Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment: The Writings of Gershom Carmichael 
Original Table of Contents or First Page
Available in the following formats:
LF Printer PDF 2.22 MB
This text-based PDF was prepared by the typesetters of the LF book.
EBook PDF 998 KB
This text-based PDF or EBook was created from the HTML version of this book and is part of the Portable Library of Liberty.
HTML 1.1 MB
This version has been converted from the original text. Every effort has been taken to translate the unique features of the printed book into the HTML medium.
About this Title:
Carmichael was a Scottish jurist and philosopher who became the first Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow in 1727. His writings on natural rights theory, theology, and logic were very influential.
The copyright to this edition, in both print and electronic forms, is held by Liberty Fund, Inc.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
Table of Contents:
Supplements and Observations
On Moral Philosophy, or the Science of Natural Jurisprudence
On Lasting Happiness and the Divine Law1
On Human Action in the Divine Court1
Laws, Rights, and Justice1
On Natural Law1
The basic precepts of natural law2
Worship of God the first law of nature7
Care of self the second law of nature
On Duty to God1
On Duty to Oneself1
On the duties of a man toward his own mind3
The right of self-defense
The rights of extreme necessity
On Duty to Others, or Sociability1
On not harming others
Harmless pursuit of self-interest and the rights of humanity
Beneficence and friendship
Natural Rights and Agreements1
Kinds and creation of rights
Promises and agreements; two senses of agreement
“Error” in promises and agreements
Force and agreements
Language as signs
The limits of prevarication
On the Right of Property1
The divine origin of property
Human property rights not shared with animals
How things become property
Things which cannot be acquired4
Original modes of acquisition
i. Occupation of territory
ii. Occupation of moveables: game laws
iii. Accession and merger
iv. Rights over the property of another
Derivative modes of acquisition
b. by will.
ii. Transfer “among the living”
iii. Transfer without consent
iv. Usucapion or prescription
Contracts and Quasi Contracts1
Agreements and contracts
Remarks on specific contracts
Legitimate chance and gambling
Debt in natural law and theology
The standards of care
ii. On quasi contracts13
Dissolution of Obligations1
The principle of dissolution
Modes of dissolution
A note on the interpretation of laws
The State of Nature1
Natural and adventitious states
The emergence of the state of nature from the Adamic state
On the Rights of Husbands and Wives1
On the Rights of Parents and Children1
On the Rights of Masters and Servants1
On the Origin of Civil Society, or the Original Contract1
The process of agreement
On the Constitution of Civil Government1
The forms of government
On the Limits of Sovereign Power and the Right of Resistance1
On Conquest and Patrimonial Kingdoms1
On the Rights of Citizens1
i. Citizens under the civil law
ii. On punishment
iii. On reputation
iv. On virtues12
On the Rights of War and Peace1
War and the law of nations
Conquest and loss of citizenship
Appendix: The Rights and Duties of Men and Citizens
In which concise ethical theses are succinctly set out in the order which seems most natural for the study of moral science1
Preface: Natural Theology and the Foundations of Morals
On the Scope of Natural Theology
On the Existence of God
On the Attributes of God and First, on the Incommunicable Attributes
On the Communicable Attributes of God
On the Divine Operations, or Actions Involving External Objects1
A Short Introduction to Logic
1.: On the nature of apprehension. On the idea, and its comprehension and extension.
2.: On division as the resolution of the extension of a universal idea.
3.: On definition as the resolution of the comprehension of a complex idea.
On Judgment in General, and on Immediate Judgment in Particular
1.: On the nature of judgment; and on the difference between immediate and mediate judgment.
2.: On affirmative and negative propositions, and their subjects and predicates.
5.: On propositions which are composite, complex, etc.
6.: On certain and uncertain judgment.
7.: Of immediate judgment in particular, and of its double kind.
On Mediate Judgment or Discourse
1.: On mediate judgment or discourse.
2.: Of the affirmative and negative syllogism and of their principles and parts.
3.: On the general rules of syllogisms.
10.: On the syllogism considered with reference to its content.
On Method, and Logical Practice
1.: On the general rules of method.
2.: On logical practice, and first on the treatment of the simple theme.
3.: On the solo treatment of a complex theme, or on exegesis.
4.: On the social treatment of complex themes or on disputation.
5.: On analysis.
Early Writings: Philosophical Theses
Philosophical Theses, 1699
On directing the mind to lasting happiness
From ethics and politics
Philosophical Theses, 1707
On natural law: how reverence for God is signified by respect for human rights
From logic, ontology, and pneumatology
Gershom Carmichael’s Account of His Teaching Method
Gershom Carmichael’s Account of His Teaching Method
(Written in August, 1712)
Published Works of Gershom Carmichael
Select List of Manuscripts of Lectures Delivered by Gershom Carmichael at the University of Glasgow
Other Works Referred to in the Text and Notes
Could not load content