years, and may be removed from office for such causes and in Edition: current; Page: [108] such manner as may be prescribed by law; and should a vacancy occur, subsequent to an election, it shall be filled by the judge or judges of the courts in which such vacancy exists; and the person so appointed shall hold his office until the next general election; Provided, however, That after the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, the general assembly may prescribe a different mode of appointment, but shall not make such appointment.

Sec. 16. The judges of the supreme court shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the peace throughout the State; as also the judges of the circuit courts in their respective districts, and judges of the inferior courts in their respective counties.

Sec. 17. The style of all process shall be “The State of Alabama,” and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, and shall conclude “against the peace and dignity of the same.”

Sec. 18. There shall be an attorney-general for the State, and as many solicitors as the general assembly may deem necessary, to be elected by a joint vote thereof, who shall hold their offices for the term of four years, and shall receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

IMPEACHMENTS

Section 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching.

Sec. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate: when sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be on oath or affirmation; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Sec. 3. The governor and all civil officers shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than removal from office, and to disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the State; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law.

Article VI: GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1. The members of the general assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, before they enter on the execution of their respective offices, shall take the following oath or affirmation, to wit: “I solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be,) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the State of Alabama, so long as I continue a citizen thereof, and that I will faithfully discharge, to the best of my abilities, the duties of——, according to law: So help me God.

Sec. 2. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

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Sec. 3. The general assembly shall have power to pass such penal laws to suppress the evil practice of duelling, extending to disqualification from office or the tenure thereof, as they may deem expedient.

Sec. 4. Every person shall be disqualified from holding any office or place of honor or profit, under the authority of the State, who shall be convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election or appointment.

Sec. 5. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, from suffrage, and from serving as jurors, those who shall hereafter be convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon, from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper conduct.

Sec. 6. In all elections by the general assembly, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journals.

Sec. 7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of an appropriation made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually.

Sec. 8. All lands liable to taxation in this State, shall be taxed in proportion to their value.

Sec. 9. The general assembly shall direct, by law, in what manner, and in what courts, suits may be brought against the State.

Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to regulate, by law, the cases in which deductions shall be made from the salaries of public officers, for neglect of duty in their official capacities, and the amount of such deduction.

Sec. 11. Absence on business of this State, or of the United States, or on a visit, or necessary private business, shall not cause a forfeiture of a residence once obtained.

Sec. 12. No member of Congress, nor any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, (the office of postmaster excepted,) or either of them, or any foreign power, shall hold or exercise any office of profit under this State.

Sec. 13. Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be granted but in cases provided for by law, by suit in chancery; and no decree for such divorce shall have effect, until the same shall be sanctioned by two-thirds of both houses of the general assembly.

Sec. 14. In prosecutions for the publishing of papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the courts.

Sec. 15. Returns of all elections for officers, who are to be commissioned by the governor, and for members of the general assembly, shall be made to the secretary of state.

Sec. 16. No new county shall be established by the general assembly, which shall reduce the county or counties, or either of them, from which it shall be taken, to a less content than nine hundred square miles; nor shall any county be laid off of less contents. Every new Edition: current; Page: [110] county, as to the right of suffrage and representation, shall be considered as a part of the county or counties from which it was taken, until entitled by numbers to the right of separate representation.

Sec. 17. The general assembly shall, at their first session, which may be holden in the year eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, or at the next succeeding session, arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties within the limits of this State to which the Indian title shall have been extinguished, in such manner as they may deem expedient, which boundaries shall not be afterward altered, unless by the agreement of two-thirds of both branches of the general assembly; and in all cases of ceded territory acquired by the State, the general assembly may make such arrangements and designations of the boundaries of counties within such ceded territory, as they may deem expedient, which only shall be altered in like manner: Provided, That no county, hereafter to be formed, shall be of less extent than nine hundred square miles.

Sec. 18. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, to be appointed by the parties, who may choose that summary mode of adjustment.

Sec. 19. It shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to form a penal code, founded on principles of reformation, and not of vindictive justice.

Sec. 20. Within five years after the adoption of this constitution, the body of our laws, civil and criminal, shall be revised, digested, and arranged, under proper heads, and promulgated in such manner as the general assembly may direct; and a like revision, digest, and promulgation, shall be made within every subsequent period of ten years.

Sec. 21. The general assembly shall make provisions by law for obtaining correct knowledge of the several objects proper for improvement in relation to the navigable waters, and to the roads in this State, and for making a systematic and economical application of the means appropriated to those objects.

Sec. 22. In the event of the annexation of any foreign territory to this State, by a cession from the United States, laws may be passed, extending to the inhabitants of such territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of such cession; anything in this constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.

EDUCATION

Schools, and the means of education, shall forever be encouraged in this State; and the general assembly shall take measures to preserve, from unnecessary waste or damage, such lands as are or hereafter may be granted by the United States for the use of schools within each township in this State, and apply the funds, which may be raised from such lands, in strict conformity to the object of such grant. The general assembly shall take like measures for the improvement of such lands as have been or may be hereafter granted by the United States to this State, for the support of a seminary of learning, and the moneys which may be raised from such lands, by rent, lease, or sale, or from any other quarter, for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and remain a fund for the exclusive support of a State Edition: current; Page: [111] university, for the promotion of the arts, literature and the sciences; and it shall be the duty of the general assembly, as early as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds and endowments of such institution.

ESTABLISHMENT OF BANKS

Section 1. One State bank may be established, with such number of branches as the general assembly may, from time to time, deem expedient: Provided, That no branch bank shall be established, nor bank charter renewed, under the authority of this State, without the concurrence of two-thirds of both houses of the general assembly; And provided, also, That not more than one bank nor branch bank shall be established, nor bank charter renewed, at any one session of the general assembly, nor shall any bank or branch bank be established, or bank charter renewed, but in conformity with the following rules:

1. At least two-fifths of the capital stock shall be reserved for the State.

2. A proportion of power in the direction of the bank shall be reserved to the State equal at least to its proportion of stock therein.

3. The State, and the individual stockholders, shall be liable, respectively, for the debts of the bank, in proportion to their stock holden therein.

4. The remedy for collecting debts shall be reciprocal, for and against the bank.

5. No bank shall commence operations, until half of the capital stock subscribed for be actually paid in gold or silver, which amount shall, in no case, be less than one hundred thousand dollars.

6. In case any bank or branch bank shall neglect or refuse to pay, on demand, any bill, note, or obligation, issued by the corporation according to the promise therein expressed, the holder of any such note, bill, or obligation, shall be entitled to receive and recover interest thereon, until the same shall be paid, or specie payments are resumed, by said bank, at the rate of twelve per cent. per annum from the date of such demand, unless the general assembly shall sanction such suspension of specie payments, and the general assembly shall have power, after such neglect or refusal, to adopt such measures as they may deem proper, to protect and secure the rights of all concerned, and to declare the charter of such bank forfeited.

7. After the establishment of a general State bank, the banks of this State now existing may be admitted as branches thereof, upon such terms as the legislature and the said banks may agree, subject, nevertheless, to the preceding rules.

SLAVES

Section 1. The general assembly shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves, without the consent of their owners, or without paying their owners, previous to such emancipation, a full equivalent in money for the slaves so emancipated. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the Edition: current; Page: [112] United States, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this State: Provided, That such person or slave be the bona-fide property of such emigrants: And provided, also, That laws may be passed to prohibit the introduction into this State of slaves who have committed high crimes in other States or Territories. They shall have power to pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. They shall have full power to prevent slaves from being brought into this State as merchandise, and also to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity, to provide for them necessary food and clothing, to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life or limb, and, in case of their neglect, or refusal to comply with the directions of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of the owner or owners.

Sec. 2. In the prosecution of slaves for crimes, of higher grade than petit larceny, the general assembly shall have no power to deprive them of an impartial trial by a petit jury.

Sec. 3. Any person who shall maliciously dismember or deprive a slave of life, shall suffer such punishment as would be inflicted in case the like offence had been committed on a free white person, and on the like proof; except in case of insurrection of such slave.

MODE OF AMENDING AND REVISING THE CONSTITUTION

The general assembly, whenever two-thirds of each house shall deem it necessary, may propose amendments to this constitution, which proposed amendments shall be duly published in print, at least three months before the next general election of representatives, for the consideration of the people, and it shall be the duty of the several returning officers, at the next general election which shall be held for representatives, to open a poll for, and make a return to the secretary of state for the time being, of the names of all those voting for representatives, who have voted on such proposed amendments, and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of this State, voting for representatives, have voted in favor of such proposed amendments, and two-thirds of each house of the next general assembly, shall, after such an election, and before another, ratify the same amendments by yeas and nays, they shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as parts of this constitution: Provided, That the said proposed amendments shall, at each of the said sessions, have been read three times, on three several days, in each house.

Schedule

Section 1. That no inconvenience may arise from a change of territorial to a permanent State government, it is declared that all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims, and contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, shall continue as if no such change had taken place: and all process, which shall, before the third Monday in September next, be issued in the name of the Alabama Territory, shall be as valid as if issued in the name of the State.

Sec. 2. All fines, penalties, forfeitures, and escheats, accruing to the Alabama Territory, shall accrue to the use of the State.

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Sec. 3. The validity of all bonds and recognizances executed to the governor of the Alabama Territory, shall not be impaired by the change of government, but may be sued for and recovered in the name of the governor of the State of Alabama and his successors in office; and all criminal or penal actions, arising or now depending within the limits of this State, shall be prosecuted to judgment and execution in the name of said State, all causes of action arising to individuals, and all suits at law or in equity, now depending in the several courts within the limits of this State, and not already barred by law, may be commenced in, or transferred to, such courts as may have jurisdiction thereof.

Sec. 4. All officers, civil or military, now holding commissions under the authority of the United States or of the Alabama Territory, within this State, shall continue to hold and exercise their respective offices under the authority of this State, until they shall be superseded under the authority of this constitution, and shall receive from the treasury of this State the same compensation which they heretofore received, in proportion to the time they shall be so employed. The governor shall have power to fill vacancies by commissions, to expire so soon as elections or appointments can be made to such offices by authority of this constitution.

Sec. 5. All laws, and parts of laws, now in force in the Alabama Territory, which are not repugnant to the provision of this constitution, shall continue and remain in force as the laws of this State, until they expire by their own limitation, or shall be altered, or repealed, by the legislature thereof.

Sec. 6. Every white male person above the age of twenty-one years, who shall be a citizen of the United States, and resident in this State at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be deemed a qualified elector at the first election to be holden in this State. And every white male person who shall reside within the limits of this State at the time of the adoption of this constitution, and shall be otherwise qualified, shall be entitled to hold any office or place of honor, trust, or profit under this State; anything in this constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.

Sec. 7. The president of this convention shall issue writs of election directed to the sheriffs of the several counties, requiring them to cause an election to be held for a governor, representative to the Congress of the United States, members of the general assembly, clerks of the several courts, and sheriffs of the respective counties, at the respective places of election in said counties, on the third Monday and the day following in September next, which elections shall be conducted in the manner prescribed by the existing election laws of the Alabama Territory; and the said governor and members of the general assembly, then duly elected, shall continue to discharge the duties of their respective offices, for the time prescribed by this constitution, and until their successors shall be duly qualified.

Sec. 8. Until the first enumeration shall be made, as directed by this constitution, the county of Autauga shall be entitled to two representatives; the county of Baldwin to one representative; the county of Blount to three representatives; the county of Cahawba to one representative; the county of Clarke to two representatives; the county of Conecuh to two representatives; the county of Cotaco to Edition: current; Page: [114] two representatives; the county of Dallas to two representatives; the county of Franklin to two representatives; the county of Lauderdale to two representatives; the county of Lawrence to two representatives; the county of Madison to eight representatives; the county of Marion to one representative; the county of Monroe to five representatives; the county of Montgomery to three representatives; the county of Mobile to one representative; the county of Saint Clair to one representative; the county of Shelby to two representatives; the county of Tuscaloosa to two representatives; and the county of Washington to two representatives. And each county shall be entitled to one senator, who shall serve for one term.

Sec. 9. The oaths of office, herein directed to be taken, may be administered by any justice of the peace, until the general assembly shall otherwise direct.

Ordinance

This convention, for and in behalf of the people inhabiting this State, do accept the proposition offered by the act of Congress, under which they are assembled; and this convention, for and in behalf of the people inhabiting this State, do ordain, agree, and declare, that they forever disclaim all right and title to the waste or unappropriated lands lying within this State; and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire disposition of the United States, and, moreover, that each and every tract of land, sold by the United States after the first day of September next, shall be and remain exempt from any tax, laid by the order or under the authority of this State, whether for State, county, township, parish, or any other purpose whatsoever, for the term of five years from and after the respective days of sales thereof; and that the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States, residing out of the limits of this State, shall never be taxed higher than the lands belonging to persons residing therein, and that no tax shall be imposed on the property of the United States; and that all navigable waters within this State shall forever remain public highways, free to the citizens of this State and of the United States, without any tax, duty, impost, or toll therefor, imposed by this State: and this ordinance is hereby declared irrevocable, without the consent of the United States.

Done in convention at Huntsville, this second day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, and of American Independence the forty-fourth.

J. W. Walker, President.
Attest:
John Campbell, Secretary.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF 1819

(First—Adopted January, 1830)

Strike out the thirteenth section of the fifth article of constitution, and in lieu thereof insert the following:

“The judges of the several courts of this State shall hold their offices for the term of six years; and for wilful neglect of duty, or other reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the governor shall remove any of them on the address Edition: current; Page: [115] of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly: Provided, however, That the cause or causes for which such removal shall be required, shall be stated at length in such address, and entered on the journals of each house: And provided, further, That the cause or causes shall be notified to the judge so intended to be removed, and he shall be admitted to a hearing in his own defence, before any vote for such address shall pass; and in all such cases the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the journals of each house respectively: And provided, also, That the judges now in office may hold their offices until the session of the general assembly which shall be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified, unless removed by address or impeachment.”

(Second—Adopted 1846)

Strike out the words “one year” where they occur in the second section of the third article, and insert in lieu thereof “two years.”

Strike out the words “every year” where they occur in the third section of third article, and insert in lieu thereof “at each session.”

Strike out the thirteen section of the third article, and insert in lieu thereof the following: “At the first meeting of the general assembly after the adoption of the proposed amendments, the senators when convened shall be divided into two classes, as nearly equal as may be. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the two next ensuing years; so that one-half may be biennially chosen thereafter, and a rotation thereby kept up perpetually.”

Strike out the twenty-ninth section of the third article, which permanently locates the seat of government in this State.

Strike out the word “annual” where it occurs in the eight section of the fourth article, and insert in lieu thereof, “biennial.”

(Third—Adopted 1850)

Strike out the ninth section of the third article of the constitution, and in lieu thereof insert the following:

Sec. 9. The general assembly shall cause an enumeration to be made in the year eighteen hundred and fifty, and eighteen hundred and fifty-five, and every ten years thereafter, of all the white inhabitants of this State; and the whole number of representatives shall at the first regular session after such enumeration, be apportioned among the several counties, cities, or towns entitled to separate representation, according to their respective number of white inhabitants, and the said apportionment when made shall not be subject to alteration until after the next census shall be taken. The number of representatives shall not exceed one hundred, and the number of senators shall not exceed thirty-three; yet each county, notwithstanding it may not have a number of white inhabitants equal to the ratio fixed, shall have one representative.”

Strike out the thirteenth section of the third article of the constitution, and insert in lieu thereof the following:

Sec. 13. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years: yet at the general election after every new apportionment, elections shall be held anew in every senatorial district; and the senators elected, Edition: current; Page: [116] when convened at the first session, shall be divided by lot into two classes, as nearly equal as may be: the seats of those of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class at the expiration of four years, dating in both cases from the day of election, so that one-half may be biennially chosen, except as above provided.”

At the end of the twelfth section of the fifth article of the constitution add—

“But at and after the session of the general assembly to be held in the winter of the years eighteen hundred and forty-nine-fifty, the general assembly shall provide by law for the election of judges of the circuit courts by the qualified electors of their circuits respectively, and for the elections of judges of the courts of probate and other inferior courts (not including chancellors) by the qualified electors of the counties, cities, or districts for which such courts may be respectively established; the first Monday in November in any year shall be the day for any election of such judges by the people, or such other day, not to be within a less period than two months of the general election for governor, members of the general assembly, or members of Congress, as the general assembly may by law prescribe: but no change to be made in any circuit or district, or in the mode or time of electing, shall affect the right of any judge to hold office during the term prescribed by the constitution, except at the first elections thereof to be made by the people after the ratification of these amendments or either of them, which elections shall then all be had on the same day throughout the State, and the terms of the judges then to be elected shall commence on that day: vacancies in the office of judge shall be filled by the governor, and the persons appointed thereto by him shall hold until the next first Monday in November, or other election day of judges, and until the election and qualification of their successors respectively; and the general assembly shall have power to annex to the offices of any of the judges of the inferior courts the duties of clerks of such courts respectively.”

CONSTITUTION OF ALABAMA—1865*a

PREAMBLE

We, the people of the State of Alabama, by our representatives in convention assembled; in order to establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general Edition: current; Page: [117] welfare, and secure to ourselves and to our posterity the rights of life, liberty, and property; invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following constitution and form of government for the State of Alabama—that is to say:

Article I: DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare—

Section 1. That no man, and no set of men, are entitled to exclusive separate public emoluments or privileges, but in consideration of public services.

Sec. 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their form of government, in such manner as they may deen expedient.

Sec. 3. That no person within this State shall, upon any pretence whatever, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God in the manner most agreeable to his own conscience; nor be hurt, molested, or restrained in his religious profession, sentiments, or persuasions, provided he does not disturb others in their religious worship.

Sec. 4. That no religion shall be established by law; that no preference shall be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination, or mode of worship; that no one shall be compelled by law to attend any place of worship, nor to pay any tithes, taxes, or other rate, for building or repairing any place of worship, or for maintaining any minister or ministry; that no religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State; and that the civil rights, privileges, and capacities of any citizen shall not be in any manner affected by his religious principles.

Sec. 5. That every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 6. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable seizures or searches; and that no warrant shall issue to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 7. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation, to have a copy thereof, to be confronted by the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and, in all prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offence was committed; and that he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by due course of law.

Sec. 8. That no person shall be accused, arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the forms which the same has prescribed; and that no person shall be punished, but by Edition: current; Page: [118] virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the offence, and legally applied.

Sec. 9. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information; except in cases arising in the land and naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service, or, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office: Provided, That in cases of petit larceny, assault, assault and battery, affray, unlawful assemblies, vagrancy, and other misdemeanors, the general assembly may by law dispense with a grand jury, and authorize such prosecutions before justices of the peace, or such other inferior courts as may be by law established; and the proceedings in such cases shall be regulated by law.

Sec. 10. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

Sec. 11. That no person shall be debarred from prosecuting or defending, before any tribunal in this State, by himself or counsel, any civil cause to which he is a party.

Sec. 12. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

Sec. 13. That in prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and that in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.

Sec. 14. That all courts shall be open; and that every person, for any injury done him, in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have a remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered, without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 15. That suits may be brought against the State, in such manner, and in such courts, as may be by law provided.

Sec. 16. That excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel punishments be inflicted.

Sec. 17. That all persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and that excessive bail shall not, in any case, be required.

Sec. 18. That the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

Sec. 19. That treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; and that no person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

Sec. 20. That no person shall be attainted of treason by the General Assembly; and that no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 21. That the estates of suicides shall descend, or vest, as in cases of natural death; and that, if any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

Sec. 22. That the person of a debtor, when there is not a strong presumption of fraud, shall not be detained in prison, after delivering up his estate, for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

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Sec. 23. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, except by the General Assembly, or by its authority.

Sec. 24. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be made.

Sec. 25. That private property shall not be taken or applied for public use, unless just compensation be made therefor; nor shall private property be taken for private use, or for the use of corporations other than municipal, without the consent of the owner; Provided, however, That laws may be made securing to persons or corporations the right of way over the lands of other persons or corporations, and, for works of internal improvement, the right to establish depots, stations, and turn-outs; but just compensation shall, in such cases, be first made to the owner.

Sec. 26. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Sec. 27. That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the State.

Sec. 28. That no person, who conscientiously scruples to bear arms, shall be compelled to do so, but may pay an equivalent for personal service.

Sec. 29. That no standing army shall be kept up, without the consent of the General Assembly; and in that case, no appropriation for its support shall be for a longer term than one year; and that the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 30. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 31. That no title of nobility, or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor, or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; and that no office shall be created, the appointment of which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.

Sec. 32. That emigration from this State shall not be prohibited, and that no citizen shall be exiled.

Sec. 33. That temporary absence from the State shall not cause a forfeiture of residence once obtained.

Sec. 34. That hereafter there shall be in this State neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, otherwise than for the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

Sec. 35. That the right of suffrage shall be protected by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper conduct.

Sec. 36. This enumeration of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and to guard against any encroachment on the rights hereby retained, or any transgression of any of the high powers by this constitution delegated, we declare, that everything in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate, and that all laws contrary thereto, or to the following provisions, shall be void.

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Article II: STATE BOUNDARIES AND COUNTIES

Section 1. The boundaries of this State are established and declared to be as follows—that is to say: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude crosses the Perdido River; thence east, to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia; thence along said line, to the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee; thence west, along the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee River, and on to the second intersection of said river by said line; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Bear Creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington County in this State, as originally formed; thence southerly, along the line of the State of Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence easterly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River; and thence up the said river, to the beginning.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of both branches thereof, arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties of this State, which boundaries shall not be altered except by a like vote; but no new county shall be hereafter formed of less extent than six hundred square miles, nor shall any existing county be reduced to a less extent than six hundred square miles; and no county shall be formed not containing a sufficient number of inhabitants to entitle it to one representative under the existing ratio of representation, nor unless the counties from which it is taken shall be left with the required number entitling them to separate representation.

Article III: DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

Section 1. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy—to wit: those which are legislative to one, those which are executive to another, and those which are judicial to another.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

Article IV: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in two distinct branches, the one to be styled the “Senate,” and the other the “House of Representatives,” and both together the “General Assembly of the State of Alabama.

Sec. 2. All laws shall be passed by original bill; and their style shall be, “Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Alabama in General Assembly convened.” Each law Edition: current; Page: [121] shall embrace but one subject, which shall be described in the title; and no law, or any section of any law, shall be revised or amended by reference only to its title and number, but the law or section revised or amended shall itself be set forth at full length.

Sec. 3. Members of both houses of the General Assembly shall be chosen by the qualified electors; and the regulations for holding such elections shall, as to time, place, and manner, be the same for each house, and shall be prescribed by law. After the special election to be held on the first Monday in November, 1865, such elections shall, until otherwise directed by law, take place on the first Monday in August.

Sec. 4. No person who holds any lucrative office under the United States, or under this State, or under any other State or government (except postmasters, officers in the militia, to whose office no annual salary is attached, justices of the peace, members of the court of county commissioners, notaries public, and commissioners of deeds, excepted;) no person who has been convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election; no person who has been convicted of bribery, forgery, perjury, or other high crime or misdemeanor which may be by law declared to disqualify him; and no person who has been a collector or holder of public moneys, and has failed to account for and pay over into the treasury all sums for which he may be by law accountable, shall be eligible to the General Assembly.

Sec. 5. Representatives shall be chosen for the term of two years; and no person shall be a representative who is not a white man, twenty-one years of age, a citizen of the United States, and who has not been an inhabitant of this State for the two years next preceding the election, and for the last year thereof a resident of the county for which he is chosen.

Sec. 6. The house of representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred members, who shall be apportioned by the General Assembly among the several counties of the State according to the number of white inhabitants in them respectively; and, to this end, the general assembly shall cause an enumeration of all the inhabitants of the State to be made in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six, and again in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and every ten years thereafter, and shall make an apportionment of the representatives among the several counties at the first regular session after each enumeration; which apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration, until after the next census shall have been taken; Provided, That each county shall be entitled to at least one representative; Provided further, That where two or more adjoining counties shall each have a residuum or fraction over and above the ratio then fixed by law, which fractions, when added together, equal or exceed that ratio, in that case, the county having the largest fraction shall be entitled to one additional representative.

Sec. 7. The whole number of senators shall be not less than one-fourth, nor more than one-third of the whole number of representatives; and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its first session after the making of each enumeration, as provided by the last preceding section, to fix by law the number of senators, and to divide the State into as many senatorial districts as there are senators; which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other as may be in Edition: current; Page: [122] the number of white inhabitants, and each shall be entitled to one senator, and no more. Provided, That, in the formation of said districts, no county shall be divided, and no two or more counties, which are separated entirely by a county belonging to another district, shall be joined into one district; And provided further, That the senatorial districts, when formed, shall not be changed until after the next census shall have been taken.

Sec. 8. No person shall be a senator, who is not a white man, at least twenty-seven years of age, a citizen of the United States, and who has not been an inhabitant of this State for two years next preceding the election, and for the last year thereof a resident in the district for which he is chosen.

Sec. 9. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years; yet, at the first general election after each new apportionment, elections shall be held anew in all the senatorial districts; and the senators elected, when convened at the next ensuing session of the General Assembly, shall be divided by lot into two classes, as nearly equal to each other as may be; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class at the expiration of four years from the day of election, so that (except as above provided) one-half of the senators may be chosen biennially.

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall meet annually, on such day as may be by law prescribed; and shall not remain in session longer than thirty days, unless by a vote of two-thirds of each house.

Sec. 11. At the first regular or called session after each general election for representatives, the senate shall choose a president and its other officers, and the house of representatives shall choose a speaker and its other officers; and the officers so chosen shall be entitled to hold their respective offices until the next general election for representatives. Each house shall judge of the qualifications, elections and returns of its own members; but a contested election shall be determined in such manner as may be by law provided.

Sec. 12. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

Sec. 13. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent State.

Sec. 14. Each house may, during the session, punish by imprisonment any person, not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly behavior in its presence, or for obstructing any of its proceedings; Provided, That such imprisonment shall not, at any one time, exceed forty-eight hours.

Sec. 15. Each house shall keep a journal of its own proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals. Any member of either house shall have leave to dissent from, and protest against, any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public or to an individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journals.

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Sec. 16. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy.

Sec. 17. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.

Sec. 18. Bills may originate in either house, and be amended, altered, or rejected by the other; but no bill shall have the force of a law, until it be read in each house on three several days, and free discussion thereon be allowed; unless, in case of urgency, four-fifths of the house in which the bill may be depending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule; and every bill, having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speaker and president of the respective houses; Provided, That all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but may be amended or rejected by the senate as other bills.

Sec. 19. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journals.

Sec. 20. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which he was elected, be elected or appointed to any civil office of profit under this State, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people.

Sec. 21. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same, allowing one day for every twenty miles such member may reside from the place at which the General Assembly is convened; nor shall any member be liable to answer for anything spoken in debate in either house, in any court or place elsewhere.

Sec. 22. Each member of the General Assembly shall receive from the public treasury such compensation for his services as may be fixed by law; but no increase of compensation shall take effect during the session at which such increase shall have been made.

Sec. 23. When vacancies happen in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the power of governor for the time being, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

Sec. 24. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of preferring impeachments; all impeachments shall be tried by the senate; the senators, when sitting for that purpose, shall be on oath or affirmation; and no person shall be convicted under an impeachment, without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present.

Sec. 25. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, to be appointed by the parties, who may choose that summary mode of adjustment.

Sec. 26. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, from time to time, as circumstances may require, to frame and adopt a penal code, founded on principles of reformation.

Sec. 27. It shall also be the duty of the General Assembly, within five years after the adoption of this constitution, and within every subsequent period of ten years, to make provision by law for the revision, digesting, and promulgation of all the public statutes of this State, both civil and criminal.

Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have power to pass such penal Edition: current; Page: [124] laws as they may deem expedient to suppress the evil practice of duelling, extending to disqualification to hold office.

Sec. 29. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to regulate by law the cases in which deductions shall be made from the salaries of public officers, for neglect of duty in their official capacities, and the amount of such deductions.

Sec. 30. Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be granted, but in the cases by law provided for, and by suit in chancery; but decrees in chancery for divorce shall be final, unless appealed from, in the manner prescribed by law, within three months from the date of the enrolment thereof.

Sec. 31. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its next session, and from time to time thereafter as it may deem proper, to enact laws prohibiting the intermarriage of white persons with negroes, or with persons of mixed blood, declaring such marriages null and void ab initio, and making the parties to any such marriage subject to criminal prosecutions, with such penalties as may be by law prescribed.

Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall make provision by law for obtaining correct knowledge of the several objects proper for improvement in relation to the roads and navigable waters in this State, and for making a systematic and economical application of the means appropriated to those objects.

Sec. 33. The General Assembly shall, from time to time, enact necessary and proper laws for the encouragement of schools and the means of education; shall take proper measures to preserve from waste or damage such lands as have been or may be granted by the United States for the use of schools in each township in this State, and apply the funds which may be raised from such lands in strict conformity with the object of such grant; shall take like measures for the improvement of such lands as have been or may hereafter be granted by the United States to this State for the support of a seminary of learning; and the money which may be raised from such lands, by rent, lease, or sale, or from any other quarter, for the purpose aforesaid, shall be and forever remain a fund for the exclusive support of a State university for the promotion of the arts, literature, and the sciences; and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of such institution.

Sec. 34. Not more than one bank shall be established, nor more than one bank charter be renewed, at any one session of the General Assembly; nor shall any bank be established, nor any bank charter be renewed, without the concurrence of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly, and in conformity with the following rules—that is to say:

Rule 1. The stockholders shall be respectively liable for the debts of the bank in proportion to the amount of their stock.

Rule 2. The remedy for the collection of debts shall be reciprocal for and against the bank.

Rule 3. No bank shall commence operations, until one-half of the capital stock subscribed for be actually paid in gold and silver; which amount shall, in no case, be less than one hundred thousand dollars.

Rule 4. If any bank shall neglect or refuse to pay, on demand, any Edition: current; Page: [125] bill, note, or obligation issued by the corporation, according to the promise therein expressed, the holder of such bill, note, or obligation, shall be entitled to receive and recover interest thereon until paid, or until specie payments are resumed by the bank, at the rate of twelve per centum per annum from the date of such demand; unless the General Assembly shall, by a vote of two-thirds of each house thereof, sanction such suspension of specie payments.

Rule 5. Whenever any bank suspends specie payments, its charter is thereby forfeited; unless such suspension shall be sanctioned and legalized, at the next session of the General Assembly, by a vote of two-thirds of each house thereof.

Sec. 35. The General Assembly shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia of this State, in such manner as they may deem expedient, not incompatible with the Constitution and laws of the United States; shall fix the rank of all staff officers, and prescribe the manner in which all officers shall be appointed or elected: Provided, That no other officers than adjutants-general and quarter-masters-general shall be appointed by the General Assembly: And provided further, That major-generals shall appoint their aides and all division and staff officers, brigadier-generals shall appoint their aides and all other brigade staff officers, and colonels shall appoint their regimental staff officers.

Sec. 36. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its next session, and from time to time thereafter, to enact such laws as will protect the freedmen of this State in the full enjoyment of all their rights of person and property, and guard them and the State against any evils that may arise from their sudden emancipation.

Sec. 37. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in pursuance of an appropriation made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually, in such manner as may be by law directed.

Sec. 38. No special law shall be enacted for the benefit of individuals or corporations, in cases which are provided for by a general law, or where the relief sought can be given by any court of this State.

Sec. 39. All lands liable to taxation in this State, shall be taxed in proportion to their value.

Sec. 40. No power to levy taxes shall be delegated to individuals or private corporations.

Sec. 41. The general assembly shall not borrow or raise money on the credit of the State, (except for purposes of military defence against actual or threatened invasion, rebellion, or insurrection,) without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each house; nor shall the debts or liabilities of any corporation, person, or persons, or other State, be guaranteed, nor any money, credit, or other thing, be loaned or given away, except by a like concurrence of each house; and the votes shall in each case, be taken by yeas and nays, and be entered on the journals.

Sec. 42. In the event of the annexation of any foreign territory to this State, the general assembly shall enact laws, extending to the inhabitants of the acquired territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of the acquisition; anything in this constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.

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Article V: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the State of Alabama.

Sec. 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and places at which they shall respectively vote for representatives.

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up, and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the general assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but, if two or more shall be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the joint vote of both houses. Contested elections for governor shall be determined by both houses of the general assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 4. The governor shall hold his office for the term of two years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified, but shall not be eligible for more than four years in any term of six years; he shall be at least thirty years of age, a native citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this State at least four years next preceding the day of his election.

Sec. 5. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his services, which shall not be either increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 6. He shall always reside, during the session of the General Assembly, at the place where their session may be held, and at other times wherever, in their opinion, the public good may require.

Sec. 7. He shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this State, and of the militia thereof, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States; and when acting in the service of the United States, the General Assembly shall fix his rank.

Sec. 8. He shall have power to call forth the militia to execute the laws of the State, to suppress insurrections, and to repel invasions; and shall appoint his aides-de-camp.

Sec. 9. He may require from the secretary of state, the comptroller of public accounts, and the state treasurer, information in writing on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. 10. He may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place, if, since their last adjournment, that shall have become dangerous, from an enemy, or from contagious disorders; and in case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he may think proper, not beyond the day of the next annual meeting of the General Assembly.

Sec. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient.

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Sec. 12. He shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed.

Sec. 13. In all criminal and penal cases, except those of treason and impeachment, he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and to remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law; and in cases of treason, he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to grant reprieves and pardons, and, in the recess of the senate, he may respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the General Assembly.

Sec. 14. There shall be a great seal of the State, which shall be kept and used by the governor officially; and the seal now in use shall continue to be the great seal of the State, until another shall have been adopted by the general assembly.

Sec. 15. Vacancies that may happen in offices, the appointment of which is vested in the general assembly, shall, during the recess of the General Assembly, be filled by the governer, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of the next session.

Sec. 16. Every bill which shall have passed both houses of the General Assembly, shall be presented to the governor: if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journals, and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by whom it shall likewise be reconsidered, and, if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house, it shall become a law; but, in such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it; unless the general assembly, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Sec. 17. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, (except on questions of adjournment, and for bringing on elections by the two houses,) shall be presented to the governor, and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being disapproved, shall be repassed by both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Sec. 18. No person shall, at one and the same time, hold the office of governor, and any other office or commission, civil or military, either under this State, the United States, or any other State or government.

Sec. 19. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, resignation, or absence from the State, the president of the senate shall exercise all the power and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until the time appointed by the constitution for the election of governor shall arrive (unless the General Assembly shall provide by law for the election of a governor to fill such vacancy,) or until the governor who is absent or impeached shall return or be acquitted; and if, during such vacancy in the office of governor, the president of the senate shall be impeached, removed from office, refuse to qualify, die, resign, or be Edition: current; Page: [128] absent from the State, the speaker of the house of representatives shall, in like manner, administer the government.

Sec. 20. The president of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives shall, during the time they respectively administer the government, receive the same compensation which the governor would have received if he had been employed in the duties of his office.

Article VI: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one supreme court, circuit courts to be held in each county of the State, and such inferior courts of law and equity, to consist of not more than five members, as the General Assembly may, from time to time, direct, ordain and establish.

Sec. 2. Except in cases otherwise directed in this constitution, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with the State, under such restrictions and regulations, not repugnant to this constitution, as may from time to time be prescribed by law; Provided, That said court shall have power to issue writs of injunction, mandamus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdiction.

Sec. 3. The supreme court shall be held at the seat of government; but if that shall have become dangerous, from an enemy or from disease, may adjourn to a different place.

Sec. 4. The State shall be divided into convenient circuits, each of which shall contain not less than three, nor more than six counties; and for each circuit there shall be appointed a judge, who shall, after his appointment, reside in the circuit for which he may be appointed.

Sec. 5. The circuit court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, within this State, not otherwise excepted in this constitution; but in civil cases only where the matter or sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars.

Sec. 6. A circuit court shall be held in each county in the State, at least twice in every year; and the judges of the several circuits may hold courts for each other when they deem it expedient, and shall do so when directed by law.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall have power to establish a court or courts of chancery, with original and appellate equity jurisdiction; Provided, That the judges of the several circuit courts shall have power to issue writs of injunction, returnable into the courts of chancery.

Sec. 8. The General Assembly shall have power to establish, in each county within this State, a court of probate, for the granting of letters testamentary, and of administration, and for orphans’ business.

Sec. 9. A competent number of justices of the peace shall be appointed in and for each county, in such mode, and for such term of office as the general assembly may by law direct; whose jurisdiction, Edition: current; Page: [129] in civil cases, shall be limited to causes in which the amount in controversy shall not exceed one hundred dollars; and in all cases tried by a justice of the peace, the right of appeal shall be secured under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 10. The judges of the supreme court, circuit courts, and courts of chancery, shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall be fixed by law, and which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold any office of profit or trust, under this State, the United States, or any other power.

Sec. 11. Judges of the supreme court, and chancellors, shall be elected by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly; judges of the circuit and probate courts, and of such other inferior courts as may be by law established, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the respective counties, cities, or districts, for which such courts may be established. Elections of judges by the people shall be held on the first Monday in May, or such other day as may be by law prescribed, not within a less period than two months of the day fixed by law for the election of governor, members of the General Assembly, or members of Congress. Vacancies in the office of circuit judge, probate judge, or judge of any other inferior court established by law, shall be filled by the governor; and the person appointed by him shall hold office until the next election day by law appointed for the election of judges, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified.

Sec. 12. The judges of the several courts of this State shall hold their offices for the term of six years; and the right of any judge to hold his office for the full term hereby prescribed, shall not be affected by any change hereafter made by law in any circuit or district, or in the mode or time of election; but for any wilful neglect of duty, or any other reasonable cause, which shall not be a sufficient ground of impeachment, the governor shall remove any judge, on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly; Provided, That the cause or causes, for which said removal may be required, shall be stated at length in such address, and entered on the journals of each house; And, provided further, That the judge intended to be removed shall be notified of such cause or causes, and shall be admitted to a hearing in his own defence, before any vote for such address; and in all such cases, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and be entered on the journals of each house respectively.

Sec. 13. No person who shall have arrived at the age of seventy years, shall be appointed or elected to, or shall continue in, the office of judge in this State.

Sec. 14. The judges of the supreme court shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the peace throughout the State; as also the judges of the circuit courts within their respective circuits, and the judges of the inferior courts within their respective counties.

Sec. 15. Clerks of the circuit courts, and of such inferior courts as may be by law established, shall be elected by the qualified electors in each county, for the term of four years; and may be removed from office, for such causes, and in such manner, as may be by law prescribed. Vacancies in the office of clerk shall be filled by the judge of the court, and the person so appointed shall hold office until the Edition: current; Page: [130] next general election, and until his successor is elected and qualified; Provided, That the general assembly shall have power to annex the duties of clerk to the office of judge of any inferior court by law established.

Sec. 16. The style of all process shall be, The State of Alabama; and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, and shall conclude “against the peace and dignity of the same.”

Article VII: STATE AND COUNTY OFFICERS

Section 1. A secretary of state, a comptroller of public accounts, and a State treasurer, shall be elected by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, each of whom shall continue in office during the term of two years, shall perform all the duties that may be required of him by law, and receive such compensation as may be by law provided.

Sec. 2. An attorney-general, and as many solicitors as there are judicial circuits in the State, shall be elected by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, each of whom shall hold his office for the term of four years, shall perform all the duties that may be required of him by law, and shall receive such compensation for his services as may be by law provided, which shall not be diminished during his continuance in office.

Sec. 3. A sheriff shall be elected in each county, by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold his office for the term of three years, unless sooner removed, and shall not be eligible to serve, either as principal or deputy, for any two successive terms. Vacancies in the office of sheriff shall be filled by the governor, as in other cases; and the person so appointed shall continue in office until the next general election in the county for sheriff as by law provided.

Sec. 4. No member of Congress, nor any person who holds any office of profit or trust under the United States, (except postmasters,) or any other State or government; nor any person who shall have been convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election or appointment; nor any person who shall have been convicted of bribery, forgery, perjury, or other high crime or misdemeanor which may be by law declared to disqualify him,—shall be eligible to any office of profit or trust under this State.

Sec. 5. All commissions shall be in the name, and by the authority of the State of Alabama; shall be sealed with the great seal of the State, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of state.

Sec. 6. All civil officers of this State, legislative, executive, and judicial, before they enter upon the execution of the duties of their respective offices, shall take the following oath: “I solemnly swear,” (or affirm, as the case may be,) “that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the State of Alabama, so long as I continue a citizen thereof; and that I will faithfully discharge, to the best of my abilities, the duties of the office of ———; So help me God.”

Sec. 7. All civil officers of the State, whether elected by the people, or by the general assembly, or appointed by the governor, shall be Edition: current; Page: [131] liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the State; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law.

Article VIII: ELECTIONS BY THE PEOPLE

Section 1. Every white male person, of the age of twenty-one years and upward, who shall be a citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this State one year next preceding the election, and the last three months thereof in the county in which he offers to vote, shall be deemed a qualified elector; Provided, That no soldier, seaman, or marine, in the Regular Army or Navy of the United States, and no person who shall have been convicted of bribery, forgery, perjury, or other high crime or misdemeanor which may be by law declared to disqualify him, shall be entitled to vote at any election in this State.

Sec. 2. In all elections by the people, the electors shall vote by ballot, until otherwise directed by law.

Sec. 3. Except in cases of treason, felony, or breach of the peace, electors shall be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

Sec. 4. Returns of elections for all civil officers elected by the people, who are to be commissioned by the governor, and also for members of the General Assembly, shall be made to the secretary of state.

Article IX: AMENDMENT AND REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION

Section 1. The General Assembly may, whenever two-thirds of each house shall deem it necessary, propose amendments to this constitution; which proposed amendments shall be duly published in print, (in such manner as the General Assembly may direct,) at least three months before the next general election for representatives, for the consideration of the people; and it shall be the duty of the several returning officers, at the next ensuing general election for representatives, to open a poll for the vote of the qualified electors on the proposed amendments, and to make a return of said vote to the secretary of state; and if it shall thereupon appear that a majority of all qualified electors of the State, who voted for representatives, voted in favor of the proposed amendments, and two-thirds of each house of the next General Assembly, before another election, shall ratify said amendments, each house voting by yeas and nays, said amendments shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as parts of this constitution; Provided, That said proposed amendments shall, at each of said sessions of the General Assembly, have been read three times, on three several days, in each house.

Sec. 2. After the expiration of twelve months from the adoption of this constitution, no convention shall be held, for the purpose of Edition: current; Page: [132] altering or amending the constitution of this State, unless the question of convention or no convention shall be first submitted to a vote of the qualified electors of the State, and approved by a majority of the electors voting at said election.

Adopted by the convention, by the unanimous vote of all the delegates present, at the State capitol, in the city of Montgomery, on this, the thirtieth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, and of the Independence of the United States the ninetieth year.

Benj. Fitzpatrick, President of Convention.
Attest: Wm. H. Ogbourne, Sec’y of Convention.

CONSTITUTION OF ALABAMA—1867*a

PREAMBLE

We, the People of the State of Alabama, by our representatives in Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure to ourselves and to our posterity the rights of life, liberty, and property, invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following Constitution and form of government for the State of Alabama:

Article I: DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the great general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:

Section 1. That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Sec. 2. That all persons resident in this State, born in the United States, or naturalized, or who shall have legally declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, are hereby declared citizens Edition: current; Page: [133] of the State of Alabama, possessing equal civil and political rights and public privileges.

Sec. 3. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that, therefore, they have at all times, an inherent right to change their form of government, in such manner as they may deem expedient.

Sec. 4. That no person shall be deprived of the right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

Sec. 5. That no religion shall be established by law.

Sec. 6. That any citizen may speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 7. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions, from unreasonable seizures or searches, and that no warrant shall issue to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 8. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel, or either; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to have a copy thereof; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offence was committed; and that he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, or be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by due process of law.

Sec. 9. That no person shall be accused, or arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the forms which the same has prescribed; and that no person shall be punished but by virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the offence, and legally applied.

Sec. 10. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally, by information, except in cases arising in the land and naval service, or in the militia when in actual service, or by leave of the court for oppressions or misdemeanor in office: Provided, That in cases of petit larceny, assault, assault and battery, affray, unlawful assemblies, vagrancy, and other misdemeanors, the General Assembly may, by law, dispense with a grand jury, and authorize such prosecutions and proceedings before justices of the peace, or such inferior courts as may be by law established.

Sec. 11. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

Sec. 12. That no person shall be debarred from prosecuting or defending, before any tribunal in the State, by himself, or counsel, any civil cause to which he is a party.

Sec. 13. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

Sec. 14. That in prosecution for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and that in all indictments for libel, the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts under the direction of the court.

Sec. 15. That all courts shall be open, that every person, for any injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have Edition: current; Page: [134] a remedy by due process of law; and right and justice shall be administered without sale, denial or delay.

Sec. 16. That suits may be brought against the State, in such manner and in such courts as may be by law provided.

Sec. 17. That excessive fines shall not be imposed, or cruel punishment inflicted.

Sec. 18. That all persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences when the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not, in any case, be required.

Sec. 19. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, except when necessary for public safety in times of rebellion or invasion.

Sec. 20. That treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; and that no person shall be convicted of treason, except on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

Sec. 21. That no person shall be attainted of treason by the General Assembly; and that no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 22. That no person shall be imprisoned for debt.

Sec. 23. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, except by the General Assembly, or by its authority.

Sec. 24. That no ex post facto law, or any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be made.

Sec. 25. That private property shall not be taken or applied for public use, unless just compensation be made therefor; nor shall private property be taken for private use, or for the use of corporations, other than municipal, without the consent of the owner: Provided, however, That laws may be made securing to persons or corporations the right of way over the lands of either persons or corporations, and for works of internal improvement, the right to establish depots, stations, and turn-outs; but just compensation shall, in all cases, be first made to the owner.

Sec. 26. That all navigable waters shall remain forever public highways, free to the citizens of the State, and of the United States, without tax, impost or toll imposed; and that no tax, toll, impost or wharfage shall be demanded or received from the owner of any merchandise or commodity, for the use of the shores, or any wharf erected on the shores, or in or over the waters of any navigable stream, unless the same be expressly authorized by the General Assembly.

Sec. 27. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for the common good, and to apply to those invested with the power of government, for redress of grievances, or other purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.

Sec. 28. That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the State.

Sec. 29. That no person who conscientiously scruples to bear arms shall be compelled to do so, but may pay an equivalent for personal service.

Sec. 30. That no standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the General Assembly; and, in that case, no appropriation Edition: current; Page: [135] for its support shall be made for a longer term than one year, and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 31. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; or in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 32. That no title of nobility, or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor, or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; that no property qualification shall be necessary to the election to, or holding of any office in this State, and that no office shall be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time than during good behavior.

Sec. 33. That emigration from the State shall not be prohibited; and that no citizen shall be exiled.

Sec. 34. That temporary absence from the State shall not cause a forfeiture of residence once obtained.

Sec. 35. That no form of slavery shall exist in this State; and there shall be no involuntary servitude, otherwise than for the punishment of crime, of which the party shall have been duly convicted.

Sec. 36. The right of suffrage shall be protected by laws, regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influences from power, bribery, tumult or other improper conduct.

Sec. 37. That this State has no right to sever its relation to the Federal Union, or to pass any law in derogation of the paramount allegiance of the citizens of this State to the Government of the United States.

Sec. 38. That this enumeration of certain rights shall not impair or deny others retained by the people.

Article II: STATE AND COUNTY BOUNDARIES

Section 1. The boundaries of this State are established and declared to be as follows—that is to say: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude crosses the Perdido River; thence east to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia; thence along said line to the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee; thence west along the southern boundary-line to the State of Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee River, and on to the second intersection of said river, by said line; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Bear Creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington County, in this State, as originally formed; thence southerly, along the line of the State of Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River, and thence up the said river to the beginning.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly may, by a two-thirds vote of both houses thereof, arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties of this State, which boundaries shall not be altered, except by a like vote. But no new counties shall be hereafter formed of less extent than six hundred square miles; and no existing county shall be reduced to less extent than six hundred square miles; and no new county shall be formed which does not contain a sufficient number of Edition: current; Page: [136] inhabitants to entitle it to one representative under the ratio of representation existing at the time of its formation, or unless the county or counties from which it is taken shall be left with the required number of inhabitants entitling such county or counties to separate representation.

Article III: DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

Section 1. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

Sec. 2. No person, or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

Article IV: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

Sec. 2. The style of the laws of this State shall be: “Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Alabama.” Each law shall contain but one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title; and no law shall be revised or amended unless the new act contain the entire act revised, or the section or sections amended; and the section or sections so amended shall be repealed.

Sec. 3. Senators and Representatives shall be elected by the qualified electors, on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The term of office of the senators shall be four years, and that of the Representatives two years, commencing on the day after the general election.

Sec. 4. No person shall be a Representative unless he is eligible as an elector to vote for members of the General Assembly.

Sec. 5. No person shall be a Senator, unless he be eligible as an elector to vote for members of the General Assembly, and shall be twenty-seven years of age, and shall have resided for two years within the State, and for the last year thereof within the district for which he shall be chosen.

Sec. 6. The House of Representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, and its other officers; and the Senate shall choose a president, in the absence of the lieutenant-governor, and its other officers; each house shall judge of the qualifications, elections and returns of its own members, but a contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law. The president of the senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives shall remain in office until their successors are elected and qualified.

Sec. 7. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and Edition: current; Page: [137] may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

Sec. 8. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legislature of a free and independent State.

Sec. 9. Each house, during the session, may punish by imprisonment, any person not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly behavior in its presence, or obstructing any of its proceedings: Provided, That such imprisonment shall not, at any time, exceed forty-eight hours.

Sec. 10. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as in its judgment may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-tenth of the members present, be entered on the journals. Any member of either house shall have liberty to dissent from, or protest against, any act or resolution, which he may think injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journals.

Sec. 11. Members of the General Assembly shall, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest; and they shall not be subject to any civil process during the session of the General Assembly, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session.

Sec. 12. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the powers of the governor, shall issue writs of elections to fill such vacancies.

Sec. 13. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as in the opinion of the house may require secrecy.

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.

Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house, and be amended, altered or rejected by the other; but no bill shall have the force of law, until on three several days it be read in each house, and free discussion be allowed thereon; unless in case of urgency, four-fifths of the house in which the bill shall be pending, may deem it expedient to dispense with this rule. And every bill, having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speaker and president of their respective houses: Provided, That all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may amend or reject them as other bills.

Sec. 16. Every bill or resolution having the force of law, to which the concurrence of both houses of the General Assembly may be necessary, except on a question of adjournment, which shall have passed both houses, shall be presented to the governor, and if he approve, he shall sign it; if not, he shall return it with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on the journals, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number of members of that house shall agree to pass it, it shall be sent, together Edition: current; Page: [138] with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall be reconsidered, and if approved by a majority of the whole number of members of that house, it shall have the same effect as if it had been signed by the governor; but in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of persons voting for and against the bill or resolution, shall be entered on the journals of both houses respectively. If the bill or resolution shall not be returned by the governor within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, it shall have the same force and effect as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly by its adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Sec. 17. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary, (except on questions of adjournment, and for bringing on elections by the two houses,) shall be presented to the governor, and before it shall take effect be approved by him, or, being disapproved, shall be repassed by both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of bills.

Sec. 18. Each member of the General Assembly shall receive from the public treasury such compensation for his services as may be prescribed by law; but no increase of compensation shall take effect during the session at which such increase shall have been made.

Sec. 19. No Senator or Representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term, except such office as may be filled by election by the people.

Sec. 20. No person who holds any lucrative office under the United States, or under this State, or any other State or government (except postmasters, officers in the militia to whose office no annual salary is attached, justices of the peace, members of the court of county commissioners, notaries public, and commissioners of deeds;) no person who have been convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election to any office; no person who has been convicted of bribery, forgery, perjury, or other high crime, or misdemeanor, which may be by law declared to disqualify him; and no person who has been a collector, or holder of any public moneys, and has failed to account for and pay over to the treasury all sums for which he may be by law accountable, shall be eligible to the general assembly.

Sec. 21. The General Assembly shall meet annually, on such day as may be by law prescribed, and shall not remain in session longer than thirty days, except by a vote of two-thirds of each house.

Sec. 22. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journals.

Sec. 23. All State officers may be impeached for any misdemeanor in office, but judgment shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold office, under the authority of this State. The party impeached, whether convicted or not, shall be liable to indictment, trial and judgment, according to law.

Sec. 24. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of preferring impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate; the Senators, when sitting for that purpose, shall be on oath or affirmation; and no person shall be convicted under an impeachment without the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senators present.

Sec. 25. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass such Edition: current; Page: [139] laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, to be appointed by the parties who may choose that mode of adjustment.

Sec. 26. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, from time to time, as circumstances may require, to frame and adopt a penal code founded on principles of reformation.

Sec. 27. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, within five years after the adoption of this constitution, and within every subsequent period of ten years, to make provision by law for the revision, digesting and promulgation of all the public statutes of this State, both civil and criminal.

Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have power to pass such penal laws as they may deem expedient, to suppress the evil practice of duelling.

Sec. 29. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to regulate by law the cases in which deductions shall be made from the salaries of public officers for neglect of duty in their official capacities, and the amount of such deductions.

Sec. 30. Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be granted but in cases by law provided for, and by suit in chancery; but decisions in chancery for divorce shall be final, unless appealed from in the manner prescribed by law, within three months from the date of the enrolment thereof.

Sec. 31. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in pursuance of an appropriation made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually, in such manner as may be by law directed.

Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall not borrow or raise money on the credit of this State, except for purposes of military defence against actual or threatened invasion, rebellion or insurrection, without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each house; nor shall the debts or liabilities of any corporation, person or persons, or other States by guaranteed, nor any money, credit or other thing be loaned or given away, except by a like concurrence of each house; and the votes shall, in each case, be taken by the yeas and nays, and be entered on the journals.

Sec. 33. The State shall not engage in works of internal improvement; but its credit in aid of such may be pledged by the General Assembly on undoubted security, by a vote of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly.

Sec. 34. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to make adequate provisions in each county for the maintenance of the poor of this State.

Sec. 35. Any citizen of this State who shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, either in or out of this State, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send, or accept a challenge so to do, or act as a second, or knowingly aid or assist in any manner those thus offending, shall be incapable of holding any office under this State.

Sec. 36. The General Assembly shall not have power to authorize any municipal corporation to pass any laws contrary to the general laws of the State, nor to levy a tax on real and personal property to a greater extent than two per centum of the assessed value of such property.

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Sec. 37. In the event of annexation of any foreign territory to this State, the General Assembly shall enact laws extending to the inhabitants of the acquired territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of the acquisition, anything in this Constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.

Article V: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The Executive Department shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Attorney-General, who shall be chosen by the electors of the State, at the time and places at which they shall vote for Representatives.

Sec. 2. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney-General shall hold their offices for the term of two years, and the Auditor for the term of four years.

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the officers named in the preceding section, shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of Government, by the returning officers, directed to the presiding officer of the Senate, who, during the first week of the session, shall open and publish the same in the presence of a majority of the members of the General Assembly; the person having the highest number of votes shall be declared duly elected, but if two or more shall be highest and equal in votes for the same office, one of them shall be chosen by the joint vote of both houses. Contested elections for executive officers shall be determined by both houses of the General Assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 4. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in the Governor.

Sec. 5. He shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed.

Sec. 6. He may require information in writing, from the officers in the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

Sec. 7. He shall communicate at every session, by message to the General Assembly, the condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he shall deem expedient.

Sec. 8. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both houses, when assembled, the purposes for which they have been convened.

Sec. 9. In case of disagreement between the two houses, in respect to the time of adjournment, he shall have power to adjourn the General Assembly to such time as he may think proper, but not beyond the regular meetings thereof.

Sec. 10. He shall be commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States.

Sec. 11. He shall have power, after conviction, to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons for all offences, (except treason and cases of impeachment,) upon such conditions as he may think proper, subject, however, to such regulations as to the manner of applying for pardons as may be prescribed by law; but such pardons shall not relieve from civil or political disability. Upon conviction of Edition: current; Page: [141] treason, he may suspend the execution of the sentence, and report the same to the general assembly at the next meeting, when the General Assembly shall either pardon, commute the sentence, direct its execution, or grant further reprieve. He shall communicate to the general assembly, at every regular session, each case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, stating the name and crime of the convict, the sentence, its date, and the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve, with his reasons therefor.

Sec. 12. There shall be a great seal of the State, which shall be kept and used by the Governor officially; and the seal heretofore in use, shall continue to be the great seal of the State until another shall have been adopted by the General Assembly.

Sec. 13. All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, sealed with the great seal, signed by the governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

Sec. 14. No member of Congress, or other person, holding office under the authority of this State, or of the United States, shall execute the office of Governor, except as herein provided.

Sec. 15. In case of the death, impeachment, resignation, removal, or other disability of the Governor, the powers and duties of the office, for the residue of the term, or until he shall be acquitted, or the disability removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant-governor.

Sec. 16. The lieutenant-governor shall be president of the Senate, but shall vote only when the senate is equally divided; and in case of his absence or impeachment, or when he shall exercise the office of Governor, the senate shall choose a president pro tempore.

Sec. 17. If the Lieutenant-Governor, while executing the office of Governor, shall be impeached, displaced, resign or die, or otherwise become incapable of performing the duties of the office, the president of the Senate shall act as Governor until the vacancy is filled or the disability removed; and if the President of the Senate for any of the above causes shall be rendered incapable of performing the duties pertaining to the office of Governor, the same shall devolve upon the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Sec. 18. Should the office of Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, or Attorney-general become vacant from any of the causes specified in the fifteenth section of this article, the governor shall fill the vacancy until the disability is removed, or a successor elected and qualified. Every such vacancy shall be filled by election at the first general election that occurs more than thirty days after it shall have occurred, and the person chosen shall hold the office for the full term fixed in the second section of this article.

Sec. 19. The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation to be established by law, which shall neither be increased or diminished during the period for which they shall have been elected.

Sec. 20. The officers of the Executive Department, and of the public institutions of the State, shall, at least five days preceding each regular session of the General Assembly, severally report to the Governor, who shall transmit such reports with his message to the General Assembly.

Sec. 21. A sheriff shall be elected in each county by the qualified Edition: current; Page: [142] electors thereof, who shall hold his office for the term of three years, unless sooner removed, and shall not be eligible to serve either as principal or deputy for any two successive terms. Vacancies in the office of sheriff shall be filled by the Governor as in other cases; and the person appointed shall continue in office until the next general election in the county for sheriff, as by law provided.

Article VI: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, Chancery Courts, Courts of Probate, such inferior Courts of Law and Equity, to consist of not more than five members, as the General Assembly may from time to time establish, and such persons as may be by law invested with powers of a judicial nature.

Sec. 2. Except in cases otherwise directed in the Constitution, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be coextensive with the State, under such restrictions and regulations not repugnant to this Constitution, as may from time to time be prescribed by law: Provided, That said court shall have power to issue writs of injunction, mandamus, habeas corpus, quo warranto, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdiction.

Sec. 3. The Supreme Court shall be held at the seat of government, but if that shall have become dangerous from an enemy, or from disease, it may adjourn to a different place.

Sec. 4. The State shall be divided by the General Assembly into convenient circuits, each of which shall contain not less than three nor more than eight counties; and for each circuit there shall be chosen a judge, who shall, after his election or appointment, reside in the circuit for which he shall have been chosen.

Sec. 5. The Circuit Court shall have original judisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, within the State, not otherwise excepted in the Constitution, but in civil cases only when the matter or sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars: Provided, however, That the Circuit Court shall have equity jurisdiction concurrent with the Courts of Chancery in all cases for divorce, and cases in which the value of the matter in controversy does not exceed the sum of five thousand dollars.

Sec. 6. A Circuit Court shall be held in each county in the State at least twice in every year, and the Judges of the several circuits may hold courts for each other when they deem it expedient, and shall do so when directed by law: Provided, That the Judges of the several Circuit Courts shall have power to issue writs of injunction returnable into Courts of Chancery.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall have power to establish a Cour or Courts of Chancery with original and appellate jurisdiction. The State shall be divided by the General Assembly into convenient Chancery Divisions, and the Divisions into Districts; and for each division there shall be a Chancellor, who shall, after his election or Edition: current; Page: [143] appointment, reside in the Division for which he shall have been elected or appointed.

Sec. 8. A Chancery Court shall be held in each county at a place therein to be fixed by law, and the Chancellors may hold courts for each other, when they deem it expedient.

Sec. 9. The General Assembly shall have power to establish in each county within the State a Court of Probate, with general jurisdiction for the granting of letters testamentary and of administration, and for orphans’ business; and the General Assembly may confer on the said courts, jurisdiction of contracts for labor, and order frequent sessions for that purpose.

Sec. 10. The Judges of the Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and Courts of Chancery, shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any office (except judicial offices) of profit or trust under this State, or the United States, during the term for which they have been elected, nor under any other power during their continuance in office.

Sec. 11. Judges of the Supreme Court, and Chancellors, and Judges of the Circuit and Probate Courts, and of such other inferior courts as may be by law established, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the respective counties, cities, towns or districts, for which said courts may be established, on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of each year, or such other day as may be by law prescribed. Vacancies in the office of the Circuit Judge, Judge of Probate, or Judge of any other inferior court established by law, shall be filled by the Governor; and the person appointed by him shall hold office until the next election day appointed by law for election of Judge, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified.

Sec. 12. The Judges of the several Courts of this State shall hold their office for the term of six years; and the right of any Judge to hold his office for the full term hereby prescribed, shall not be affected by any change hereafter made by law in any Circuit or District, or in the mode or time of election; but for any wilful neglect of duty, or any other reasonable cause which shall not be a sufficient ground of impeachment, the Governor shall remove any judge on the address of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly: Provided, That the cause or causes for which said removal may be required, shall be stated at length in such address, and entered on the journals of each house: And provided further, That the judge intended to be removed shall be notified of such cause or causes, and shall be admitted to a hearing in his own defence, before any vote for such address; and in all such cases the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and be entered on the journal of each house respectively.

Sec. 13. A competent number of justices and constables shall be elected in and for each county by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold office during such terms as may be prescribed by law. Said justices shall have jurisdiction in all civil cases wherein the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars. In all cases tried before such justices the right of appeal shall be secured by law: Provided, That notaries public appointed according to law shall be authorized and required to exercise, throughout their respective counties, all the powers and jurisdiction of justices of the peace.

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Sec. 14. The judges of the Supreme Court shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the peace throughout the State; as also the judges of the Circuit Courts within their respective circuits, and the judges of the inferior courts within their respective counties.

Sec. 15. The clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the judges thereof; registers in chancery, by the chancellors of the divisions; and all the clerks and registers so appointed shall be removed by the appointing power for cause to be placed on the records of the court.

Sec. 16. The Attorney-General shall reside at the seat of government, and shall be the law-officer of the State. During the session of the General Assembly, he shall furnish to the committees of either house, when required, draughts of bills and written opinions upon any matter under consideration of the committees, and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by law.

Sec. 17. A solicitor shall be elected in each county in this State by the qualified electors of such county, who shall reside in the county for which he is elected, and perform such duties as may be required of him by law. He shall hold office for a term of four years, and in case of vacancy, such vacancy shall be filled by the judge of the circuit until his successor is elected and qualified.

Sec. 18. Clerks of the Circuit Court, and such inferior courts as may be by law established, shall be elected by the qualified electors in each county, for the term of six years, and may be removed from office for cause, and in such manner as may be by law prescribed. Vacancies in the office of clerk shall be filled by the judge of the circuit, until the next general election, and until a successor shall be elected and qualified: Provided, That the General Assembly shall have power to annex the duties of clerk to the office of judge of any of the inferior courts by law established.

Sec. 19. The style of all processes shall be “The State of Alabama,” and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, and shall conclude “against the peace and dignity of the same.”

Article VII: ELECTIONS

Section 1. In all elections by the people, the electors shall vote by ballot.

Sec. 2. Every male person, born in the United States, and every male person who has been naturalized, or who has legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upward, who shall have resided in this State six months next preceding the election, and six months in the county in which he offers to vote, except as hereinafter provided, shall be deemed an elector: Provided, That no soldier, or sailor, or marine in the military or naval service of the United States, shall hereafter acquire a residence by reason of being stationed on duty in this State.

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide, from time to time, for the registration of all electors; but the following class of persons shall not be permitted to register, vote or hold Edition: current; Page: [145] office: 1st. Those who, during the late rebellion, inflicted, or caused to be inflicted, any cruel or unusual punishment upon any soldier, sailor, marine, employé or citizen of the United States, or who in any other way violated the rules of civilized warfare. 2d, Those who may be disqualified from holding office by the proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States, known as “Article XIV,” and those who have been disqualified from registering to vote for delegates to the convention to frame a constitution for the State of Alabama, under the act of Congress “to provide for the more efficient government of the rebel States,” passed by Congress March 2, 1867, and the act supplementary thereto, except such persons as aided in the reconstruction proposed by Congress, and accept the political equality of all men before the law: Provided, That the General Assembly shall have power to remove the disabilities incurred under this clause. 3d, Those who shall have been convicted of treason, embezzlement of public funds, malfeasance in office, crime punishable by law with imprisonment in the penitentiary, or bribery. 4th, Those who are idiots or insane.

Sec. 4. All persons, before registering, must take and subscribe the following oath: I, ——— ———, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and maintain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the Constitution and laws of the State of Alabama; that I am not excluded from registering by any of the clauses in section 3, Article VII, of the Constitution of the State of Alabama; that I will never countenance or aid in the secession of this State from the United States; that I accept the civil and political equality of all men; and agree not to attempt to deprive any person or persons, on account of race, color, or previous condition, of any political or civil right, privilege, or immunity, enjoyed by any other class of men; and furthermore, that I will not in any way injure, or countenance in others any attempt to injure, any person or persons, on account of past or present support of the Government of the United States, the laws of the United States, or the principle of the civil and political equality of all men, or for affiliation with any political party.

Sec. 5. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest and civil process during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to enact adequate laws giving protection against the evils arising from the use of intoxicating liquors at elections.

Sec. 7. Returns of elections for all civil officers elected by the people, who are to be commissioned by the Governor, and also for the members of the General Assembly, shall be made to the Secretary of State.

Article VIII: REPRESENTATION

Section 1. The House of Representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred members, who shall be apportioned by the General Assembly among the several counties of the State, according to the number of inhabitants in them respectively; and to this end the General Assembly shall cause an enumeration of all the inhabitants Edition: current; Page: [146] of the State to be made in the year 1875, and every ten years thereafter, and shall make an apportionment of the representatives among the several counties at the first regular session after each enumeration; which apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration until after the next census shall have been taken: Provided, That each county shall be entitled to at least one representative: And provided, further, That when two or more adjoining counties shall each have a residuum, or fraction over and above the ratio then fixed by law, which fractions, when added together, equal, or exceed that ratio, in that case the county having the largest fraction shall be entitled to one additional representative.

Sec. 2. Until the General Assembly shall make an apportionment of the representatives among the several counties, after the first enumeration made as herein provided, the counties of Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Butler, Calhoun, Clay, Clarke, Cherokee, Cleburne, Crenshaw, Choctaw, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Dale, De Kalb, Elmore, Fayette, Henry, Jefferson, Lauderdale, Limestone, Marshall, Marion, Monroe, Morgan, Pike, Randolph, Saint Clair, Shelby, Walker, Washington and Winston, shall have one representative each; the counties of Chambers, Franklin, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Lee, Lawrence, Macon, Pickens, Russell, Talladega, Tallapoosa and Tuscaloosa, shall be entitled to two representatives each; the counties of Barbour, Bullock, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Perry, Sumter and Wilcox, shall be entitled to three representatives each; the counties of Dallas, Mobile and Montgomery, shall be entitled to five representatives each: Provided, That in the formation of new counties, the General Assembly may apportion to each its proper representation.

Sec. 3. The whole number of Senators shall be not less than one-fourth or more than one-third of the whole number of representatives; and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its first session after the making of each enumeration, as provided by section first of this article, to fix by law the number of Senators, and to divide the State into as many senatorial districts as there are Senators; which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other as may be in the number of inhabitants, and each shall be entitled to one Senator, and no more: Provided, That no county shall be divided, and no two or more counties, which are separated entirely by a county belonging to another district, shall be joined in one district: And provided, further, That the senatorial districts, when formed, shall not be changed until after the next enumeration shall have been taken.

Sec. 4. At the first general election after each new apportionment, elections shall be held anew in all the senatorial districts. The Senators elected, when convened at the next ensuing session of the General Assembly, shall be divided by lot into two classes, as nearly equal as may be; the seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class at the expiration of four years, from the day of election, so that (except as above provided,) one-half of the Senators may be chosen biennially.

Sec. 5. Until the General Assembly shall divide the State into senatorial districts as herein provided, the senatorial districts shall remain as follows: 1st district, Limestone and Lauderdale; 2d, Franklin and Edition: current; Page: [147] Lawrence; 3d, Morgan, Blount, Winston and Marion; 4th, Madison; 5th, Jackson, Marshall and De Kalb; 6th, Cherokee and Calhoun; 7th, Walker, Jefferson and Saint Clair; 8th, Shelby and Bibb; 9th, Tuscaloosa and Fayette; 10th, Talledega and Clay; 11th, Chambers, Randolph and Cleburne; 12th, Coosa and Tallapoosa; 13th, Lee; 14th, Macon; 15th, Russell; 16th, Bullock; 17th, Barbour; 18th, Autauga and Elmore; 19th, Montgomery; 20th, Lowndes; 21st, Dallas; 22d, Perry; 23d, Hale; 24th, Greene and Pickens; 25th, Sumter; 26th, Marengo; 27th, Choctaw, Clarke and Washington; 28th, Mobile; 29th, Monroe and Baldwin; 30th, Wilcox; 31st, Butler and Conecuh; 32d, Covington, Crenshaw and Pike; 33d, Coffee, Dale and Henry.

Sec. 6. Until a new apportionment of representatives to the Congress of the United States shall have been made, the congressional districts shall remain as stated in the Revised Code of Alabama, and after each new apportionment, the General Assembly shall divide the State into as many districts as it is allowed Representatives in Congress, making such congressional districts as nearly equal in the number of inhabitants as may be.

Article IX: TAXATION

Section 1. All taxes levied on property in this State, shall be assessed in exact proportion to the value of such property: Provided, however, That the General Assembly may levy a poll-tax not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each poll, which shall be applied exclusively in aid of the public-school fund.

Sec. 2. No power to levy taxes shall be delegated to individuals or private corporations.

Article X: MILITIA

Section 1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this State, between the ages of eighteen years and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, or who have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, shall be liable to military duty in the militia of this State; but all citizens of any denomination whatever, who, from scruples or conscience, may be averse to bearing arms, shall be exempt therefrom upon such conditions as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly shall provide for the organizing, arming, equipping, and discipline of the militia, and for paying the same, when called into active service, in such manner as it shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the laws of the United States.

Sec. 3. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed and commissioned in such manner as may be provided by the General Assembly.

Sec. 4. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this State, and of the militia, except when called into the service of the United States, and shall have power to call forth the Edition: current; Page: [148] militia to execute the laws, to suppress riots, or insurrections, and to repel invasion.

Sec. 5. The Governor shall nominate, and, by and with the consent of the Senate, appoint one Major-General and three Brigadier-Generals. The Adjutant-General, and other staff officers to the commander-in-chief, shall be appointed by the Governor, and their commissions shall expire with the Governor’s term of office. No commissioned officer shall be removed from office except by the Senate, on the recommendation of the Governor, stating the grounds on which such removal is recommended, or by the decision of a court-martial pursuant to law.

Sec. 6. The militia may be divided into two classes, to be designated as “volunteer militia” and “reserve militia,” in such manner as shall be provided by law.

Sec. 7. The militia shall, in all cases, except felony, treason, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at musters and elections of officers, and in going to and returning from the same.

Sec. 8. The officers and men commissioned and organized shall not be entitled to receive any pay, rations, or emoluments when not in active service.

Article XI: EDUCATION

Section 1. The common schools, and other educational institutions of the State, shall be under the management of a Board of Education, consisting of a Superintendent of Public Instruction and two members from each Congressional District.

The Governor of the State shall be ex officio, a member of the Board, but shall have no vote in its proceedings.

Sec. 2. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be President of the Board of Education, and have the casting vote in case of a tie; he shall have the supervision of the public schools of the State, and perform such other duties as may be imposed upon him by the board and the laws of the State. He shall be elected in the same manner and for the same term as the Governor of the State, and receive such salary as may be fixed by law. An office shall be assigned him in the capitol of the State.

Sec. 3. The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of four years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. After the first election under the Constitution, the Board shall be divided into two equal classes, so that each class shall consist of one member from each District. The seats of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years from the day of election, so that one-half may be chosen biennially.

Sec. 4. The members of the Board of Education, except the Superintendent, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the Congressional Districts in which they are chosen, at the same time and in the same manner as the members of Congress.

Sec. 5. The Board of Education shall exercise full legislative powers in reference to the public educational institutions of the State, and Edition: current; Page: [149] its acts, when approved by the governor, or when re-enacted by two-thirds of the Board, in case of his disapproval, shall have the force and effect of law, unless repealed by the General Assembly.

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the Board to establish, throughout the State, in each township or other school-district which it may have created, one or more schools, at which all the children of the State between the ages of five and twenty-one years may attend free of charge.

Sec. 7. No rule or law affecting the general interest of education shall be made by the board without the concurrence of a majority of its members. The style of all acts of the Board shall be, “Be it enacted by the Board of Education of the State of Alabama.

Sec. 8. The Board of education shall be a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of “The Board of Education of the State of Alabama.” Said Board shall also be a Board of Regents of the State University, and when sitting as a Board of Regents of the University shall have power to appoint the president and the faculties thereof. The President of the University shall be, ex officio, a member of the board of regents, but shall have no vote in its proceedings.

Sec. 9. The Board of Education shall meet annually at the seat of government at the same time as the General Assembly, but no session shall continue longer than twenty days, nor shall more than one session be held in the same year, unless authorized by the Governor. The members shall receive the same mileage and daily pay as the members of the General Assembly.

Sec. 10. The proceeds of all lands that have been or may be granted by the United States to the State for educational purposes; of the swamp-lands; and of all lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the State for like purposes; and of all estates of deceased persons who have died without leaving a will or heir; and all moneys which may be paid as an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, which may be increased but not diminished, and the interest and income of which, together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, and such other means as the General Assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to educational purposes, and to no other purpose whatever.

Sec. 11. In addition to the amount accruing from the above sources, one-fifth of the aggregate annual revenue of the State shall be devoted exclusively to the maintenance of public schools.

Sec. 12. The general assembly may give power to the authorities of the school-districts to levy a poll-tax on the inhabitants of the district in aid of the general school-fund, and for no other purpose.

Sec. 13. The General Assembly shall levy a specific annual tax upon all railroad, navigation, banking, and insurance corporations, and upon all insurance and foreign bank and exchange agencies, and upon the profits of foreign bank bills issued in this State by any corporation, partnership or persons, which shall be exclusively devoted to the maintenance of public schools.

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall, as soon as practicable, provide for the establishment of an agricultural college, and shall appropriate the two hundred and forty thousand acres of land donated to Edition: current; Page: [150] this State for the support of such a college, by the act of Congress, passed July 2, 1862, or the money or scrip, as the case may be, arising from the sale of said land, or any lands which may hereafter be granted or appropriated for such purpose, for the support and maintenance of such college, or schools, and may make the same a branch of the University of Alabama for instruction in agriculture, in the mechanic arts, and the natural sciences connected therewith, and place the same under the supervision of the regents of the university.

Article XII: INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES

Section 1. A Bureau of Industrial Resources shall be established, to be under the management of a Commissioner, who shall be elected at the first general election, and shall hold his office for the term of four years.

Sec. 2. The Commissioner of Industrial Resources shall collect and condense statistical information concerning the productive industries of the State; and shall make, or cause to be made, a careful, accurate, and thorough report upon the agriculture and geology of the State, and annually report such additions as the progress of scientific development and extended explorations may require. He shall, from time to time, disseminate among the people of the State such knowledge as he may deem important, concerning improved machinery and production, and for the promotion of their agricultural, manufacturing, and mining interests; and shall send out to the people of the United States and foreign countries such reports concerning the industrial resources of Alabama as may best make known the advantages offered by the State to emigrants; and shall perform such other duties as the General Assembly may require.

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at the first session after the adoption of this Constitution, to pass such laws and regulations as may be necessary for the government and protection of this bureau, and also to fix and provide for the compensation of the commissioner.

Sec. 4. This bureau shall be located, and the commissioner shall reside at the capital of the State, and he shall annually make a written or printed report to the Governor of the State, to be laid before the General Assembly at each session.

Sec. 5. In case of the death, removal, or resignation of the commissioner, the Governor, with the approval of the Senate, shall have power to appoint a commissioner for the unexpired term.

Article XIII: CORPORATIONS

Section 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes. All general laws, and special acts passed pursuant to this section, may be altered, amended, or repealed.

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Sec. 2. Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liabilities of the corporators or other means as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. Each stockholder in any corporation shall be liable to the amount of stock held or owned by him.

Sec. 4. The property of corporations now existing, or hereafter created, shall forever be subject to taxation the same as property of individuals, except corporations for educational and charitable purposes.

Sec. 5. No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation, until full compensation therefor be first made in money, or secured by a deposit of money to the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation; which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury of twelve men in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall not have power to establish or incorporate any bank or banking company, or moneyed institution, for the purpose of issuing bills of credit or bills payable to order or bearer, except under the conditions prescribed in this Constitution.

Sec. 7. No bank shall be established, otherwise than under a general banking law, as provided in the first section of this article.

Sec. 8. The General Assembly may enact a general banking law, which law shall provide for the registry and countersigning by the Governor of the State of all paper credit designed to be created as money; and ample collateral security, convertible into specie, or the redemption of the same in gold or silver, shall be required, and such collateral security shall be under the control of such officer or officers as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 9. All bills or notes issued as money, shall be at all times redeemable in gold or silver, and no law shall be passed sanctioning, directly or indirectly, the suspension by any bank or banking company, of specie payment.

Sec. 10. Holders of bank-notes shall be entitled, in case of insolvency, to preference of payment over all other creditors.

Sec. 11. Every bank or banking company shall be required to cease all banking operations within twenty years from the time of its organization, and promptly thereafter close its business.

Sec. 12. No bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a greater rate of interest than shall be allowed by law to individuals for lending money.

Sec. 13. The State shall not be a stockholder in any bank, nor shall the credit of the State ever be given or lent to any banking company, association, or corporation, except for the purpose of expediting the construction of railroads, or works of internal improvement, within the State, and the credit of the State shall, in no case, be given or lent without the approval of two-thirds of both houses of the general assembly.

Sec. 15. All corporations shall have the right to sue and shall be subject to be sued, in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 16. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide for the organization of cities and incorporated towns, and to restrict their power of taxation, assessment, and contracting of debt.

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Article XIV: EXEMPTED PROPERTY

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to the value of one thousand dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempted from sale on execution, or other final process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted after the adoption of this Constitution.

Sec. 2. Every homestead, not exceeding eighty acres of land, and the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any town, city, or village, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in the city, town, or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempted from sale, on execution, or any other final process from a court, from any debt contracted after the adoption of this Constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of such homestead, by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the wife of the same.

Sec. 3. The homestead of a family, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted after the adoption of this Constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections 1 and 2 of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborers’ lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanics’ lien for work done on the premises.

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, the same shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit.

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterward be entitled by gift, grant, inheritance, or devise, shall be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, and engagements of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her the same as if she were a femme sole.

Article XV: OATH OF OFFICE

Section 1. All civil officers of this State, legislative, executive, and judicial, before they enter upon the execution of the duties of their respective offices, shall take the following oath:

I, ——— ———, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I am not disfranchised by the constitution of Alabama, or by the Constitution or laws of the United States; that I will honestly and faithfully support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States, the Union of the States, and the Constitution and laws of the State of Alabama, so long as I remain a citizen thereof; and that I will honestly and faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter to the best of my ability. So help me God.

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Article XVI: AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

Section 1. The General Assembly, whenever two-thirds of each house shall deem it necessary, may propose amendments to this Constitution, which proposed amendments shall be duly published in print at least three months before the next general election of representatives, for the consideration of the people; and it shall be the duty of the several returning officers at the next general election which shall be held for representatives, to open a poll for, and make a return to the Secretary of State for the time being, of the names of all those voting for representative who have voted on such proposed amendments, and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of the State voting for representatives have voted in favor of such proposed amendments, and two-thirds of each house of the next General Assembly shall, after such an election, and before another, ratify the same amendments, by yeas and nays, they shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution: Provided, That the said proposed amendments shall, at each of the said sessions, have been read three times on three several days in each house.

After the expiration of twelve months from the adoption of this Constitution, no Convention shall be held for the purpose of altering or amending the Constitution of this State, unless the question of Convention or no Convention shall be first submitted to a vote of all the electors, twenty-one years of age and upward, and approved by a majority of the electors voting at said election.

E. W. Peck, President.
Robert Barber, Secretary.

CONSTITUTION OF ALABAMA—1875*a

PREAMBLE

We, the people of the State of Alabama, in order to establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and to secure to ourselves and to our posterity life, liberty, and property, profoundly grateful to Almighty God for this inestimable right, and invoking His favor and guidance, do ordain and establish the following constitution and form of government for the State of Alabama.

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Article I: DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the great, general, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare—

Section 1. That all men are equally free and independent; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Sec. 2. That all persons resident in this State, born in the United States, or naturalized, or who shall have legally declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, are hereby declared citizens of the State of Alabama, possessing equal civil and political rights.

Sec. 3. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority and instituted for their benefit; and that, therefore, they have, at all times, an inalienable and indefeasible right to change their form of government, in such manner as they may deem expedient.

Sec. 4. That no religion shall be established by law; that no preference shall be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination, or mode of worship; that no one shall be compelled by law to attend any place of worship, nor to pay any tithes, taxes, or other rate, for building or repairing any place of worship, or for maintaining any minister or ministry; that no religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State; and that the civil rights, privileges, and capacities of any citizen shall not be in any manner affected by his religious principles.

Sec. 5. That any citizen may speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 6. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable seizures or searches, and that no warrant shall issue to search any place, or to seize any person or thing, without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 7. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel, or either; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to have a copy thereof; to be confronted by witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions by indictment a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offence was committed; and that he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by due process of law.

Sec. 8. That no person shall be accused or arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the forms which the same has prescribed; and no person shall be punished but by virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the offence, and legally applied.

Sec. 9. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally, by information, except in cases arising in the militia and volunteer forces when in actual service, or by leave of the court, for misfeasance, misdemeanor, extortion, and oppression in office, otherwise than as is provided in this constitution: Provided, That in cases of petit larceny, assault, assault and battery, affray, Edition: current; Page: [155] unlawful assemblies, vagrancy, and other misdemeanors, the General Assembly may, by law, dispense with a grand jury, and authorize such prosecutions and proceedings before justices of the peace or such other inferior courts as may be by law established.

Sec. 10. That no person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

Sec. 11. That no person shall be debarred from prosecuting or defending, before any tribunal in the State, by himself or counsel, any civil cause or proceeding to which he is a party.

Sec. 12. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

Sec. 13. That in prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and that in all indictments for libel the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts under the direction of the court.

Sec. 14. That all courts shall be open, and that every person, for any injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have a remedy by due process of law; and right and justice shall be administered without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 15. The State of Alabama shall never be made defendant in any court of law or equity.

Sec. 16. That excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted.

Sec. 17. That all persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences when the proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not, in any case, be required.

Sec. 18. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended by the authorities of this State.

Sec. 19. That treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; and that no person shall be convicted of treason except on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

Sec. 20. That no person shall be attainted of treason by the General Assembly; and that no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Sec. 21. That no person shall be imprisoned for debt.

Sec. 22. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, except by the General Assembly.

Sec. 23. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grants of special privileges or immunities, shall be passed by the General Assembly.

Sec. 24. The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be abridged or so construed as to prevent the General Assembly from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting them to public use the same as individuals. But private property shall not be taken for or applied to public use, unless just compensation be first made therefor; nor shall private property be taken for private use, or for the use of corporations, other than municipal, without the consent of the owners: Provided, however, That the general assembly may, by law, secure to persons or corporations the right of way over the lands of other persons or Edition: current; Page: [156] corporations, and by general laws provide for and regulate the exercise by persons and corporations of the rights herein reserved; but just compensation shall, in all cases, be first made to the owner: And provided, That the right of eminent domain shall not be so construed as to allow taxation or forced subscription for the benefit of railroads or any other kind of corporations other than municipal, or for the benefit of any individual or association.

Sec. 25. That all navigable waters shall remain forever public highways, free to the citizens of the State, and of the United States, without tax, impost, or toll, and that no tax, toll, impost, or wharfage shall be demanded or received from the owner of any merchandise or commodity, for the use of the shores, or any wharf erected on the shores, or in or over the waters of any navigable stream, unless the same be expressly authorized by law.

Sec. 26. That the citizens have a right in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for the common good, and to apply to those invested with the power of government for redress of grievances, or other purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Sec. 27. That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself and the State.

Sec. 28. That no standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the general assembly; and, in that case, no appropriation for its support shall be made for a longer term than one year; and the military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 29. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 30. That no title of nobility, or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor, or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; and that no office shall be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time than during good behavior.

Sec. 31. That immigration shall be encouraged, emigration shall not be prohibited, and no citizen shall be exiled.

Sec. 32. That temporary absence from the State shall not cause a forfeiture of residence once obtained.

Sec. 33. That no form of slavery shall exist in this State, and there shall be no involuntary servitude, otherwise than for the punishment of crime, of which the party shall have been duly convicted.

Sec. 34. The right of suffrage shall be protected by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influences from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper conduct.

Sec. 35. The people of this State accept as final the established fact that from the Federal Union there can be no secession of any State.

Sec. 36. Foreigners who are or may hereafter become bona-fide residents of this State shall enjoy the same rights, in respect to the possession, enjoyment, and inheritance of property, as native-born citizens.

Sec. 37. That the sole object and only legitimate end of government is to protect the citizens in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property; and when the government assumes other functions it is usurpation and oppression.

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Sec. 38. No educational or property qualification for suffrage or office, nor any restraint upon the same, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, shall be made by law.

Sec. 39. That this enumeration of certain rights shall not impair or deny others retained by the people.

Article II: STATE AND COUNTY BOUNDARIES

Section 1. The boundaries of this State are established and declared to be as follows, that is to say: Beginning at the point where the 31st degree of north latitude crosses the Perdido River; thence east to the western boundary-line of the State of Georgia; thence along said line to the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee; thence west along the southern boundary-line of the State of Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee River, and on to the second intersection of said river by said line; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Bear Creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington County in this State, as originally formed; thence southerly along the line of the State of Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico; thence eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River; thence up the said river to the beginning.

Sec. 2. The boundaries of the several counties of this State, as heretofore established by law, are hereby ratified and confirmed. The general assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of both houses thereof, arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties of this State, which boundaries shall not be altered, except by a like vote; but no new counties shall be hereafter formed of less extent than six hundred square miles, and no existing county shall be reduced to less extent than six hundred square miles, and no new county shall be formed which does not contain a sufficient number of inhabitants to entitle it to one representative, under the ratio of representation existing at the time of its formation, and leave the county or counties from which it is taken with the required number of inhabitants entitling such county or counties to separate representation.

Article III: DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

Section 1. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative to one; those which are executive to another; and those which are judicial to another.

Sec. 2. No person or collection of persons, being of one of those departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

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Article IV: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sec. 2. The style of the laws of this State shall be, “Be it enacted by the general assembly of Alabama;” each law shall contain but one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, except general appropriation bills, general revenue bills, and bills adopting a code digest or revision of statutes; and no law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred by reference to its title only; but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended, or conferred, shall be re-enacted and published at length.

Sec. 3. Senators and representatives shall be elected by the qualified electors on the first Monday in August, 1876, and one-half of the senators and all the representatives shall be elected every two years thereafter, unless the general assembly shall change the time of holding elections. The terms of the office of the senators shall be four years, and that of the representatives two years, commencing on the day after the general election, except as otherwise provided in this constitution.

Sec. 4. Senators shall be at least 27 years of age, and representatives 21 years of age; they shall have been citizens and inhabitants of this State for three years, and inhabitants of their respective counties or districts one year next before their election, if such county or district shall have been so long established, but if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been taken; and they shall reside in their respective counties or districts during their terms of service.

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall meet biennially at the capitol, in the senate chamber and in the hall of the house of representatives, (except in cases of destruction of the capitol or epidemics, when the governor may convene them at such place in the State as he may deem best,) on the day specified in this constitution, or on such other day as may be prescribed by law, and shall not remain in session longer than sixty days at the first session held under this constitution, nor longer than fifty days at any subsequent session.

Sec. 6. The pay of the members of the general assembly shall be four dollars per day, and ten cents per mile in going to and returning from the seat of government, to be computed by the nearest usual route travelled.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall consist of not more than thirty-three senators, and not more than one hundred members of the house of representatives, to be apportioned among the several districts and counties as prescribed in this constitution.

Sec. 8. The senate, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members president thereof, and the house of representatives, at the beginning of each regular session, shall elect one of its members as speaker; and the president of the senate and the speaker of the house of representatives shall hold their offices respectively until their successors are elected and qualified. Each house shall choose its own officers, and shall judge of the election, returns, and qualifications of its members.

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Sec. 9. At the general election in the year 1876, Senators shall be elected in the even-numbered districts to serve for two years, and in the odd-numbered districts to serve for four years, so that thereafter one-half the Senators may be chosen biennially. Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected at the general election every second year. The time of service of Senators and Representatives shall begin on the day after their election, except the terms of those elected in 1876, which shall not begin until the term of the present members shall have expired. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in either house, the Governor for the time being shall issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the term.

Sec. 10. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under penalties as each house may provide.

Sec. 11. Each house shall have power to determine the rules of its proceedings, and punish its members or other persons for contempt or disorderly behavior in its presence, to enforce obedience to its process, to protect its members against violence, or offers of bribes or corrupt solicitation, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of either house to expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all the powers necessary for the legislature of a free State.

Sec. 12. A member of either house expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to either house; and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar an indictment for the same offense.

Sec. 13. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as in its judgment may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-tenth of the members present, be entered on the journals. Any member of either house shall have liberty to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent entered on the journals.

Sec. 14. Members of the General Assembly shall in all cases, except treason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sessions of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same, and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Sec. 15. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as in the opinion of the house may require secrecy.

Sec. 16. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.

Sec. 17. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term, except such office as may be filled by election by the people.

Sec. 18. No person hereafter convicted of embezzlement of public money, bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the General Assembly, or capable of holding any office of trust or profit in this State.

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Sec. 19. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended on its passage through either house as to change its original purpose.

Sec. 20. No bill shall become a law until it shall have been referred to a committee of each house and returned therefrom.

Sec. 21. Every bill shall be read on three different days in each house, and no bill shall become a law unless on its final passage it be read at length and the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the members voting for and against the same be entered on the journals, and a majority of each house be recorded thereon as voting in its favor, except as otherwise provided in this constitution.

Sec. 22. No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in by the other except by a vote of a majority thereof, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upon the journals; and reports of committees of conference shall in like manner be adopted in each house.

Sec. 23. No special or local law shall be enacted for the benefit of individuals or corporations in cases which are or can be provided for by a general law, or where the relief sought can be given by any court of this State. Nor shall the operation of any general law be suspended by the General Assembly for the benefit of any individual, corporation, or association.

Sec. 24. No local or special law shall be passed on a subject which cannot be provided for by a general law, unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or things to be affected may be situated, which notice shall be at least twenty days prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill; the evidence of such notice having been given shall be exhibited to the general assembly before such act shall be passed: Provided, That the provisions of this constitution as to special or local laws shall not apply to public or educational institutions of or in this State, nor to industrial, mining, immigration, or manufacturing corporations or interests, or corporations for constructing canals, or improving navigable rivers and harbors of this State.

Sec. 25. The General Assembly shall pass general laws, under which local and private interests shall be provided for and protected.

Sec. 26. The General Assembly shall have no power to authorize lotteries or gift-enterprises for any purpose, and it shall pass laws to prohibit the sale of lottery or gift-enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the nature of a lottery, in this State, and all acts or parts of acts heretofore passed by the General Assembly of this State, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, and all acts amendatory thereof or supplemental thereto, are hereby avoided.

Sec. 27. The presiding officer of each house shall, in the presence of the house over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the general assembly, after the titles have been publicly read immediately before signing, and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

Sec. 28. The general assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties, and compensation of the officers and employés of each house, and no payment shall be made from the State treasury, or be in any Edition: current; Page: [161] way authorized, to any person, except to an acting officer or employé, elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

Sec. 29. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, or employé, agent or contractor, after the services shall have been rendered, or contract made; nor shall any officer of the State bind the State to the payment of any sum of money but by authority of law.

Sec. 30. All stationery, printing, paper, and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing, binding, and distribution of laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the general assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below a maximum price, and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor, State auditor, and State treasurer.

Sec. 31. All bills for raising revenues shall originate in the house of representatives, but the senate may propose amendments as in other bills.

Sec. 32. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of the State, interest on the public debt, and for the public schools; all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

Sec. 33. No money shall be paid out of the treasury except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof, and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually in such manner as may be by law directed.

Sec. 34. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the State, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each house.

Sec. 35. No act of the General Assembly shall authorize the investment of any trust-funds by executors, administrators, guardians, and other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation; and any such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments heretofore made.

Sec. 36. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal causes is vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.

Sec. 37. When the General Assembly shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the governor calling such session.

Sec. 38. No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manufacture, or commodity, but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

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Sec. 39. No act of the general assembly changing the seat of government of the State shall become a law until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the State at a general election, and approved by a majority of such electors voting upon the same, and such act shall specify the proposed new location.

Sec. 40. A member of the General Assembly who shall corruptly solicit, demand, or receive, or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation, or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, reward, thing of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be in any way influenced thereby, or who shall solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, matter, or thing aforesaid, for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or shall give or withhold his vote or influence in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter, or thing to another, shall be guilty of bribery within the meaning of this constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for such offence, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

Sec. 41. Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give, or promise any money or thing of value, testimonial, privilege, or personal advantage to any executive or judicial officer, or member of the General Assembly, to influence him in the performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as shall be provided by law.

Sec. 42. The offence of corrupt solicitation of members of the general assembly, or of public officers of this State, or of any municipal division thereof, and any occupation or practice of solicitation of such member or officers to influence their official action shall be defined by law, and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment.

Sec. 43. A member of the general assembly who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill, proposed or pending before the General Assembly, shall disclose the fact to the house of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.

Sec. 44. In all elections by the General Assembly the members shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journals.

Sec. 45. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, to be appointed by the parties who may choose that mode of adjustment.

Sec. 46. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, at its first session after the ratification of this constitution, and within every subsequent period of ten years, to make provision by law for the revision, digesting, and promulgation of the public statutes of this State of a general nature, both civil and criminal.

Sec. 47. The General Assembly shall pass such penal laws as they may deem expedient to suppress the evil practice of duelling.

Sec. 48. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to regulate by law the cases in which deductions shall be made from the salaries of public officers for neglect of duty in their official capacities, and the amount of such deductions.

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Sec. 49. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to require the several counties of this State to make adequate provision for the maintenance of the poor.

Sec. 50. The General Assembly shall not have power to authorize any municipal corporation to pass any laws inconsistent with the general laws of this State.

Sec. 51. In the event of annexation of any foreign territory to this State, the General Assembly shall enact laws extending to the inhabitants of the acquired territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of the acquisition, anything in this constitution to the contrary notwithstanding.

Sec. 52. The General Assembly shall not tax the property, real and personal, of the State, counties, or other municipal corporations, or cemeteries; nor lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of any city or town, to the extent of one acre, nor lots one mile or more distant from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the buildings thereon, when the same are used exclusively for religious worship, for schools, or for purposes purely charitable; nor such property, real or personal, to an extent not exceeding twenty-five thousand dollars in value, as may be used exclusively for agricultural or horticultural associations of a public character.

Sec. 53. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to ascertain the value of personal and real property exempted from sale under legal process by this constitution, and to secure the same to the claimant thereof as selected.

Sec. 54. The State shall not engage in works of internal improvement, nor lend money or its credit in aid of such; nor shall the State be interested in any private or corporate enterprise, or lend money or its credit to any individual, association, or corporation.

Sec. 55. The General Assembly shall have no power to authorize any county, city, town, or other subdivision of this State to lend its credit, or to grant public money or thing of value in aid of, or to any individual, association, or corporation whatsoever, or to become a stockholder in any such corporation, association, or company, by issuing bonds or otherwise.

Sec. 56. There can be no law of this State impairing the obligation of contracts by destroying or impairing the remedy for their enforcement; and the General Assembly shall have no power to revive any right or remedy which may have become barred by lapse of time or by any statute of this State.

Article V: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The executive department shall consist of a Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, Attorney-general, and Superintendent of Education, and a sheriff for each county.

Sec. 2. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled “The Governor of the State of Alabama.”

Sec. 3. The Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, and Attorney-General shall be elected by the qualified Edition: current; Page: [164] electors of this State, at the same time and places appointed for the election of members of the General Assembly.

Sec. 4. The returns of every election for Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, and Attorney-General, shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning-officers to the seat of government directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session to which said returns shall be made, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the general assembly in joint convention. The person having the highest number of votes for either of said offices shall be declared duly elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for the same office, the General Assembly, by joint vote, without delay, shall choose one of said persons for said office. Contested elections for Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, and Attorney-General shall be determined by both houses of the General Assembly in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 5. The Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, and Attorney-General shall hold their respective offices for the term of two years from the time of their installation in office and until their successors shall be elected and qualified.

Sec. 6. The Governor shall be at least 30 years of age when elected, and shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, and a resident citizen of this State at least seven years next before the day of his election.

Sec. 7. The Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, and Attorney-General, shall reside at the seat of government of this State during the time they continue in office, (except in case of epidemics;) and they shall receive compensation for their services, which shall be fixed by law, and which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected.

Sec. 8. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

Sec. 9. The Governor may require information in writing, under oath, from the officers of the executive department on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he may at any time require information in writing, under oath, from all officers and managers of State institutions, upon any subject relating to the condition, management, and expenses of their respective offices and institutions; and any such officer or manager who makes a false report shall be guilty of perjury, and punished accordingly.

Sec. 10. The Governor may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place, if, since their last adjournment, that shall have become dangerous from an enemy or from infectious or contagious diseases; and he shall state specifically in such proclamation each matter concerning which the action of that body is deemed necessary.

Sec. 11. The Governor shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient, and at the commencement of each session of the General Assembly, and at the close of his term of office, give information by written Edition: current; Page: [165] message of the condition of the State, and he shall account to the General Assembly, as may be prescribed by law, for all moneys received and paid out by him from any funds subject to his order, with the vouchers therefor, and he shall at the commencement of each regular session present to the General Assembly estimates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all purposes.

Sec. 12. The Governor shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law, and after conviction to grant reprieves, commutation of sentence, and pardons, (except in cases of treason and impeachment;) but pardons in cases of murder, arson, burglary, rape, assault with intent to commit rape, perjury, forgery, bribery, and larceny shall not relieve from civil and political disability unless specifically expressed in the pardon. Upon conviction of treason, the governor may suspend the execution of the sentence, and report the same to the General Assembly at the next regular session, when the General Assembly shall either pardon, commute the sentence, direct its execution, or grant further reprieve. He shall communicate to the general assembly at every regular session each case of reprieve, commutation, or pardon granted, with his reasons therefor; stating the name and crime of the convict, the sentence, its date, and the date of the reprieve, commutation, or pardon.

Sec. 13. Every bill, which shall have passed both houses of the General Assembly, shall be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journals, and the house to which such bill shall be returned shall proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall vote for the passage of such bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house, it shall become a law; but in such cases, the vote of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered upon the journals of each house respectively; if any bill shall not be returned by the governor within five days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. And every order, vote, or resolution, to which the concurrence of both houses may be necessary (except questions of adjournment, and of bringing on elections by the two houses, and of amending this constitution) shall be presented to the governor, and before the same shall take effect be approved by him, or being disapproved shall be repassed by both houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Sec. 14. The Governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money, embracing distinct items, and the part or parts of the bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items of appropriations disapproved shall be Edition: current; Page: [166] void, unless repassed according to the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of other bills over the executive veto, and he shall, in writing, state specifically the item or items he disapproves.

Sec. 15. In case of the impeachment of the governor, his removal from office, death, refusal to qualify, resignation, absence from the State, or other disability, the President of the Senate shall exercise all the power and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until the time appointed for the election of governor shall arrive, or until the governor who is absent or impeached, shall return or be acquitted, or other disability be removed, and if during such vacancy in the office of governor, the President of the Senate shall be impeached, removed from office, refuse to qualify, die, resign, be absent from the State, or be under any other disability, the speaker of the house of representatives shall in like manner administer the government. If the Governor shall be absent from the State over twenty days, the secretary of state shall notify the President of the Senate, who shall enter upon the duties of Governor, and if the Governor and President of the Senate shall both be absent from the State over twenty days, the Secretary of State shall notify the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and in such case he shall enter upon and discharge the duties of Governor, until the return of the Governor or President of the Senate.

Sec. 16. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, during the time they respectively administer the government, receive the same compensation which the Governor would have received if he had been employed in the duties of his office: Provided, That if the General Assembly shall be in session during such absence, they, or either of them, shall receive no compensation as members of the General Assembly while acting as Governor.

Sec. 17. No person shall, at one and the same time, hold the office of Governor of this State and any other office, civil or military, either under this State, the United States, or any other State or Government, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

Sec. 18. The governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia and volunteer forces of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States, and he may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrection, and repel invasion; but he need not command in person, unless directed to do so by a resolution of the General Assembly, and when acting in the service of the United States he shall appoint his staff and the General Assembly shall fix his rank.

Sec. 19. No person shall be eligible to the office of Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, or Attorney-General, unless he shall have been a citizen of the United States at least seven years, and shall have resided in this State at least five years next preceding his election, and shall be at least twenty-five years old when elected.

Sec. 20. There shall be a great seal of the State, which shall be used officially by the Governor; and the seal now in use shall continue to be used until another shall have been adopted by the General Assembly. The said seal shall be called the “Great seal of the State of Alabama.”

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Sec. 21. The Secretary of State shall be custodian of the seal of the State, and shall authenticate therewith all official acts of the Governor, his approval of laws and resolutions excepted. He shall keep a register of the official acts of the Governor, and when necessary shall attest them, and lay copies of same, together with copies of all papers relative thereto, before either house of the General Assembly, whenever required to do so, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 22. All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, sealed with the great seal, signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

Sec. 23. Should the office of Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Auditor, Attorney-General, or Superintendent of Education become vacant, for any of the causes specified in section fifteen of this article, the governor shall fill the vacancy until the disability is removed or a successor elected and qualified.

Sec. 24. The State Treasurer, State Auditor, and Attorney-General shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. The State Treasurer and State Auditor shall every year, at a time the General Assembly may fix, make a full and complete report to the Governor, showing all receipts and disbursements of revenue, of every character, all claims audited and paid by the State, by items, and all taxes and revenue collected and paid into the treasury, and from what sources, and they shall make reports oftener on any matter pertaining to their office, if required by the Governor, or the General Assembly.

Sec. 25. The State Auditor, State Treasurer, and Secretary of State shall not, after the expiration of the terms of those now in office, receive to their use any fees, costs, perquisites of office, or compensation other than their salaries as prescribed by law; and all fees that may be payable by law, for any service performed by either of such officers, shall be paid in advance into the State treasury.

Sec. 26. A Sheriff shall be elected in each county by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, unless sooner removed, and shall be ineligible to such office as his own successor: Provided, That sheriffs elected on the first Monday in August, 1877, or at such other time as may be prescribed by law for the election in that year, shall hold their offices for the term of three years, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. In the year 1880, at the general election for members to the General Assembly, sheriffs shall be elected for four years as herein provided. Vacancies in the office of Sheriff shall be filled by the Governor, as in other cases, and the person appointed shall continue in office until the next general election in the county for sheriff, as provided by law.

Article VI: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

Section 1. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in the Senate, sitting as a court of impeachment, a supreme court, circuit courts, chancery courts, courts of probate, such inferior courts of law Edition: current; Page: [168] and equity, to consist of not more than five members, as the General Assembly may from time to time establish, and such persons as may be by law invested with powers of a judicial nature.

Sec. 2. Except in cases otherwise directed in the constitution, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with the State, under such restrictions and regulations, not repugnant to this constitution, as may from time to time be prescribed by law: Provided, That said court shall have power to issue writs of injunction, habeas corpus, quo warranto, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdiction.

Sec. 3. The Supreme Court shall be held at the seat of government, but if that shall have become dangerous from any cause, it may adjourn to a different place.

Sec. 4. The State shall be divided by the General Assembly into convenient circuits, not to exceed eight in number, unless increased by a vote of two-thirds of the members of each house of the General Assembly, and no circuit shall contain less than three nor more than twelve counties, and for each circuit there shall be chosen a judge, who shall for one year next preceding his election and during his continuance in office reside in the circuit for which he is elected.

Sec. 5. The Circuit Court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal, within the State, not otherwise in this Constitution; but in civil cases only when the matter or sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars.

Sec. 6. A circuit court shall be held in each county in the State at least twice in every year; and the judges of the several circuits may hold court for each other when they deem it expedient, and shall do so when directed by law: Provided, That the judges of the several circuit courts shall have power to issue writs of injunction returnable into courts of chancery.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall have power to establish a court or courts of chancery, with original and appellate jurisdiction. The State shall be divided by the General Assembly into convenient chancery divisions, not exceeding three in number, unless an increase shall be made by a vote of two-thirds of each house of the General Assembly, taken by yeas and nays and entered upon the journals; and the division shall be divided into districts, and for each division there shall be a chancellor, who shall, at the time of his election or appointment, and during his continuance in office, reside in the division for which he shall have been elected or appointed.

Sec. 8. A Chancery Court shall be held in each district, at a place to be fixed by law, at least once in each year; and the chancellors may hold courts for each other when they deem it necessary.

Sec. 9. The General Assembly shall have power to establish in each county within the State a court of probate, with general jurisdiction for the granting of letters testamentary and of administration, and for orphans’ business.

Sec. 10. The judges of the Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and Chancellors shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their official terms, but they shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any office Edition: current; Page: [169] (except judicial offices) of profit or trust under this State, or the United States, or any other power, during the term for which they have been elected.

Sec. 11. The Supreme Court shall consist of one chief justice and such number of associate justices as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 12. The chief-justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court, judges of the Circuit Courts, Probate Courts, and Chancellors shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State, circuits, counties, and chancery divisions for which such courts may be established, at such time as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 13. The judges of such inferior courts of law and equity as may be by law established, shall be elected or appointed, in such mode as the general assembly may prescribe.

Sec. 14. The judges of the Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and Chancellors, and the judges of city courts, shall have been citizens of the United States and of this State for five years next preceding their election or appointment, and shall be not less than twenty-five years of age, and learned in the law.

Sec. 15. The chief-justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court, Circuit Judges, Chancellors, and probate judges shall hold office for the term of six years, and until their successors are elected or appointed and qualified; and the right of such judges and chancellors to hold their offices for the full term, hereby prescribed, shall not be affected by any change hereafter made by law in any circuit, division, or county in the mode or time of election.

Sec. 16. The judges of the Supreme Court shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the peace throughout the State; the judges of the Circuit Courts, within their respective circuits, and the judges of the inferior courts, within their respective jurisdictions, shall, in like manner, be conservators of the peace.

Sec. 17. Vacancies in the office of any of the judges or chancellors of this State shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, and such appointee shall hold his office for the unexpired term, and until his successor is elected or appointed and qualified.

Sec. 18. If in any case, civil or criminal, pending in any circuit, chancery, or city court in this State, the presiding judge or chancellor shall, for any legal cause, be incompetent to try, hear, or render judgment in such cause, the parties or their attorneys of record, if it be a civil case, or the solicitor or other prosecuting officer, and the defendant or defendants, if it be a criminal case, may agree upon some disinterested person practicing in the court, and learned in the law, to act as special judge or chancellor, to sit as a court, and to hear, decide, and render judgment in the same manner and to the same effect as a judge of the circuit or city court or chancellor sitting as a court might do in such case. If the case be a civil one, and the parties or their attorneys of record do not agree, or if the case be a criminal one and the prosecuting officer and the defendant or defendants do not agree upon a special judge or chancellor, or if either party in a civil cause is not represented in court, the clerk of the circuit or city court, or register in chancery, of the court in which said cause is pending, shall appoint the special judge or chancellor, who shall preside, try, and render judgments as in this section provided.

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Sec. 19. The General Assembly shall have power to provide for the holding of circuit and chancery courts in this State, when the judges or chancellors thereof fail to attend regular terms.

Sec. 20. No judge of any court of record, in this State, shall practice law in any of the courts of this State or of the United States.

Sec. 21. Registers in chancery shall be appointed by the chancellors of the divisions, and shall hold office during the term of the chancellor making such appointment; and such registers shall receive as compensation for their services only such fees and commissions as may be specifically prescribed by law.

Sec. 22. A clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the judges thereof, and shall hold office during the term of the judges making the appointment, and clerks of such inferior courts as may be established by law shall be appointed by the judges thereof, and shall hold office during the term of the judge making such appointment.

Sec. 23. Clerks of the Circuit Court shall be elected by the qualified electors in each county, for the term of six years. Vacancies in such office shall be filled by the governor for the unexpired term.

Sec. 24. The clerk of the Supreme Court and registers in chancery may be removed from office by the judges of the supreme court and chancellors respectively, for cause, to be entered at length upon the records of the court.

Sec. 25. A solicitor for each judicial circuit shall be elected by joint ballot of the general assembly, who shall be learned in the law, and who shall, at the time of his election, and during his continuance in office, reside in the circuit for which he is chosen, and whose term of office shall be for six years: Provided, That the general assembly, at its first session thereof after the ratification of this constitution, shall, by joint ballot, elect a solicitor for each judicial circuit of the State, whose term of office shall begin on Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1876, and continue for four years: And provided, That the general assembly may, when necessary, provide for the election or appointment of county solicitors.

Sec. 26. There shall be elected by the qualified electors of each precinct of the counties not exceeding two justices of the peace and one constable. Such justices shall have jurisdiction in all civil cases wherein the amount in controversy does not exceed $100, except in cases of libel, slander, assault and battery, and ejectment. In all cases tried before such justices, the right of appeal, without prepayment of costs, shall be secured by law: Provided, That the governor may appoint one notary public for each election-precinct in counties, and one for each ward in cities of over 5,000 inhabitants, who, in addition to the powers of notary, shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction as justices of the peace within the precincts and wards for which they are respectively appointed: Provided, That notaries public without such jurisdiction may be appointed. The term of office of such justice and notaries public shall be prescribed by law.

Sec. 27. An Attorney-General shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at the same time and places of election of members of the general assembly, and whose term of office shall be for two years, and until his successor is elected and qualified. After his election he shall reside at the seat of government and shall be the Edition: current; Page: [171] law-officer of the State, and shall perform such duties as may be required of him by law.

Sec. 28. The style of all processes shall be “The State of Alabama,” and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the same, and shall conclude, “Against the peace and dignity of the State.”

Article VII: IMPEACHMENT

Section 1. The Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General, Superintendent of Education, and judges of the Supreme Court may be removed from office for wilful neglect of duty, corruption in office, habitual drunkenness, incompetency, or any offence involving moral turpitude while in office, or committed under color thereof, or connected therewith, by the Senate, sitting as a court for that purpose, under oath or affirmation, on articles or charges preferred by the house of representatives.

Sec. 2. The chancellors, judges of the circuit courts, judges of the probate courts, solicitors of the circuits and judges of inferior courts from which an appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court, may be removed from office for any of the causes specified in the preceding section, by the supreme court, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 3. The sheriffs, clerks of the circuit, city, or criminal courts, tax-collectors, tax-assessors, county treasurers, coroners, justices of the peace, notaries public, constables, and all other county officers, mayors and intendents of incorporated cities and towns in this State, may be removed from office for any of the causes specified in section one of this article, by the circuit, city, or criminal court of the county in which such officers hold their office, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law: Provided, That the right of trial by jury and appeal in such cases be secured.

Sec. 4. The penalties in cases arising under the three preceding sections shall not extend beyond removal from office and disqualification from holding office under the authority of this State, for the term for which he was elected or appointed; but the accused shall be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment as prescribed by law.

Article VIII: SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS

Section 1. Every male citizen of the United States, and every male person of foreign birth who may have legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States before he offers to vote, who is 21 years old or upwards, possessing the following qualifications, shall be an elector, and shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people, except as hereinafter provided:

1st. He shall have resided in the State at least one year immediately preceding the election at which he offers to vote.

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2d. He shall have resided in the county for three months, and in the precinct, district, or ward for thirty days immediately preceding the election at which he offers to vote: Provided, That the General Assembly may prescribe a longer or shorter residence in any precinct in any county, or in any ward in any incorporated city or town having a population of more than 5,000 inhabitants, but in no case to exceed three months: And provided, That no soldier, sailor, or marine in the military or naval service of the United States shall acquire a residence by being stationed in this State.

Sec. 2. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all elections by persons in a representative capacity shall be viva voce.

Sec. 3. The following classes shall not be permitted to register, vote, or hold office:

1st. Those who shall have been convicted of treason, embezzlement of public funds, malfeasance in office, larceny, bribery, or other crime punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary.

2d. Those who are idiots or insane.

Sec. 4. Electors shall in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, or while going to or returning therefrom.

Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall pass laws, not inconsistent with this constitution, to regulate and govern elections in this State; and all such laws shall be uniform throughout the State. The General Assembly may, when necessary, provide by law for the registration of electors throughout the State, or in any incorporated city or town thereof; and when it is so provided, no person shall vote at any election unless he shall have registered as required by law.

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass adequate laws giving protection against the evils arising from the use of intoxicating liquors at all elections.

Sec. 7. Returns of elections for all civil officers who are to be commissioned by the Governor, except Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, and Attorney-General, and for members of the General Assembly, shall be made to the Secretary of State.

Article IX: REPRESENTATION

Section 1. The whole number of Senators shall be not less than one-fourth or more than one-third of the whole number of representatives.

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred members, who shall be apportioned by the General Assembly among the several counties of the State according to the number of inhabitants in them, respectively, as ascertained by the decennial census of the United States for the year 1880; which apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration until the first session of the general assembly after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken.

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the general assembly, at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in 1880, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of representatives, and apportion them among the several counties Edition: current; Page: [173] of the State: Provided, That each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the general assembly, at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in 1880, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of senators, and to divide the State into as many senatorial districts as there are senators, which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other in the number of inhabitants as may be, and each shall be entitled to one senator and no more; and which districts, when formed, shall not be changed until the next apportioning session of the general assembly after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken. No county shall be divided between two districts, and no district shall be made of two or more counties not contiguous to each other.

Sec. 5. Should the decennial census of the United States from any cause not be taken, or if when taken the same as to this State is not full or satisfactory, the general assembly shall have power, at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this State, and once in each ten years thereafter, upon which it shall be the duty of the general assembly to make the apportionment of representatives and senators as provided for in this article.

Sec. 6. Until the general assembly shall make an apportionment of representatives among the several counties, after the first decennial census of the United States as herein provided, the counties of Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Calhoun, Chilton, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, De Kalb, Elmore, Etowah, Escambia, Fayette, Franklin, Geneva, Henry, Lauderdale, Marion, Morgan, Monroe, Marshall, Randolph, Sanford, Shelby, Saint Clair, Walker, Washington, and Winston shall each have one representative; the counties of Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Chambers, Greene, Hale, Jackson, Jefferson, Limestone, Lawrence, Lowndes, Lee, Macon, Marengo, Perry, Pickens, Pike, Russell, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, and Wilcox shall have each two representatives; the county of Madison shall have three representatives; the counties of Dallas and Montgomery shall have each four representatives, and the county of Mobile shall have five representatives.

Sec. 7. Until the general assembly shall divide the State into senatorial districts as herein provided, the senatorial districts shall be as follows:

First district, Lauderdale and Limestone; second district, Colbert and Lawrence; third district, Morgan, Winston, and Blount; fourth district, Madison; fifth district, Marshall, Jackson, and De Kalb; sixth district, Cherokee, Etowah, and Saint Clair; seventh district, Calhoun and Cleburne; eighth district, Talladega and Clay; ninth district, Randolph and Chambers; tenth district, Macon and Tallapoosa; eleventh district, Bibb and Tuscaloosa; twelfth district, Franklin, Marion, Fayette, and Sanford; thirteenth district, Walker, Jefferson, and Shelby; fourteenth district, Greene and Pickens; fifteenth district, Coosa, Elmore, and Chilton; sixteenth district, Lowndes and Autauga; seventeenth district, Butler and Conecuh; eighteenth district, Perry; nineteenth district, Choctaw, Clarke, and Washington; twentieth district, Marengo; twenty-first district, Edition: current; Page: [174] Monroe, Escambia, and Baldwin; twenty-second district, Wilcox; twenty-third district, Henry, Coffee, Dale, and Geneva; twenty-fourth district, Barbour; twenty-fifth district, Pike, Crenshaw, and Covington; twenty-sixth district, Bullock; twenty-seventh district, Lee; twenty-eighth district, Montgomery; twenty-ninth district, Russell; thirtieth district, Dallas; thirty-first district, Sumter; thirty-second district, Hale; thirty-third district, Mobile.

Article X: TAXATION

Section 1. All taxes levied on property in this State shall be assessed in exact proportion to the value of such property: Provided, however, The General Assembly may levy a poll-tax, not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each poll, which shall be applied exclusively in aid of the public-school fund in the county so paying the same.

Sec. 2. No power to levy taxes shall be delegated to individuals or private corporations.

Sec. 3. After the ratification of this constitution no new debt shall be created against or incurred by this State or its authority, except to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, and then only by a concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each house of the General Assembly, and the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays and entered on the journals; and any act creating or incurring any new debt against this State, except as herein provided for, shall be absolutely void: Provided, The Governor may be authorized to negotiate temporary loans, never to exceed $100,000, to meet deficiencies in the treasury, and until the same is paid no new loan shall be negotiated: Provided further, That this section shall not be so construed as to prevent the issuance of bonds in adjustment of existing State indebtedness.

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall not have the power to levy, in any one year, a greater rate of taxation than three-fourths of one per centum on the value of the taxable property within this State.

Sec. 5. No county in this State shall be authorized to levy a larger rate of taxation, in any one year, on the value of the taxable property therein, than one-half of one per centum: Provided, That to pay debts existing at the ratification of this constitution an additional rate of one-fourth of one per cent. may be levied and collected, which shall be exclusively appropriated to the payment of such debts, or the interest thereon: Provided further, That to pay any debt or liability now existing against any county, incurred for the erection of the necessary public buildings, or other ordinary county purposes, or that may hereafter be created for the erection of necessary public buildings or bridges, any county may levy and collect such special taxes as may have been, or may hereafter be, authorized by law; which taxes so levied and collected shall be applied exclusively to the purposes for which the same shall have been levied and collected.

Sec. 6. The property of private corporations, associations, and individuals of this State shall forever be taxed at the same rate: Provided, This section shall not apply to institutions or enterprises devoted exclusively to religious, educational, or charitable purposes.

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Sec. 7. No city, town, or other municipal corporation other than provided for in this article, shall levy or collect a larger rate of taxation, in any one year on the property thereof, than one-half of one per centum of the value of such property, as assessed for State taxation during the preceding year: Provided, That for the payment of debts existing at the time of the ratification of this constitution, and the interest thereon, an additional rate of one per centum may be collected, to be applied exclusively to such indebtedness:

And provided, This section shall not apply to the city of Mobile, which city may, until the 1st day of January, 1879, levy a tax not to exceed the rate of one per centum, and from and after that time a tax not to exceed the rate of three-fourths of one per centum to pay the expenses of the city government, and may also, until the 1st day of January, 1879, levy a tax not to exceed the rate of one per centum, and from and after that time a tax not to exceed three-fourths of one per centum to pay the existing indebtedness of said city and the interest thereon.

Sec. 8. At the first session of the General Assembly after the ratification of this constitution, the salaries of the following officers shall be reduced at least twenty-five per centum, viz: Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, Attorney-General, Superintendent of Education, Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts, and Chancellors; and after said reduction the General Assembly shall not have the power to increase the same, except by a vote of a majority of all the members elected to each house, taken by yeas and nays and entered on the journals: Provided, This section shall not apply to any of said officers now in office.

Sec. 9. The General Assembly shall not have the power to require the counties or other municipal corporations to pay any charges which are now payable out of the State treasury.

Article XI: MILITIA

Section 1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this State, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, or have declared their intention to become such citizens, shall be liable to military duty in the militia of the State.

Sec. 2. The General Assembly in providing for the organization, equipment, and discipline of the militia, shall conform as nearly as practicable to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United States.

Sec. 3. Each company and regiment shall elect its own company and regimental officers; but if any company or regiment shall neglect to elect such officers within the time prescribed by law, they may be appointed by the governor.

Sec. 4. Volunteer organizations of infantry, cavalry, and artillery may be formed in such manner and under such restrictions and with such privileges as may be provided by law.

Sec. 5. The militia and volunteer forces shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at muster, parades, and elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

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Sec. 6. The Governor shall, except as otherwise provided herein, be commander-in-chief of the militia and volunteer forces of the State, except when in the service of the United States, and shall, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoint all general officers, whose term of office shall be for four years. The governor, the generals, and regimental and battalion commanders shall appoint their own staffs, as may be provided by law.

Sec. 7. The General Assembly shall provide for the safe-keeping of the arms, ammunition, and accoutrements, military records, banners, and relics of the State.

Sec. 8. The officers and men of the militia and volunteer forces shall not be entitled to or receive any pay, rations, or emoluments when not in active service.

Article XII: EDUCATION

Section 1. The General Assembly shall establish, organize, and maintain a system of public schools throughout the State, for the equal benefit of the children thereof between the ages of seven and twenty-one years; but separate schools shall be provided for the children of citizens of African descent.

Sec. 2. The principal of all funds arising from the sale or other disposition of lands or other property which has been or may hereafter be granted or entrusted to this State, or given by the United States for educational purposes, shall be preserved inviolate and undiminished; and the income arising therefrom shall be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants or appropriations.

Sec. 3. All lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the State for educational purposes, and all estates of deceased persons who die without leaving a will or heir, shall be faithfully applied to the maintenance of the public schools.

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall also provide for the levying and collection of an annual poll-tax, not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each poll, which shall be applied to the support of the public schools in the counties in which it is levied and collected.

Sec. 5. The income arising from the sixteenth-section trust-fund, the surplus-revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States Government, and the funds enumerated in sections three and four of this article, with such other moneys, to be not less than one hundred thousand dollars per annum, as the General Assembly shall provide by taxation or otherwise, shall be applied to the support and maintenance of the public schools, and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to increase, from time to time, the public-school fund, as the condition of the treasury and the resources of the State will admit.

Sec. 6. Not more than four per cent. of all moneys raised, or which may hereafter be appropriated for the support of public schools, shall be used or expended otherwise than for the payment of teachers employed in such schools: Provided, That the General Assembly may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, suspend the operation of this section.

Sec. 7. The supervision of the public schools shall be vested in a Superintendent of Education, whose powers, duties, term of office, and Edition: current; Page: [177] compensation shall be fixed by law. The Superintendent of Education shall be elected by the qualified voters of the State, in such manner and at such time as shall be provided by law.

Sec. 8. No money raised for the support of the public schools of the State shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any sectarian or denominational school.

Sec. 9. The State University and the Agricultural and Mechanical College shall each be under the management and control of a Board of Trustees. The Board for the University shall consist of two members from the congressional district in which the University is located, and one from each of the other congressional districts in the State. The Board for the Agricultural and Mechanical College shall consist of two members from the congressional district in which the college is located, and one from each of the other congressional districts in the State. Said trustees shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold office for a term of six years, and until their successors shall be appointed and qualified. After the first appointment each board shall be divided into three classes, as nearly equal as may be. The seats of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class in four years, and those of the third class at the end of six years from the date of appointment, so that one-third may be chosen biennially. No trustee shall receive any pay or emolument other than his actual expenses incurred in the discharge of his duties as such. The Governor shall be ex officio President, and the Superintendent of Education ex officio a member of each of said boards of trustees.

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have no power to change the location of the State University or the Agricultural and Mechanical College as now established by law, except upon a vote of two-thirds of the members of the General Assembly, taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journals.

Sec. 11. The provisions of this article, and of any act of the General Assembly, passed in pursuance thereof, to establish, organize, and maintain a system of public schools throughout the State, shall apply to Mobile County only so far as to authorize and require the authorities designated by law to draw the portion of the funds to which said county will be entitled for school purposes, and to make reports to the Superintendent of Education as may be prescribed by law. And all special incomes and powers of taxation as now authorized by law for the benefit of public schools in said county, shall remain undisturbed until otherwise provided by the General Assembly: Provided, That separate schools for each race shall always be maintained by said school authorities.

Article XIII: CORPORATIONS—PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

Section 1. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal, manufacturing, mining, immigration, industrial, and educational purposes, or for constructing canals, or improving navigable rivers and harbors of this State, and in cases where, in the judgment of the general Edition: current; Page: [178] assembly, the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered, amended, or repealed.

Sec. 2. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona-fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the ratification of this constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass any general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, other than in execution of a trust created by law or by contract, except upon the condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this constitution.

Sec. 4. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having at least one known place of business, and an authorized agent or agents therein; and such corporation may be sued, in any county where it does business, by service of process upon an agent anywhere in this State.

Sec. 5. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter.

Sec. 6. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds, except for money, labor done, or money or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general laws, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of stock first obtained at a meeting to be held after thirty days’ notice given in pursuance of law.

Sec. 7. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking private property for public use shall make just compensation for the property taken, injured, or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of its works, highways, or improvements, which compensation shall be paid before such taking, injury, or destruction. The General Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person from an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals, made by viewers or otherwise; and the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal shall, on the demand of either party, be determined by a jury according to law.

Sec. 8. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be individually liable otherwise than for the unpaid stock owned by him or her.

Sec. 9. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the stock of said corporation.

Sec. 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to alter, revoke, or amend any charter of incorporation now existing, and revokable at the ratification of this constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever in their opinion it may be injurious to the citizens of the State, in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators. No law hereafter enacted shall create, renew, or extend the charter of more than one corporation.

Sec. 11. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and connect the same with other Edition: current; Page: [179] lines; and the General Assembly shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasonable regulations to give full effect to this section. No telegraph company shall consolidate with, or hold a controlling interest in the stock or bonds of, any other telegraph company owning a competing line, or acquire, by purchase or otherwise, any other competing line of telegraph.

Sec. 12. All corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued, in all courts, in like cases as natural persons.

Sec. 13. The term “corporation,” as used in this article, shall be construed to include all joint-stock companies, or any associations having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

BANKS AND BANKING

Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall not have the power to establish or incorporate any bank, or banking company, or moneyed institution, for the purpose of issuing bills of credit, or bills payable to order or bearer, except under the conditions prescribed in this constitution.

Sec. 15. No bank shall be established otherwise than under a general banking law, as provided in the thirteenth section of this article, nor otherwise than upon a special basis.

Sec. 16. All bills or notes issued as money shall be, at all times, redeemable in gold or silver; and no law shall be passed sanctioning, directly or indirectly, the suspension, by any bank or banking company, of specie payment.

Sec. 17. Holders of bank-notes and depositors who have not stipulated for interest shall, for such notes and deposits, be entitled, in case of insolvency, to the preference of payment over all other creditors.

Sec. 18. Every bank or banking company shall be required to cease all banking operations within twenty years from the time of its organization, unless the General Assembly shall extend the time, and promptly thereafter close its business, but shall have corporate capacity to sue, and shall be liable to suit, until its affairs and liabilities are fully closed.

Sec. 19. No bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a greater rate of interest than shall be allowed by law to individuals for lending money.

Sec. 20. The State shall not be a stockholder in any bank, nor shall the credit of the State ever be given or loaned to any banking company, association, or corporation.

RAILROADS AND CANALS

Sec. 21. All railroads and canals shall be public highways, and all railroad and canal companies shall be common carriers. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between any points in this State, and to connect, at the State line, with railroads of other States. Every railroad company shall have the right with its road to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and shall receive and transport each the other’s freight, passengers, and cars, loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination.

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Sec. 22. The General Assembly shall pass laws to correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates of freights and passenger tariffs on railroads, canals, and rivers in this State.

Sec. 23. No railroad or other transportation company shall grant free passes, or sell tickets or passes at a discount, other than as sold to the public generally, to any member of the General Assembly, or to any person holding office under this State or the United States.

Sec. 24. No street passenger railway shall be constructed within the limits of any city or town without the consent of its local authorities.

Sec. 25. No railroad, canal, or other transportation company, in existence at the time of the ratification of this constitution, shall have the benefit of any future legislation by general or special laws, other than in execution of a trust created by law or by contract, except on the condition of complete acceptance of all the provisions of this article.

Article XIV: EXEMPTED PROPERTY

Section 1. The personal property of any resident of this State to the value of $1,000, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempted from sale on execution, or other process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted since the 13th day of July, 1868, or after the ratification of this constitution.

Sec. 2. Every homestead, not exceeding eighty acres, and the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any city, town, or village, or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in the city, town, or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale on execution or any other process from a court, for any debt contracted after the adoption of this constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of such homestead, by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the wife of the same.

Sec. 3. The homestead of a family, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted after the adoption of this constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.

Sec. 4. The provisions of sections one and two of this article shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborer’s lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanic’s lien for work done on the premises.

Sec. 5. If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, the same shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit.

Sec. 6. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterward be entitled by gift, grant, inheritance, or devise, shall be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations, and engagements Edition: current; Page: [181] of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her the same as if she were a feme sole.

Sec. 7. The right of exemptions hereinbefore secured may be waived by an instrument in writing, and when such waiver relates to realty, the instrument must be signed by both the husband and wife, and attested by one witness.

Article XV: OATH OF OFFICE

Section 1. All members of the general assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, before they enter upon the execution of the duties of their respective offices, shall take the following oath or affirmation, to wit:

“I, ——— ———, solemnly swear [or affirm, as the case may be] that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the State of Alabama, so long as I continue a citizen thereof; and that I will faithfully and honestly discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter, to the best of my ability: So help me God.”

Which oath may be administered by the presiding officer of either house of the general assembly, or any officer authorized by law to administer an oath.

Article XVI: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 1. No person holding an office of profit under the United States, except postmasters whose annual salary does not exceed two hundred dollars, shall, during his continuance in such office, hold any office of profit under this State; nor shall any person hold two offices of profit at one and the same time under this State, except justices of the peace, constables, notaries public, and commissioners of deeds.

Sec. 2. It is made the duty of the general assembly to enact all laws necessary to give effect to the provisions of this constitution.

Article XVII: MODE OF AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

Section 1. The general assembly may, whenever two-thirds of each house shall deem it necessary, propose amendments to this constitution, which, having been read three times on three successive days, shall be duly published, in such manner as the general assembly may direct, at least three months before the next general election for representatives, for the consideration of the people; and it shall be the duty of the several returning-officers, at the next general election which shall be held for representatives, to open a poll for the vote of the qualified electors on the proposed amendments, and to make a return of said vote to the secretary of state; and if it shall thereupon appear that a majority of all the qualified electors of the State, who Edition: current; Page: [182] voted for representatives, voted in favor of the proposed amendments, said amendments shall be valid to all intents and purposes as parts of this constitution, and the results of such election shall be made known by proclamation of the governor.

Sec. 2. No convention shall hereafter be held for the purpose of altering or amending the constitution of this State, unless the question of convention or no convention shall be first submitted to a vote of all the electors twenty-one years and upwards, and approved by a majority of electors voting at said election.

L. P. Walker, President.
B. H. Screws, Secretary.

CONSTITUTION OF ALABAMA—1901*

As Adopted by the Constitutional Convention, September 3, 1901, and in Effect November 28, 1901

PREAMBLE.

We, the people of the State of Alabama, in order to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following Constitution and form of government for the State of Alabama:

Article I: DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the great, general and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:

1. That all men are equally free and independent; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority and instituted for their benefit; and that, therefore, they have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to change their form of government in such manner as they may deem expedient.

3. That no religion shall be established by law; that no preference shall be given by law to any religious sect, society, denomination or mode of worship; that no one shall be compelled by law to attend any place of worship; nor to pay any tithes, taxes or other rates for building or repairing any place of worship, or for maintaining any minister or ministry; that no religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State; and that the civil rights, privileges and capacities of any citizen shall not be in any manner affected by his religious principles.

4. That no law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press; and any person may speak, write and Edition: current; Page: [183] publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

5. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions from unreasonable seizures or searches, and that no warrants shall issue to search any place or to seize any person or thing without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

6. That in all criminal prosecutions the accused has a right to be heard by himself and counsel, or either; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation and to have a copy thereof; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; to testify in all cases in his own behalf, if he elects so to do; and in all prosecutions by indictment, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense was committed; and he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, except by due process of law; but the Legislature may, by a general law, provide for a change of venue at the instance of the defendant in all prosecutions by indictment, and such change of venue on application of the defendant, may be heard and determined without the personal presence of the defendant so applying therefor; provided, that at the time of the application for the change of venue, the defendant is imprisoned in jail or some legal place of confinement.

7. That no person shall be accused, or arrested, or detained, except in cases ascertained by law, and according to the form which the same has prescribed; and no person shall be punished but by virtue of a law established and promulgated prior to the offense and legally applied.

8. That no person shall for any indictable offense be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the militia and volunteer forces when in actual service, or when assembled under arms as a military organization, or, by leave of the court, for misfeasance, misdemeanor, extortion and oppression in office, otherwise than is provided in this Constitution; provided, that in cases of misdemeanor, the Legislature may by law dispense with a Grand Jury and authorize such prosecutions and proceedings before Justices of the Peace or such other inferior courts as may be by law established.

9. That no person shall, for the same offense, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; but courts may, for reasons fixed by law, discharge juries from the consideration of any case, and no person shall gain any advantage by reason of such discharge of the jury.

10. That no person shall be barred from prosecuting or defending before any tribunal in this State, by himself or counsel, any civil cause to which he is a party.

11. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

12. That in all prosecutions for libel or for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, or when the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and that in all indictments for libel, the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts under the direction of the court.

13. That all courts shall be open; and that every person for any injury done him in his lands, goods, person or reputation, shall have Edition: current; Page: [184] a remedy by due process of law; and right and justice shall be administered without sale, denial or delay.

14. That the State of Alabama shall never be made a defendant in any court of law or equity.

15. That excessive fines shall not be imposed nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted.

16. That all persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great; and that excessive bail shall not in any case be required.

17. That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended by the authorities of this State.

18. That treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; and that no person shall be convicted of treason, except on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.

19. That no person shall be attainted of treason by the Legislature; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

20. That no person shall be imprisoned for debt.

21. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised except by the Legislature.

22. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable or exclusive grants of special privileges or immunities, shall be passed by the Legislature; and every grant of a franchise, privilege or immunity, shall forever remain subject to revocation, alteration or amendment.

23. That the exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be abridged nor so construed as to prevent the Legislature from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies, and subjecting them to public use in the same manner in which the property and franchises of individuals are taken and subjected; but private property shall not be taken for, or applied to, public use, unless just compensation be first made therefor; nor shall private property be taken for private use, or for the use of corporations, other than municipal, without the consent of the owner; provided, however, the Legislature may by law secure to persons or corporations the right of way over the lands of other persons or corporations, and by general laws provide for and regulate the exercise by persons and corporations of the rights herein reserved; but just compensation shall in all cases be first made to the owner; and provided, that the right of eminent domain shall not be so construed as to allow taxation or forced subscription for the benefit of railroads or any other kind of corporations, other than municipal, or for the benefit of any individual or association.

24. That all navigable waters shall remain forever public highways, free to the citizens of the State and the United States, without tax, impost or toll; and that no tax, toll, impost or wharfage shall be demanded or received from the owner of any merchandise or commodity for the use of the shores or any wharf erected on the shores, or in or over the waters, of any navigable stream, unless the same be expressly authorized by law.

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25. That the citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble together for the common good, and to apply to those invested with the power of government for redress or grievances or other purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.

26. That every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the State.

27. That no standing army shall be kept up without the consent of the Legislature, and, in that case, no appropriation for its support shall be made for a longer term than one year; and the military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

28. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor, in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

29. That no title of nobility or hereditary distinction, privilege, honor or emolument, shall ever be granted or conferred in this State; and that no office shall be created, the appointment to which shall be for a longer time than during good behavior.

30. That immigration shall be encouraged; emigration shall not be prohibited, and no citizen shall be exiled.

31. That temporary absence from the State shall not cause a forfeiture of residence once obtained.

32. That no form of slavery shall exist in this State; and there shall not be any involuntary serviture, otherwise than for the punishment of crime, of which the party shall have been duly convicted.

33. The privilege of suffrage shall be protected by laws regulating elections and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influences from power, bribery, tumult or other improper conduct.

34. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become, bona fide residents of this State, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment and inheritance of property as native born citizens.

35. That the sole object and only legitimate end of government is to protect the citizen in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property, and when the government assumes other functions it is usurpation and oppression.

36. That this enumeration of certain rights shall not impair or deny others retained by the people; and, to guard against any encroachments on the rights herein retained, we declare that everything in this Declaration of Rights is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate.

Article II: STATE AND COUNTY BOUNDARIES

37. The boundaries of this State are established and declared to be as follows, that is to say: Beginning at the point where the thirty-first degree of north latitude crosses the Perdido river; thence east, to the western boundary line of the State of Georgia; thence along said line to the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee; thence west, along the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee, crossing the Tennessee river, and on to the second intersection Edition: current; Page: [186] of said river by said line; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Bear creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of Washington county, in this State, as originally formed; thence southwardly along the line of the State of Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence eastwardly, including all islands within six leagues of the shore, to the Perdido river; thence up the said river to the beginning; provided that the limits and jurisdiction of this State shall extend to and include any other land and territory hereafter acquired by contract or agreement with other States, or otherwise, although such land and territory are not included within the boundaries hereinbefore designated.

38. The boundaries of the several counties of this State, as they now exist, are hereby ratified and confirmed.

39. The Legislature may by a vote of two-thirds of each House thereof arrange and designate boundaries for the several counties of this State, which boundaries shall not be altered, except by a like vote; but no new county shall be formed hereafter of less extent than six hundred square miles, and no existing county shall be reduced to less than six hundred square miles; and no new county shall be formed unless it shall contain a sufficient number of inhabitants to entitle it to one Representative under the ratio of representation existing at the time of its formation, and leave the county or counties from which it is taken with the required number of inhabitants to entitle such county or counties, each, to separate representation; provided, that out of the counties of Henry, Dale and Geneva a new county of less than six hundred square miles may be formed under the provisions of this article, so as to leave said counties of Henry, Dale and Geneva with not less than five hundred square miles each.

40. No county line shall be altered or changed, or, in the event of the creation of new counties, shall be established, so as to run within seven miles of the county court house of any old county.

41. No court house or county site shall be removed except by a majority vote of the qualified electors of said county, voting at an election held for such purpose, and when an election has once been held no other election shall be held for such purpose until the expiration of four years; provided, that the county site of Shelby county shall remain at Columbiana, unless removed by a vote of the people as provided for in an act entitled, “An Act to provide for the permanent location of the county site of Shelby county, Alabama, by a vote of the qualified electors of said county,” approved the 9th day of February, 1899, and the act amendatory thereof, approved the 20th day of February, 1899, or by an election held under the provisions of this article.

Article III: DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

42. The powers of the government of the State of Alabama shall be divided into three distinct departments, each of which shall be confided to a separate body of magistracy, to-wit: That which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

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43. In the government of this State, except in the instances in this Constitution hereinafter expressly directed or permitted, the legislative department shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, or either of them; the executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or either of them; the judicial shall never exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them; to the end that it may be a government of laws and not of men.

Article IV: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

44. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in a Legislature, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

45. The style of the laws of this State shall be: “Be it enacted by the Legislature of Alabama,” which need not be repeated, but the act shall be divided into sections for convenience, according to substance; and the sections designated merely by figures. Each law shall contain but one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, except general appropriation bills, general revenue bills, and bills adopting a code, digest, or revision of statutes; and no law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred, by reference to its title only; but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended, or conferred, shall be re-enacted and published at length.

46. Senators and Representatives shall be elected by the qualified electors on the first Tuesday ofter the first Monday in November, unless the Legislature shall change the time of holding elections, and in every fourth year thereafter. The terms of office of the Senators and Representatives shall commence on the day after the general election at which they are elected, and expire on the day after the general election held in the fourth year after their election, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution. At the general election in the year nineteen hundred and two all the Representatives, together with the Senators for the even numbered districts and for the Thirty-fifth district, shall be elected. The terms of those Senators who represent the odd numbered districts under the law in force prior to the ratification of this Constitution are hereby extended until the day after the general election in the year nineteen hundred and six; and until the expiration of his terms as hereinbefore extended, each such Senator shall represent the district established by this Constitution bearing the number corresponding with that for which he was elected. In the year nineteen hundred and six, and in every fourth year thereafter, all the Senators and Representatives shall be elected. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in either House the Governor shall issue a writ of election to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the term.

47. Senators shall be at least twenty-five years of age, and Representatives twenty-one years of age at the time of their election. They shall have been citizens and residents of this State for three years, and residents of their respective counties or districts for one year next before their election, if such county or district shall have been Edition: current; Page: [188] so long established; but if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been taken; and they shall reside in their respective counties or districts during their terms of office.

48. The Legislature shall meet quadrennially at the Capitol, in the Senate chamber, and in the Hall of the House of Representatives, on the second Tuesday in January next succeeding their election, or on such other day as may be prescribed by law; and shall not remain in session longer than sixty days at the first session held under this Constitution, nor longer than fifty days at any subsequent session. If at any time it should from any cause become impossible or dangerous for the Legislature to meet or remain at the Capitol or for the Senate to meet or remain in the Senate Chamber, or for the Representatives to meet or remain in the Hall of the House of Representatives, the Governor may convene the Legislature, or remove it, after it has convened, to some other place, or may designate some other place for the sitting of the respective Houses, or either of them, as necessity may require.

49. The pay of the members of the Legislature shall be four dollars per day, and ten cents per mile in going to and returning from the seat of government, to be computed by the nearest usual route traveled.

50. The Legislature shall consist of not more than thirty-five Senators, and not more than one hundred and five members of the House of Representatives, to be apportioned among the several districts and counties as prescribed in this Constitution; provided that in addition to the above number of Representatives each new county hereafter created shall be entitled to one Representative.

51. The Senate, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members president pro tem thereof, to preside over its deliberations in the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor; and the House of Representatives, at the beginning of each regular session, and at such other times as may be necessary, shall elect one of its members as Speaker; and the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall hold their offices, respectively, until their successors are elected and qualified. In case of the temporary disability of either of said presiding officers, the House to which he belongs may elect one of its members to preside over that House, and to perform all the duties of such officer during the continuance of his disability; and such temporary officer, while performing duty as such, shall receive the same compensation to which the permanent officer is entitled by law, and no other. Each House shall choose its own officers, and shall judge of the election, returns and qualifications of its members.

52. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

53. Each House shall have power to determine the rules of its proceedings, and to punish its members and other persons, for contempt or disorderly behavior in its presence; to enforce obedience to its processes; to protect its members against violence or offers of bribery Edition: current; Page: [189] or corrupt solicitation; and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the House, to expel a member, but not a second time for the same offense; and the two Houses shall have all the powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State.

54. A member of the Legislature expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to either House; and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar an indictment for the same offense.

55. Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjournment, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the request of one-tenth of the members present, be entered on the Journal. Any member of either House shall have liberty to dissent from or protest against, any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public, or to an individual, and have the reason for his dissent entered on the Journal.

56. Members of the Legislature shall in all cases, except treason, felony, violation of their oath of office, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in any other place.

57. The doors of each House shall be opened except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the House, may require secrecy; but no person shall be admitted to the floor of either House while the same is in session, except members of the Legislature, officers and employees of the two Houses, the Governor and his secretaries, representatives of the press and other persons to whom either House, by unanimous vote, may extend the privileges of its floor.

58. Neither House shall, without consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

59. No Senator or Representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term, except such offices as may be filled by election by the people.

60. No person convicted of embezzlement of the public money, bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the Legislature or capable of holding any office of trust or profit in this State.

61. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended on its passage through either House as to change the original purpose.

62. No bill shall become a law until it shall have been referred to a standing committee of each House, acted upon by such committee in session, and returned therefrom, which facts shall affirmatively appear upon the Journal of each House.

63. Every bill shall be read on three different days in each House, and no bill shall become a law unless on its final passage it be read at length, and the vote to be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the Edition: current; Page: [190] members voting for and against the same be entered upon the Journal, and a majority of each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

64. No amendment to bills shall be adopted except by a majority of the House wherein the same is offered, nor unless the amendment, with the names of those voting for and against the same, shall be entered at length on the Journal of the House in which the same is adopted; and no amendment to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, unless a vote be taken by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for and against the same be recorded at length on the Journal; and no report of a committee of conference shall be adopted in either House except upon a vote taken by yeas and nays and entered on the Journal as herein provided for the adoption of amendments.

65. The Legislature shall have no power to authorize lotteries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the sale in this State of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the nature of a lottery; and all acts or parts of acts heretofore passed by the Legislature of this State, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, and all acts amendatory thereof, or supplemental thereto, are hereby avoided.

66. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the Legislature, after the same shall have been publicly read at length immediately before signing, and the fact of reading and signing shall be entered upon the Journal; but the reading at length may be dispensed with by a two-thirds vote of a quorum present, which fact shall also be entered on the Journal.

67. The Legislature shall prescribe by law the number, duties and compensation of the officers and employes of each House, and no payment shall be made from the State Treasury or be in any way authorized to any person except to an acting officer or employe elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

68. The legislature shall have no power to grant, or to authorize or require any county or municipal authority to grant, nor shall any county or municipal authority have power to grant, any extra compensation, fee or allowance to any public officer, servant or employee, agent or contractor, after service shall have been rendered or contract made; nor to increase or decrease the fees and compensation of such officers, during their terms of office; nor shall any officer of the State bind the State to the payment of any sum of money, but by authority of law; provided this section shall not apply to allowances made by commissioners’ court, or boards of revenue to county officers for ex-officio services, nor prevent the Legislature from increasing or diminishing at any time the allowance to sheriffs or other officers for feeding, transferring or guarding prisoners.

69. All stationery, printing, paper and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government, shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and distribution of laws, Journals, department reports and all other printing, binding and repairing, and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meeting of the Legislature and its committees, shall be performed, under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below a maximum price, and under such Edition: current; Page: [191] regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor, and Treasurer.

70. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. The Governor, Auditor and Attorney General shall, before each regular session of the Legislature, prepare a general revenue bill, to be submitted to the Legislature for its information, and the Secretary of State shall have printed for the use of the Legislature a sufficient number of copies of the bill so prepared; which the Governor shall transmit to the House of Representatives as soon as organized to be used or dealt with as that House may elect. The Senate may propose amendments to revenue bills. No revenue bill shall be passed during the last five days of the session.

71. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial departments of the State, for interest on the public debt, and for the public schools. The salary of no officer or employe shall be increased in such bill, nor shall any appropriation be made therein for any officer or employe, unless his employment and the amount of his salary have already been provided for by law. All other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

72. No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrants drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually, in such manner as may be by law directed.

73. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the State, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each House.

74. No act of the Legislature shall authorize the investment of any trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians or other trustees in the bonds or stocks of any private corporation; and any such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments heretofore made.

75. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal causes is vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.

76. When the Legislature shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session, except by a vote of two-thirds of each House. Special sessions shall be limited to thirty days.

77. No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manufacture or commodity; but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

78. No act of the Legislature changing the seat of government of the State shall become a law until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the State, at a general election, and Edition: current; Page: [192] approved by a majority of such electors voting on the same; and such act shall specify the proposed new location.

79. A member of the Legislature who shall solicit, demand or receive or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation, association or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, reward, thing of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same; or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote, or official action, shall be in any way influenced thereby; or who shall solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, matter or thing aforesaid, for another as the consideration for his vote, or influence, or for withholding the same; or shall give or withhold his vote or influence, in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter or thing to another, shall be guilty of bribery within the meaning of this Constitution, and shall incur the disabilities and penalties provided thereby for such offense, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

80. Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give or promise any money, or thing of value, testimonial, privilege or personal advantage, to any executive or judicial officer or member of the Legislature, to influence him in the performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as may be provided by law.

81. The offense of corrupt solicitation of members of the Legislature, or of public officers of this State, or of any municipal division thereof, and any occupation or practice of solicitation of such members or officers, to influence their official action, shall be defined by law, and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment in the penitentiary; and the Legislature shall provide for the trial and punishment of the offenses enumerated in the two preceding sections, and shall require the judges to give the same specially in charge to the grand juries in all the counties of this State.

82. A member of the Legislature who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the Legislature, shall disclose the fact to the House of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.

83. In all elections by the Legislature the members shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the Journal.

84. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators to be appointed by the parties who may choose that mode of adjustment.

85. It shall be the duty of the Legislature, at its first session after the ratification of this Constitution, and within every subsequent period of twelve years, to make provision by law for revising, digesting and promulgating the public statutes of this State of a general nature, both civil and criminal.

86. The Legislature shall pass such penal laws as it may deem expedient to suppress the evil practice of dueling.

87. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to regulate by law the cases in which deduction shall be made from the salaries or compensation of public officers for neglect of duty in their official capacities, and the amount of such deduction.

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88. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to require the several counties of this State to make adequate provision for maintenance of the poor.

89. The Legislature shall not have power to authorize any municipal corporation to pass any laws inconsistent with the general laws of this State.

90. In the event of the annexation of any foreign territory to this State, the Legislature shall enact laws extending to the inhabitants of the acquired territory all the rights and privileges which may be required by the terms of acquisition not inconsistent with this Constitution. Should the State purchase such foreign territory, the Legislature, with the approval of the Governor, shall be authorized to expend any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and, if necessary, to provide also for the issuance of State bonds, to pay for the purchase of such foreign territory.

91. The Legislature shall not tax the property, real or personal, of the State, counties or other municipal corporations, or cemeteries; nor lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of any city or town to the extent of one acre; nor lots one mile or more distant from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the buildings thereon, when same are used exclusively for religious worship, for schools, or for purposes purely charitable.

92. The Legislature shall by law prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to ascertain the value of real and personal property exempted from sale under legal process by this Constitution, and to secure the same to the claimant thereof as selected.

93. The State shall not engage in works of internal improvement, nor lend money or its credit in aid of such; nor shall the State be interested in any private or corporate enterprise, or lend money or its credit to any individual, association or corporation.

94. The Legislature shall not have power to authorize any county, city, town, or other subdivision of this State to lend its credit, or to grant public money or thing of value in aid of, or to, any individual, association or corporation whatsoever, or to become a stockholder in any such corporation, association or company, by issuing bonds or otherwise.

95. There can be no law of this State impairing the obligation of contracts by destroying or impairing the remedy for their enforcement; and the Legislature shall have no power to revive any right or remedy which may have become barred by lapse of time, or by any statute of this State. After suit has been commenced on any cause of action, the Legislature shall have no power to take away such cause of action, or destroy any existing defense to such suit.

96. The Legislature shall not enact any law not applicable to all the counties in the State, regulating costs and charges of courts, or fees, commissions or allowances of public officers.

97. The Legislature shall not authorize payment to any person of the salary of a deceased officer beyond the date of his death.

98. The Legislature shall not retire any officer on pay, or part pay, or make any grant to such retiring officer.

99. Lands belonging to or under the control of the State shall never be donated directly or indirectly to private corporations, associations, or individuals, or railroad companies; nor shall such lands be sold to Edition: current; Page: [194] corporations or associations for a less price than that for which they are subject to sale to individuals; provided, that nothing contained in this section shall prevent the Legislature from granting a right of way, not exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in width, as a mere easement, for railroads or telegraph or telephone lines across State lands, and the Legislature shall never dispose of the land covered by such right of way except subject to such easement.

100. No obligation or liability of any person, association or corporation held or owned by this State, or by any county or other municipality thereof, shall ever be remitted, released or postponed, or in any way diminished, by the Legislature; nor shall such liability or obligation be extinguished except by payment thereof; nor shall such liability or obligation be exchanged or transferred except upon payment of its face value; provided, that this section shall not prevent the Legislature from providing by general law for the compromise of doubtful claims.

101. No State or county official shall, at any time during his term of office, accept either directly or indirectly any fee, money, office, appointment, employment, reward or thing of value, or of personal advantage, or the promise thereof, to lobby for or against any measure pending before the Legislature, or to give or withhold his influence to secure the passage or defeat of any such measure.

102. The Legislature shall never pass any law to authorize or legalize any marriage between any white person and a negro, or a descendant of a negro.

103. The Legislature shall provide by law for the regulation, prohibition or reasonable restraint of common carriers, partnerships, associations, trusts, monopolies, and combinations of capital, so as to prevent them or any of them from making scarce articles of necessity, trade or commerce, or from increasing unreasonably the cost thereof to the consumer, or preventing reasonable competition in any calling, trade or business.

LOCAL LEGISLATION

104. The Legislature shall not pass a special, private or local law in any of the following cases:

  • (1) Granting a divorce;
  • (2) Relieving any minor of the disabilities of non-age;
  • (3) Changing the name of any corporation, association, or individual;
  • (4) Providing for the adopting or legitimizing of any child;
  • (5) Incorporating a city, town or village;
  • (6) Granting a charter to any corporation, association, or individual;
  • (7) Establishing rules of descent or distribution;
  • (8) Regulating the time within which a civil or criminal action may be begun;
  • (9) Exempting any individual, private corporation or association from the operation of any general law;
  • (10) Providing for the sale of the property of any individual or estate;
  • (11) Changing or locating a county seat; Edition: current; Page: [195]
  • (12) Providing for a change of venue in any case;
  • (13) Regulating the rate of interest;
  • (14) Fixing the punishment of crime;
  • (15) Regulating either the assessment or collection of taxes, except in connection with the readjustment, renewal, or extension of existing municipal indebtedness created prior to the ratification of the Constitution of eighteen hundred and seventy-five;
  • (16) Giving effect to an invalid will, deed or other instrument;
  • (17) Authorizing any county, city, town, village, district or other political subdivision of a county, to issue bonds or other securities unless the issuance of said bonds or other securities shall have been authorized before the enactment of such local or special law, by a vote of the duly qualified electors of such county, township, city, town, village, district or other political subdivision of a county, at an election held for such purpose, in the manner that may be prescribed by law; provided, the Legislature may without such election, pass special laws to refund bonds issued before the date of the ratification of this Constitution;
  • (18) Amending, confirming or extending the charter of any private municipal corporation, or remitting the forfeiture thereof; provided, this shall not prohibit the Legislature from altering or re-arranging the boundaries of any city, town or village;
  • (19) Creating, extending or impairing any lien;
  • (20) Chartering or licensing any ferry, road or bridge;
  • (21) Increasing the jurisdiction and fees of justices of the peace, or the fees of constables;
  • (22) Establishing separate school districts;
  • (23) Establishing separate stock districts;
  • (24) Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentages or allowances of public officers;
  • (25) Exempting property from taxation or from levy or sale;
  • (26) Exempting any person from jury, road or other civil duty;
  • (27) Donating any lands owned by or under control of the State to any person or corporation;
  • (28) Remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures;
  • (29) Providing for the conduct of elections or designating places of voting, or changing the boundaries of wards, precincts or districts, except in the event of the organization of new counties, or the changing of the lines of old counties;
  • (30) Restoring the right to vote to persons convicted of infamous crimes, or crimes involving moral turpitude;
  • (31) Declaring who shall be liners between precincts or between counties.

104. The Legislature shall pass general laws for the cases enumerated in this section, provided that nothing in this section or article shall affect the right of the Legislature to enact local laws regulating or prohibiting the liquor traffic; but no such local law shall be enacted unless notice shall have been given as required in Section 106 of this Constitution.

105. No special, private or local law, except a law fixing the time of holding courts, shall be enacted in any case which is provided for by a general law, or when the relief sought can be given by any Edition: current; Page: [196] court of this State; and the courts and not the Legislature, shall judge as to whether the matter of said law is provided for by a general law, and as to whether the relief sought can be given by any court; nor shall the Legislature indirectly enact any such special, private or local law by the partial repeal of a general law.

106. No special, private or local law shall be passed on any subject not enumerated in Section 104 of this Constitution, except in reference to fixing the time of holding courts, unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published, without cost to the State, in the county or counties where the matter or thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall state the substance of the proposed law and be published at least once a week for four consecutive weeks in some newspaper published in such county or counties, or if there is no newspaper published therein, then by posting the said notice for four consecutive weeks at five different places in the county or counties prior to the introduction of the bill; and proof by affidavit that said notice has been given shall be exhibited to each House of the Legislature, and said proof spread upon the Journal. The courts shall pronounce void every special, private or local law which the Journals do not affirmatively show was passed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

107. The Legislature shall not, by special, private or local law, repeal or modify any special, private or local law except upon notice being given and shown as provided in the last preceding section.

108. The operation of a general law shall not be suspended for the benefit of any individual, private corporation or association; nor shall any individual, private corporation or association be exempted from the operation of any general law except as in this article otherwise provided.

109. The Legislature shall pass general laws under which local and private interests shall be provided for and protected.

110. A general law within the meaning of this article is a law which apples to the whole State; a local law is a law which applies to any political subdivision or subdivisions of the State less than the whole; a special or private law within the meaning of this article is one which applies to an individual, association or corporation.

111. No bill introduced as a general law in either House of the Legislature shall be so amended on its passage as to become a special, private or local law.

Article V: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT

112. The Executive department shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, and a Sheriff for each county.

113. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled “The Governor of the State of Alabama.”

114. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, shall be Edition: current; Page: [197] elected by the qualified electors of the State at the same time and places appointed for the election of members of the Legislature in the year nineteen hundred and two, and in every fourth year thereafter.

115. The returns of every election for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning officers to the seat of government, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session to which such returns shall be made, open and publish them in the presence of both Houses of the Legislature in joint convention; but the Speaker’s duty and the duty of the joint convention shall be purely ministerial. The result of the election shall be ascertained and declared by the Speaker from the face of the returns without delay. The person having the highest number of votes for any one of said offices shall be declared duly elected; but if two or more persons shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for the same office, the Legislature by joint vote, without delay, shall choose one of said persons for said office. Contested elections for Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries shall be determined by both Houses of the Legislature in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

116. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, elected after the ratification of this Constitution, shall hold their respective offices for the term of four years from the first Monday after the second Tuesday in January next succeeding their election, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. After the first election under this Constitution no one of said officers shall be eligible as his own successor; and the Governor shall not be eligible to election or appointment to any office under this State, or to the Senate of the United States during his term, and within one year after the expiration thereof.

117. The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall each be at least thirty years of age when elected, and shall have been citizens of the United States ten years and resident citizens of this State at least seven years next before the date of their election. The Lieutenant-Governor shall be ex-officio President of the Senate, but shall have no right to vote except in the event of a tie.

118. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney-General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries shall receive compensation to be fixed by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected, and shall, except the Lieutenant-Governor, reside at the State Capital during the time they continue in office, except during epidemics. The compensation of the Lieutenant-Governor shall be the same as that received by the Speaker of the House, except while serving as Governor, during which time his compensation shall be the same as that allowed the Governor.

Edition: current; Page: [198]

119. If the Legislature, at the session next after the ratification of this Constitution, shall enact a law increasing the salary of the Governor, such increase shall become effective and apply to the first Governor elected after the ratification of this Constitution, if the Legislature shall so determine.

120. The Governor shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

121. The Governor may require information in writing, under oath, from the officers of the executive department, named in this article, or created by statute, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he may at any time require information in writing, under oath, from all officers and managers of State institutions, upon any subject relating to the condition, management and expenses of their respective offices and institutions. Any such officer or manager who makes a wilfully false report or fails without sufficient excuse to make the required report on demand, is guilty of an impeachable offense.

122. The Governor may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the Legislature at the seat of government, or at a different place if, since their last adjournment, that shall have become dangerous from an enemy, insurrection, or other lawless outbreak, or from any infectious or contagious disease; and he shall state specifically in such ploclamation each matter concerning which the action of that body is deemed necessary.

123. The Governor shall, from time to time, give the Legislature information of the state of the government, and recommend for its consideration such measures as he may deem expedient; and at the commencement of each regular session of the Legislature, and at the close of his term of office, he shall give information by written message of the condition of the State; and he shall account to the Legislature, as may be prescribed by law, for all moneys received and paid out by him or by his order; and at the commencement of each regular session he shall present to the Legislature estimates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all purposes.

124. The Governor shall have power to remit fines and forfeitures under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by law; and, after conviction, to grant reprieves, paroles, commutations of sentence and pardons, except in cases of impeachment. The Attorney General, Secretary of State, and State Auditor shall constitute a Board of Pardons, who shall meet on the call of the Governor, and before whom shall be laid all recommendations or petitions, for pardon, commutation or parole, in cases of felony; and the board shall hear them in open session, and give their opinion thereon in writing to the Governor, after which or on the failure of the board to advise for more than sixty days, the Governor may grant or refuse the commutation, parole or pardon, as to him seems best for the public interest. He shall communicate to the Legislature at each session every remission of fines and forfeitures, and every reprieve, commutation, parole or pardon, with his reasons therefor, in the opinions of the Board of Pardons in each case required to be referred, stating the name and crime of the convict, the sentence, its date, and the date of reprieve, commutation, parole or pardon. Pardons in cases of felony and other offenses involving moral turpitude shall not relieve from civil Edition: current; Page: [199] and political disabilities, unless approved by the Board of Pardons and specifically expressed in the pardon.

125. Every bill which shall have passed both Houses of the Legislature, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, shall be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections to the House in which it originated, which shall shall enter the objections at large upon the Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If the Governor’s message proposes no amendment which would remove his objections to the bill, the House in which the bill originated may proceed to reconsider, and if a majority of the whole number elected to that House vote for the passage of the bill, it shall be sent to the other House, which shall in like manner reconsider, and if a majority of the whole number elected to that House vote for the passage of the bill, the same shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor’s veto. If the Governor’s message proposes amendment, which would remove his objections, the House to which it is sent may so amend the bill and send it with the Governor’s message to the other House, which may adopt but cannot amend, said amendment; and both Houses concurring in the amendment, the bill shall again be sent to the Governor and acted on by him as other bills. If the House to which the bill is returned refuses to make such amendment, it shall proceed to reconsider; and if a majority of the whole number elected to that House shall vote for the passage of the bill, it shall be sent with the objections to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that House, it shall become a law. If the House to which the bill is returned makes the amendment and the other House declines to pass the same, that House shall proceed to reconsider, as though the bill had originated therein, and such proceedings shall be taken thereon as above provided. In every such case the vote of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered upon the Journals of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within six days, Sundays excepted, after it shall have been presented, the same shall become a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Legislature, by its adjournment, prevent the return, in which case it shall not be a law; but when return is prevented by recess, such bill must be returned to the House in which it originated within two days after the reassembling, otherwise it shall become a law, but bills presented to the Governor within five days before the final adjournment of the Legislature may be approved by the Governor at any time within ten days after such adjournment, and if approved and deposited with the Secretary of State within that time shall become law. Every vote, order, or resolution to which concurrence of both Houses may be necessary, except on questions of adjournment and the bringing on of elections by the two Houses, and amending this Constitution, shall be presented to the Governor; and, before the same shall take effect, be approved by him; or, being disapproved, shall be repassed by both Houses according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

126. The Governor shall have power to approve or disapprove any item or items of any appropriation bill embracing distinct items, Edition: current; Page: [200] and the part or parts of the bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items disapproved shall be void, unless repassed according to the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of bills over the executive veto; and he shall in writing state specifically the item or items he disapproves, setting the same out in full in his message, but in such case the enrolled bill shall not be returned with the Governor’s objection.

127. In case of the Governor’s removal from office, death or resignation, the Lieutenant-Governor shall become Governor. If both the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor be removed from office, die, or resign more than sixty days prior to the next general election at which any State officers are to be elected, a Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected at such election for the unexpired term, and in the event of a vacancy in the office, caused by the removal from office, death or resignation of the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, pending such vacancy, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified, the office of Governor shall be held and administered by either the President pro tem of the Senate, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, or State Treasurer in the order herein named. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his absence from the State for more than twenty days, unsoundness of mind, or other disability, the power and authority of the office shall, until the Governor is acquitted, return to the State, or is restored to his mind, or relieved from other disability, devolve in the order herein named upon the Lieutenant-Governor, President pro tem of the Senate, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State and State Treasurer. If any of these officers be under any of the disabilities herein specified, the office of Governor shall be administered in the order named by such of these officers as may be free from such disability. If the Governor shall be absent from the State over twenty days, the Secretary of State shall notify the Lieutenant-Governor, who shall enter upon the duties of Governor; if both the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor shall be absent from the State over twenty days, the Secretary of State shall notify the President pro tem of the Senate, who shall enter upon the duties of Governor, and so on, in case of such absence, he shall notify each of the other officers named in their order, who shall discharge the duties of the office until the Governor or other officer entitled to administer the office in succession to the Governor returns. If the Governor-elect fails or refuses from any cause to qualify, the Lieutenant-Governor-elect shall qualify and exercise the duties of Governor until the Governor-elect qualifies; and in the event both the Governor-elect and the Lieutenant-Governor-elect from any cause fail to qualify, the President pro tem of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State and State Treasurer shall in like manner, in the order named, administer the office until the Governor-elect or Lieutenant-Governor-elect qualifies.

128. If the Governor or other officer administering the office shall appear to be of unsound mind, it shall be the duty of the Supreme Court of Alabama, at any regular term, or at any special term, which it is hereby authorized to call for that purpose, upon request in writing, verified by their affidavits, of any two of the officers named in Edition: current; Page: [201] Section 127 of this Constitution, not next in succession to the office of Governor, to ascertain the mental condition of the Governor or other officer administering the office, and if he is adjudged to be of unsound mind, to so decree, a copy of which decree, duly certified, shall be filed in the office of Secretary of State; and in the event of such adjudication it shall be the duty of the officer next in succession to perform the duties of the office until the Governor or other officer administering the office is restored to his mind. If the incumbent denies that the Governor or other person entitled to administer the office has been restored to his mind, the Supreme Court, at the instance of any officer named in Section 127 of this Constitution, shall ascertain the truth concerning the same, and if the officer has been restored to his mind, shall so adjudge and file a duly certified copy of its decree with the Secretary of State; and in the event of such adjudication, the office shall be restored to him. The Supreme Court shall prescribe the method of taking testimony and the rules of practice in such proceedings, which rules shall include a provision for the service of notice of such proceedings on the Governor or person acting as Governor.

129. The Lieutenant-Governor, President pro tem of the Senate, Speaker of the House, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State or State Treasurer, while administering the office of Governor, shall receive like compensation as that prescribed by law for the Governor, and no other.

130. No person shall at the same time hold the office of Governor and any other office, civil or military, under this State, or the United States, or any other State or government, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

131. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia and volunteer forces of this State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States, and he may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrection and repel invasion, but need not command in person unless directed to do so by resolution of the Legislature; and when acting in the service of the United States, he shall appoint his staff, and the Legislature shall fix his rank.

132. No person shall be eligible to the office of Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, or Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, unless he shall have been a citizen of the United States at least seven years, and shall have resided in this State at least five years next preceding his election, and shall be at least twenty-five years old when elected.

133. There shall be a seal of the State which shall be used officially by the Governor, and the seal now in use shall continue to be used until another shall have been adopted by the Legislature. The seal shall be called “The Great Seal of the State of Alabama.”

134. The Secretary of State shall be the custodian of the Great Seal of the State, and shall authenticate therewith all official acts of the Governor, except his approval of laws, resolutions, appointments to office and administrative orders. He shall keep a register of the official acts of the Governor, and when necessary, shall attest them, and lay copies of same together with copies of all papers relative thereto, before either House of the Legislature when required to do so, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law.

135. All grants and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority of the State of Alabama, sealed with the Great Seal of Edition: current; Page: [202] the State, signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

136. Should the office of Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, or Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries become vacant from any cause the Governor shall fill such vacancy until the disability is removed or a successor elected and qualified. In case any of said officers shall become of unsound mind, such unsoundness shall be ascertained by the Supreme Court upon the suggestion of the Governor.

137. The Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. The State Treasurer and State Auditor shall every year, at a time fixed by the Legislature, make a full and complete report to the Governor, showing the receipts and disbursements of every character, all claims audited and paid out, by items, and all taxes and revenues collected and paid into the treasury, and the sources thereof. They shall make reports oftener upon any matters pertaining to their offices, if required by the Governor or the Legislature. The Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries shall not receive to their use any fees, costs, perquisites of office or other compensation than the salaries prescribed by law, and all fees that may be payable for any services performed by such officers shall be at once paid into the State Treasury.

138. A Sheriff shall be elected in each county by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold office for a term of four years, unless sooner removed, and he shall be ineligible to such office as his own successor; provided, that the terms of all Sheriffs expiring in the year nineteen hundred and four are hereby extended until the time of the expiration of the terms of the other executive officers of this State in the year nineteen hundred and seven, unless sooner removed. Whenever any prisoner is taken from jail, or from the custody of any Sheriff or his deputy, and put to death, or suffers grievous bodily harm, owing to the neglect, connivance, cowardice, or other grave fault of the Sheriff, such Sheriff may be impeached under Section 174 of the Constitution. If the Sheriff be impeached, and thereupon convicted, he shall not be eligible to hold any office in this State during the time for which he had been elected or appointed to serve as Sheriff.

Article VI: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

139. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, Chancery Courts, Courts of Probate, such courts of law and equity inferior to the Supreme Court, and to consist of not more than five members, as the Legislature from time to time may establish, and such persons as may be by law invested with powers of a judicial nature; but no court of general jurisdiction, at law or in equity, or both, shall hereafter be established in and for any one county having Edition: current; Page: [203] a population of less than twenty thousand, according to the next preceding Federal census, and property assessed for taxation at a less valuation than three million five hundred thousand dollars.

140. Except in cases otherwise directed in this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be coextensive with the State, under such restrictions and regulations, not repugnant to this Constitution, as may from time to time be prescribed by law, except where jurisdiction over appeals is vested in some inferior court, and made final therein; provided, that the Supreme Court shall have power to issue writs of injunction, habeas corpus, quo warranto, and such other remedial and original writs as may be necessary to give it a general superintendence and control of inferior jurisdictions.

141. The Supreme Court shall be held at the seat of government, but if that shall become dangerous from any cause, it may convene at or adjourn to another place.

142. Except as otherwise authorized in this article, the State shall be divided into convenient circuits. For each circuit there shall be chosen a judge, who shall, for one year next preceding his election and during his continuance in office, reside in the circuit for which he is elected.

143. The Circuit Court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal within the State not otherwise excepted in this Constitution; but in civil cases, other than suits for libel, slander, assault and battery, and ejectment, it shall have no original jurisdiction except where the matter or sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars.

144. A Circuit Court, or a court having the jurisdiction of the Circuit Court, shall be held in each county in the State at least twice in each year, and judges of the several courts mentioned in this section may hold court for each other when they deem it expedient, and shall do so when directed by law. The judges of the several courts mentioned in this section shall have power to issue writs of injunction, returnable to the Court of Chancery, or courts having the jurisdiction of Courts of Chancery.

145. The Legislature shall have power to establish a Court or Courts of Chancery, with original and appellate jurisdiction, except as otherwise authorized in this article. The State shall be divided by the Legislature into convenient Chancery divisions; each division shall be divided into districts, and for each division there shall be a chancellor, who shall have resided in the division for which he shall be elected or appointed for one year next preceding his election or appointment, and shall reside therein during his continuance in office.

146. A Chancery Court, or a court having the jurisdiction of the Chancery Court, shall be held in each district, at a place to be fixed by law, at least twice in each year, and the chancellors may hold court for each other when they deem it necessary, and shall do so when directed by law.

147. Any county having a population of twenty thousand or more, according to the next preceding Federal census, and also taxable property of three million five hundred thousand dollars or more in value, according to the next preceding assessment of property for Edition: current; Page: [204] State and county taxation, need not be included in any circuit or chancery division; but if the value of its taxable property shall be reduced below that limit, or if its population shall be reduced below that number, the Legislature shall include such county in a circuit and chancery division, or either, embracing more than one county. No Circuit or Chancery division shall contain less than three counties, unless there be embraced therein a county having a population of twenty thousand or more, and taxable property of three million five hundred thousand dollars or more in value.

148. The Legislature may confer upon the Circuit Court or the Chancery Court the jurisdiction of both of said courts. In counties having two or more courts of record, the Legislature may provide for the consolidation of all or any such courts of record, except the Probate Court, with or without separate divisions, and a sufficient number of judges for the transaction of the business of such consolidated court.

149. The Legislature shall have power to establish in each county a court of probate, with general jurisdiction of orphan’s business and with power to grant letters testamentary and administration; provided, that whenever any court having equity powers has taken jurisdiction of the settlement of any estate, it shall have power to do all things necessary for the settlement of such estate, including the appointment and removal of administrators, executors, guardians and trustees, and including action upon the resignation of either of them.

150. The Justices of the Supreme Court, Chancellors and the Judges of the Circuit Courts, and other courts of record, except Probate Courts, shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their official terms; they shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any office, except judicial offices, of profit or trust under this State or the United States, or any other government during the time for which they have been elected or appointed.

151. The Supreme Court shall consist of one Chief Justice, and such number of Associate Justices as may be prescribed by law.

152. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, Judges of the Circuit Courts, Judges of the Probate Courts, and Chancellors shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State, circuits, counties and chancery divisions, for which such courts may be established, at such times as may be prescribed by law, except as herein otherwise provided.

153. The Judges of such inferior courts of law and equity as may be by law established, shall be elected or appointed in such mode as the Legislature may prescribe.

154. Chancellors and Judges of all courts of record shall have been citizens of the United States and of this State for five years next preceding their election or appointment, and shall not be less than twenty-five years of age, and, except Judges of Probate, shall be learned in the law.

155. Except as otherwise provided in this article, the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, Circuit Judges, Chancellors, and Judges of Probate, shall hold office for the term of six years, and until their successors are elected or appointed and qualified; and the right of such Judges and Chancellors to hold their offices for the full term hereby prescribed shall not be affected by any change Edition: current; Page: [205] hereafter made by law in any circuit, division, or county, or in the mode of time of election.

156. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court shall be choses at an election to be held at the time and places fixed by law for the election of members of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, until the Legislature shall by law change the time of holding such election. The term of office of the Chief Justice, who shall be elected in the year nineteen hundred and four, shall be as provided in the last preceding section. The successors of two of the Associate Justices elected in the year nineteen hundred and four shall be elected in the year nineteen hundred and six, and the successors of the other two Associate Justices elected in nineteen hundred and four, shall be elected in the year nineteen hundred and eight. The Associate Justices of said court elected in the year nineteen hundred and four shall draw or cast lots among themselves to determine which of them shall hold office for the terms ending, respectively, in the years nineteen hundred and six and nineteen hundred and eight, and until their respective successors are elected or appointed and qualified. The result of such determination shall be certified to the Governor by such Associate Justices, or a majority of them, prior to the first day of January, nineteen hundred and five, and such certificate shall be entered upon the minutes of the court. In the event of the failure of said Associate Justices to make and certify such determination, the Governor shall designate the terms for which they shall respectively hold office, as above provided, and shall issue his proclamation accordingly. In the event of an increase or reduction by law of the number of Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, the Legislature shall, as nearly as may be, provide for the election each second year, of one-third of the members of said court.

157. All judicial officers within their respective jurisdictions shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the peace.

158. Vacancies in the office of any of the Justices of the Supreme Court or Judges who hold office by election, or Chancellors of this State, shall be filled by appointment by the Governor. The appointee shall hold his office until the next general election for any State officer held at least six months after the vacancy occurs, and until his successor is elected and qualified; the successor chosen at such election shall hold office for the unexpired term and until his successor is elected and qualified.

159. Whenever any new circuit or chancery division is created, the Judge or Chancellor therefor shall be elected at the next general election for any State officer for a term to expire at the next general election for Circuit Judge and Chancellor; provided, that if said new circuit or chancery division is created more than six months before such general election for any State officer, the Governor shall appoint some one as Judge or Chancellor, as the case may be, to hold the office until such election.

160. If in any case, civil or criminal, pending in any Circuit Court, Chancery Court, or in any court of general jurisdiction having any part of the jurisdiction of a Circuit and a Chancery Court, or either of them in this State, the presiding judge or chancellor shall, for any legal cause, be incompetent to try, hear or render judgment in such case, the parties, or their attorneys of record, if it be a civil case, or Edition: current; Page: [206] the solicitor or prosecuting officer, and the defendant or defendants, if it be a criminal case, may agree upon some disinterested person practicing in the court and learned in the law, to act as special judge or chancellor to sit as a court, and to hear, decide and render judgment in the same manner and to the same effect as such incompetent Chancellor or Judge could have rendered but for such incompetency. If the case be a civil one, and the parties or their attorneys of record do not agree; or if it be a criminal one, and the prosecuting officer and the defendant or defendants do not agree upon a special judge or chancellor, or if either party in a civil cause is not represented in court, the Register in Chancery or the clerk of such Circuit or other court in which said cause is pending, shall appoint a special judge or chancellor, who shall preside, try and render judgment as in this section provided. The Legislature may prescribe other methods for supplying special judges in such cases.

161. The Legislature shall have power to provide for the holding of Chancery and Circuit Courts, and for the holding of courts having the jurisdiction of Circuit and Chancery Courts, or either of them, when the Chancellors or Judges thereof fail to attend regular terms.

162. No Judge of any court of record in this State shall practice law in any of the courts of this State, or of the United States.

163. Registers in Chancery shall be appointed by the Chancellors of the respective divisions, and shall have been at least twelve months before their appointment, and shall be at the time of their appointment and during their continuance in office, resident citizens of the district for which they are appointed. They shall hold office for the term for which the Chancellor making such appointment was elected or appointed. Such registers shall receive as compensation for their services only such fees and commissions as may be specifically prescribed by law, which fees shall be uniform throughout the State.

164. The clerk of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the Judges thereof, and shall hold office for the term of six years; and the clerks of such inferior courts as may be established by law shall be selected in such manner as the Legislature may provide.

165. Clerks of the Circuit Court shall be elected by the qualified electors in each county for the term of six years, and may, when appointed by the Chancellor, also fill the office of Register in Chancery. Vacancies in such office of clerk shall be filled by the Judge of the Circuit Court for the unexpired term.

166. The clerk of the Supreme Court and Registers in Chancery may be removed from office by the Justices of the Supreme Court, and by the Chancellors, respectively, for cause, to be entered at length upon the minutes of the court.

167. A Solicitor for each judicial circuit or other territorial subdivision prescribed by the Legislature, shall be elected by the qualified electors of those counties in such circuit or other territorial subdivision in which such Solicitor prosecutes criminal cases, and such Solicitor shall be learned in the law, and shall at the time of his election and during his continuance in office, reside in a county (in the circuit) in which he prosecutes criminal cases, or other territorial subdivision for which he is elected, and his term of office shall be four years, and he shall receive no other compensation than a salary, to be prescribed by law, which shall not be increased during the term for which he was elected; provided, that this article shall not operate to Edition: current; Page: [207] abridge the term of any Solicitor now in office; and, provided further, that the Solicitor elected in the year nineteen hundred and four shall hold office for six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified; and provided further, that the Legislature may provide by law for the appointment by the Governor or the election by the qualified electors of a county for a Solicitor for any county.

168. In each precinct not lying within, or partly within, any city or incorporated town of more than fifteen hundred inhabitants, there shall be elected by the qualified electors of such precinct not exceeding two Justices of the Peace, and one Constable. Where one or more precincts lie within, or partly within, a city or incorporated town having more than fifteen hundred inhabitants, the Legislature may provide by law for the election of not more than two Justices of the Peace and one Constable, for each of such precincts, or an inferior court for such precinct or precincts, in lieu of all Justices of the Peace therein. Justices of the Peace, and the inferior courts in this section provided for, shall have jurisdiction in all civil cases where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, except in cases of libel, slander, assault and battery and ejectment. The Legislature may provide by law what fees may be charged by Justices of the Peace and Constables, which fees shall be uniform throughout the State. The right of appeal from any judgment of a Justice of the Peace, or from any inferior court authorized by this section, without the prepayment of costs, and also the term of office of such Justices, and of the Judges of such inferior courts, and of Notaries Public, shall be provided for by law. The Governor may appoint Notaries Public without the powers of a Justice of the Peace, and may, except where otherwise provided by an act of the Legislature, appoint not more than one Notary Public with all of the powers and jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace for each precinct in which the election of Justices of the Peace shall be authorized.

169. In all prosecutions for rape and assault with intent to ravish, the court may, in its discretion, exclude from the court room all persons, except such as may be necessary in the conduct of the trial.

170. The style of all processes shall be “The State of Alabama,” and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the same, and shall conclude “Against the peace and dignity of the State.”

171. The Legislature shall have the power to abolish any court, except the Supreme Court and the Probate Courts, whenever its jurisdiction and functions have been conferred upon some other court.

172. Nothing in this article shall be so construed as to abridge the term of office of any officer now in office.

Article VII: IMPEACHMENTS

173. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, and Justices of the Supreme Court may be removed from office for wilful neglect of duty, corruption in office, incompetency, or intemprance Edition: current; Page: [208] in the use of intoxicating liquors or narcotics to such an extent, in view of the dignity of the office and importance of its duties, as unfits the officer for the discharge of such duties, or for any offense involving moral turpitude while in office, or committed under color thereof, or connected therewith, by the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, under oath or affirmation, on articles or charges preferred by the House of Representatives. When the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice, or if he be absent or disqualified, then one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, to be selected by it, shall preside over the Senate when sitting as a court of impeachment. If at any time when the Legislature is not in session, a majority of all the members elected to the House of Representatives shall certify in writing to the Secretary of State their desire to meet to consider the impeachment of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or other officer administering the office of Governor, it shall be the duty of the Secretary of State immediately to notify the Speaker of the House, who shall, within ten days after receipt of such notice, summon the members of the House by publication in some newspaper published at the Capital to assemble at the Capitol on a day to be fixed by the Speaker, not later than fifteen days after the receipt of the notice to him from the Secretary of State, to consider the impeachment of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or other officer administering the office of Governor. If the House of Representatives prefer articles of impeachment, the Speaker of the House shall forthwith notify the Lieutenant-Governor, unless he be the officer impeached, in which event he shall notify the Secretary of State, who shall summon in the manner herein above provided for, the members of the Senate to assemble at the Capitol on a day to be named in said summons, not later than ten days after receipt of the notice from the Speaker of the House, for the purpose of organizing as a court of impeachment. The Senate, when thus organized, shall hear and try such articles of impeachment against the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or other officer administering the office of Governor, as may be preferred by the House of Representatives.

174. The Chancellors, Judges of the Circuit Courts, Judges of the Probate Courts, and Judges of other courts from which an appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court, and Solicitors and Sheriffs, may be removed from office for any of the causes specified in the preceding section or elsewhere in this Constitution, by the Supreme Court, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. The Legislature may provide for the impeachment or removal of other officers than those named in this article.

175. The clerks of the Circuit Courts, or courts of like jurisdiction, and of Criminal Courts, Tax Collectors, Tax Assessors, County Treasurers, County Superintendents of Education, Judges of inferior courts created under authority of Section 168 of this Constitution, Coroners, Justices of the Peace, Notaries Public, Constables, and all other county officers, Mayors, Intendants and all other officers of incorporated cities and towns in this State, may be removed from office for any of the causes specified in Section 173 of this Constitution, by the Circuit or other courts of like jurisdiction or a Criminal Court of the county in which such officers hold their office, under Edition: current; Page: [209] such regulations as may be prescribed by law; provided, that the right of trial by jury and appeal in such cases shall be secured.

176. The penalties in cases arising under the three preceding sections shall not extend beyond removal from office, and disqualifications from holding office, under the authority of this State, for the term for which the officer was elected or appointed; but the accused shall be liable to indictment and punishment as prescribed by law.

Article VIII: SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS

177. Every male citizen of this State, who is a citizen of the United States, and every male resident of foreign birth, who, before the ratification of this Constitution, shall have legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upward, not laboring under any of the disabilities named in this article, and possessing the qualifications required by it, shall be an elector, and shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people; provided, that all foreigners who have legally declared their intention of becoming citizens of the United States, shall, if they fail to become citizens thereof at the time they are entitled to become such, cease to have the right to vote until they become such citizens.

178. To entitle a person to vote at any election by the people, he shall have resided in the State at least two years, in the county one year, and in the precinct or ward three months, immediately preceding the election at which he offers to vote, and he shall have been duly registered as an elector, and shall have paid on or before the first day of February next preceding the date of the election at which he offers to vote, all poll taxes due from him for the year nineteen hundred and one, and for each subsequent year; provided, that any elector who, within three months next preceding the date of the election at which he offers to vote, has removed from one precinct or ward to another precinct or ward in the same county, incorporated town or city, shall have the right to vote in the precinct or ward from which he has so removed, if he would have been entitled to vote in such precinct or ward but for such removal.

179. All elections by the people shall be by ballot, and all elections by persons in a representative capacity shall be viva voce.

180. The following male citizens of this State, who are citizens of the United States, and every male resident of foreign birth, who, before the ratification of this Constitution, shall have legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and who shall not have had an opportunity to perfect his citizenship prior to the twentieth day of December, nineteen hundred and two, twenty-one years old or upwards, who, if their place of residence shall remain unchanged, will have, at the date of the next general election the qualifications as to residence prescribed in Section 178 of this Constitution, and who are not disqualified under Section 182 of this Constitution, shall, upon application be entitled to register as electors prior to the twentieth day of December, nineteen hundred and two, namely:

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First—All who have honorably served in the land or naval forces of the United States in the war of 1812, or in the war with Mexico, or in any war with the Indians, or in the war between the States, or in the war with Spain, or who honorably served in the land or naval forces of the Confederate States, or of the State of Alabama in the war between the States; or,

Second—The lawful descendants of persons who honorably served in the land or naval forces of the United States in the war of the American Revolution, or in the war of 1812, or in the war with Mexico, or in any war with the Indians, or in the war between the States, or in the land or naval forces of the Confederate States, or of the State of Alabama in the war between the States; or,

Third—All persons who are of good character and who understand the duties and obligations of citizenship under a republican form of government.

181. After the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, the following persons, and no others, who, if their place of residence shall remain unchanged, will have, at the date of the next general election, the qualifications as to residence prescribed in Section 178 of this Constitution, shall be qualified to register as electors, provided, they shall not be disqualified under Section 182 of this Constitution.

First—Those who can read and write any article of the Constitution of the United States in the English language, and who are physically unable to work; and those who can read and write any article of the Constitution of the United States in the English language, and who have worked or been regularly engaged in some lawful employment, business or occupation, trade or calling for the greater part of the twelve months next preceding the time they offer to register; and those who are unable to read and write, if such inability is due solely to physical disability; or,

Second—The owner in good faith, in his own right, or the husband of a woman who is the owner in good faith, in her own right, of forty acres of land situate in this State, upon which they reside; or the owner in good faith, in his own right, or the husband of any woman who is the owner in good faith, in her own right, of real estate, situate in this State, assessed for taxation at the value of three hundred dollars or more, or the owner in good faith, in his own right, or the husband of a woman who is the owner in good faith, in her own right, of personal property in this State assessed for taxation at three hundred dollars or more; provided, that the taxes due upon such real or personal property for the year next preceding the year in which he offers to register shall have been paid, unless the assessment shall have been legally contested and is undetermined.

182. The following persons shall be disqualified both from registering and from voting, namely:

All idiots and insane persons; those who shall by reason of conviction of crime be disqualified from voting at the time of the ratification of this Constitution; those who shall be convicted of treason, murder, arson, embezzlement, malfeasance in office, larceny, receiving stolen property, obtaining property or money under false pretenses, perjury, subordination of perjury, robbery, assault with intent to rob, burglary, forgery, bribery, assault and battery on the wife, bigamy, living in adultery, sodomy, incest, rape, miscegenation, crime against Edition: current; Page: [211] nature, or any crime punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary, or of any infamous crime or crime involving moral turpitude; also any person who shall be convicted as a vagrant or tramp, or of selling or offering to sell his vote or the vote of another, or of making or offering to make false return in any election by the people or in any primary election to procure the nomination or election of any person to any office, or of suborning any witness or registrar to secure the registration of any person as an elector.

183. No person shall be qualified to vote or participate in any primary election, party convention, mass meeting or other method of party action of any political party or faction, who shall not possess the qualifications prescribed in this article for an elector, or who shall be disqualified from voting under the provisions of this article.

184. No person, not registered and qualified as an elector under the provisions of this article, shall vote at the general election in nineteen hundred and two, or at any subsequent State, county, or municipal election, general, local or special; but the provisions of this article shall not apply to any election held prior to the general election in the year nineteen hundred and two.

185. Any elector whose right to vote shall be challenged for any legal cause before an election officer, shall be required to swear or affirm that the matter of the challenge is untrue before his vote shall be received, and any one who willfully swears or affirms falsely thereto shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

186. The Legislature shall provide by law for the registration, after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, of all qualified electors. Until the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, all electors shall be registered under and in accordance with the requirements of this section, as follows:

First—Registration shall be conducted in each county by a board of three reputable and suitable persons resident in the county, who shall not hold any elective office during their term, to be appointed within sixty days after the ratification of this Constitution, by the Governor, Auditor and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, or by a majority of them, acting as a board of appointment. If one or more of the persons appointed on such board of registration shall refuse, neglect, or be unable to qualify or serve, or if a vacancy or vacancies occur in the membership of the board of registrars from any cause, the Governor, Auditor and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, or a majority of them, acting as a board of appointment, shall make other appointments to fill such board. Each registrar shall receive two dollars per day, to be paid by the State, and disbursed by the several Judges of Probate, for each entire day’s attendance upon the sessions of the board. Before entering upon the performance of the duties of his office, each registrar shall take the same oath required of the judicial officers of the State, which oath may be administered by any person authorized by law to administer oaths, the oath shall be in writing and subscribed by the registrar, and filed in the office of the Judge of Probate of the county.

Second—Prior to the first day of August, nineteen hundred and two, the Board of Registrars in each county shall visit each precinct at least once, and oftener, if necessary to make a complete registration Edition: current; Page: [212] of all persons entitled to register, and shall remain there at least one day from eight o’clock in the morning until sunset. They shall give at least twenty days’ notice of the time when, and the place in the precinct where, they will attend to register applicants for registration, by bills posted at five or more public places in each election precinct, and by advertisement once a week for three successive weeks in a newspaper, if there be one published in the county. Upon failur to give such notice, or to attend any appointment made by them in any precinct, they shall, after like notice, fill new appointments therein; but the time consumed by the board in completing such registration shall not exceed sixty working days in any county, except that in counties of more than nine hundred square miles in area, such board may consume seventy-five working days in completing the registration, and except that in counties in which there is any city of eight thousand or more inhabitants, the board may remain in session, in addition to the time hereinbefore prescribed, for not more than three successive weeks in each of such cities; and thereafter the board may sit from time to time in each of such cities not more than one week in each month, and except that in the county of Jefferson the board may hold an additional session of not exceeding five consecutive days duration for each session, in each town or city of more than one thousand and less than eight thousand inhabitants. No person shall be registered except at the county site or in the precinct in which he resides. The registrars shall issue to each person registered a certificate of registration.

Third—The Board of Registrars shall not register any person between the first day of August, nineteen hundred and two, and the Friday next preceding the day of election in November, nineteen hundred and two. On Friday and Saturday next preceding the day of election in November, nineteen hundred and two, they shall sit in the court house of each county during such days, and shall register all applicants having the qualifications prescribed by Section 180 of this Constitution, and not disqualified under Section 182, who shall have reached the age of twenty-one years after the first day of August, nineteen hundred and two, or who shall prove to the reasonable satisfaction of the board that, by reason of physical disability or unavoidable absence from the county, they had no opportunity to register prior to the first day of August, nineteen hundred and two, and they shall not on such days register any other persons. When there are two or more court houses in a county, the registrars may sit during such two days at the court house they may select, but shall give ten days’ notice, by bills posted at each of the court houses, designating the court house at which they will sit.

Fourth—The Board of Registrars shall hold sessions at the court house of their respective counties during the entire third week in November, nineteen hundred and two, and for six working days next prior to the twentieth day of December, nineteen hundred and two, during which sessions they shall register all persons applying who possess the qualifications prescribed in Section 180 of this Constitution, and who shall not be disqualified under Section 182. In counties where there are more than two court houses the Board of Registrars shall divide the time equally between them. The Board of Registrars shall give notice of the time and place of such sessions Edition: current; Page: [213] by posting notices at each court house in their respective counties, and at each voting place and at three other public places in the county, and by publication once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper, if one be published in the county; such notices to be posted and such publications to be commenced as early as practicable in the first week of November, nineteen hundred and two. Failure on the part of the registrars to conform to the provisions of this article as to the giving of the required notices shall not invalidate any registration made by them.

Fifth—The Board of Registrars shall have power to examine, under oath or affirmation, all applicants for registration, and to take testimony touching the qualifications of such applicants. Each member of such board is authorized to administer the oath to be taken by the applicants and witnesses, which shall be in the following form, and subscribed by the person making it, and preserved by the board, namely: “I solemnly swear (or affirm) that in the matter of the application of ——— for registration as an elector, I will speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help me God.” Any person who upon such examination makes any wilfully false statement in reference to any material matter touching the qualification of any applicant for registration, shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

Sixth—The action of the majority of the Board of Registrars shall be the action of the board and a majority of the board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business. Any person to whom registration is denied shall have the right of appeal, without giving security for costs, within thirty days after such denial, by filing a petition in the Circuit Court or court of like jurisdiction held for the county in which he seeks to register, to have his qualifications as an elector determined. Upon the filing of the petition the clerk of the court shall give notice thereof to any Solicitor authorized to represent the State in said county, whose duty it shall be to appear and defend against the petition on behalf of the State. Upon such trial the court shall charge the jury only as to what constitutes the qualifications that entitle the applicant to become an elector at the time he applied for registration, and the jury shall determine the weight and effect of the evidence and return a verdict. From the judgment rendered an appeal will lie to the Supreme Court in favor of the petitioner, to be taken within thirty days. Final judgment in favor of the petitioner shall entitle him to registration as of the date of his application to the registrars.

Seventh—The Secretary of State shall, at the expense of the State, have prepared and shall furnish to the registrars and judges of probate of the several counties a sufficient number of registration books and of blank forms of the oath, certificates of registration and notices required to be given by the registrars. The cost of the publication in newspapers of the notices required to be given by the registrars shall be paid by the State, the bills therefor to be rendered to the Secretary of State and approved by him.

Eighth—Any person who registers for another, or who registers more than once, and any registrar who enters the name of any person on the list of registered voters, without such person having made Edition: current; Page: [214] application in person under oath on a form provided for that purpose, or who knowingly registers any person more than once, or who knowingly enters a name upon the registration list as the name of a voter, without any one of that name applying to register, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

187. The Board of Registrars in each county shall, on or before the first day of February, nineteen hundred and three, or as soon thereafter as practicable, file in the office of the Judge of Probate in their county, a complete list, sworn to by them, of all persons registered in their county, showing the age of such persons so registered, with the precinct or ward in which each of such persons resides set opposite the name of such person, and shall also file a like list in the office of the Secretary of State. The Judge of Probate shall, on or before the first day of March, nineteen hundred and three, or as soon thereafter as practicable, cause to be made from such list in duplicate, in the books furnished by the Secretary of State, an alphabetical list by precincts of the persons shown by the list of registrars to have been registered in the county, and shall file one of such alphabetical lists in the office of the Secretary of State; for which services by the Judges of Probate compensation shall be provided by the Legislature. The Judges of Probate shall keep both the original list filed by the registrars and the alphabetical list made therefrom as records in the office of the Judge of Probate of the county. Unless he shall become disqualified under the provisions of this article, any one who shall register prior to the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, shall remain an elector during life, and shall not be required to register again unless he changes his residence, in which event he may register again on production of his certificate. The certificate of the registrars or of the Judge of Probate or of the Secretary of State shall be sufficient evidence to establish the fact of such life registration. Such certificate shall be issued free of charge to the elector, and the Legislature shall provide by law for the renewal of such certificate when lost, mutilated or destroyed.

188. From and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three, any applicant for registration may be required to state under oath, to be administered by the registrar or by any person authorized by law to administer oaths, where he lived during the five years next preceding the time at which he applies to register, and the name or names by which he was known during that period, and the name of his employer or employers, if any, during such period. Any applicant for registration who refuses to state such facts, or any of them, shall not be entitled to register, and any person so offering to register, who wilfully makes a false statement in regard to such matters, or any of them, shall be guilty of perjury, and upon conviction thereof shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

189. In the trial of any contested election, and in proceedings to investigate any election, and in criminal prosecutions for violations of the election laws, no person other than a defendant in such criminal prosecutions shall be allowed to withhold his testimony on the ground Edition: current; Page: [215] that he may criminate himself or subject himself to public infamy; but such person shall not be prosecuted for any offense arising out of the transactions concerning which he testified, but may be prosecuted for perjury committed on such examination.

190. The Legislature shall pass laws not inconsistent with this Constitution to regulate and govern elections, and all such laws shall be uniform throughout the State; and shall provide by law for the manner of holding elections and of ascertaining the result of the same, and shall provide general registration laws not inconsistent with the provisions of this article, for the registration of all qualified electors from and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and three. The Legislature shall also make provision by law, not inconsistent with this article, for the regulation of primary elections, and for punishing frauds at the same, but shall not make primary elections compulsory. The Legislature shall by law provide for purging the registration list of the names of those who die, become insane, or convicted of crime, or otherwise disqualified as electors under the provisions of this Constitution, and of any names which may have been fraudulently entered on such list by the registrars; provided, that a trial by jury may be had on the demand of any person whose name is proposed to be stricken from the list.

191. It shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass adequate laws giving protection against the evils arising from the use of intoxicating liquors at all elections.

192. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, or while going to or returning therefrom.

193. Returns of elections for members of the Legislature and for all civil officers who are to be commissioned by the Governor, except the Attorney General, State Auditor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, and Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, shall be made to the Secretary of State.

194. The poll tax mentioned in this article shall be one dollar and fifty cents upon each male inhabitant of the State, over the age of twenty-one years, and under the age of forty-five years, who would not now be exempt by law; but the Legislature is authorized to increase the maximum age fixed in this section to not more than sixty years. Such poll tax shall become due and payable on the first day of October in each year, and become delinquent on the first day of the next succeeding February, but no legal process, nor any fee or commission shall be allowed for the collection thereof. The Tax Collector shall make returns of poll tax collections separate from other collections.

195. Any person who shall pay the poll tax of another, or advance him money for that purpose in order to influence his vote, shall be guilty of bribery, and upon conviction therefor shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years.

196. If any section or subdivision of this article shall for any reason be, or be held by any court of competent jurisdiction and of final resort to be, invalid, inoperative or void, the residue of this article shall not be thereby invalidated or affected.

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Article IX: REPRESENTATION

197. The whole number of Senators shall be not less than one-fourth, or more than one-third of the whole number of Representatives.

198. The House of Representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred and five members unless new counties shall be created, in which event each new county shall be entitled to one Representative. The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned by the Legislature among the several counties of the State, according to the number of inhabitants in them respectively, as ascertained by the decennial census of the United States, which apportionment when made shall not be subject to alteration until the next session of the Legislature after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken.

199. It shall be the duty of the Legislature at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Representatives, and apportion them among the several counties of the State, according to the number of inhabitants in them respectively; provided, that each county shall be entitled to at least one Representative.

200. It shall be the duty of the Legislature at its first session after taking the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Senators and to divide the State into as many Senatorial districts as there are Senators, which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other in the number of inhabitants as may be, and each shall be entitled to one Senator, and no more; and such districts when formed, shall not be changed until the next apportioning session of the Legislature, after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken; provided, that counties created after the next preceding apportioning session of the Legislature may be attached to Senatorial districts. No county shall be divided between two districts, and no district shall be made up of two or more counties not contiguous to each other.

201. Should any decennial census of the United States not be taken, or if when taken, the same, as to this State, be not full and satisfactory, the Legislature shall have power at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this State, upon which it shall be the duty of the Legislature to make the apportionment of Representatives and Senators as provided for in this article.

202. Until the Legislature shall make an apportionment of Representatives among the several counties, as provided in the preceding section, the counties of Autauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Blount, Cherokee, Chilton, Choctaw, Clay, Cleburne, Coffee, Colbert, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Crenshow, Cullman, Dale, DeKalb, Escambia, Fayette, Franklin, Geneva, Greene, Lamar, Lawrence, Limestone, Macon, Marion, Marshall, Monroe, Pickens, Randolph, St. Clair, Shelby, Washington, and Winston, shall each have one Representative; the counties of Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Chambers, Clarke, Edition: current; Page: [217] Elmore, Etowah, Hale, Henry, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lee, Lowndes, Madison, Marengo, Morgan, Perry, Pike, Russell, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Wilcox, shall each have two Representatives; the counties of Dallas and Mobile shall each have three Representatives; the county of Montgomery shall have four Representatives; and the county of Jefferson shall have seven Representatives.

203. Until the Legislature shall divide the State into Senatorial districts, as herein provided, the Senatorial districts shall be as follows:

First district, Lauderdale and Limestone; Second district, Lawrence and Morgan; Third district, Blount, Cullman, and Winston; Fourth district, Madison; Fifth district, Jackson and Marshall; Sixth district, Etowah and St. Clair; Seventh district, Calhoun; Eighth district, Talladega; Ninth district, Chambers and Randolph; Tenth district, Tallapoosa and Elmore; Eleventh district, Tuscaloosa; Twelfth district, Fayette, Lamar and Walker; Thirteenth district, Jefferson; Fourteenth district, Pickens and Sumter; Fifteenth district, Autauga, Chilton and Shelby; Sixteenth district, Lowndes; Seventeenth district, Butler, Conecuh and Covington; Eighteenth district, Bibb and Perry; Nineteenth district, Choctaw, Clarke, and Washington; Twentieth district, Marengo; Twenty-first district, Baldwin, Escambia and Monroe; Twenty-second district, Wilcox; Twenty-third district, Dale and Geneva; Twenty-fourth district, Barbour; Twenty-fifth district, Coffee, Crenshaw and Pike; Twenty-sixth district, Bullock and Macon; Twenty-seventh district, Lee and Russell; Twenty-eighth district, Montgomery; Twenty-nineth district, Cherokee and DeKalb; Thirtieth district, Dallas; Thirty-first district, Colbert, Franklin and Marion; Thirty-second district, Greene and Hale; Thirty-third district, Mobile; Thirty-fourth district, Cleburne, Clay and Coosa; Thirty-fifth district, Henry.

Article X: EXEMPTIONS

204. The personal property of any resident of this State, to the value of one thousand dollars, to be selected by such resident, shall be exempt from sale on execution or other process of any court, issued for the collection of any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteeen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution.

205. Every homestead, not exceeding eighty acres, and the dwellings and appurtenances thereon, to be selected by the owner thereof, and not in any city, town or village; or in lieu thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in a city, town or village, with the dwelling and appurtenances thereon, owned and occupied by any resident of this State, and not exceeding the value of two thousand dollars, shall be exempt from sale on execution, or any other process from a court; for any debt contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution. Such exemption, however, shall not extend to any mortgage lawfully obtained, but such mortgage or other alienation of said Edition: current; Page: [218] homestead by the owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid without the voluntary signature and assent of the wife to the same.

206. The homestead of a family, after the death of the owner thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of any debts contracted since the thirteenth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, or after the ratification of this Constitution, in all cases, during the minority of the children.

207. The provisions of Sections 204 and 205 of this Constitution shall not be so construed as to prevent a laborers’ lien for work done and performed for the person claiming such exemption, or a mechanics’ lien for work done on the premises.

208. If the owner of the homestead die, leaving a widow, but no children, such homestead shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall inure to her benefit.

209. The real and personal property of any female in this State, acquired before marriage, and all property, real and personal, to which she may afterwards be entitled by gift, grant, inheritance or devise, shall be and remain the separate estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for any debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be devised or bequeathed by her, the same as if she were a feme sole.

210. The right of exemption hereinbefore secured may be waived by an instrument in writing, and when such waiver relates to realty, the instrument must be signed by both the husband and wife, and attested by one witness.

Article XI: TAXATION

211. All taxes levied on property in this State shall be assessed in exact proportion to the value of such property, but no tax shall be assessed upon any debt for rent or hire of real or personal property, while owned by the landlord or hirer during the current year of such rental or hire, if such real or personal property be assessed at its full value.

212. The power to levy taxes shall not be delegated to individuals, or private corporations or associations.

213. After the ratification of this Constitution, no new debt shall be created against or incurred by this State, or its authority, except to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, and then only by a concurrence of two-thirds of the members of each House of the Legislature, and the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered on the Journals; and any act creating or incurring any new debt against this State, except as herein provided for, shall be absolutely void; provided, the Governor may be authorized to negotiate temporary loans, never to exceed three hundred thousand dollars, to meet the deficiencies in the treasury, and until the same is paid no new loan shall be negotiated; provided further, that this section shall not be so construed as to prevent the issuance of bonds for the purpose of refunding the existing bonded indebtedness of the State.

214. The Legislature shall not have the power to levy, in any one year, a greater rate of taxation than sixty-five one hundredths of one per centum on the value of the taxable property within this State.

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215. No county in this State shall be authorized to levy a greater rate of taxation, in any one year, on the value of the taxable property therein, than one-half of one per centum; provided, that to pay debts existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, an additional rate of one-fourth of one per centum may be levied and collected, which shall be appropriated exclusively to the payment of such debts and the interest thereon; provided further, that to pay any debt or liability now existing against any county, incurred for the erection, construction or maintenance of the necessary public buildings or bridges, or that may hereafter be created for the erection of necessary public buildings, bridges or roads, any county may levy and collect such special taxes, not to exceed one-fourth of one per centum, as may have been or may hereafter be authorized by law, which taxes, so levied and collected, shall be applied exclusively to the purposes for which the same were so levied and collected.

216. No city, town, village, or other municipal corporation, other than as provided in this article, shall levy or collect a higher rate of taxation in any one year on the property situated therein than one-half of one per centum of the value of such property as assessed for State taxation during the preceding year; provided, that for the purpose of paying debts existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, and the interest thereon, a tax of one per centum may be levied and collected, to be applied exclusively to the payment of such indebtedness; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the city of Mobile, which city may from and after the ratification of this Constitution levy a tax not to exceed the rate of three-fourths of one per centum to pay the expenses of the city government, and may also levy a tax not to exceed three-fourths of one per centum to pay the debt existing on the sixth day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-five, with interest thereon, or any renewal of such debt; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the cities of Birmingham, Huntsville and Bessemer, and the town of Andalusia, which cities and town may levy and collect a tax not to exceed one-half of one per centum, in addition to the tax of one-half of one per centum as hereinbefore allowed to be levied and collected, such special tax to be applied exclusively to the payment of interest on bonds of said cities of Birmingham, Huntsville and Bessemer and town of Andalusia, respectively, heretofore issued in pursuance of law, or now authorized by law to be issued, and for a sinking fund to pay off said bonds at maturity thereof; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the city of Montgomery, which city shall have the right to levy and collect a tax of not exceeding one-half of one per centum per annum upon the value of taxable property therein, as fixed for State taxation, for general purposes, and an additional tax of not exceeding three-fourths of one per centum per annum upon the value of the property therein, as fixed for State taxation, to be devoted exclusively to the payment of its public debt, interest thereon, and renewals thereof, and to the maintenance of its public schools, and public conveniences; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to Troy, Attalla, Gadsden, Woodlawn, Brewton, Pratt City, Ensley, Wylam, and Avondale, which cities and towns may from and after the ratification of this Constitution, levy and collect Edition: current; Page: [220] an additional tax of not exceeding one-half of one per centum; and provided further, that this section shall not apply to the cities of Decatur, New Decatur, and Cullman, which cities may from and after the ratification of this Constitution, levy and collect an additional tax of not exceeding three-tenths of one per centum per annum; such special tax of said city of Decatur to be applied exclusively for the public schools, public school buildings, and public improvements; and such special tax of New Decatur and Cullman to be applied exclusively for educational purposes, and to be expended under their respective boards of Public School Trustees; but this additional tax shall not be levied by Troy, Attalla, Gadsden, Woodlawn, Brewton, Pratt City, Ensley, Wylam, Avondale, Decatur, New Decatur, or Cullman unless authorized by a majority vote of the qualified electors voting at a special election held for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not said tax shall be levied; and provided further, that the purposes for which such special tax is sought to be levied shall be stated in such election call, and, if authorized, the revenue derived from such special tax shall be used for no other purpose than that stated; and provided further, that the additional tax authorized to be levied by the city of Troy, when so levied and collected, shall be used exclusively in the payment of the bonds and interest coupons thereon, hereafter issued in the adjustment of the present bonded indebtedness of said city; and provided further, that the additional tax authorized to be levied and collected by the city of Attalla shall, when so levied and collected, be used exclusively in the payment of bonds to the amount of not exceeding twenty-five thousand dollars, and the interest coupons thereon, hereafter to be issued in the adjustment of the present indebtedness of said city; provided further, that the governing boards of said cities, which are authorized to levy an additional tax, after the holding of an election as aforesaid, are hereby authorized to provide by ordinance the necessary machinery for the holding of said election and declaring the result thereof.

217. The property of private corporations, associations and individuals of this State shall forever be taxed at the same rate; provided, this section shall not apply to institutions devoted exclusively to religious, educational or charitable purposes.

218. The Legislature shall not have the power to require counties or other municipal corporations to pay any charges which are now payable out of the State treasury.

219. The Legislature may levy a tax of not more than two and one-half per centum of the value of all estates, real and personal, money, public and private securities of every kind, in this State passing from any person who may die seized and possessed thereof, or of any part of such estate, money or securities, or interest therein transferred by the intestate laws of this State or by will, deed, grant, bargain, sale or gift, made or intended to take effect in possession after death of the grantor, devisor, or donor, to any person or persons, bodies politic or corporate, in trust or otherwise, other than to or for the use of the father, mother, husband, wife, brothers, sisters, children or lineal descendants of the grantor, devisor, donor or intestate.

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Article XII: CORPORATIONS

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS

220. No person, firm, association or corporation shall be authorized or permitted to use the streets, avenues, alleys or public places of any city, town or village for the construction or operation of any public utility or private enterprise, without first obtaining the consent of the proper authorities of such city, town or village.

221. The Legislature shall not enact any law which will permit any person, firm, corporation or association to pay a privilege, license or other tax to the State of Alabama, and relieve him or it from the payment of all other privilege and license taxes in the State.

222. The Legislature, after the ratification of this Constitution, shall have authority to pass general laws authorizing the counties, cities, towns, villages, districts or other political subdivisions of counties to issue bonds, but no bonds shall be issued under authority of a general law unless such issue of bonds be first authorized by a majority vote by ballot of the qualified voters of such county, city, town, village, district, or other political subdivision of a county, voting upon such proposition. The ballot used at such election shall contain the words “For ——— bond issue,” and “Against ——— bond issue,” (the character of the bond to be shown in the blank space,) and the voter shall indicate his choice by placing a cross mark before or after the one or the other. This section shall not apply to the renewal, refunding or reissue of bonds lawfully issued, nor to the issuance of bonds in cases where the same have been authorized by laws enacted prior to the ratification of this Constitution, nor shall this section apply to obligations incurred or bonds to be issued to procure means to pay for street and sidewalk improvements or sanitary or storm water sewers, the cost of which is to be assessed, in whole or in part, against the property abutting said improvements or drained by such sanitary or storm water sewers.

223. No city, town or other municipality shall make any assessment for the cost of sidewalks or street paving, or for the cost of the construction of any sewers against property abutting in such street or sidewalk so paved, or drained by such sewers, in excess of the increased value of such property by reason of the special benefits derived from such improvements.

224. No county shall become indebted in an amount including present indebtedness, greater than three and one-half per centum of the assessed value of the property therein; provided, this limitation shall not affect any existing indebtedness in excess of such three and one-half per centum, which has already been created or authorized by existing law to be created; provided, that any county which has already incurred a debt exceeding three and one-half per centum of the assessed value of the property therein, shall be authorized to incur an indebtedness of one and a half per centum of the assessed value of such property in addition to the debt already existing. Nothing herein contained shall prevent any county from issuing bonds, or other obligations, to fund or refund any indebtedness now existing or authorized by existing laws to be created.

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225. No city, town or other municipal corporation having a population of less than six thousand, except as hereinafter provided, shall become indebted in an amount, including present indebtedness, exceeding five per centum of the assessed value of the property therein, except for the construction or purchase of water works, gas or electric lighting plants, or sewerage, or for the improvement of streets, for which purposes an additional indebtedness not exceeding three per centum may be created; provided, this limitation shall not affect any debt now authorized by law to be created, nor any temporary loans to be paid within one year, made in anticipation of the collection of taxes, not exceeding one-fourth of the annual revenues of such city or town. All towns and cities having a population of six thousand or more, also Gadsden, Ensley, Decatur, and New Decatur, are hereby authorized to become indebted in an amount, including present indebtedness, not exceeding seven per centum of the assessed valuation of the property therein, provided that there shall not be included in the limitation of the indebtedness of such last described cities and towns the following classes of indebtedness, to-wit: Temporary loans, to be paid within one year, made in anticipation of the collection of taxes, and not exceeding one-fourth of the general revenues, bonds or other obligations already issued, or which may hereafter be issued for the purpose of acquiring, providing or constructing school houses, water works and sewers; and obligations incurred and bonds issued for street or sidewalk improvements, where the cost of the same, in whole or in part, is to be assessed against the property abutting said improvements; provided, that the proceeds of all obligations issued as herein provided, in excess of said seven per centum shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which said obligations were issued. Nothing contained in this article shall prevent the funding or refunding of existing indebtedness. This section shall not apply to the cities of Sheffield and Tuscumbia.

226. No city, town or village, whose present indebtedness exceeds the limitation imposed by this Constitution, shall be allowed to become indebted in any further amount, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, until such indebtedness shall be reduced within such limit; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall prevent any municipality, except the city of Gadsden, from issuing bonds already authorized by law; provided further, that this section shall not apply to the cities of Sheffield and Tuscumbia.

227. Any person, firm, association or corporation who may construct or operate any public utility along or across the public streets of any city, town or village, under any privilege or franchise permitting such construction or operation, shall be liable to abutting proprietors for the actual damage done to the abutting property on account of such construction or operation.

228. No city or town having a population of more than six thousand shall have authority to grant to any person, firm, corporation or association the right to use its streets, avenues, alleys, or public places for the construction or operation of water works, gas works, telephone or telegraph line, electric light or power plants, steam or other heating plants, street railroads, or any other public utility, except railroads other than street railroads for a longer period than thirty years.

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PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

229. The Legislature shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers, but it shall pass general laws under which corporations may be organized and corporate powers obtained, subject, nevertheless, to repeal at the will of the Legislature; and shall pass general laws under which charters may be altered or amended. The Legislature shall, by general law, provide for the payment to the State of Alabama of a franchise tax by corporations organized under the laws of this State, which shall be in proportion to the amount of capital stock; but strictly benevolent, educational or religious corporations shall not be required to pay such a tax. The charter of any corporation shall be subject to amendment, alteration or repeal under general laws.

230. All existing charters, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business commenced in good faith within twelve months from the time of the ratification of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

231. The Legislature shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, nor pass any general or special law for the benefit of such corporation, other than in execution of a trust created by law or by contract, except upon condition that such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

232. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this State without having at least one known place of business and an authorized agent or agents therein, and without filing with the Secretary of State a certified copy of its articles of incorporation or association. Such corporation may be sued in any county where it does business, by service of process upon an agent anywhere in the State. The Legislature shall, by general law, provide for the payment to the State of Alabama of a franchise tax by such corporation, but such franchise tax shall be based on the actual amount of capital employed in this State. Strictly benevolent, educational or religious corporations shall not be required to pay such a tax.

233. No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter or articles of incorporation.

234. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds except for money, labor done or property actually received; and all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general laws, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of stock, first obtained at a meeting to be held after thirty days’ notice, given in pursuance of law.

235. Municipal and other corporations and individuals invested with the privilege of taking property for public use, shall make just compensation, to be ascertained as may be provided by law, for the property taken, injured or destroyed by the construction or enlargement of its works, highways or improvements, which compensation shall be paid before such taking, injury or destruction. The Legislature is hereby prohibited from denying the right of appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals made by viewers or otherwise, but such appeal Edition: current; Page: [224] shall not deprive those who have obtained the judgment of condemnation from a right of entry, provided the amount of damages assessed shall have been paid in the court in money, and a bond shall have been given in not less than double the amount of the damages assessed, with good and sufficient sureties, to pay such damages as the property owner may sustain; and the amount of damages in all cases of appeals shall, on the demand of either party, be determined by a jury according to law.

236. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law; but in no case shall any stockholder be individually liable otherwise than for the unpaid stock owned by him or her.

237. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the stock of said corporation.

238. The Legislature shall have the power to alter, amend or revoke any charter of incorporation now existing and revocable at the ratification of this Constitution, or any that may be hereafter created, whenever, in its opinion, such charter may be injurious to the citizens of this State, in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the stockholders.

239. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph and telephone within this State, and connect the same with other lines; and the Legislature shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasonable regulations to give full effect to this section. No telegraph or telephone company shall consolidate with or hold a controlling interest in the stock or bonds of any other telegraph or telephone company owning a complete line, or acquire, by purchase or otherwise, any other competing line of telegraph or telephone.

240. All corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued, in all courts in like cases as natural persons.

241. The term “corporation,” as used in this article, shall be construed to include all joint stock companies, and all associations having any of the powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.

RAILROADS AND CANALS

242. All railroads and canals, not constructed and used exclusively for private purposes, shall be public highways, and all railroads and canal companies shall be common carriers. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose shall have the right to construct and operate a railway between any points in this State, and connect at the State line with railroads of other States. Every railroad company shall have the right with its road to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and each shall receive and transport the freight, passengers and cars, loaded or empty, of the others, without delay or discrimination.

243. The power and authority of regulating railroad freight and passenger tariffs, the locating and building of passenger and freight depots, correcting abuses, preventing unjust discrimination and extortion and requiring reasonable and just rates of freight and passenger Edit