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John Locke, The Works of John Locke, vol. 7 (Essays and Notes on St. Paul’s Epistles) [1824]

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John Locke, The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, (London: Rivington, 1824 12th ed.). Vol. 7. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1556

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This volume contains what Locke calls his paraphrases and notes on Paul’s Epistles.

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Edition: current; Page: [none]
THE WORKS of JOHN LOCKE, IN NINE VOLUMES.
THE TWELFTH EDITION.
VOLUME THE SEVENTH.
LONDON:
printed for c. and j. rivington; t. egerton; j. cuthell; j. and a. arch; longman and co; t. cadell; j. richardson; j. and w. t. clarke; j. mawman; baynes and son; harding and co.; baldwin and co.; harvey and darton; r. scholey; j. bohn; j. collingwood; t. tegg; g. and w. b. whittaker; g. mackie; w. mason; hurst, robinson, and co.; j. hearne; j. brumby; simpkin and marshall; s. prowett; w. pickering; r. saunders; j. parker, oxford; and stirling and slade, edinburgh.
1824.
Edition: current; Page: [none]

C. Baldwin, Printer,

New Bridge-street, London.

Edition: current; Page: [none]

CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.

  • AN Essay for the Understanding of St. Paul’s Epistles, by consulting St. Paul himself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 1
  • A Paraphrase and Notes on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
  • A Paraphrase and Notes on St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
  • A Paraphrase and Notes on St. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
  • A Paraphrase and Notes on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans 271
  • A Paraphrase and Notes on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
  • Index.
Edition: current; Page: [none] Edition: current; Page: [i]

A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL TO THE GALATIANS, CORINTHIANS, ROMANS, EPHESIANS.

TO WHICH IS PREFIXED AN ESSAY FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF ST. PAUL’S EPISTLES, BY CONSULTING ST. PAUL HIMSELF.

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THE PREFACE.

To go about to explain any of St. Paul’s epistles, after so great a train of expositors and commentators, might seem an attempt of vanity, censurable for its needlessness, did not the daily and approved examples of pious and learned men justify it. This may be some excuse for me to the public, if ever these following papers should chance to come abroad: but to myself, for whose use this work was undertaken, I need make no apology. Though I had been conversant in these epistles, as well as in other parts of sacred scripture, yet I found that I understood them not; I mean the doctrinal and discursive parts of them: though the practical directions, which are usually dropped in the latter part of each epistle, appeared to me very plain, intelligible, and instructive.

I did not, when I reflected on it, very much wonder, that this part of sacred scripture had difficulties in it: many causes of obscurity did readily occur to me. The nature of epistolary writings in general, disposes the writer to pass by the mentioning of many things, as well known to him, to whom his letter is addressed, which are necessary to be laid open to a stranger, to make him comprehend what Edition: current; Page: [iv] is said: and it not seldom falls out, that a well-penned letter, which is very easy and intelligible to the receiver, is very obscure to a stranger, who hardly knows what to make of it. The matters that St. Paul writ about, were certainly things well known to those he writ to, and which they had some peculiar concern in; which made them easily apprehend his meaning, and see the tendency and force of his discourse. But we having now, at this distance, no information of the occasion of his writing, little or no knowledge of the temper and circumstances those he writ to were in, but what is to be gathered out of the epistles themselves; it is not strange, that many things in them lie concealed to us, which, no doubt, they who were concerned in the letter, understood at first sight. Add to this, that in many places it is manifest he answers letters sent, and questions proposed to him, which, if we had, would much better clear those passages that relate to them, than all the learned notes of critics and commentators, who in after times fill us with their conjectures; for very often, as to the matter in hand, they are nothing else.

The language wherein these epistles are writ, is another, and that no small occasion of their obscurity to us now: the words are Greek; a language dead many ages since: a language of a very witty, volatile people, seekers after novelty, and abounding with variety of notions and sects, to which they applied the terms of their common tongue, with great liberty and variety: and yet this makes but one small part of the difficulty in the language of these epistles; there is a peculiarity in it, that much more obscures and perplexes the meaning of these writings, than what can be occasioned by the looseness and variety of the Greek tongue. The terms are Greek, but the idiom, or turn of the phrases, may be truly said to be Hebrew or Syriack. The custom and familiarity of which tongues do sometimes so far influence the expressions in these epistles, that one may observe the force of the Hebrew conjugations, particularly that of Hiphil, given to Greek verbs, in a way unknown to the Grecians themselves. Nor is this all; the subject treated of in these epistles is so wholly new, and the doctrines contained Edition: current; Page: [v] in them so perfectly remote from the notions that mankind were acquainted with, that most of the important terms in it have quite another signification from what they have in other discourses. So that putting all together, we may truly say, that the New Testament is a book written in a language peculiar to itself.

To these causes of obscurity, common to St. Paul, with most of the other penmen of the several books of the New Testament, we may add those that are peculiarly his, and owing to his style and temper. He was, as it is visible, a man of quick thought, and warm temper, mighty well versed in the writings of the Old Testament, and full of the doctrine of the New. All this put together, suggested matter to him in abundance, on those subjects which came in his way: so that one may consider him, when he was writing, as beset with a croud of thoughts, all striving for utterance. In this posture of mind it was almost impossible for him to keep that slow pace, and observe minutely that order and method of ranging all he said, from which results an easy and obvious perspicuity. To this plenty and vehemence of his, may be imputed those many large parentheses, which a careful reader may observe in his epistles. Upon this account also it is, that he often breaks off in the middle of an argument, to let in some new thought suggested by his own words; which having pursued and explained, as far as conduced to his present purpose, he re-assumes again the thread of his discourse, and goes on with it, without taking any notice, that he returns again to what he had been before saying; though sometimes it be so far off, that it may well have slipt out of his mind, and requires a very attentive reader to observe, and so bring the disjointed members together, as to make up the connexion, and see how the scattered parts of the discourse hang together in a coherent, well-agreeing sense, that makes it all of a piece.

Besides the disturbance in perusing St. Paul’s epistles, from the plenty and vivacity of his thoughts, which may obscure his method, and often hide his sense from an unwary, or over-hasty reader; the frequent changing of the personage he speaks in, renders the sense very uncertain, and is apt to mislead one that has not some clue to guide him; sometimes by the pronoun I, he means himself; Edition: current; Page: [vi] sometimes any christian; sometimes a Jew, and sometimes any man, &c. If speaking of himself, in the first person singular, has so various meanings; his use of the first person plural is with a far greater latitude, sometimes designing himself alone, sometimes those with himself, whom he makes partners to the epistles; sometimes with himself, comprehending the other apostles, or preachers of the gospel, or christians: nay, sometimes he in that way speaks of the converted Jews, other times of the converted Gentiles, and sometimes of others, in a more or less extended sense, every one of which varies the meaning of the place, and makes it to be differently understood. I have forborne to trouble the reader with examples of them here. If his own observation hath not already furnished him with them, the following paraphrase and notes, I suppose, will satisfy him in the point.

In the current also of his discourse, he sometimes drops in the objections of others, and his answers to them, without any change in the scheme of his language, that might give notice of any other speaking, besides himself. This requires great attention to observe; and yet, if it be neglected or overlooked, will make the reader very much mistake and misunderstand his meaning, and render the sense very perplexed.

These are intrinsic difficulties arising from the text itself, whereof there might be a great many other named, as the uncertainty, sometimes, who are the persons he speaks to, or the opinions, or practices, which he has in his eye, sometimes in alluding to them, sometimes in his exhortations and reproofs. But, those above-mentioned being the chief, it may suffice to have opened our eyes a little upon them, which, well examined, may contribute towards our discovery of the rest.

To these we may subjoin two external causes, that have made no small increase of the native and original difficulties, that keep us from an easy and assured discovery of St. Paul’s sense, in many parts of his epistles: and those are,

First, The dividing of them into chapters, and verses, as we have done; whereby they are so chopped and minced, and, as they are now printed, stand so broken and divided, that not only the common people take the verses Edition: current; Page: [vii] usually for distinct aphorisms; but even men of more advanced knowledge, in reading them, lose very much of the strength and force of the coherence, and the light that depends on it. Our minds are so weak and narrow, that they have need of all the helps and assistances that can be procured, to lay before them undisturbedly the thread and coherence of any discourse; by which alone they are truly improved, and led into the genuine sense of the author. When the eye is constantly disturbed in loose sentences, that by their standing and separation appear as so many distinct fragments: the mind will have much ado to take in, and carry on in its memory, an uniform discourse of dependent reasonings; especially having from the cradle been used to wrong impressions concerning them, and constantly accustomed to hear them quoted as distinct sentences, without any limitation or explication of their precise meaning, from the place they stand in, and the relation they bear to what goes before, or follows. These divisions also have given occasion to the reading these epistles by parcels, and in scraps, which has farther confirmed the evil arising from such partitions. And I doubt not but every one will confess it to be a very unlikely way, to come to the understanding of any other letters, to read them piece-meal, a bit to-day, and another scrap to-morrow, and so on by broken intervals: especially if the pause and cessation should be made, as the chapters the apostle’s epistles are divided into, do end sometimes in the middle of a discourse, and sometimes in the middle of a sentence. It cannot therefore but be wondered, that that should be permitted to be done to holy writ, which would visibly disturb the sense, and hinder the understanding of any other book whatsoever. If Tully’s epistles were so printed, and so used, I ask, Whether they would not be much harder to be understood, less easy, and less pleasant to be read, by much, than now they are?

How plain soever this abuse is, and what prejudice soever it does to the understanding of the sacred scripture, yet if a bible was printed as it should be, and as the several parts of it were writ, in continued discourses, where the argument is continued, I doubt not but the Edition: current; Page: [viii] several parties would complain of it, as an innovation, and a dangerous change in the publishing those holy books. And indeed, those who are for maintaining their opinions, and the systems of parties, by sound of words, with a neglect of the true sense of scripture, would have reason to make and foment the outcry. They would most of them be immediately disarmed of their great magazine of artillery, wherewith they defend themselves and fall upon others. If the holy scriptures were but laid before the eyes of christians, in its connexion and consistency, it would not then be so easy to snatch out a few words, as if they were separate from the rest, to serve a purpose, to which they do not at all belong, and with which they have nothing to do. But, as the matter now stands, he that has a mind to it, may at a cheap rate be a notable champion for the truth, that is, for the doctrines of the sect, that chance or interest has cast him into. He need but be furnished with verses of sacred scripture, containing words and expressions that are but flexible, (as all general obscure and doubtful ones are) and his system, that has appropriated them to the orthodoxy of his church, makes them immediately strong and irrefragable arguments for his opinion. This is the benefit of loose sentences, and scripture crumbled into verses, which quickly turn into independent aphorisms. But if the quotation in the verse produced were considered as a part of a continued coherent discourse, and so its sense were limited by the tenour of the context, most of these forward and warm disputants would be quite stripped of those, which they doubt not now to call spiritual weapons; and they would have often nothing to say, that would not show their weakness, and manifestly fly in their faces. I crave leave to set down a saying of the learned and judicious Mr. Selden: “In interpreting the scripture, says he, many do as if a man should see one have ten pounds, which he reckoned by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, meaning four was but four units, and five five units, &c. and that he had in all but ten pounds: the other that sees him, takes not the figures together as he doth, but picks here and there; and thereupon reports that he had five pounds in one bag, and six pounds in another bag, and Edition: current; Page: [ix] nine pounds in another bag, &c. when as, in truth, he has but ten pounds in all. So we pick out a text here and there, to make it serve our turn; whereas if we take it altogether, and consider what went before, and what followed after, we should find it meant no such thing.”

I have heard sober christians very much admire, why ordinary illiterate people, who were professors, that showed a concern for religion, seemed much more conversant in St. Paul’s epistles, than in the plainer, and (as it seemed to them) much more intelligible parts of the New Testament; they confessed, that, though they read St. Paul’s epistles with their best attention, yet they generally found them too hard to be mastered, and they laboured in vain so far to reach the apostle’s meaning, all along in the train of what he said, as to read them with that satisfaction that arises from a feeling, that we understand and fully comprehend the force and reasoning of an author; and therefore they could not imagine what those saw in them whose eyes they thought not much better than their own. But the case was plain, these sober inquisitive readers had a mind to see nothing in St. Paul’s epistles, but just what he meant; whereas those others, of a quicker and gayer sight, could see in them what they pleased. Nothing is more acceptable to fancy, than pliant terms, and expressions that are not obstinate; in such it can find its account with delight, and with them be illuminated, orthodox, infallible at pleasure, and in its own way. But where the sense of the author goes visibly in its own train, and the words, receiving a determined sense from their companions and adjacents, will not consent to give countenance and colour to what is agreed to be right, and must be supported at any rate, there men of established orthodoxy do not so well find their satisfaction. And perhaps, if it were well examined, it would be no very extravagant paradox to say, that there are fewer that bring their opinions to the sacred scripture, to be tried by that infallible rule, than bring the sacred scripture to their opinions, to bend it to them, to make it, as they can, a cover and guard to them. And to this purpose, its being divided into verses, and brought, as much as may Edition: current; Page: [x] be, into loose and general aphorisms, makes it most useful and serviceable. And in this lies the other great cause of obscurity and perplexedness, which has been cast upon St. Paul’s epistles from without.

St. Paul’s epistles, as they stand translated in our English Bibles, are now, by long and constant use, become a part of the English language, and common phraseology, especially in matters of religion: this every one uses familiarly, and thinks he understands; but it must be observed, that if he has a distinct meaning, when he uses those words and phrases, and knows himself, what he intends by them, it is always according to the sense of his own system, and the articles, or interpretations, of the society he is engaged in. So that all this knowledge and understanding, which he has in the use of these passages of sacred scripture, reaches no farther than this, that he knows (and that is very well) what he himself says, but thereby knows nothing at all what St. Paul said in them. The apostle writ not by that man’s system, and so his meaning cannot be known by it. This being the ordinary way of understanding the epistles, and every sect being perfectly orthodox in his own judgment; what a great and invincible darkness must this cast upon St. Paul’s meaning, to all those of that way, in all those places where his thoughts and sense run counter to what any party has espoused for orthodox; as it must, unavoidably, to all but one of the different systems, in all those passages that any way relate to the points in controversy between them?

This is a mischief, which however frequent, and almost natural, reaches so far, that it would justly make all those who depend upon them wholly diffident of commentators, and let them see how little help was to be expected from them, in relying on them for the true sense of the sacred scripture, did they not take care to help to cozen themselves, by choosing to use, and pin their faith on, such expositors as explain the sacred scripture, in favour of those opinions, that they beforehand have voted orthodox, and bring to the sacred scripture, not for trial but confirmation. No-body can think that any text of St. Paul’s epistles has two contrary meanings; and yet so it must have, to two different Edition: current; Page: [xi] men, who taking two commentators of different sects, for their respective guides into the sense of any one of the epistles, shall build upon their respective expositions. We need go no further for a proof of it, than the notes of the two celebrated commentators on the New Testament, Dr. Hammond and Beza, both men of parts and learning, and both thought, by their followers, men mighty in the sacred scriptures. So that here we see the hopes of great benefit and light, from expositors and commentators, is in a great part abated; and those, who have most need of their help, can receive but little from them, and can have very little assurance of reaching the apostle’s sense, by what they find in them, whilst matters remain in the same state they are in at present. For those who find they need help, and would borrow light from expositors, either consult only those who have the good luck to be thought sound and orthodox, avoiding those of different sentiments from themselves, in the great and approved points of their systems, as dangerous and not fit to be meddled with; or else with indifferency look into the notes of all commentators promiscuously. The first of these take pains only to confirm themselves in the opinion and tenets they have already, which, whether it be the way to get the true meaning of what St. Paul delivered, is easy to determine. The others, with much more fairness to themselves, though with reaping little more advantage, (unless they have something else to guide them into the apostle’s meaning, than the comments themselves) seek help on all hands, and refuse not to be taught by any one, who offers to enlighten them in any of the dark passages. But here, though they avoid the mischief, which the others fall into, of being confined in their sense, and seeing nothing but that in St. Paul’s writings, be it right or wrong; yet they run into as great on the other side, and instead of being confirmed in the meaning, that they thought they saw in the text, are distracted with an hundred, suggested by those they advised with; and so, instead of that one sense of the scripture, which they carried with them to their commentators, return from them with none at all.

Edition: current; Page: [xii]

This, indeed, seems to make the case desperate: for if the comments and expositions of pious and learned men cannot be depended on, whither shall we go for help? To which I answer, I would not be mistaken, as if I thought the labours of the learned in this case wholly lost and fruitless. There is great use and benefit to be made of them, when we have once got a rule, to know which of their expositions, in the great variety there is of them, explains the words and phrases according to the apostle’s meaning. Until then it is evident, from what is above said, they serve for the most part to no other use, but either to make us find our own sense, and not his, in St. Paul’s words; or else to find in them no settled sense at all.

Here it will be asked, “How shall we come by this rule you mention? Where is that touchstone to be had, that will show us, whether the meaning we ourselves put, or take as put by others, upon St. Paul’s words, in his epistles, be truly his meaning or no?” I will not say the way which I propose, and have in the following paraphrase followed, will make us infallible in our interpretations of the apostle’s text: but this I will own, that till I took this way, St. Paul’s epistles, to me, in the ordinary way of reading and studying them, were very obscure parts of scripture, that left me almost everywhere at a loss; and I was at a great uncertainty, in which of the contrary senses, that were to be found in his commentators, he was to be taken. Whether what I have done has made it any clearer, and more visible, now, I must leave others to judge. This I beg leave to say for myself, that if some very sober, judicious christians, no strangers to the sacred scriptures, nay, learned divines of the church of England, had not professed, that by the perusal of these following papers, they understood the epistles much better than they did before, and had not, with repeated instances, pressed me to publish them, I should not have consented they should have gone beyond my own private use, for which they were at first designed, and where they made me not repent my pains.

If any one be so far pleased with my endeavours, as Edition: current; Page: [xiii] to think it worth while to be informed, what was the clue I guided myself by, through all the dark passages of these epistles, I shall minutely tell him the steps by which I was brought into this way, that he may judge whether I proceed rationally, upon right grounds, or no; if so be any thing, in so mean an example as mine, may be worth his notice.

After I had found by long experience, that the reading of the text and comments in the ordinary way, proved not so successful as I wished, to the end proposed, I began to suspect, that in reading a chapter as was usual, and thereupon sometimes consulting expositors upon some hard places of it, which at that time most affected me, as relating to points then under consideration in my own mind, or in debate amongst others, was not a right method to get into the true sense of these epistles. I saw plainly, after I began once to reflect on it, that if any one now should write me a letter, as long as St. Paul’s to the Romans, concerning such a matter as that is, in a style as foreign, and expressions as dubious, as his seem to be, if I should divide it into fifteen or sixteen chapters, and read of them one to-day, and another to-morrow, &c. it was ten to one, I should never come to a full and clear comprehension of it. The way to understand the mind of him that writ it, every one would agree, was to read the whole letter through, from one end to the other, all at once, to see what was the main subject and tendency of it: or if it had several views and purposes in it, not dependent one of another, nor in a subordination to one chief aim and end, to discover what those different matters were, and where the author concluded one, and began another; and if there were any necessity of dividing the epistle into parts, to make these the boundaries of them.

In prosecution of this thought, I concluded it necessary, for the understanding of any one of St. Paul’s epistles, to read it all through at one sitting; and to observe, as well as I could, the drift and design of his writing it. If the first reading gave me some light, the second gave me more; and so I persisted on, reading constantly the whole epistle over at once, till I came to have a good Edition: current; Page: [xiv] general view of the apostle’s main purpose in writing the epistle, the chief branches of his discourse wherein he prosecuted it, the arguments he used, and the disposition of the whole.

This, I confess, is not to be obtained by one or two hasty readings; it must be repeated again and again, with a close attention to the tenour of the discourse, and a perfect neglect of the divisions into chapters and verses. On the contrary, the safest way is to suppose, that the epistle has but one business and one aim, until, by a frequent perusal of it, you are forced to see there are distinct independent matters in it, which will forwardly enough show themselves.

It requires so much more pains, judgment, and application, to find the coherence of obscure and abstruse writings, and makes them so much the more unfit to serve prejudice and pre-occupation, when found; that it is not to be wondered, that St. Paul’s epistles have, with many, passed rather for disjointed, loose, pious discourses, full of warmth and zeal and overflows of light, rather than for calm, strong, coherent reasonings, that carried a thread of argument and consistency all through them.

But this muttering of lazy or ill-disposed readers hindered me not from persisting in the course I had begun: I continued to read the same epistle over and over, and over again, until I came to discover as appeared to me, what was the drift and aim of it, and by what steps and arguments St. Paul prosecuted his purpose. I remembered that St. Paul was miraculously called to the ministry of the gospel, and declared to be a chosen vessel; that he had the whole doctrine of the gospel from God, by immediate revelation; and was appointed to be the apostle of the Gentiles, for the propagating of it in the heathen world. This was enough to persuade me, that he was not a man of loose and shattered parts, incapable to argue, and unfit to convince those he had to deal with. God knows how to choose fit instruments for the business he employs them in. A large stock of jewish learning he had taken in, at the feet of Gamaliel; and for his information in christian knowledge, and the mysteries and depths of the dispensation of grace by Jesus Christ, Edition: current; Page: [xv] God himself had condescended to be his instructor and teacher. The light of the gospel he had received from the Fountain and Father of light himself, who, I concluded, had not furnished him in this extraordinary manner, if all this plentiful stock of learning and illumination had been in danger to have been lost, or proved useless, in a jumbled and confused head; nor have laid up such a store of admirable and useful knowledge in a man, who, for want of method and order, clearness of conception, or pertinency in discourse, could not draw it out into use with the greatest advantages of force and coherence. That he knew how to prosecute this purpose with strength of argument, and close reasoning, without incoherent sallies, or the intermixing of things foreign to his business, was evident to me, from several speeches of his, recorded in the Acts: and it was hard to think, that a man that could talk with so much consistency, and clearness of conviction, should not be able to write without confusion, inextricable obscurity, and perpetual rambling. The force, order, and perspicuity of those discourses, could not be denied to be very visible. How, then, came it, that the like was thought much wanting in his epistles? And of this there appeared to me this plain reason: the particularities of the history, in which these speeches are inserted, show St. Paul’s end in speaking; which, being seen, casts a light on the whole, and shows the pertinency of all that he says. But his epistles not being so circumstantiated; there being no concurring history, that plainly declares the disposition St. Paul was in; what the actions, expectations, or demands of those to whom he writ, required him to speak to, we are nowhere told. All this, and a great deal more, necessary to guide us into the true meaning of the epistles, is to be had only from the epistles themselves, and to be gathered from thence with stubborn attention, and more than common application.

This being the only safe guide (under the Spirit of God, that dictated these sacred writings) that can be relied on, I hope I may be excused, if I venture to say, that the utmost ought to be done to observe and trace out St. Paul’s reasonings; to follow the thread of his Edition: current; Page: [xvi] discourse in each of his epistles; to show how it goes on, still directed with the same view, and pertinently drawing the several incidents towards the same point. To understand him right, his inferences should be strictly observed; and it should be carefully examined, from what they are drawn, and what they tend to. He is certainly a coherent, argumentative, pertinent writer; and care, I think, should be taken, in expounding of him, to show that he is so. But though I say, he has weighty aims in his epistles, which he steadily keeps in his eye, and drives at, in all he says; yet I do not say, that he puts his discourses into an artificial method, or leads his reader into a distinction of his arguments, or gives them notice of new matter, by rhetorical or studied transitions. He has no ornaments borrowed from the Greek eloquence; no notions of their philosophy mixed with his doctrine, to set it off. The enticing words of man’s wisdom, whereby he means all the studied rules of the Grecian schools, which made them such masters in the art of speaking, he, as he says himself, 1 Cor. ii. 4, wholly neglected. The reason whereof he gives in the next verse, and in other places. But though politeness of language, delicacy of style, fineness of expression, laboured periods, artificial transitions, and a very methodical ranging of the parts, with such other embellishments as make a discourse enter the mind smoothly, and strike the fancy at first hearing, have little or no place in his style; yet coherence of discourse, and a direct tendency of all the parts of it to the argument in hand, are most eminently to be found in him. This I take to be his character, and doubt not but it will be found to be so upon diligent examination. And in this, if it be so, we have a clue, if we will take the pains to find it, that will conduct us with surety, through those seemingly dark places, and imagined intricacies, in which christians have wandered so far one from another, as to find quite contrary senses.

Whether a superficial reading, accompanied with the common opinion of his invincible obscurity, has kept off some from seeking in him, the coherence of a discourse, tending with close, strong reasoning to a point; or a Edition: current; Page: [xvii] seemingly more honourable opinion of one that had been rapped up into the third heaven, as if from a man so warmed and illuminated as he had been, nothing could be expected but flashes of light, and raptures of zeal, hindered others to look for a train of reasoning, proceeding on regular and cogent argumentation, from a man raised above the ordinary pitch of humanity, to a higher and brighter way of illumination; or else, whether others were loth to beat their heads about the tenour and coherence in St. Paul’s discourses; which, if found out, possibly might set them at a manifest and irreconcileable difference with their systems: it is certain that, whatever hath been the cause, this way of getting the true sense of St. Paul’s epistles, seems not to have been much made use of, or at least so thoroughly pursued, as I am apt to think it deserves.

For, granting that he was full-stored with the knowledge of the things he treated of; for he had light from heaven, it was God himself furnished him, and he could not want: allowing also that he had ability to make use of the knowledge had been given him, for the end for which it was given him, viz. the information, conviction, and conversion of others; and accordingly, that he knew how to direct his discourse to the point in hand; we cannot widely mistake the parts of his discourse employed about it, when we have any where found out the point he drives at: wherever we have got a view of his design, and the aim he proposed to himself in writing, we may be sure, that such or such an interpretation does not give us his genuine sense, it being nothing at all to his present purpose. Nay, among various meanings given a text, it fails not to direct us to the best, and very often to assure us of the true. For it is no presumption, when one sees a man arguing from this or that proposition, if he be a sober man, master of reason, or common-sense, and takes any care of what he says, to pronounce with confidence, in several cases, that he could not talk thus or thus.

I do not yet so magnify this method of studying St. Paul’s epistles, as well as other parts of sacred scripture, as to think it will perfectly clear every hard place, and Edition: current; Page: [xviii] leave no doubt unresolved. I know, expressions now out of use, opinions of those times not heard of in our days, allusions to customs lost to us, and various circumstances and particularities of the parties, which we cannot come at, &c. must needs continue several passages in the dark, now to us, at this distance, which shone with full light to those they were directed to. But for all that, the studying of St. Paul’s epistles, in the way I have proposed, will, I humbly conceive, carry us a great length in the right understanding of them, and make us rejoice in the light we receive from those most useful parts of divine revelation, by furnishing us with visible grounds, that we are not mistaken, whilst the consistency of the discourse, and the pertinency of it to the design he is upon, vouches it worthy of our great apostle. At least I hope it may be my excuse, for having endeavoured to make St. Paul an interpreter to me of his own epistles.

To this may be added another help, which St. Paul himself affords us, towards the attaining the true meaning contained in his epistles. He that reads him with the attention I propose, will easily observe, that as he was full of the doctrine of the gospel; so it lay all clear and in order, open to his view. When he gave his thoughts utterance upon any point, the matter flowed like a torrent; but it is plain, it was a matter he was perfectly master of: he fully possessed the entire revelation he had received from God; had thoroughly digested it; all the parts were formed together in his mind, into one well-contracted harmonious body. So that he was no way at an uncertainty, nor ever, in the least, at a loss concerning any branch of it. One may see his thoughts were all of a piece in all his epistles, his notions were at all times uniform, and constantly the same, though his expressions very various. In them he seems to take great liberty. This at least is certain, that no one seems less tied up to a form of words. If then, having, by the method before proposed, got into the sense of the several epistles, we will but compare what he says, in the places where he treats of the same subject, we can hardly be mistaken in his sense, nor doubt what Edition: current; Page: [xix] it was that he believed and taught, concerning those points of the christian religion. I know it is not unusual to find a multitude of texts heaped up, for the maintaining of an espoused proposition; but in a sense often so remote from their true meaning, that one can hardly avoid thinking, that those who so used them, either sought not, or valued not the sense; and were satisfied with the sound, where they could but get that to favour them. But a verbal concordance leads not always to texts of the same meaning; trusting too much thereto will furnish us but with slight proofs in many cases, and any one may observe, how apt that is to jumble together passages of scripture, not relating to the same matter, and thereby to disturb and unsettle the true meaning of holy scripture. I have therefore said, that we should compare together places of scripture treating of the same point. Thus, indeed, one part of the sacred text could not fail to give light unto another. And since the providence of God hath so ordered it, that St. Paul has writ a great number of epistles; which, though upon different occasions, and to several purposes, yet all confined within the business of his apostleship, and so contain nothing but points of christian instruction, amongst which he seldom fails to drop in, and often to enlarge on, the great and distinguishing doctrines of our holy religion; which, if quitting our own infallibility in that analogy of faith, which we have made to ourselves, or have implicitly adopted from some other, we would carefully lay together, and diligently compare and study, I am apt to think, would give us St. Paul’s system in a clear and indisputable sense; which every one must acknowledge to be a better standard to interpret his meaning by, in any obscure and doubtful parts of his epistles, if any such should still remain, than the system, confession, or articles of any church, or society of christians, yet known; which, however pretended to be founded on scripture, are visibly the contrivances of men, fallible both in their opinions and interpretations; and, as is visible in most of them, made with partial views, and adapted to what the occasions of that time, and the present circumstances Edition: current; Page: [xx] they were then in, were thought to require, for the support or justification of themselves. Their philosophy, also, has its part in misleading men from the true sense of the sacred scripture. He that shall attentively read the christian writers, after the age of the apostles, will easily find how much the philosophy, they were tinctured with, influenced them in their understanding of the books of the old and new testament. In the ages wherein Platonism prevailed, the converts to christianity of that school, on all occasions, interpreted holy writ, according to the notions they had imbibed from that philosophy. Aristotle’s doctrine had the same effect in its turn, and when it degenerated into the peripateticism of the schools, that, too, brought its notions and distinctions into divinity, and affixed them to the terms of the sacred scripture. And we may see still how, at this day, every one’s philosophy regulates every one’s interpretation of the word of God. Those who are possessed with the doctrine of aerial and æthereal vehicles, have thence borrowed an interpretation of the four first verses of 2 Cor. v. without having any ground to think, that St. Paul had the least notion of any such vehicle. It is plain, that the teaching of men philosophy, was no part of the design of divine revelation; but that the expressions of scripture are commonly suited, in those matters, to the vulgar apprehensions and conceptions of the place and people, where they were delivered. And, as to the doctrine therein directly taught by the apostles, that tends wholly to the setting up the kingdom of Jesus Christ in this world, and the salvation of men’s souls: and in this it is plain their expressions were conformed to the ideas and notions which they had received from revelation, or were consequent from it. We shall, therefore, in vain go about to interpret their words by the notions of our philosophy, and the doctrines of men delivered in our schools. This is to explain the apostles’ meaning, by what they never thought of, whilst they were writing; which is not the way to find their sense, in what they delivered, but our own, and to take up, from their writings, not what they left there for us, but what we bring along with us in ourselves. He that Edition: current; Page: [xxi] would understand St. Paul right, must understand his terms, in the sense he uses them, and not as they are appropriated by each man’s particular philosophy to conceptions that never entered the mind of the apostle. For example, he that shall bring the philosophy now taught and received, to the explaining of spirit, soul, and body, mentioned 1 Thess. v. 23, will, I fear, hardly reach St. Paul’s sense, or represent to himself the notions St. Paul then had in his mind. That is what we should aim at, in reading him, or any other author; and until we, from his words, paint his very ideas and thoughts in our minds, we do not understand him.

In the divisions I have made, I have endeavoured, the best I could, to govern myself by the diversity of matter. But in a writer like St. Paul, it is not so easy always to find precisely, where one subject ends, and another begins. He is full of the matter he treats, and writes with warmth, which usually neglects method, and those partitions and pauses, which men, educated in the schools of rhetoricians, usually observe. Those arts of writings, St. Paul, as well out of design as temper, wholly laid by: the subject he had in hand, and the grounds upon which it stood firm, and by which he enforced it, were what alone he minded; and without solemnly winding up one argument, and intimating any way, that he began another, let his thoughts, which were fully possessed of the matter, run in one continued train, wherein the parts of his discourse were wove, one into another: so that it is seldom that the scheme of his discourse makes any gap; and therefore, without breaking in upon the connexion of his language, it is hardly possible to separate his discourse, and give a distinct view of his several arguments, in distinct sections.

I am far from pretending infallibility, in the sense I have any where given in my paraphrase, or notes: that would be to erect myself into an apostle; a presumption of the highest nature in any one, that cannot confirm what he says by miracles. I have, for my own information, sought the true meaning, as far as my poor abilities would reach. And I have unbiassedly embraced, what, upon a fair inquiry, appeared so to me. Edition: current; Page: [xxii] This I thought my duty and interest, in a matter of so great concernment to me. If I must believe for myself, it is unavoidable, that I must understand for myself. For if I blindly, and with an implicit faith, take the pope’s interpretation of the sacred scripture, without examining whether it be Christ’s meaning; it is the pope I believe in, and not in Christ; it is his authority I rest upon; it is what he says, I embrace: for what it is Christ says, I neither know nor concern myself. It is the same thing, when I set up any other man in Christ’s place, and make him the authentic interpreter of sacred scripture to myself. He may possibly understand the sacred scripture as right as any man: but I shall do well to examine myself, whether that, which I do not know, nay, which (in the way I take) I can never know, can justify me, in making myself his disciple, instead of Jesus Christ’s, who of right is alone, and ought to be, my only Lord and Master: and it will be no less sacrilege in me, to substitute to myself any other in his room, to be a prophet to me, than to be my king, or priest.

The same reasons that put me upon doing what I have in these papers done, will exempt me from all suspicion of imposing my interpretation on others. The reasons that led me into the meaning, which prevailed on my mind, are set down with it: as far as they carry light and conviction to any other man’s understanding, so far, I hope, my labour may be of some use to him; beyond the evidence it carries with it, I advise him not to follow mine, nor any man’s interpretation. We are all men, liable to errours, and infected with them; but have this sure way to preserve ourselves, every one, from danger by them, if, laying aside sloth, carelessness, prejudice, party, and a reverence of men, we betake ourselves, in earnest, to the study of the way to salvation, in those holy writings, wherein God has revealed it from heaven, and proposed it to the world, seeking our religion, where we are sure it is in truth to be found, comparing spiritual things with spiritual things.

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A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE GALATIANS.

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THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER.

There is nothing, certainly, of greater encouragement to the peace of the church in general, nor to the direction and edification of all christians in particular, than a right understanding of the holy scripture. This consideration has set so many learned and pious men amongst us, of late years, upon expositions, paraphrases, and notes on the sacred writings, that the author of these hopes the fashion may excuse him from endeavouring to add his mite; believing, that after all that has been done by those great labourers in the harvest, there may be some gleanings left, whereof he presumes he has an instance, chap. iii. ver. 20, and some other places of this epistle to the Galatians, which he looks upon not to be the hardest of St. Paul’s. If he has given a light to any obscure passage, he shall think his pains well employed; if there be nothing else worth notice in him, accept of his good intention.

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THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE GALATIANS;
WRIT FROM EPHESUS, THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 57, OF NERO III.

SYNOPSIS.

The subject and design of this epistle of St. Paul is much the same with that of his epistle to the Romans, but treated in somewhat a different manner. The business of it is to dehort and hinder the Galatians from bringing themselves under the bondage of the Mosaical law.

St. Paul himself had planted the churches of Galatia, and therefore referring (as he does, chap. i. 8, 9,) to what he had before taught them, does not, in this epistle lay down at large to them the doctrine of the gospel, as he does in that to the Romans, who having been converted to the christian faith by others, he did not know how far they were instructed in all those particulars, which, on the occasion whereon he writ to them, it might be necessary for them to understand: and therefore, writing to the Romans, he sets before them a large and comprehensive view of the chief heads of the christian religion.

He also deals more roundly with his disciples the Galatians than, we may observe, he does with the Romans, to whom he, being a stranger, writes not in so familiar a style, nor in his reproofs and exhortations uses so much the tone of a master, as he does to the Galatians.

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St. Paul had converted the Galatians to the faith, and erected several churches among them in the year of our Lord 51; between which, and the year 57, wherein this epistle was writ, the disorders following were got into those churches:

First, Some zealots for the jewish constitution had very near persuaded them out of their christian liberty, and made them willing to submit to circumcision, and all the ritual observances of the jewish church, as necessary under the gospel, chap. i. 7; iii. 3; iv. 9, 10, 21; v. 1, 2, 6, 9, 10.

Secondly, Their dissensions and disputes in this matter had raised great animosities amongst them, to the disturbance of their peace, and the setting them at strife with one another, chap. v. 6, 13—15.

The reforming them in these two points, seems to be the main business of this epistle, wherein he endeavours to establish them in a resolution to stand firm in the freedom of the gospel, which exempts them from the bondage of the Mosaical law: and labours to reduce them to a sincere love and affection one to another; which he concludes with an exhortation to liberality, and general beneficence, especially to their teachers, chap. vi. 6, 10. These being the matters he had in his mind to write to them about, he seems here as if he had done. But, upon mentioning ver. 11, what a long letter he had writ to them with his own hand, the former argument concerning circumcision, which filled and warmed his mind, broke out again into what we find, ver. 12—17, of the sixth chapter.

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SECT. I.

CHAP. I. 1—5.
INTRODUCTION.

CONTENTS.

The general view of this epistle plainly shows St. Paul’s chief design in it to be, to keep the Galatians from hearkening to those judaizing seducers, who had almost persuaded them to be circumcised. These perverters of the gospel of Christ, as St. Paul himself calls them, ver. 7, had, as may be gathered from ver. 8, and 10, and from chap. v. 11, and other passages of this epistle, made the Galatians believe, that St. Paul himself was for circumcision. Until St. Paul himself had set them right in this matter, and convinced them of the falsehood of this aspersion, it was in vain for him, by other arguments, to attempt the re-establishing the Galatians in the christian liberty, and in that truth which he had preached to them. The removing therefore of this calumny, was his first endeavour: and to that purpose, this introduction, different from what we find in any other of his epistles, is marvellously well adapted. He declares, here at the entrance, very expressly and emphatically, that he was not sent by men on their errands; nay, that Christ, in sending him, did not so much as convey his apostolic power to him by the ministry, or intervention of any man; but that his commission and instructions were all entirely from God, and Christ himself, by immediate revelation. This, of itself, was an argument sufficient to induce them to believe, 1. That what he taught them, when he first preached the gospel to them, was the truth, and that they ought to Edition: current; Page: [28] stick firm to that. 2. That he changed not his doctrine, whatever might be reported of him. He was Christ’s chosen officer, and had no dependence on men’s opinions, nor regard to their authority or favour, in what he preached; and therefore it was not likely he should preach one thing at one time, and another thing at another.

Thus this preface is very proper in this place, to introduce what he is going to say concerning himself, and adds force to his discourse, and the account he gives of himself in the next section.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Paul an apostle (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead.)

Locke1824: 2And all the brethren, which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia.

Locke1824: 3Grace be to you, and peace, from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ.

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Locke1824: 4Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father.

Locke1824: 5To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Paul (an apostle not of men*, to serve their ends, or carry on their designs, nor receiving his call, or commission, by the intervention of any man, to whom he might be thought to owe any respect or deference upon that account: but immediately from Jesus Christ, and from God the Father, who raised him up from theLocke1824: 2 dead); And all the brethren that are with me, untoLocke1824: 3 the churches of Galatia: Favour be to you, and peace§ from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, Edition: current; Page: [29] Locke1824: 4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might take us out of this present evil world*, according to theLocke1824: 5 will and good pleasure of God and our Father, To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

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SECT. II.

CHAP. I. 6.—II. 21.

CONTENTS.

We have observed, that St. Paul’s first endeavour in this epistle, was to satisfy the Galatians, that the report spread of him, that he preached circumcision, was false. Until this obstruction, that lay in his way was removed, it was to no purpose for him to go about to dissuade them from circumcision, though that be what he principally aims, in this epistle. To show them, that he promoted not circumcision, he calls their hearkening to those who persuaded them to be circumcised, their being removed from him; and those that so persuaded them, “perverters of the gospel of Christ,” ver. 6, 7. He farther assures them, that the gospel which he preached every-where was that, and that only, which he had received by immediate revelation from Christ, and no contrivance of man, nor did he vary it to please men: that would not consist with his being a servant of Christ, ver. 10. And he expresses such a firm adherence to what he had received from Christ, and had preached to them, that he pronounces an anathema upon himself, ver. 8, 9, or any other man, or angel that should preach any thing else to them. To make out this to have been all along his conduct, he gives an account of himself for many years backwards, even from the time before his conversion. Wherein he shows, that from a zealous persecuting jew he was made a christian, and an apostle, by immediate revelation; and that, having no communication with the apostles, or with the churches of Judea, or any man, for some years, he had nothing to preach, but what he had received by immediate revelation. Nay, when, fourteen years after, he went up to Jerusalem, it was by revelation; and when he there communicated Edition: current; Page: [31] the gospel, which he preached among the gentiles, Peter, James, and John, approved of it, without adding any thing, but admitted him, as their fellow-apostle. So that, in all this, he was guided by nothing but divine revelation, which he inflexibly stuck to so far, that he openly opposed St. Peter for his judaizing at Antioch. All which account of himself tends clearly to show, that St. Paul made not the least step towards complying with the jews, in favour of the law, nor did, out of regard to man, deviate from the doctrine he had received by revelation from God.

All the parts of this section, and the narrative contained in it, manifestly concenter in this, as will more fully appear, as we go through them, and take a closer view of them; which will show us, that the whole is so skilfully managed, and the parts so gently slid into, that it is a strong, but not seemingly laboured justification of himself, from the imputation of preaching up circumcision.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 6I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him, that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another gospel:

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Locke1824: 7Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.

Locke1824: 8But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you, than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.

Locke1824: 9As we said before, so say I now again, if any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.

Locke1824: 10For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I seek to please men? For, if I yet pleased men I should not be the servant of Christ.

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Locke1824: 11But I certify to you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me, is not after man.

Locke1824: 12For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 13For ye have heard of my conversation in time past, in the Jews religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the Church of God, and wasted it.

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Locke1824: 14And profited in the jews religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers.

Locke1824: 15But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother’s womb, and called me by his grace,

Locke1824: 16To reveal his son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen: immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:

Locke1824: 17Neither went I up to Jerusalem, to them which were apostles before me, but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.

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Locke1824: 18Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.

Locke1824: 19But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother.

Locke1824: 20Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lye not.

Locke1824: 21Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia:

Locke1824: 22And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea, which were in Christ.

Locke1824: 23But they had heard only, that he, which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed.

Locke1824: 24And they glorified God in me.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 6I cannot but wonder that you are soon* removed from me, (who called you into the covenant of grace, which is in Christ) unto another sort of gospel; Edition: current; Page: [32] Locke1824: 7 Which is not owing to any thing else*, but only this, that ye are troubled by a certain sort of men, who would overturn the gospel of Christ by making circumcision, and the keeping of the law, necessaryLocke1824: 8 under the gospel. But if even I myself, or an angel from heaven, should preach any thing to you for gospel, different from the gospel I have preached untoLocke1824: 9 you, let him be accursed. I say it again to you, if any one, under pretence of the gospel, preach any other thing to you, than what ye have receivedLocke1824: 10 from me, let him be accursed. For can it be doubted of me, after having done and suffered so much for the gospel of Christ, whether I do now§, at Edition: current; Page: [33] this time of day, make my court to men, or seek the favour* of God? If I had hitherto made it my business to please men, I should not have been the servant of Christ, nor taken up the profession of theLocke1824: 11 gospel. But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel, which has been every where preached by me, is not such as is pliant to human interest, or can be accommodatedLocke1824: 12 to the pleasing of men (For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it by any one, as his scholar;) but it is the pure and ummixed immediateLocke1824: 13 revelation of Jesus Christ to me. To satisfy you of this, my behaviour whilst I was of the jewish Edition: current; Page: [34] religion is so well known, that I need not tell you, how excessive violent I was in persecuting the churchLocke1824: 14 of God, and destroying it all I could; And that being carried on by an extraordinary zeal for the traditions of my forefathers, I out-stripped manyLocke1824: 15 students of my own age and nation, in judaism. But when it pleased God (who separated* me from my mother’s womb, and by his especial favour called me to be a christian, and a preacher of the gospel,)Locke1824: 16 To reveal his son to me, that I might preach him among the gentiles, I thereupon applied not myselfLocke1824: 17 to any man, for advice what to do.§ Neither went I up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me, to see whether they approved my doctrine, or to have farther instructions from them: but I went immediately unto Arabia, and from Edition: current; Page: [35] Locke1824: 18 thence returned again to Damascus. Then after three years,* I went up to Jerusalem, to see Peter,Locke1824: 19 and abode with him fifteen days. But other of the apostles saw I none, but James, the brother of ourLocke1824: 20 Lord. These things, that I write to you, I call God to witness, are all true; there is no falsehood inLocke1824: 21 them. Afterwards I came into the regions of SyriaLocke1824: 22 and Cilicia. But with the churches of Christ in Judea, I had had no communication: they had notLocke1824: 23 so much as seen my face; Only they had heard, that I, who formerly persecuted the churches of Christ, did now preach the gospel, which I onceLocke1824: 24 endeavoured to suppress and extirpate. And they glorified God upon my account.

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CHAP. II.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Then fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also.

Locke1824: 2And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel, which I preach among the gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run or had run in vain.

Locke1824: 3But neither Titus, who was with me, being a greek, was compelled to be circumcised:

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Locke1824: 4And that, because of false brethren, unawares brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage.

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Locke1824: 5To whom we gave place by subjection, no not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.

Locke1824: 6But of these, who seemed to be somewhat (whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me; God accepteth no man’s person;) Edition: current; Page: [39] for they, who seemed to be somewhat, in conference added nothing to me.

Locke1824: 7But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision Edition: current; Page: [40] was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;

Locke1824: 8(For he that wrought effectually in Peter, to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me towards the Gentiles)

Locke1824: 9And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.

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Locke1824: 10Only they would that we should remember the poor; the same which I also was forward to do.

Locke1824: 11But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed.

Locke1824: 12For, before that certain came from James, he did eat with the gentiles: but, when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.

Locke1824: 13And the other jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation.

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Locke1824: 14But when I saw that they walked not uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all: If thou, being a jew, livest after the manner of gentiles, and not as do the jews, why compellest thou the gentiles to live as do the jews?

Locke1824: 15We who are jews by nature, and not sinners of the gentiles,

Locke1824: 16Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.

Locke1824: 17But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid.

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Locke1824: 18For if I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a transgressor.

Locke1824: 19For I, through the law, am dead to the law, that I might live unto God.

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Locke1824: 20I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.

Locke1824: 21I do not frustrate the grace of God; for if righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Then fourteen years after, I went up again to Jerusalem, with Barnabas, and took Titus also with me.Locke1824: 2 And I went up by revelation, and there laid before them the gospel which I *preached to the gentiles, but privately to those who were of note and reputation amongst them; lest the pains that I have already taken, or should take in the gospel, should be in vain.Locke1824: 3 But though I communicated the gospel which I Edition: current; Page: [37] preached to the gentiles, to the eminent men of the church at Jerusalem, yet neither* Titus who was withLocke1824: 4 me, being a greek, was forced to be circumcised: Nor did I yield any thing, one moment, by way of subjection to the law, to those false brethren, who, by an unwary admittance, were slily crept in, to spy out Edition: current; Page: [38] our liberty from the law, which we have under the gospel: that they might bring us into bondage* toLocke1824: 5 the law. But I stood my ground against it, that theLocke1824: 6 truth of the gospel might remain among you. But as for those§, who were really men of eminency and Edition: current; Page: [39] value, what they were heretofore, it matters not at all to me: God accepts not the person of any man, but communicates the gospel to whom he pleases*, as he has done to me by revelation, without their help; for, in their conference with me, they added nothing to me, they taught me nothing new, nor that Christ had not taught me before, nor had they any thing toLocke1824: 7 object against what I preached to the gentiles. But on the contrary, James, Peter, and John, who were Edition: current; Page: [40] of reputation, and justly esteemed to be pillars, perceiving that the gospel which was to be preached to the gentiles, was committed to me; as that which was to be preached to the Jews was committed toLocke1824: 8 Peter; (For he that had wrought powerfully* in Peter, to his executing the office of an apostle to the Jews, had also wrought powerfully in me, in my applicationLocke1824: 9 and apostleship, to the gentiles;) And, knowing the favour that was bestowed on me, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should preach the gospel to the gentiles, and they Edition: current; Page: [41] Locke1824: 10 to the children of Israel. All that they proposed, was, that we should remember to make collections among the gentiles, for the poor christians of Judea, whichLocke1824: 11 was a thing that of myself I was forward to do. But when Peter came to Antioch, I openly opposed* himLocke1824: 12 to his face: for, indeed, he was to be blamed. For he conversed there familiarly with the gentiles, and eat with them, until some jews came thither from James: then he withdrew, and separated from the gentiles, for fear of those who were of the circumcision:Locke1824: 13 And the rest of the jews joined also with him in this hypocrisy, insomuch that Barnabas himself Edition: current; Page: [42] was carried away with the stream, and dissembled asLocke1824: 14 they did. But when I saw they conformed not their conduct to the truth* of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all: If thou, being a Jew, takest the liberty sometimes to live after the manner of the gentiles, not keeping to those rules which the jews observe, why dost thou constrain the gentiles to conform themselves to the rites and manner of living of the jews?Locke1824: 15 We, who are by nature jews, born under the instruction and guidance of the law, God’s peculiar people, and not of the unclean and profligate race ofLocke1824: 16 the gentiles, abandoned to sin and death, Knowing that a man cannot be justified by the deeds of the law, but solely by faith in Jesus Christ, even we have put ourselves upon believing on him, and embraced the profession of the gospel, for the attainment of justification by faith in Christ, and not by the worksLocke1824: 17 of the law: But if we seek to be justified in Christ, Edition: current; Page: [43] even we ourselves also are found unjustified sinners* (for such are all those who are under the law, which admits of no remission or justification:) is Christ, therefore, the minister of sin? Is the dispensation by him, a dispensation of sin, and not of righteousness? Did he come into the world, that those who believe in him, should still remain sinners, i. e. under the guilt of their sins, without the benefit of justification?Locke1824: 18 By no means. And yet certain it is, if I, who quitted the law, to put myself under the gospel, put myself again under the law, I make myself a transgressor; I re-assume again the guilt of all my transgressions; which, by the terms of that covenantLocke1824: 19 of works, I cannot be justified from. For by the tenour of the law itself, I, by faith in Christ, am discharged§ from the law, that I might be appropriated to God, and live acceptably to him in Edition: current; Page: [44] his kingdom, which he has now set up under his Son.Locke1824: 20 I, a member of Christ’s body, am crucified* with him, but though I am thereby dead to the law, I nevertheless live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me, i. e. the life which I now live in the flesh, is upon no other principle, nor under any other law, but that of faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and gaveLocke1824: 21 himself for me. And in so doing, I avoid frustrating the grace of God, I accept of the grace and forgiveness of God, as it is offered through faith in Christ, in the gospel: but if I subject myself to the law as still in force under the gospel, I do in effect frustrate grace. For if righteousness be to be had by the law, then Christ died to no purpose, there was no need of it.§

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SECT. III.

CHAP. III. 1—5.

CONTENTS.

By the account St. Paul has given of himself in the foregoing section, the galatians being furnished with evidence, sufficient to clear him, in their minds, from the report of his preaching circumcision, he comes now, the way being thus opened, directly to oppose their being circumcised, and subjecting themselves to the law. The first argument he uses, is, that they received the Holy Ghost, and the gifts of miracles, by the gospel, and not by the law.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1O foolish galatians, who hath bewitched you, that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

Locke1824: 2This only would I learn of you: Received ye the spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

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Locke1824: 3Are ye so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?

Locke1824: 4Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.

Locke1824: 5He, therefore, that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1O ye foolish galatians, who hath cast a mist before your eyes, that you should not keep to the truth* of the gospel, you to whom the sufferings and death of Christ upon the cross, hath been by me so lively represented, as if it had been actually done in your sight?Locke1824: 2 This is one thing I desire to know of you: Did you receive Edition: current; Page: [46] the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, by the worksLocke1824: 3 of the law, or by the gospel preached to you? Have you so little understanding, that, having begun in the reception of the spiritual doctrine of the gospel, you hope to be advanced to higher degrees of perfection,Locke1824: 4 and to be completed by the law*? Have you suffered so many things in vain, if at least you will render it in vain, by falling off from the profession of the pure and uncorrupted doctrine of the gospel, and apostatizingLocke1824: 5 to judaism? The gifts of the Holy Ghost, that have been conferred upon you, have they not been conferred on you as Christians, professing faith in Jesus Christ, and not as observers of the law? And hath not he, who hath conveyed these gifts to you, and done miracles amongst you, done it as a preacher and professor of the gospel, the jews, who stick in the law of Moses, being not able, by virtue of that, to do any such thing?

SECT. IV.

CHAP. III. 6—17.

CONTENTS.

His next argument against circumcision, and subjection to the law, is, that the children of Abraham, intitled Edition: current; Page: [47] to the inheritance and blessing promised to Abraham and his seed, are so by faith, and not by being under the law, which brings a curse upon those who are under it.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 6Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness:

Locke1824: 7Know ye, therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.

Locke1824: 8And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, “In thee shall all nations be blessed.”

Locke1824: 9So then they which be of faith, are blessed with faithful Abraham.

Locke1824: 10For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse; for it is written, “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things, which are written in the book of the law, to do them.”

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Locke1824: 11But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for the “just shall live by faith.”

Locke1824: 12And the law is not of faith: but, “The man that doth them, shall live in them.”

Locke1824: 13Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written, “Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.”

Locke1824: 14That the blessing of Abraham might come on the gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

Locke1824: 15Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; though it be but a Edition: current; Page: [49] man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.

Locke1824: 16Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, “and to seeds,” as of many; but as of one, “and to thy seed,” which is Christ.

Locke1824: 17And this I say, that the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 6But to proceed: As Abraham believed in God, andLocke1824: 7 it was accounted to him for righteousness; So know ye, that those who are of faith, i. e. who rely upon God, and his promises of grace, and not upon their own performances, they are the children of Abraham, who shall inherit; and this is plain in the scripture.Locke1824: 8 For it being in the purpose of God, to justify the gentiles by faith, he gave Abraham a fore-knowledge of the gospel in these words: “*In thee all theLocke1824: 9 nations of the earth shall be blessed.” So that they who are of faith, are blessed with Abraham,Locke1824: 10 who believed. But as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse: for it is written§, “Cursed is every one, who remaineth not in all things, which are written in the book of the law, Edition: current; Page: [48] Locke1824: 11 to do them.” But that no man is justified by the law, in the sight of God, is evident; “for the justLocke1824: 12 shall live by faith*.” But the law says not so, the law gives not life to those who believe: but the rule of the law is, “He that doth them,Locke1824: 13 shall live in them.” Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written§, “Cursed is every oneLocke1824: 14 that hangeth on a tree:” That the blessing, promised to Abraham, might come on the gentiles, through Jesus Christ; that we who are Christians might, believing, receive the Spirit that was promised.Locke1824: 15 Brethren, this is a known and allowed rule Edition: current; Page: [49] in human affairs, that a promise, or compact, though it be barely a man’s covenant, yet if it be once ratified, so it must stand, nobody can render it void,Locke1824: 16 or make any alteration in it. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. God doth not say, “and to seeds*,” as if he spoke of more seeds than one, that were intitled to the promise upon different accounts; but only of one sort of men, who, upon one sole account, were that seed of Abraham, which was alone meant and concerned in the promise; so that “unto thy seed,” designed Christ, and his mystical body, i. e. those, that becomeLocke1824: 17 members of him by faith. This, therefore, I say, that the law, which was not till 430 years after, cannot disannul the covenant that was long before made, and ratified to Christ by God, so as to set aside the promise. For if the right to the inheritance be from the works of the law, it is plain that it is not founded in the promise of Abraham, as certainly it is. For the inheritance was a donation and free gift of God, settled on Abraham and his seed, by promise.

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SECT. V.

CHAP. III. 18—25.

CONTENTS.

In answer to this objection, “To what, then, serveth the law?” He shows, that the law was not contrary to the promise: but since all men were guilty of transgression, ver. 22, the law was added, to show the Israelites the fruit and inevitable consequence of their sin, and thereby the necessity of betaking themselves to Christ: but as soon as men have received Christ, they have attained the end of the law, and so are no longer under it. This is a farther argument against circumcision.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 18For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.

Locke1824: 19Wherefore, then, serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels, in the hand of a mediator.

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Locke1824: 20Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God is one.

Locke1824: 21Is the law, then, against the promises of God? God forbid! for if there had been a law given, which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.

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Locke1824: 22But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise, by faith of Jesus Christ, might be given to them that believe.

Locke1824: 23But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith, which should afterwards be revealed.

Locke1824: 24Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster, to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

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Locke1824: 25But, after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 18If the blessing and inheritance be settled on Abraham and believers, as a free gift by promise, andLocke1824: 19 was not to be obtained by the deeds of the law; To what purpose then was the law? It was added, because the Israelites, the posterity of Abraham, were transgressors*, as well as other men, to show them their sins, and the punishment and death they incurred by them, until Christ should come, who was the seed, into whom both jews and gentiles, ingrafted by believing, become the people of God, and children of Abraham, that seed to which the Edition: current; Page: [51] promise was made. And the law was ordained by angels, in the hand of a mediator*, whereby it is manifest, that the law could not disannul the promise;Locke1824: 20 Because a mediator is a mediator between two parties concerned, but God is but one of thoseLocke1824: 21 concerned in the promise. If, then, the promised inheritance come not to the seed of Abraham, by the law, is the law opposite, by the curse it denounces against transgressors, to the promises that God made of the blessing to Abraham? No, by no means! For if there had been a law given, which Edition: current; Page: [52] could have put us in a state of life*, certainlyLocke1824: 22 righteousness should have been by law. But we find the quite contrary by the scripture, which makes no distinction betwixt jew and gentile, in this respect, but has shut up together all mankind, jews and gentiles, under sin§ and guilt, that the blessing which was promised, to that which is Abraham’s true and intended seed, by faith in Christ,Locke1824: 23 might be given to those who believe. But, before Christ, and the doctrine of justification by faith in him, came, we jews were shut up as a company of prisoners together, under the custody and inflexible rigour of the law, unto the coming of the Messiah, when the doctrine of justification by faith**Locke1824: 24 in him should be revealed. So that the law, by its severity, served as a schoolmaster to bring us to Edition: current; Page: [53] Locke1824: 25 Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But Christ being come, and with him the doctrine of justification by faith, we are set free from this schoolmaster, there is no longer any need of him.

SECT. VI.

CHAP. III. 26—29.

CONTENTS.

As a further argument to dissuade them from circumcision, he tells the galatians, that by faith in Christ, all, whether jews or gentiles, are made the children of God; and so they stood in no need of circumcision.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 26For ye are all the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus.

Locke1824: 27For as many of you, as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ.

Locke1824: 28There is neither jew nor greek, there is neither bond nor free, Edition: current; Page: [54] there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

Locke1824: 29And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 26For ye are* all the children of God, by faith inLocke1824: 27 Christ Jesus. For as many of you, as have beenLocke1824: 28 baptized in Christ, have put on Christ. There Edition: current; Page: [54] is no distinction of jew or gentile, or bond or free, of male or female. For ye are all one body, makingLocke1824: 29 up one person in Christ Jesus. And if ye are all one in Christ Jesus,* ye are the true ones, seed of Abraham, and heirs according to the propose.

SECT. VII.

CHAP. IV. 1—11.

CONTENTS.

In the first part of this section he further shows, that the law was not against the promise, in that the child is not disinherited, by being under tutors. But the chief design of this section is to show, that though both jews and gentiles were intended to be the children of God, and heirs of the promise by faith in Christ, yet they both of them were left in bondage, the jews to the law, ver. 3, and the gentiles to false gods, ver 8, until Christ in due time came to redeem them both; and, therefore, Edition: current; Page: [55] it was folly in the galatians, being redeemed from one bondage, to go backwards, and put themselves again in a state of bondage, though under a new master.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;

Locke1824: 2But he is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of the father.

Locke1824: 3Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:

Locke1824: 4But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his son made of a woman, made under the law;

Locke1824: 5To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

Locke1824: 6And, because ye are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of his son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

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Locke1824: 7Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God, through Christ.

Locke1824: 8Howbeit, then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them, which by nature are no gods.

Locke1824: 9But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?

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Locke1824: 10Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.

Locke1824: 11I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a bondman,* though he beLocke1824: 2 lord of all; But is under tutors and guardians, untilLocke1824: 3 the time prefixed by his father. So we jews, whilst we were children, were in bondage under the law.Locke1824: 4 But when the time appointed for the coming of the Messias was accomplished, God sent forth his Son,Locke1824: 5 made of a woman, and subjected to the law; That he might redeem those who were under the law, and set them free from it, that we, who believe, might be put out of the state of bondmen, into that of sons.Locke1824: 6 Into which state of sons, it is evident that you, galatians, who were heretofore gentiles, are put; forasmuch as God hath sent forth his Spirit§ into your Edition: current; Page: [56] Locke1824: 7 hearts, which enables you to cry Abba, Father. So that thou art no longer a bondman, but a son: and if a son, then an heir* of God, or of the promise ofLocke1824: 8 God, though Christ. But then, i. e. before ye were made the sons of God, by faith in Christ, now under the gospel, ye, not knowing God, were in bondage toLocke1824: 9 those, who were in truth no gods. But now, that ye know God, yea rather, that ye are known and taken into favour by him, how can it be that you, who have been put out of a state of bondage, into the freedom Edition: current; Page: [58] of sons, should go backwards, and be willing to put yourselves under the* weak and beggarly elementsLocke1824: 10 of the world into a state of bondage again? Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years, inLocke1824: 11 compliance with the Mosaical institution. I begin to be afraid of you, and to be in doubt, whether all the pains I have taken about you, to set you at liberty, in the freedom of the gospel, will not prove lost labour.

SECT. VIII.

CHAP. IV. 12—20.

CONTENTS.

He presses them with the remembrance of the great kindness they had for him, when he was amongst them; and assures them that they have no reason to be alienated from him, though that be it, which the judaizing seducers aim at.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 12Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye are: ye have not injured me at all.

Locke1824: 13Ye know how, through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the gospel unto you at the first.

Locke1824: 14And my temptation, which was in my flesh, ye despised not, nor rejected; but received me, as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.

Locke1824: 15Where then is the blessedness you spake of; for I bear you record, that if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and given them to me.

Locke1824: 16And I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?

Locke1824: 17They zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you, that you might affect them.

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Locke1824: 18But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present with you.

Locke1824: 19My little children, of whom I travail in birth again, until Christ be formed in you.

Locke1824: 20I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice; for I stand in doubt of you.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 12I beseech you, brethren, let you and I be as if we were all one. Think yourselves to be very me; as I, in my own mind, put no difference at all between you and myself; you have done me no manner ofLocke1824: 13 injury: On the contrary, ye know, that through infirmity of the flesh, I heretofore preached the gospelLocke1824: 14 to you. And yet ye despised me not, for the trial I underwent in the flesh*, you treated me not with contempt and scorn: but you received me, as anLocke1824: 15 angel of God, yea, as Jesus Christ himself. What benedictions did you then pour out upon me? For I bear you witness, had it been practicable, you would have pulled out your very eyes, and given themLocke1824: 16 me. But is it so, that I am become your enemyLocke1824: 17 in continuing to tell you the truth? They, who would make you of that mind, show a warmth of affection to you; but it is not well: for their business Edition: current; Page: [59] is to exclude me, that they may get into your affection.Locke1824: 18 It is good to be well and warmly affected towards a good man*, at all times, and not barelyLocke1824: 19 when I am present with you, My little children, for whom I have again the pains of a woman in childbirth, until Christ be formed in you, i. e. till the true doctrine of christianity be settled in yourLocke1824: 20 minds. But I would willingly be this very moment with you, and change my discourse, as I should Edition: current; Page: [60] find occasion; for I am at a stand about you, and know not what to think of you.

SECT. IX.

CHAP. IV. 21.—V. 1.

CONTENTS.

He exhorts them to stand fast in the liberty, with which Christ hath made them free, showing those, who are so zealous for the law, that, if they mind what they read in the law, they will there find, that the children of the promise, or of the new Jerusalem, were to be free; but the children after the flesh, of the earthly Jerusalem, were to be in bondage, and to be cast out, and not to have the inheritance.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 21Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?

Locke1824: 22For it is written, that Abraham had two sons; the one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman.

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Locke1824: 23But he, who was of the bond-woman, was born after the flesh: but he of the free-woman was by promise.

Locke1824: 24Which things are an allegory; for these are the two covenants; the one from the Mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar.

Locke1824: 25For this Agar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem, which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

Locke1824: 26But Jerusalem which is above, is free, which is the mother of us all.

Locke1824: 27For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break forth and cry, that thou travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

Locke1824: 28Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.

Locke1824: 29But as, then, he that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the spirit, even so it is now.

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Locke1824: 30Nevertheless, what saith the scripture? Cast out the bond-woman and her son: for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free woman.

Locke1824: 31So then, brethren, we are not children of the bond-woman, but of the free.

Locke1824: V. 1.Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 21Tell me, you that would so fain be under the law, do you not acquaint yourselves with what is in the law, either by reading* it, or having it read in your assemblies?Locke1824: 22For it is there written, Abraham had two Edition: current; Page: [61] sons, one by a bond-maid the other by a free woman.Locke1824: 23 But he that was of the bond-woman, was born according to the flesh, in the ordinary course of nature; but he that was of the free woman, Abraham had by virtue of the promise, after he and his wife were pastLocke1824: 24 the hopes of another child. These things have an allegorical meaning: for the two women are the two covenants, the one of them delivered from mount Sinai, and is represented by Agar, who produces herLocke1824: 25 issue into bondage. (For Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answers to Jerusalem, that now is, andLocke1824: 26 is in bondage with her children.) But the heavenly Jerusalem, which is above, and answers to Sarah, the mother of the promised seed, is free, the motherLocke1824: 27 of us all, both jews and gentiles, who believe. For it was of her, that it is written*, “Rejoice, thou barren, that bearest not; break out into loud acclamations of joy, thou that hast not the travails of child-birth; for more are the children of theLocke1824: 28 desolate, than of her that hath an husband.” And it is we, my brethren, who, as Isaac was, are theLocke1824: 29 children of promise. But as, then, Ishmael, who Edition: current; Page: [62] was born in the ordinary course of nature*, persecuted Isaac, who was born by an extraordinary power, from heaven, working miraculously; so is itLocke1824: 30 now. But what saith the scripture? “Cast out the bond-woman and her son: for the son of the bond-woman shall not share the inheritance withLocke1824: 31 the son of the free-woman.” So then, brethren, we, who believe in Christ, are not the children of the bond-woman,Locke1824: V. 1. but of the free. Stand fast, therefore, in the liberty, wherewith Christ hath made you free, and do not put on again a yoke of bondage, by putting yourselves under the law.

SECT. X.

CHAP. V. 2—13.

CONTENTS.

It is evident from ver. 11, that, the better to prevail, with the galatians to be circumcised, it had been reported, that St. Paul himself preached up circumcision. Edition: current; Page: [63] St. Paul, without taking express notice of this calumny, chap. i. 6, and ii. 21, gives an account of his past life, in a large train of particulars, which all concur to make such a character of him, as renders it very incredible, that he should ever declare for the circumcision of the gentile converts, or for their submission to the law. Having thus prepared the minds of the galatians to give him a fair hearing, as a fair man ζηλȣ͂σθαι ἐν ϰαλῷ, he goes on to argue against their subjecting themselves to the law. And having established their freedom from the law, by many strong arguments, he comes here at last openly to take notice of the report which had been raised of him, [that he preached circumcision] and directly confutes it.

1. By positively denouncing to them himself, very solemnly; that they, who suffer themselves to be circumcised, put themselves into a perfect legal state, out of the covenant of grace, and could receive no benefit by Jesus Christ, ver. 2—4.

2. By assuring them, that he, and those that followed him, expected justification only by faith, ver. 5, 6.

3. By telling them, that he had put them in the right way, and that this new persuasion came not from him, that converted them to christianity, ver. 7, 8.

4. By insinuating to them, that they should agree to pass judgment on him, that troubled them with this doctrine, ver. 9, 10.

5. By his being persecuted, for opposing the circumcision of the christians. For this was the great offence, which stuck with the jews, even after their conversion, ver. 11.

6. By wishing those cut off, that trouble them with this doctrine, ver. 12.

This will, I doubt not, by whoever weighs it, be found a very skilful management of the argumentative part of this epistle, which ends here. For, though he begins with sapping the foundation, on which the judaizing seducers seemed to have laid their main stress, viz. the report of his preaching circumcision; yet he reserves the direct and open confutation of it to the end, and so leaves it with them, that it may have the more forcible and lasting impression on their minds.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 2Behold; I, Paul, say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.

Locke1824: 3For I testify, again, to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.

Locke1824: 4Christ is become of no effect unto you; whosoever of you are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace.

Locke1824: 5For we, through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.

Locke1824: 6For in Jesus Christ, neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith, which worketh by love.

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Locke1824: 7Ye did run well: who did hinder you, that ye should not obey the truth?

Locke1824: 8This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you.

Locke1824: 9A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

Locke1824: 10I have confidence in you, through the Lord, that you will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you, shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.

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Locke1824: 11And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

Locke1824: 12I would they were even cut off, which trouble you.

Locke1824: 13For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 2Take notice that I, Paul*, who am falsely reported to preach up circumcision in other places, say unto you, that if you are circumcised, Christ shall be of no advantageLocke1824: 3 to you. For I repeat here again, what I have always preached, and solemnly testify to every one, who yields to be circumcised, in compliance with those who say, That now, under the gospel, he cannot be saved without it, that he is under an obligation to the whole law, and bound to observe and performLocke1824: 4 every tittle of it. Christ is of no use to you, who seek justification by the law: whosoever do so, be ye what ye will, ye are fallen from the covenant ofLocke1824: 5 grace. But I, and those, who with me are true christians, we, who follow the truth of the gospel, and the doctrine of the Spirit§ of God, have no otherLocke1824: 6 hope of justification, but by faith in Christ. For in the state of the gospel, under Jesus, the Messiah, it is Edition: current; Page: [65] neither circumcision nor uncircumcision, that is of any moment; all that is available is faith alone,Locke1824: 7 working by love*. When you first entered into the profession of the gospel, you were in a good way, and went on well: who has put a stop to you, and hindereth you, that you keep no longer to theLocke1824: 8 truth of the christian doctrine? This persuasion, that it is necessary for you to be circumcised, cometh not from him, by whose preaching you were calledLocke1824: 9 to the profession of the gospel. Remember that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump; the influence of one man entertained among you, mayLocke1824: 10 mislead you all. I have confidence in you, that, by the help of the Lord, you will be all of this same mind§ with me; and consequently he that troubles Edition: current; Page: [65] you, shall fall under the censure he deserves for it*,Locke1824: 11whoever he be. But as for me, brethren, if I, at last, am become a preacher of circumcision, why am I yet persecuted? If it be so, that the gentile converts are to be circumcised, and so subjected to the law, the great offence of the gospel, in relying solely on a crucified Saviour for salvation, is removed.Locke1824: 12 But I am of another mind, and wish that they may be cut off, who trouble you about thisLocke1824: 13 matter, and they shall be cut off. For, brethren, ye have been called by me unto liberty.

SECT. XI.

CHAP. V. 13—26.

CONTENTS.

From the mention of liberty, which he tells them they are called to, under the gospel, he takes a rise to caution them in the use of it, and so exhorts them to a spiritual, or true christian life, showing the difference Edition: current; Page: [67] and contrariety between that and a carnal life, or a life after the flesh.

TEXT.

Only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

Locke1824: 14For all the law is fulfilled in one word: even in this; thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Locke1824: 15But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

Locke1824: 16This I say then, Walk in the spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

Locke1824: 17For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

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Locke1824: 18But if ye be led by the spirit, ye are not under the law.

Locke1824: 19Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

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Locke1824: 20Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

Locke1824: 21Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such-like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they, which do such things, shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

Locke1824: 22But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,

Locke1824: 23Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Locke1824: 24And they that are Christ’s, have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts.

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Locke1824: 25If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.

Locke1824: 26Let us not be desirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying one another.

PARAPHRASE.

Though the gospel, to which you are called, be a state of liberty from the bondage of the law, yet pray take great care you do not mistake that liberty, nor think it affords you an opportunity, in the abuse of it, to satisfy the lust of the flesh, but serve* oneLocke1824: 14 another in love. For the whole law, concerning our duty to others, is fulfilled in observing this one precept; “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.”Locke1824: 15But, if you bite and tear one another, take heed that you be not destroyed and consumedLocke1824: 16 by one another. This I say to you, conduct yourselves by the light that is in your minds, and do not give yourselves up to the lusts of the flesh, toLocke1824: 17 obey them, in what they put upon you. For the inclinations and desires of the flesh, are contrary to those of the spirit: and the dictates and inclinations of the spirit are contrary to those of the flesh; so Edition: current; Page: [68] that, under these contrary impulses, you do not doLocke1824: 18 the things that you purpose to yourselves*. But if you give yourselves up to the conduct of the gospel,Locke1824: 19 by faith in Christ, ye are not under the law. Now Edition: current; Page: [69] the works of the flesh, as is manifest, are these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,Locke1824: 20 Idolatry, witchcraft*, enmities, quarrels, emulations,Locke1824: 21 animosities, strife, seditions, sects, Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such-like: concerning which I forewarn you now, as heretofore I have done, that they, who do such things, shall not inheritLocke1824: 22 the kingdom of God. But, on the other side, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, sweetness of disposition, beneficence, faithfulness,Locke1824: 23 Meekness, temperance: against these andLocke1824: 24 the like there is no law. Now they who belong to Christ, and are his members, have§ crucified the Edition: current; Page: [70] Locke1824: 25 flesh, with the affections and lusts thereof. If our life then (our flesh having been crucified) be, as we profess, by the Spirit, whereby we are alive from that state of sin, we were dead in before, let us regulate our lives and actions by the light and dictatesLocke1824: 26 of the Spirit. Let us not be led, by an itch of vain-glory, to provoke one another, or to envy one another*.

SECT. XII.

CHAP. VI. 1—5.

CONTENTS.

He here exhorts the stronger to gentleness and meekness towards the weak.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

Locke1824: 2Bear ye one another’s burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ.

Locke1824: 3For if a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.

Locke1824: 4But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another.

Locke1824: 5For every man shall bear his own burden.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Brethren, if a man, by frailty or surprise, fall into a fault, do you, who are eminent in the church for knowledge, practice, and gifts,* raise him up again, and set him right, with gentleness and meekness, considering that you yourselves are not out of the reachLocke1824: 2 of temptations. Bear with one another’s infirmities, and help to support each other under your burdens,Locke1824: 3 and so fulfil the law of Christ. For if any one be conceited of himself, as if he were something, a man of weight, fit to prescribe to others, when indeed he isLocke1824: 4 not, he deceiveth himself. But let him take care that what he himself doth be right, and such as will bear the test, and then he will have matter of glorying§Locke1824: 5 in himself, and not in another. For every one shall be accountable only for his own actions.

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SECT. XIII.

CHAP. VI. 6—10.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having laid some restraint upon the authority and forwardness of the teachers, and leading men amongst them, who were, as it seems, more ready to impose on the galatians what they should not, than to help them forward in the practice of gospel-obedience; he here takes care of them, in respect of their maintenance, and exhorts the galatians to liberality towards them, and, in general, towards all men, especially christians.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 6Let him, that is taught in the word, communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.

Locke1824: 7Be not deceived; God is not mocked; for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.

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Locke1824: 8For he that soweth to his flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.

Locke1824: 9And let us not be weary in well-doing; for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.

Locke1824: 10As we have, therefore, opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 6Let him, that is taught the doctrine of the gospel, freely communicate the good things of this world toLocke1824: 7 him that teaches him. Be not deceived, God will Edition: current; Page: [73] not be mocked; for, as a man soweth,* so also shallLocke1824: 8 he reap. He, that lays out the stock of good things he has, only for the satisfaction of his own bodily necessities, conveniences, or pleasures, shall, at the harvest, find the fruit and product of such husbandry to be corruption and perishing. But he, that lays out his worldly substance, according to the rules dictated by the Spirit of God in the gospel, shall, ofLocke1824: 9 the Spirit, reap life everlasting. In doing thus, what is good and right, let us not wax weary; for in due season, when the time of harvest comes, we shall reap, if we continue on to do good, and flag not.Locke1824: 10 Therefore, as we have opportunities, let us do good unto all men, especially to those who profess faith in Jesus Christ, i. e. the christian religion.

SECT. XIV.

CHAP. VI. 11—18.

CONTENTS.

One may see what lay upon St. Paul’s mind, in writing to the galatians, by what he inculcates to them here, even after he had finished his letter. The like we have in Edition: current; Page: [74] the last chapter to the romans. He here winds up all with admonitions to the galatians, of a different end and aim they had, to get the galatians circumcised, from what he had in preaching the gospel.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 11You see how large a letter I have written unto you, with mine own hand,

Locke1824: 12As many as desire to make a fair show in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.

Locke1824: 13For neither they themselves, who are circumcised, keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh.

Locke1824: 14But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.

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Locke1824: 15For, in Christ Jesus, neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.

Locke1824: 16And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.

Locke1824: 17From henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus.

Locke1824: 18Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.

Unto the galatians, written from Rome.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 11You see how long a letter I have writ to you withLocke1824: 12 my own hand*. They, who are willing to carry it so fairly in the ritual part of the law, and to make ostentation of their compliance therein, constrain you to be circumcised, only to avoid persecution, for owning their dependence for salvation solely on a crucified Messiah, and not on the observance of the law.Locke1824: 13 For even they themselves, who are circumcised, do not keep the law. But they will have you to be circumcised, that this mark in your flesh may afford them matter of glorying, and of recommending themselvesLocke1824: 14 to the good opinion of the jews. But as for me, whatever may be said of me§, God forbid that I should glory in any thing, but in having Jesus Christ, who was crucified, for my sole Lord and Master, whom I am to obey and depend on; which I so entirely do, without regard to any thing else, that I am wholly dead to the world, and the world Edition: current; Page: [75] dead to me, and it has no more influence on me, thanLocke1824: 15 if it were not. For, as to the obtaining a share in the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the privileges and advantages of it, neither circumcision nor uncircumcision, such outward differences in the flesh, avail any thing, but the new creation, wherein by a thorough change a man is disposed to righteousness, andLocke1824: 16 true holiness, in good works*. And on all those, who walk by this rule, viz. that it is the new creation alone, and not circumcision, that availeth under the gospel, peace and mercy shall be on them, they being that Israel, which are truly the people of God.Locke1824: 17 From henceforth, let no man give me trouble by questions, or doubt whether I preach circumcision or no. It is true, I am circumcised. But yet the marks I now bear in my body, are the marks of Jesus Christ, that I am his. The marks of the stripes, which I have received from the jews, and which I still bear in my body for preaching Jesus Christ, areLocke1824: 18 an evidence that I am not for circumcision. “Brethren, the favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.” Amen.

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A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE FIRST EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE CORINTHIANS.

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THE FIRST EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE CORINTHIANS;
WRIT IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 57, OF NERO III.

SYNOPSIS.

Saint Paul’s first coming to Corinth was anno Christi 52, where he first applied himself to the synagogue, Acts xviii. 4. But finding them obstinate in their opposition to the gospel, he turned to the gentiles, ver. 6, out of whom this church at Corinth seems chiefly to be gathered, as appears, Acts xviii. and 1 Cor. xii. 2.

His stay here was about two years, as appears from Acts xviii. 11, 18, compared: in which time it may be concluded he made many converts; for he was not idle there, nor did he use to stay long in a place, where he was not encouraged by the success of his ministry. Besides what his so long abode in this one city, and his indefatigable labour every where, might induce one to presume, of the number of converts he made in that city; the scripture itself, Acts xviii. 10, gives sufficient evidence of a numerous church gathered there.

Corinth itself was a rich merchant-town, the inhabitants greeks, a people of quick parts, and inquisitive, 1 Cor. i. 22, but naturally vain and conceited of themselves.

These things considered may help us, in some measure, the better to understand St. Paul’s epistles to this church, which seems to be in greater disorder, than any other of the churches which he writ to.

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This epistle was writ to the corinthians, anno Christi 57, between two and three years after St. Paul had left them. In this interval, there was got in amongst them a new instructor, a jew by nation, who had raised a faction against St. Paul. With this party, whereof he was the leader, this false apostle had gained great authority, so that they admired and gloried in him, with an apparent disesteem and diminishing of St. Paul.

Why I suppose the opposition to be made to St. Paul, in this church, by one party, under one leader, I shall give the reasons, that make it probable to me, as they come in my way, going through these two epistles; which I shall leave to the reader to judge, without positively determining on either side; and therefore shall, as it happens, speak of these opposers of St. Paul, sometimes in the singular, and sometimes in the plural number.

This at least is evident, that the main design of St. Paul, in this epistle, is to support his own authority, dignity, and credit, with that part of the church which stuck to him; to vindicate himself from the aspersions and calumnies of the opposite party; to lessen the credit of the chief and leading men in it, by intimating their miscarriages, and showing their no cause of glorying, or being gloried in: that so withdrawing their party from the admiration and esteem of those their leaders, he might break the faction; and putting an end to the division, might re-unite them with the uncorrupted part of the church, that they might all unanimously submit to the authority of his divine mission, and with one accord receive and keep the doctrine and directions he had delivered to them.

This is the whole subject from chap. i. 10, to the end of chap. vi. In the remaining part of this epistle, he answers some questions they had proposed to him, and resolves some doubts; not without a mixture, on all occasions, of reflections on his opposers, and of other things, that might tend to the breaking of their faction.

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SECT. I.

CHAP. I. 1—9.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother:

Locke1824: 2Unto the church of God, which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ, our Lord, both theirs and ours.

Locke1824: 3Grace be unto you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

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Locke1824: 4I thank my God always, on your behalf, for the grace of God, which is given you, by Jesus Christ;

Locke1824: 5That, in every thing, ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge:

Locke1824: 6Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you.

Locke1824: 7So that ye come behind in no gift, waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:

Locke1824: 8Who also shall confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 9God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Paul an apostle of Jesus Christ, called to be so by the will of God*, and Sosthenes our brother in theLocke1824: 2 christian faith; To the church of God, which is at Corinth, to them that are separated from the rest of the world, by faith in Jesus Christ, called to be saints, with all, that are every-where called by the nameLocke1824: 3 of Jesus Christ§, their Lord, and ours. Favour and peace be unto you, from God our Father, and from Edition: current; Page: [82] Locke1824: 4 the Lord Jesus Christ. I thank God always, on your behalf, for the favour of God, which is bestowed onLocke1824: 5 you, through Jesus Christ; So that, by him, you are enriched with all knowledge and utterance, andLocke1824: 6 all extraordinary gift: As at first, by those miraculous gifts, the gospel of Christ was confirmedLocke1824: 7 among you. So that in no spiritual gift are any of you short, or deficient*, waiting for theLocke1824: 8 coming of our Lord Jesus Christ; Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that in the day of the LordLocke1824: 9 Jesus Christ, there may be no charge against you. For God, who has called you unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ, our Lord, may be relied on for what is to be done on his side.

SECT. II.

CHAP. I. 10.—VI. 20.

CONTENTS.

There were great disorders in the church of Corinth, caused chiefly by a faction raised there, against St. Paul: the partisans of the faction mightily cried up, and gloried in their leaders, who did all they could to disparage St. Paul, and lessen him in the esteem of the Edition: current; Page: [83] corinthians. St. Paul makes it is business, in this section, to take off the corinthians from siding with, and glorying in, this pretended apostle, whose followers and scholars they professed themselves to be; and to reduce them into one body, as the scholars of Christ, united in a belief of the gospel, which he had preached to them, and in an obedience to it, without any such distinction of masters, or leaders, from whom they denominated themselves. He also, here and there, intermixes a justification of himself, against the aspersions which were cast upon him, by his opposers. How much St. Paul was set against their leaders, may be seen, 2 Cor. xi. 13—15.

The arguments used by St. Paul, to break the opposite faction, and put an end to all divisions amongst them, being various, we shall take notice of them, under their several heads, as they come in the order of this discourse.

SECT. II. No. 1.

CHAP. I. 10—16.

CONTENTS.

Saint Paul’s first argument is, That, in christianity, they all had but one master, viz. Christ; and therefore were not to fall into parties, denominated from distinct teachers, as they did in their schools of philosophy.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 10Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no Edition: current; Page: [84] divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together, in the same mind, and in the same judgment.

Locke1824: 11For it hath been declared unto me, of you, my brethren, by them which are of the house of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.

Locke1824: 12Now, this I say, that every one of you saith, “I am of Paul, and I of Apollos, and I of Cephas, and I of Christ.”

Locke1824: 13Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?

Locke1824: 14I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispas and Gaius:

Locke1824: 15Lest any should say, that I had baptized in my own name.

Locke1824: 16And I baptized also the houshold of Stephanus: besides, I know not whether I baptized any other.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 10Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name* of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye hold the same doctrine, Edition: current; Page: [84] and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be framed together into one intire body, with oneLocke1824: 11 mind, and one affection. For I understand, my brethren*, by some of the house of Chloe, that thereLocke1824: 12 are quarrels and dissentions amongst you; So that ye are fallen into parties, ranking yourselves under different leaders or masters, one saying, “I am of Paul;” another, “I of Apollos, I of Cephas, I ofLocke1824: 13 Christ.” Is Christ, who is our only Head and Master, divided? Was Paul crucified for you? OrLocke1824: 14 were you baptized into the name of Paul? I thank God I baptized none of you, but Crispus and Gaius;Locke1824: 15 Lest any one should say, I had baptized into myLocke1824: 16 own name. I baptized also the household of Stephanas; farther, I know not whether I baptized any other.

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SECT. II. No. 2.

CHAP. 1. 17—31.

CONTENTS.

The next argument of St. Paul, to stop their followers from glorying in these false apostles, is, that neither any advantage of extraction, nor skill in the learning of the jews, nor in the philosophy and eloquence of the greeks, was that, for which God chose men to be preachers of the gospel. Those, whom he made choice of, for overturning the mighty and the learned, were mean, plain, illiterate men.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 17For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect.

Locke1824: 18For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness: but unto us, which are saved, it is the power of God.

Locke1824: 19For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.

Locke1824: 20Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?

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Locke1824: 21For after that, in the wisdom of God, the world, by wisdom, knew not God, it pleased God, by the foolishness of preaching, to save them that believe.

Locke1824: 22For the jews require a sign, and the greeks seek after wisdom:

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Locke1824: 23But we preach Christ crucified, unto the jews a stumbling block, and unto the greeks foolishness.

Locke1824: 24But unto them which are called, both jews and greeks, Christ, the power of God, and the wisdom of God:

Locke1824: 25Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men.

Locke1824: 26For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called.

Locke1824: 27But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world, to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world, to confound the things which are mighty:

Locke1824: 28And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are:

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Locke1824: 29That no flesh should glory in his presence.

Locke1824: 30But of him are ye, in Christ Jesus, who, of God, is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption:

Locke1824: 31That, according as it is written, “He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.”

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 17For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel; not with learned and eloquent harangues, lest thereby the virtue and efficacy of Christ’s sufferings and death should be overlooked and neglected, if the stress of our persuasion should be laid on the learningLocke1824: 18 and quaintness of our preaching. For the plain insisting on the death of a crucified Saviour is, by those, who perish, received as a foolish, contemptible thing; though to us, who are saved, it be the powerLocke1824: 19 of God, Conformable to what is prophecied by Isaiah: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will bring to nothing the understanding of theLocke1824: 20 prudent.” Where is the philosopher, skilled in Edition: current; Page: [86] the wisdom of the greek? Where the scribes,* studied in the learning of the jews? Where the professor of human arts and sciences? Hath not God rendered all the learning and wisdom of this world foolish, and useless for the discovery of the truths ofLocke1824: 21 the gospel? For since the world, by their natural parts, and improvements in what, with them, passed for wisdom, acknowledged not the one, only, true God, though he had manifested himself to them, in the wise contrivance and admirable frame of the visible works of the creation; it pleased God, by the plain, and (as the world esteems it) foolish doctrine of the gospel, to save those who receive and believeLocke1824: 22 it. Since both the jews demand extraordinary Edition: current; Page: [87] signs and miracles, and the greeks seek wisdom:Locke1824: 23 But I have nothing else to preach to them, but Christ crucified, a doctrine offensive to the hopes and expectations of the jews; and foolish to the acute menLocke1824: 24 of learning, the greeks: But yet it is to these, both jews and greeks, (when they are converted) Christ, the power of God, and Christ, the wisdom of God:Locke1824: 25 Because that, which seems foolishness in those, who came from God, surpasses the wisdom of man; and that, which seems weakness in those sent by God,Locke1824: 26 surpasses the power of men. For reflect upon your selves, brethren, and you may observe, that there are not many of the wise and learned men, not many men of power, or of birth, among you, thatLocke1824: 27 are called. But God hath chosen the foolish men, in the account of the world, to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak men of the world,Locke1824: 28 to confound the mighty: The mean men of the world, and contemptible, has God chosen, and those that are of no account, are nothing,* to displace Edition: current; Page: [88] Locke1824: 29 those that are: That so there might be no room, or pretence, for any one to glory in his presence.Locke1824: 30 Natural, human abilities, parts or wisdom, could never have reached this way to happiness: it is to his wisdom alone, that ye owe the contrivance of it; to his revealing of it, that ye owe the knowledge of it; and it is from him alone, that you are in Christ Jesus, whom God has made to us, Christians, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption, which is all the dignity and preeminence, all that is of any value, amongst us Christians:Locke1824: 31 That as it is written, He that glorieth, should glory only in the Lord.

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SECT. II. No. 3.

CHAP. II. 1—5.

CONTENTS.

Farther to keep them from glorying in their leaders, he tells them, that as the preachers of the gospel, of God’s choosing, were mean and illiterate men, so the gospel was not to be propagated, nor men to be established in the faith, by human learning and eloquence, but by the evidence it had, from the revelation contained in the old Testament, and from the power of God accompanying and confirming it with miracles.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1And I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech, or of wisdom, declaring unto you the testimony of God.

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Locke1824: 2For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

Locke1824: 3And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling.

Locke1824: 4And my speech, and my preaching, was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, and of power:

Locke1824: 5That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1And I, brethren, when I came and preached the gospel to you, I did not endeavour to set it off with any ornaments of rhetoric, or the mixture of human learning, or philosophy; but plainly declared it to you, as a doctrine coming from God, revealed and attested* Edition: current; Page: [90] Locke1824: 2 by him. For I resolved to own, or show, no other knowledge among you, but the knowledge*, or doctrineLocke1824: 3 of Jesus Christ, and of him crucified. All my carriage among you had nothing in it, but the appearance of weakness and humility, and fear of offendingLocke1824: 4 you. Neither did I in my discourses, or preaching, make use of any human art of persuasion, to inveigle you. But the doctrine of the gospel, which I proposed, I confirmed and inforced by what the Spirit had revealed and demonstrated of it, in the Old Testament, and by the power of God, accompanyingLocke1824: 5 it with miraculous operations: That your faith might have its foundation, not in the wisdom and endowments of men, but in the power of God§.

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SECT. II. No. 4.

CHAP. II. 6—16.

CONTENTS.

The next argument the apostle uses to show them, that they had no reason to glory in their teachers, is, that the knowledge of the gospel was not attainable by our natural parts, however they were improved by arts and philosophy, but was wholly owing to revelation.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 6Howbeit we speak wisdom amongst them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought.

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Locke1824: 7But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained, before the world, unto our glory.

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Locke1824: 8Which none of the princes of this world knew; for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

Locke1824: 9But, as it is written, “Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.”

Locke1824: 10But God hath revealed them unto us, by his Spirit; for the Spirit searcheth all things: yea, the deep things of God.

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Locke1824: 11For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of a man, which is in him? even so, the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.

Locke1824: 12Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God; that we might know the things, that are freely given to us of God.

Locke1824: 13Which things also we speak, not in the words, which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.

Locke1824: 14But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of Edition: current; Page: [96] God: for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them; because they are spiritually discerned.

Locke1824: 15But he, that is spiritual, judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man.

Locke1824: 16For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? but we have the mind of Christ.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 6Howbeit, that which we preach is wisdom, and known to be so, among those who are thoroughly instructed in the christian religion, and take it upon its true principles*: but not the wisdom of this world, nor of Edition: current; Page: [92] the princes*, or great men of this world, who willLocke1824: 7 quickly be brought to nought. But we speak the Edition: current; Page: [93] wisdom of God*, contained in the mysterious and the obscure prophecies of the Old Testament, which has been therein concealed and hid: though it be what God predetermined, in his own purpose, before the jewish constitution, to the glory of Edition: current; Page: [94] Locke1824: 8 us*, who understand, receive, and preach it: Which none of the rulers among the jews understood; for, if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord Christ, who has in his hands the disposing of allLocke1824: 9 true glory. But they knew it not, as it is written, “Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor have the things, that God hath prepared for them that love him, entered into the heart or thoughts ofLocke1824: 10 man.” But these things, which are not discoverable by man’s natural faculties and powers, God hath revealed to us, by his Spirit, which searcheth out all things, even the deep counsels of God, which are beyond the reach of our abilities to discover. Edition: current; Page: [95] Locke1824: 11 For, as no man knoweth what is in the mind of another man, but only the spirit of the man himself that is in him: so, much less doth any man know, or can discover, the thoughts and counsels ofLocke1824: 12 God, but only the Spirit of God. But we* have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit, which is of God, that we might know what things are in the purpose of God, out of his free bountyLocke1824: 13 to bestow upon us. Which things we not only know, but declare also; not in the language and learning, taught by human eloquence and philosophy, but in the language and expressions, which the Holy Ghost teacheth, in the revelations contained in the holy scriptures, comparing oneLocke1824: 14 part of the revelation with another. But a Edition: current; Page: [96] man*, who hath no other help but his own natural faculties, how much soever improved by human arts and sciences, cannot receive the truths of the gospel, which are made known by another principle only, viz. the Spirit of God revealing them; and therefore seem foolish and absurd to such a man: nor can he, by the bare use of his natural faculties, and the principles of human reason, ever come to the knowledge of them; because it is, by the studying of divine revelation alone, that we can attain theLocke1824: 15 knowledge of them. But he that lays his foundation in divine revelation, can judge what is, and what is not, the doctrine of the gospel, and of salvation; he can judge who is, and who is not, a good minister and preacher of the word of God: but others, who are bare animal men*, that go not beyond the discoveries made by the natural faculties of human understanding, without the help and study of revelation, cannot judge of such an one, whetherLocke1824: 16 he preacheth right and well, or not. For who, by the bare use of his natural parts, can come to know the mind of the Lord, in the design of the gospel, so as to be able to instruct him [the spiritual man] in Edition: current; Page: [97] it? But I who, renouncing all human learning and knowledge in the case, take all, that I preach, from divine revelation alone, I am sure, that therein I have the mind of Christ; and therefore, there is no reason why any of you should prefer other teachers to me; glory in them who oppose and villify me; and count it an honour to go for their scholars, and be of their party.

SECT. II. No. 5.

CHAP. III. I—IV. 20.

CONTENTS.

The next matter of boasting, which the faction made use of, to give the pre-eminence and preference to their leader, above St. Paul, seems to have been this, that their new teacher had led them farther, and given them a deeper insight into the mysteries of the gospel, than St. Paul had done. To take away their glorying on this account, St. Paul tells them, that they were carnal, and not capable of those more advanced truths, or any thing, beyond the first principles of christianity, which he had taught them; and, though another had come and watered what he had planted, yet neither planter, nor waterer, could assume to himself any glory from thence, because it was God alone, that gave the increase. But, whatever new doctrines they might pretend to receive, from their magnified, new apostle, yet no man could lay any other foundation, in a christian church, but what he St. Paul, had laid, viz. that “Jesus is the Christ;” and, therefore, there was no reason to glory in their teachers: because, upon this foundation, they, possibly, might build false, or unsound doctrines, Edition: current; Page: [98] for which they should receive no thanks from God; though, continuing in the faith, they might be saved. Some of the particular hay and stubble, which this leader brought into the church at Corinth, he seems particularly to point at, chap. iii. 16, 17, viz. their defiling the church, by retaining, and, as it may be supposed, patronizing the fornicator, who should have been turned out, chap. v. 7—13. He further adds, that these extolled heads of their party were, at best, but men; and none of the church ought to glory in men; for even Paul, and Apollos, and Peter, and all the other preachers of the gospel, were for the use and benefit, and glory of the church, as the church was for the glory of Christ.

Moreover, he shows them, that they ought not to be puffed up, upon the account of these their new teachers, to the undervaluing of him, though it should be true, that they had learned more from them, than from himself, for these reasons:

1. Because all the preachers of the gospel are but stewards of the mysteries of God; and whether they have been faithful in their stewardship, cannot be now known: and, therefore, they ought not to be some of them magnified and extolled, and others depressed and blamed, by their hearers here, until Christ their Lord come; and then he, knowing how they have behaved themselves in their ministry, will give them their due praises. Besides, these stewards have nothing, but what they have received; and, therefore, no glory belongs to them for it.

2. Because, if these leaders were (as was pretended) apostles, glory, and honour, and outward affluence here, was not their portion, the apostles being destined to want, contempt, and persecution.

3. They ought not to be honoured, followed, and gloried in, as apostles, because they had not the power of miracles, which he intended shortly to come, and show they had not.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ.

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Locke1824: 2I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able.

Locke1824: 3For ye are yet carnal: for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as men?

Locke1824: 4For while one saith, I am of Paul, and another, I am of Apollos, are ye not carnal?

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Locke1824: 5Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers, by whom ye believed, even as the Lord gave to every man?

Locke1824: 6I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.

Locke1824: 7So then, neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God, that giveth the increase.

Locke1824: 8Now he that planteth, and he that watereth, are one; and every man shall receive his own reward, according to his own labour.

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Locke1824: 9For we are labourers together with God: ye are God’s husbandry, ye are God’s building.

Locke1824: 10According to the grace of God, which is given unto me, as a wise master-builder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.

Locke1824: 11For other foundation can no man lay, than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 12Now, if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;

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Locke1824: 13Every man’s work shall be made manifest. For the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work, of what sort it is.

Locke1824: 14If any man’s work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.

Locke1824: 15If any man’s work shall be burnt, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so, as by fire.

Locke1824: 16Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

Locke1824: 17If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy: for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.

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Locke1824: 18Let no man deceive himself: if any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.

Locke1824: 19For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God: for it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

Locke1824: 20And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.

Locke1824: 21Therefore let no man glory in men: for all things are yours:

Locke1824: 22Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come: all are yours:

Locke1824: 23And ye are Christ’s: and Christ is God’s.

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Locke1824: IV. 1Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

Locke1824: 2Moreover, it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.

Locke1824: 3But with me it is a very small thing, that I should be judged of you, or of man’s judgment: yea, I judge not mine ownself.

Locke1824: 4For I know nothing by myself, yet am I not hereby justified; but he that judgeth me is the Lord.

Locke1824: 5Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God.

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Locke1824: 6And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself, and to Apollos, for your sakes; that ye might learn in us, not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up, for one against another.

Locke1824: 7For who maketh thee to differ from another? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? Now, if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?

Locke1824: 8Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as kings without us: and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you.

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Locke1824: 9For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were, appointed to death. For we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

Locke1824: 10We are fools for Christ’s sake, but ye are wise in Christ: we are weak, but ye are strong: ye are honourable, but we are despised.

Locke1824: 11Even unto this present hour, we both hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling-place.

Locke1824: 12And labour, working with our own hands: being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we suffer it:

Locke1824: 13Being defamed, we intreat: we are made as the filth of the world, and are the off-scouring of all things unto this day.

Locke1824: 14I write not these things to shame you; but, as my beloved sons, I warn you.

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Locke1824: 15For, though you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers: for, in Christ Jesus, I have begotten you, through the gospel.

Locke1824: 16Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me.

Locke1824: 17For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways, which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church.

Locke1824: 18Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you.

Locke1824: 19But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the power.

Locke1824: 20For the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1And I, brethren, found you so given up to pride and vain-glory, in affectation of learning and philosophical knowledge*, that I could not speak to you as spiritual, i. e. as to men not wholly depending on philosophy, and the discoveries of natural reason; as to men, who had resigned themselves up, in matters of religion, to revelation, and the knowledge which comes only from the Spirit of God; but as to carnal, even as to babes, who yet retained a great many childish and wrong notions about it: this hindered me, that I could not go so far, as I desired, in the mysteries of the christian religion; but was fain to content myself Edition: current; Page: [100] with instructing you in the first principles*, and moreLocke1824: 2 obvious and easy doctrines of it. I could not apply myself to you, as to spiritual men, that could compare spiritual things with spiritual, one part of scripture with another, and thereby understand the truths revealed by the Spirit of God, discerning true from false doctrines, good and useful, from evil and vain opinions. A further discovery of the truths and mysteries of christianity, depending wholly on revelation, you were not able to bear, then; nor are you yet ableLocke1824: 3 to bear; Because you are carnal, full of envyings, and strife, and factions, upon the account of your knowledge, and the orthodoxy of your particularLocke1824: 4 parties§. For, whilst you say, one, “I am of Paul;” and another, “I am of Apollos,” are ye not carnal, and manage yourselves in the conduct, both Edition: current; Page: [101] of your minds and actions, according to barely human principles, and not, as spiritual men, acknowledge all that information, and all those gifts, wherewith the ministers of Jesus Christ are furnished, from the propagation of the gospel, to come wholly from the Spirit of God. What, then, are any of the preachers of the gospel, that you should glory in them, and divide into parties, under theirLocke1824: 5 names? Who, for example, is Paul, or who Apollos? What are they else, but bare ministers, by whose ministry, according to those several abilities and gifts, which God has besowed upon each of them, ye have received the gospel? They are only servants, employed to bring unto you a religion, derived entirely from divine revelation, wherein human abilities, or wisdom, had nothing to do. The preachers of it are only instruments, by whom this doctrine is conveyed to you, which, whether you look on it in its original, it is not a thing of human invention or discovery; or whether you look upon the gifts of the teachers who instruct you in it, all is entirely from God alone, and affords you not the least ground to attribute any thing to yourLocke1824: 6 teachers. For example I planted it amongst you, and Apollos watered it: but nothing can from thence be ascribed to either of us: there is no reason for your calling yourselves, some of Paul, and others of Apollos.Locke1824: 7 For neither the planter, nor the waterer, have any power to make it take root, and grow in your hearts; they are as nothing, in that respect; the growth andLocke1824: 8 success is owing to God alone. The planter and the waterer, on this account, are all one, neither of them to be magnified, or preferred, before the other; they are but instruments, concurring to the same end, and Edition: current; Page: [102] therefore ought not to be distinguished, and set in opposition one to another, or cried up, as more deservingLocke1824: 9 one than another. We, the preachers of the gospel, are but labourers, employed by God, about that which is his work, and from him shall receive reward hereafter, every one according to his own labour; and not from men here, who are liable to make a wrong estimate of the labours of their teachers, preferring those, who do not labour together with God, who do not carry on the design, or work of God, in the gospel, or perhaps do not carry it on, equally with others, who are undervalued by them.Locke1824: 10 Ye who are the church of God, are God’s building, in which I, according to the skill and knowledge which God, of his free bounty, has been pleased to give me, and therefore ought not to be to me, or any other, matter of glorying, as a skilful architect, have laid a sure foundation, which is Jesus, the Messiah,Locke1824: 11 the sole and only foundation of christianity. Besides which, no man can lay any other. But, though no man, who pretends to be a preacher of the gospel, can build upon any other foundation, yet you ought not to cry up your new instructor* (who has come and built upon the foundation, that I laid) for the doctrines, he builds thereon, as if there were no other ministerLocke1824: 12 of the gospel but he. For it is possible a man Edition: current; Page: [103] may build, upon that true foundation, wood, hay, and stubble, things that will not bear the test, whenLocke1824: 13 the trial by fire, at the last day*, shall come. At that day, every man’s work shall be tried and discovered,Locke1824: 14 of what sort it is. If what he hath taught be sound and good, and will stand the trial, as silver and gold, and precious stones abide in the fire, heLocke1824: 15 shall be rewarded for his labour in the gospel. But, if he hath introduced false and unsound doctrines into christianity, he shall be like a man, whose building, being of wood, hay, and stubble, is consumed by the fire, all his pains in building is lost, and his works destroyed and gone, though he himself should escapeLocke1824: 16 and be saved. I told you, that ye are God’s building; yea, more than that, ye are the temple ofLocke1824: 17 God, in which his Spirit dwelleth. If any man, by corrupt doctrine or discipline, defileth the temple Edition: current; Page: [104] of God, he shall not be saved with loss, as by fire; but him will God destroy: for the temple of God isLocke1824: 18 holy, which temple ye are. Let no man deceive himself, by his success in carrying his point*: if any one seemeth to himself, or others, wise, in worldly wisdom, so as to pride himself in his parts and dexterity, in compassing his ends; let him renounce all his natural and acquired parts, all his knowledge and ability, that he may become truly wise, in embracing and owning no other knowledge, but the simplicityLocke1824: 19 of the gospel. For all other wisdom, all the wisdom of the world, is foolishness with God: for it is written, “He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.”Locke1824: 20 And again, “The Lord knoweth the thoughts ofLocke1824: 21 the wise, that they are vain.” Therefore, let none of you glory in any of your teachers; for they areLocke1824: 22 but men. For all your teachers, whether Paul, or Apollos, or Peter, even the apostles themselves, nay, all the world, and even the world to come, all things are yours, for your sake and use:

Locke1824: 23As you are Christ’s, subjects of his kingdom, for his Edition: current; Page: [105] glory; and Christ, and his kingdom, for the glory of God. Therefore, if all your teachers, and so many other greater things, are for you, and for your sakes, you can have no reason to make it a glory to you, that you belong to this, or that, particular teacher amongst you: your true glory is, that you are Christ’s, and Christ and all his are God’s; and not, that you are this, or that man’s scholar or follower.

Locke1824: 1As for me I pretend not to set up a school amongst you, and as a master to have my scholars denominated from me; no, let no man have higher thoughts of me, than as a minister of Christ, employed as his steward, to dispense the truths and doctrines of the gospel, which are the mysteries which God wrapped up, in types and obscure predictions, where they have lain hid, till by us, his apostles, he now reveals them.Locke1824: 2 Now that, which is principally required and regarded in a steward, is, that he be faithful in dispensingLocke1824: 3 what is committed to his charge. But as for me, I value it not, if I am censured by some of you, or by any man, as not being a faithful steward: nay, as toLocke1824: 4 this, I pass no judgment on myself. For though I can truly say, that I know nothing by myself, yet am I not hereby justified to you: but the Lord, whose steward I am, at the last day will pronounce sentence on my behaviour in my stewardship, andLocke1824: 5 then you will know what to think of me. Then judge not either me, or others, before the time, until the Lord come, who will bring to light the dark and Edition: current; Page: [106] secret counsels of men’s hearts, in preaching the gospel: and then shall every one have that praise, that estimate set upon him, by God himself, which he truly deserves. But praise ought not to be given them, before the time, by their hearers, who are ignorant,Locke1824: 6 fallible men. On this occasion, I have named Apollos and myself*, as the magnified and opposed heads of distinct factions amongst you; not that we are so, but out of respect to you, that I might offend nobody, by naming them; and that you might learn by us, of whom I have written, that we are but planters, waterers, and stewards, not to think of the ministers of the gospel, above what I have written to you of them, that you be not puffed up, each party, in the vain-glory of their own extolled leader, to the crying down and contempt of any other, who is well esteemedLocke1824: 7 of by others. For what maketh one to differ from another? or what gifts of the Spirit, what knowledge of the gospel has any leader amongst you, which he received not, as intrusted to him of God, and not acquired by his own abilities? And if he received it as a steward, why does he glory in that, which is notLocke1824: 8 his own? However, you are mightily satisfied with your present state; you now are full, you now are rich, and abound in every thing you desire; you have not need of me, but have reigned like princes without me; and I wish truly you did reign, that I might come Edition: current; Page: [107] and share in the protection and prosperity you enjoy,Locke1824: 9 now you are in your kingdom. For I being made an apostle last of all, it seems to me as if I were brought last* upon the stage, to be, in my sufferings and death, a spectacle to the world, and to angels,Locke1824: 10 and to men. I am a fool for Christ’s sake, but you manage your christian concerns with wisdom. I am weak, and in a suffering condition; you are strong and flourishing; you are honourable, but I am despised.Locke1824: 11 Even to this present hour, I both hunger and thirst, and want clothes, and am buffeted,Locke1824: 12 wandering without house or home; And maintain myself with the labour of my hands. Being reviled,Locke1824: 13 I bless: being persecuted, I suffer patiently: Being defamed, I intreat: I am made as the filth of the world, and the off-scouring of all things unto thisLocke1824: 14 day. I write not these things to shame you; but as a father to warn you, my children, that ye be not the devoted zealous partisans and followers of such, whose carriage is not like this; under whom, however you may flatter yourselves, in truth, you do not reign: but, on the contrary, ye are domineered Edition: current; Page: [108] over, and fleeced by them*. I warn you, I say, asLocke1824: 15 your father: For how many teachers soever you may have, you can have but one father; it was I, that begot you in Christ, i. e. I converted you toLocke1824: 16 christianity. Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followersLocke1824: 17 of me. To this purpose I have sent my beloved son Timothy to you, who may be relied upon: he shall put you in mind, and inform you, how I behave myself every-where in the ministry ofLocke1824: 18 the gospel. Some, indeed, are puffed up, and makeLocke1824: 19 their boasts, as if I would not come to you. But I intend, God willing, to come shortly; and then will make trial, not of the rhetoric, or talking of those boasters, but of what miraculous power of the HolyLocke1824: 20 Ghost is in them. For the doctrine and prevalency of the gospel, the propagation and support of Christ’s Edition: current; Page: [109] kingdom, by the conversion and establishment of believers, does not consist in talking, nor in the fluency of a glib tongue, and a fine discourse, but in the miraculous operations of the Holy Ghost.

SECT. II. No. 6.

CHAP. IV. 21.—VI. 20.

CONTENTS.

Another means, which St. Paul makes use of, to bring off the corinthians from their false apostle, and to stop their veneration of him, and their glorying in him, is by representing to them the fault and disorder, which was committed in that church, by not judging and expelling the fornicator; which neglect, as may be guessed, was owing to that faction.

1. Because it is natural for a faction to support and protect an offender, that is of their side.

2. From the great fear St. Paul was in, whether they would obey him, in censuring the offender, as appears by the second epistle; which he could not fear, but from the opposite faction; they, who had preserved their respect to him, being sure to follow his orders.

3. From what he says, ch. iv. 16, after he had told them, ver. 6, of that chapter, that they should not be puffed up, for any other, against him, (for so the whole scope of his discourse here imports,) he beseeches them to be his followers, i. e. leaving their other guides, to follow him, in punishing the offender. For that we may conclude, from his immediately insisting on it so earnestly, he had in his view, when he beseeches them to be followers of him, and consequently that they might join with him, and take him for their leader, ch. v. 3, 4, he makes himself, by his spirit, as his proxy, the president Edition: current; Page: [110] of their assembly, to be convened for the punishing that criminal.

4. It may further be suspected, from what St. Paul says, ch. vi. 1, that the opposite party, to stop the church-censure, pretended that this was a matter to be judged by the civil magistrate: nay, possibly, from what is said, ver. 6, of that chapter, it may be gathered, that they had got it brought before the heathen judge; or at least from ver. 12, that they pleaded, that what he had done was lawful, and might be justified before the magistrate. For the judging spoken of, chap. vi. must be understood to relate to the same matter it does, chap. v. it being a continuation of the same discourse and argument: as is easy to be observed by any one, who will read it without regarding the divisions into chapters and verses, whereby ordinary people (not to say others) are often disturbed in reading the holy scripture, and hindered from observing the true sense and coherence of it. The whole 6th chapter is spent in prosecuting the business of the fornicator, begun in the 5th. That this is so, is evident from the latter end, as well as beginning of the 6th chapter. And therefore, what St. Paul says of lawful, chap. vi. 12, may, without any violence, be supposed to be said, in answer to some, who might have alleged in favour of the fornicator, that what he had done was lawful, and might be justified by the laws of the country, which he was under: why else should St. Paul subjoin so many arguments (wherewith he concludes this 6th chapter, and this subject) to prove the fornication, in question, to be by the law of the gospel, a great sin, and consequently fit for a christian church to censure, in one of its members, however it might pass for lawful, in the esteem, and by the laws of gentiles?

There is one objection, which, at first sight, seems to be a strong argument against this supposition; that the fornication, here spoken of, was held lawful by the gentiles of Corinth, and that, possibly, this very case had been brought before the magistrate there, and not condemned. The objection seems to lie in these words, ch. v. 1, “There is fornication heard of amongst you, and such fornication, as is not heard of amongst the Edition: current; Page: [111] gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife.” But yet I conceive the words, duly considered, have nothing in them contrary to my supposition.

To clear this, I take the liberty to say, it cannot be thought that this man had his father’s wife; whilst, by the laws of the place, she actually was his father’s wife; for then it had been μοιχεία and adultery, and so the apostle would have called it, which was a crime in Greece; nor could it be tolerated in any civil society, that one man should have the use of a woman, whilst she was another man’s wife, i. e. another man’s right and possession.

The case, therefore, here seems to be this; the woman had parted from her husband; which it is plain, from chap. vii. 10, 11, 13, at Corinth, women could do. For if, by the law of that country, a woman could not divorce herself from her husband, the apostle had there, in vain, bid her not leave her husband.

But, however known and allowed a practice it might be, amongst the corinthians, for a woman to part from her husband; yet this was the first time it was ever known that her husband’s own son should marry her. This is that, which the apostle takes notice of in these words, “Such a fornication, as is not named amongst the gentiles.” Such a fornication this was, so little known in practice amongst them, that it was not so much as heard, named, or spoken of, by any of them. But, whether they held it unlawful, that a woman, so separated, should marry her husband’s son, when she was looked upon to be at liberty from her former husband, and free to marry whom she pleased; that the apostle says not. This, indeed, he declares, that, by the law of Christ, a woman’s leaving her husband, and marrying another, is unlawful, ch. vii. 11, and this woman’s marrying her husband’s son, he declares, ch. v. 1, (the place before us,) to be fornication, a peculiar sort of fornication, whatever the corinthians, or their law, might determine in the case: and, therefore, a christian church might and ought to have censured it, within themselves, it being an offence against the rule of the gospel; which is the law of their society: and they might, and should, Edition: current; Page: [112] have expelled this fornicator, out of their society, for not submitting to the laws of it; notwithstanding that the civil laws of the country, and the judgment of the heathen magistrate, might acquit him. Suitably hereunto, it is very remarkable, that the arguments, that St. Paul uses, in the close of this discourse, chap. vi. 13—20, to prove fornication unlawful, are all drawn solely from the christian institution, ver. 9. That our bodies are made for the Lord, ver. 13. That our bodies are members of Christ, ver. 15. That our bodies are the temples of the Holy Ghost, ver. 19. That we are not our own, but bought with a price, ver. 20. All which arguments concern christians only; and there is not, in all this discourse against fornication, one word to declare it to be unlawful, by the law of nature, to mankind in general. That was altogether needless, and beside the apostle’s purpose here, where he was teaching and exhorting christians what they were to do, as christians, within their own society, by the law of Christ, which was to be their rule, and was sufficient to oblige them, whatever other laws the rest of mankind observed, or were under. Those he professes, ch. v. 12, 13, not to meddle with, nor to judge: for, having no authority amongst them, he leaves them to the judgment of God, under whose government they are.

These considerations afford ground to conjecture, that the faction, which opposed St. Paul, had hindered the church of Corinth from censuring the fornicator, and that St. Paul showing them their miscarriage herein, aims thereby to lessen the credit of their leader, by whose influence they were drawn into it. For, as soon as they had unanimously shown their obedience to St. Paul, in this matter, we see his severity ceases, and he is all softness and gentleness to the offender, 2 Cor. ii. 5—8. And he tells them in express words, ver. 9, that his end, in writing to them of it, was to try their obedience: to which let me add, that this supposition, though it had not all the evidence for it, which it has, yet being suited to St. Paul’s principal design in this epistle, and helping us the better to understand these two chapters, may deserve to be mentioned.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 21What will ye? shall I come unto you, with a rod, or in love, and in the spirit of meekness?

Locke1824: V. 1It is reported commonly, that there is fornication among you, and such fornication, as is not so much as named amongst the gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife.

Locke1824: 2And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed, might be taken away from among you.

Locke1824: 3For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, concerning him, that hath so done this deed.

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Locke1824: 4In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,

Locke1824: 5To deliver such an one unto satan, for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

Locke1824: 6Your glorying is not good: know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?

Locke1824: 7Purge out, therefore, the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us.

Locke1824: 8Therefore, let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with Edition: current; Page: [115] the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Locke1824: 9I wrote unto you, in an epistle, not to company with fornicators.

Locke1824: 10Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters: for then must ye needs go out of the world.

Locke1824: 11But now I have written unto you, not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother, be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such an one, no not to eat.

Locke1824: 12For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within?

Locke1824: 13But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person.

Locke1824: VI. 1Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints?

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Locke1824: 2Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and, if the world shall be judged by you, ye are unworthy to judge the smallest matters?

Locke1824: 3Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life?

Locke1824: 4If then ye have judgments of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge, who are least esteemed in the church.

Locke1824: 5I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man amongst you? no, not one, that shall be able to judge between his brethren?

Locke1824: 6But brother goeth to law with brother, and that before the unbelievers.

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Locke1824: 7Now, therefore, there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one with another: why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded?

Locke1824: 8Nay, you do wrong and defraud, and that your brethren.

Locke1824: 9Know ye not, that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,

Locke1824: 10Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.

Locke1824: 11And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.

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Locke1824: 12All things are lawful unto me; but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me; but I will not be brought under the power of any.

Locke1824: 13Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats: but God shall destroy Edition: current; Page: [119] both it and them. Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body.

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Locke1824: 14And God hath both raised up the Lord, and will also raise up us, by his own power.

Locke1824: 15Know ye not, that your bodies are the members of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid.

Locke1824: 16What, know ye not, that he, which is joined to an harlot, is one body? For two (saith he) shall be one flesh.

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Locke1824: 17But he, that is joined unto the Lord, is one spirit.

Locke1824: 18Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doth, is without the body: but he that committeth fornication, sinneth against his own body.

Locke1824: 19What! know ye not, that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?

Locke1824: 20For ye are bought with a price; therefore, glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 21I purposed to come unto you: But what would ye have me do? Shall I come to you, with a rod, to chastise you? Or with kindness, and a peaceable dispositionLocke1824: 1 of mind*? In short, it is commonly reported, that there is fornication among you, and such fornication, as is not known ordinarily among theLocke1824: 2 heathen, that one should have his father’s wife. And yet ye remain puffed up, though it would better have become you to have been dejected, for this scandalous fact amongst you; and in a mournful sense of of it, to have removed the offender out of the church.Locke1824: 3 For I truly, though absent in body, yet as present Edition: current; Page: [114] in spirit, have thus already judged, as if I were personally with you, him that committed this fact;Locke1824: 4 When in the name of the Lord Jesus, ye are assembled, and my spirit, i. e. my vote, as if I were present, making one, by the power of the Lord JesusLocke1824: 5 Christ, Deliver the offender up to satan, that, being put thus into the hands and power of the devil, his body may be afflicted, and brought down, that his soul may be saved, when the Lord Jesus comes to judgeLocke1824: 6 the world. Your glorying*, as you do, in a leader, who drew you into this scandalous indulgence in this case, is a fault in you: ye that are knowing, know you not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?Locke1824: 7 Therefore, laying by that deference and veneration ye had for those leaders you gloried in, turn out from among you that fornicator, that the church may receive no taint from him, that you may be a pure, new lump, or society, free from such a dangerous mixture, which may corrupt you. For Christ, our passover, isLocke1824: 8 slain for us. Therefore let us, in commemoration of his death, and our deliverance by him, be a holy Edition: current; Page: [115] Locke1824: 9 eople to him*. I wrote to you before, that youLocke1824: 10 should not keep company with fornicators. You are not to understand by it, as if I meant, that you are to avoid all unconverted heathens, that are fornicators, or covetous, or rapacious, or idolaters, for,Locke1824: 11 then, you must go out of the world. But that which I now write unto you, is, that you should not keep company, no, nor eat, with a christian by profession, who is lascivious, covetous, idolatrous, aLocke1824: 12 railer, drunkard, or rapacious. For what have I to do to judge those, who are out of the church? Have ye not a power to judge those, who are members ofLocke1824: 13 your church? But, as for those who are out of the church, leave them to God; to judge them belongs to him. Therefore do ye what is your part, remove that wicked one, the fornicator, out of the church.Locke1824: 1 Dare any of you, having a controversy with another, bring it before an heathen judge, to be tried, and not Edition: current; Page: [116] Locke1824: 2 let it be decided by christians*? Know ye not that christians shall judge the world? And if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judgeLocke1824: 3 ordinary small matters? Know ye not, that we, christians, have power over evil spirits? how much more over the little things relating to this animalLocke1824: 4 life? If, then, ye have at any time controversies amongst you, concerning things pertaining to this life, let the parties contending choose arbitrators inLocke1824: 5 the church, i. e. out of church-members. Is there not among you, I speak it to your shame, who stand so much upon your wisdom, one wise man, whom ye can think able enough to refer your controversies to?Locke1824: 6 But one christian goeth to law with another, and that before the unbelievers, in the heathen courts Edition: current; Page: [117] Locke1824: 7 of justice. Nay, verily, it is a failure and defect in you, that you so far contest matters of right, one with another, as to bring them to trial, or judgment:Locke1824: 8 why do ye not rather suffer loss and wrong? But it is plain, by the man’s having his father’s wife, that ye are guilty of doing wrong*, one to another, and stick not to do injustice, even to your christianLocke1824: 9 brethren. Know ye not, that the transgressors of the law of Christ shall not inherit the kingdom of of God? Deceive not yourselves, neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, norLocke1824: 10 abusers of themselves with mankind, Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners,Locke1824: 11 shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you: but your past sins are washed away, and forgiven you, upon your receiving Edition: current; Page: [118] of the gospel by baptism: but ye are sanctified*, i. e. ye are members of Christ’s church, which consists of saints, and have made some advances in the reformation of your lives by the doctrine of Christ, confirmed to you by the extraordinary operations ofLocke1824: 12 the Holy Ghost. But supposing fornication were in itself as lawful, as eating promiscuously all sorts of meat, that are made for the belly, on purpose to be eaten: yet I would not so far indulge either custom, or my appetite, as to bring my body, thereby,Locke1824: 13 into any disadvantageous state of subjection. As in eating and drinking, though meat be made purposely for the belly, and the belly for the meat; yet, because it may not be expedient§ for me, I will not, Edition: current; Page: [119] in so evidently a lawful thing as that, go to the utmost bounds of my liberty; though there be no danger, that I should thereby bring any lasting damage upon my belly, since God will speedily put an end both to belly and food. But the case of the body in reference to women, is far different from that of the belly, in reference to meat. For the body is not made to be joined to a woman*, much less to be joined to an harlot in fornication, as the belly is made for meat, and then to be put an end to, when that use ceases. But the body is for a much nobler purpose, and shall subsist, when the belly and food Edition: current; Page: [114] shall be destroyed. The body is for our Lord Christ, to be a member of him, as our Lord Christ has taken a body*, that he might partake of ourLocke1824: 14 nature, and be our head. So that, as God has already raised him up, and given him all power, so he will raise us up likewise, who are his members, to the partaking in the nature of his glorious body,Locke1824: 15 and the power he is vested with in it. Know ye not, ye who are so knowing, that our bodies are the members of Christ? Will ye, then, take the members of Christ, and make them the members ofLocke1824: 16 an harlot? What! know ye not, that he who is joined to an harlot is one body with her? For two, Edition: current; Page: [121] Locke1824: 17 saith God, shall be united into one flesh. But he, who is joined to the Lord, is one with him, by that one Spirit, that unites the members to the head, which is a nearer and stricter union, whereby what indignity is done to the one, equally affects the other.Locke1824: 18 Flee fornication: all other sins, that a man commits, debase only the soul; but are in that respect, as if they were done out of the body; the body is not debased, suffers no loss of its dignity by them: but he, who committeth fornication, sinneth against the end, for which his body was made, degrading his body from the dignity and honour it was designed to; making that the member of an harlot, whichLocke1824: 19 was made to be a member of Christ. What! know ye not*, that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, that is in you, which body you have from God, and so it is not your own, to bestow on harlots?Locke1824: 20 Besides, ye are bought with a price, viz. the precious blood of Christ; and therefore, are not at your own disposal: but are bound to glorify God with both body and soul. For both body and soul are from him, and are God’s.

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SECT. III.

CHAP. VII. 1—40.

CONTENTS.

The chief business of the foregoing chapters, we have seen to be the lessening the false apostle’s credit, and the extinguishing that faction. What follows is in answer to some questions they had proposed to St. Paul. This section contains conjugal matters, wherein he dissuades from marriage those, who have the gift of continence. But, marriage being appointed as a remedy against fornication, those, who cannot forbear, should marry, and render to each other due benevolence. Next, he teaches that converts ought not to forsake their unconverted mates, insomuch as christianity changes nothing in men’s civil estate, but leaves them under the same obligations they were tied by before. And, last of all, he gives directions about marrying, or not marrying, their daughters.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now concerning the things, whereof ye wrote unto me: it is good for a man not to touch a woman.

Locke1824: 2Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.

Locke1824: 3Let the husband render unto the wife due benevolence: and likewise, also, the wife unto the husband.

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Locke1824: 4The wife hath not power of her own body, but the husband: and likewise, also, the husband hath not power of his own body, but the wife.

Locke1824: 5Defraud you not one the other, except it be with consent, for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and prayer: and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.

Locke1824: 6But I speak this by permission, and not of commandment.

Locke1824: 7For I would that all men were, even as I myself: but every man hath his proper gift of God, one after this manner, and another after that.

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Locke1824: 8I say, therefore, to the unmarried and widows, It is good for them, if they abide, even as I.

Locke1824: 9But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.

Locke1824: 10And unto the married I command; yet not I, but the Lord; let not the wife depart from her husband:

Locke1824: 11But, and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband: and let not the husband put away his wife.

Locke1824: 12But to the rest speak I, not the Lord, If any brother hath a wife, that believeth not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away.

Locke1824: 13And the woman, which hath an husband, that believeth not, and if he be pleased to dwell with-her, let her not leave him.

Locke1824: 14For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband: else were your children unclean; but now are they holy.

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Locke1824: 15But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart. A brother or a sister is not under bondage in such cases: but God hath called us to peace.

Locke1824: 16For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband? or how knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt save thy wife?

Locke1824: 17But, as God hath distributed to every man, as the Lord hath called every one, so let him walk: and so ordain I, in all churches.

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Locke1824: 18Is any man called, being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised: is any called, in uncircumcision? let him not become circumcised.

Locke1824: 19Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God.

Locke1824: 20Let every man abide in the same calling, wherein he was called.

Locke1824: 21Art thou called, being a servant? Care not for it; but, if thou mayest be made free, use it rather.

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Locke1824: 22For he that is called in the Lord, being a servant, is the Lord’s free-man: likewise also he, that is called being free, is Christ’s servant.

Locke1824: 23Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.

Locke1824: 24Brethren, let every man, wherein he is called, therein abide with God.

Locke1824: 25Now, concerning virgins, I have no commandment of the Lord, yet I give my judgment, as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful.

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Locke1824: 26I suppose, therefore, that this is good for the present distress; I say, that it is good for a man so to be.

Locke1824: 27Art thou bound unto a wife? Seek not to be loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife? Seek not a wife.

Locke1824: 28But and if thou marry, thou hast not sinned; and if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned; nevertheless, such shall have trouble in the flesh; but I spare you.

Locke1824: 29But this I say, brethren, the time is short. It remaineth, that both they that have wives, be as though they had none;

Locke1824: 30And they that weep, as though they wept not; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they possessed not.

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Locke1824: 31And they that use this world, as not abusing it: for the fashion of this world passeth away.

Locke1824: 32But I would have you without carefulness. He, that is unmarried, careth for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord:

Locke1824: 33But he that is married, careth for the things that are of the world, how he may please his wife.

Locke1824: 34There is difference also between a wife and a virgin: the unmarried woman careth for the things of the Lord, that she may be holy, both in body and in spirit: but she that is married, careth for the things of the world, how she may please her husband.

Locke1824: 35And this I speak for your own profit, not that I may cast a snare upon you, but for that which is comely, and that you may attend upon the Lord without distraction.

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Locke1824: 36But if any man think he behaveth himself uncomely towards his virgin, if she pass the flower of her age, and need so require, let him do what he will: he sinneth not: let them marry.

Locke1824: 37Nevertheless, he that standeth stedfast in his heart, having no necessity, but hath power over his own will, and hath so decreed in his heart, that he will keep his virgin, doth well.

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Locke1824: 38So then, he that giveth her in marriage, doth well: but he that giveth her not in marriage, doth better.

Locke1824: 39The wife is bound by the law, as long as her husband liveth: but, if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the Lord.

Locke1824: 40But she is happier, if she so abide, after my judgment: and I think also that I have the Spirit of God.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Concerning those things that ye have writ to me about, I answer, it is most convenient not to have toLocke1824: 2 do with a woman. But because every one cannot forbear, therefore, they that cannot contain should, both men and women, each have their own peculiar husbandLocke1824: 3 and wife, to avoid fornication. And those that are married, for the same reason, are to regulate themselves by the disposition and exigency of their respective mates; and, therefore, let the husband Edition: current; Page: [123] render to the wife that benevolence*, which is her due; and so, likewise, the wife to the husband, “viceLocke1824: 4 versâ.” For the wife has not the power or dominion over her own body, to refuse the husband, when he desires; but this power and right to her body is in the husband. And, on the other side, the husband has not the power and dominion over his own body, to refuse his wife, when she shows an inclination; but this power and right to his body, when she has occasion,Locke1824: 5 is in the wife. Do not, in this matter, be wanting, one to another, unless it be by mutual consent, for a short time, that you may wholly attend to acts of devotion, when ye fast, upon some solemn occasion: and when this time of solemn devotion is over, return to your former freedom, and conjugal society, lest the devil taking advantage of your inability to contain, should tempt you to a violation ofLocke1824: 6 your marriage-bed. As to marrying in general, I wish that you were all unmarried, as I am; but this I sayLocke1824: 7 to you, by way of advice, not of command. Every one has from God his own proper gift, some one way, and some another, whereby he must govern himself. Edition: current; Page: [124] Locke1824: 8 To the unmarried and widows, I say it as my opinion, that it is best for them to remain unmarried, as I am.Locke1824: 9 But if they have not the gift of continency, let them marry, for the inconveniences of marriage are to beLocke1824: 10 preferred to the flames of lust. But to the married, I say not by way of counsel from myself, but of command from the Lord, that a woman should notLocke1824: 11 leave her husband: But, if she has separated herself from him, let her return, and be reconciled to him again; or, at least, let her remain unmarried: andLocke1824: 12 let not the husband put away his wife. But, as to others, it is my advice, not a commandment from the Lord, That, if a christian man hath an heathen wife, that is content to live with him, let him not break company with her, and dissolve the marriage.Locke1824: 13 And, if a christian woman hath an heathen husband, that is content to live with her, let her not breakLocke1824: 14 company with him*, and dissolve the marriage. You need have no scruple concerning this matter, for Edition: current; Page: [125] the heathen husband or wife, in respect of conjugal duty, can be no more refused, than if they were christian. For in this case, the unbelieving husband is sanctified,* or made a christian, as to his issue, in his wife, and the wife sanctified in her husband. If it were not so, the children of such parents would be unclean,* i. e. in the state of heathens, but now are they holy,* i. e. born membersLocke1824: 15 of the christian church. But if the unbelieving party will separate, let them separate. A christian man, or woman, is not enslaved in such a case: only it is to be remembered, that it is incumbent on us, whom God, in the gospel, has called to be christians, to live peaceably with all men, as much as in us lieth; and, therefore, the christian husband, or wife, is not to make a breach in the family, by leaving the unbelieving party, who is content to stay.Locke1824: 16 For what knowest thou, O woman, but thou mayest be the means of converting, and so saving thy unbelieving husband, if thou continuest peaceably as a loving wife, with him? or what knowest thou, O man, but, after the same manner, thou mayest saveLocke1824: 17 thy wife? On this occasion, let me give you this general rule: whatever condition God has allotted Edition: current; Page: [126] to any of you, let him continue and go on contentedly in the same* state, wherein he was called; not looking on himself as set free from it by his conversion to christianity. And this is no more, thanLocke1824: 18 what I order in all the churches. For example, Was any one converted to christianity, being circumcised? Let him not become uncircumcised: wasLocke1824: 19 any one called, being uncircumcised? Let him not be circumcised. Circumsion or uncircumcision are nothing in the sight of God, but that which he hasLocke1824: 20 a regard to, is in obedience to his commands. Christianity gives not any one any new privilege to change the state, or put off the obligations of civil life,Locke1824: 21 which he was in before. Wert thou called, being Edition: current; Page: [127] a slave? Think thyself not the less a christian, for being a slave; but yet prefer freedom to slavery, ifLocke1824: 22 thou canst obtain it. For he that is converted to christianity, being a bond-man, is Christ’s freedman.* And he that is converted, being a free-man, is Christ’s bondman, under his command and dominion.Locke1824: 23 Ye are bought with a price, and so belong to Christ; be not, if you can avoid it, slaves to anyLocke1824: 24 body. In whatsoever state a man is called, in the same he is to remain, notwithstanding any privileges of the gospel, which gives him no dispensation, or exemption, from any obligation he was in before,Locke1824: 25 to the laws of his country. Now concering virgins I have no express command from Christ to give you: Edition: current; Page: [128] but I tell you my opinion, as one whom the Lord has been graciously pleased to make credible,* andLocke1824: 26 so you may trust and rely on, in this matter. I tell you, therefore, that I judge a single life to be convenient, because of the present straits of the church;Locke1824: 27 and that it is best for a man to be unmarried. Art thou in the bonds of wedlock? Seek not to be loosed:Locke1824: 28 art thou loosed from a wife? Seek not a wife. But if thou marriest, thou sinnest not; or, if a virgin marry, she sins not: but those that are married, shall have worldly troubles; but I spare you by not representing to you how little enjoyment christians are like to have from a married life, in the present state of things, and so I leave you the liberty of marrying.Locke1824: 29 But give me leave to tell you, that the time for enjoying husbands and wives is but short. But be that as it will, this is certain, that those who have wives, should be, as if they had them not, and not set theirLocke1824: 30 hearts upon them: And they that weep, as if they wept not; and they that rejoice, as if they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as if they possessed not: all these things should be done with resignation and a Edition: current; Page: [129] Locke1824: 31 christian indifferency. And those who use this world, should use it without an over-relish of it*, without giving themselves up to the enjoyment of it. For the scene of things is always changing in this world,Locke1824: 32 and nothing can be relied on in it. All the reason why I dissuade you from marriage is, that I would have you free from anxious cares. He that is unmarried, has time and liberty to mind things ofLocke1824: 33 religion, how he may please the Lord: But he that is married, is taken up with the cares of the world,Locke1824: 34 how he may please his wife. The like difference there is, between a married woman and a maid; she that is unmarried, has opportunity to mind the things of religion, that she may be holy in mind and body; but the married woman is taken up with the caresLocke1824: 35 of the world, how to please her husband. This I say to you, for your particular advantage, not to lay any constraint upon you, but to put you in a way, wherein you may most suitably, and as best becomes Edition: current; Page: [130] christianity, apply yourselves to the study and dutiesLocke1824: 36 of the gospel, without distraction. But, if any one thinks that he carries not himself as becomes him, to his virgin, if he lets her pass the flower of her age unmarried, and need so requires, let him do, as heLocke1824: 37 thinks fit; he sins not, if he marry her. But whoever is settled in a firm resolution of mind, and finds himself under no necessity of marrying, and is master of his own will, or is at his own disposal, and has so determined in his thoughts, that he will keep his virginity*, he chooses the better Edition: current; Page: [131] Locke1824: 38 side*. So then he that marrieth, doth well; but heLocke1824: 39 that marrieth not, doth better. It is unlawful for a woman to leave her husband, as long as he lives: but, when he is dead, she is at liberty to marry, or not to marry, as she pleases, and to whom she pleases; which virgins cannot do, being under the disposal of their parents; only she must take care toLocke1824: 40 marry, as a christian, fearing God. But, in my opinion, she is happier, if she remain a widow; and permit me to say, that whatever any among you may think, or say, of me, “I have the Spirit of God, so that I may be relied on in this my advice, that I do not mislead you.”

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SECT. IV.

CHAP. VIII. 1—13.

CONTENTS.

This section is concerning the eating things offered to idols; wherein one may guess, by St. Paul’s answer, that they had writ to him, that they knew their christian liberty herein, that they knew that an idol was nothing; and, therefore, that they did well to show their knowledge of the nullity of the heathen gods, and their disregard of them, by eating promiscuously, and without scruple, things offered to them. Upon which, the design of the apostle here seems to be, to take down their opinion of their knowledge, by showing them, that, notwithstanding all the knowledge they presumed on, and were puffed up with, yet the eating of those sacrifices did not recommend them to God; vid. ver. 8, and that they might sin in their want of charity, by offending their weak brother. This seems plainly, from ver. 1—3, and 11, 12, to be the design of the apostle’s answer here, and not to resolve the case, of eating things offered to idols, in its full latitude. For then he would have prosecuted it more at large here, and not have deferred the doing of it to chap. x. where, under another head, he treats of it more particularly.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now as touching things offered unto idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.

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Locke1824: 2(And if any man think, that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet, as he ought to know.

Locke1824: 3But if any man love God, the same is known of him.

Locke1824: 4As concerning, therefore, the eating of those things, that are offered, in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one.

Locke1824: 5For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven, or in earth, as there be gods many, and lords many.

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Locke1824: 6But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.)

Locke1824: 7Howbeit there is not in every man that knowledge; for some, with conscience of the idol, unto this hour, eat it as a thing offered unto an idol; and their conscience, being weak, is defiled.

Locke1824: 8But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse.

Locke1824: 9But take heed, lest, by any means, this liberty of yours become a stumbling-block to them that are weak.

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Locke1824: 10For, if any man see thee, which hast knowledge, sit at meat in the idol’s temple, shall not the conscience of him, which is weak, be emboldened to eat those things, which are offered to idols?

Locke1824: 11And, through thy knowledge, shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?

Locke1824: 12But, when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ.

Locke1824: 13Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh, while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1As for things offered up unto idols, it must not be questioned, but that every one of you, who stand so much upon your knowledge, know that the imaginary gods, to whom the gentiles sacrifice, are not in reality gods, but mere fictions; but, with this, pray remember, that such a knowledge, or opinion of their knowledge, swells men with pride and vanity. But charity it Edition: current; Page: [133] is, that improves and advances men in christianity*.Locke1824: 2(But, if any one be conceited of his own knowledge, as if christianity were a science for speculation and dispute, he knows nothing yet of christianity, as heLocke1824: 3 ought to know it. But if any one love God, and consequently his neighbour for God’s sake, such an one is made to know, or has got true knowledgeLocke1824: 4 from God himself. To the question, then, of eating things offered to idols, I know, as well as you, that an idol, i.e. that the fictitious gods, whose images are in the heathen temples, are no real beings in the world:Locke1824: 5 and there is in truth no other but one God. For though there be many imaginary nominal gods, both in heaven and earth, as are indeed all their many Edition: current; Page: [134] Locke1824: 6 gods, and many lords, which are merely titular; Yet to us christians, there is but one God, the Father and the Author of all things, to whom alone we address all our worship and service; and but one Lord, viz. Jesus Christ, by whom all things come from God to us, and by whom we have access to the Father.)Locke1824: 7 For notwithstanding all the great pretences to knowledge, that are amongst you, every one doth not know, that the gods of the heathens are but imaginations of the fancy, mere nothing. Some, to this day, conscious to themselves, that they think those idols to be real deities, eat things sacrifiecd to them, as sacrificed to real deities; whereby doing that which they, in their consciences, not yet sufficiently enlightened,Locke1824: 8 think to be unlawful, are guilty of sin. Food, of what kind soever, makes not God regard us*. For neither, if in knowledge, and full persuasion, that an idol is nothing, we eat things offered to idols, do we thereby add any thing to christianity: or if, not being so well informed, we are scrupulous, and forbear, areLocke1824: 9 we the worse christians, or are lessened by it. But this you knowing men ought to take especial care of: that the power of freedom you have to eat, be not made such an use of, as to become a stumbling-block to weaker christians, who are not convinced of that Edition: current; Page: [135] Locke1824: 10 liberty. For if such an one should see thee, who hast this knowledge of thy liberty, sit feasting in an idol-temple, shall not his weak conscience, not thoroughly instructed in the matter of idols, be drawn in by thy example to eat what is offered to idols, though he, in his conscience, doubt of its lawfulness?Locke1824: 11 And thus thy weak brother, for whom Christ died, is destroyed by thy knowledge, wherewith thouLocke1824: 12 justifiest thy eating. But when you sin thus against your brethren, and wound their weak consciences,Locke1824: 13 you sin against Christ. Wherefore, if meat make my brother offend, I will never more eat flesh, to avoid making my brother offend.

SECT. V.

CHAP. IX. 1—27.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul had preached the gospel at Corinth, about two years; in all which time, he had taken nothing of them, 2 Cor. xi. 7—9. This, by some of the opposite faction, and particularly, as we may suppose, by their leader, was made use of, to call in question his apostleship, 2 Cor. xi. 5, 6. For why, if he were an apostle, should he not use the power of an apostle, to demand maintenance, where he preached? In this section, St. Paul vindicates his apostleship; and, in answer to these Edition: current; Page: [136] enquirers, gives the reason why, though he had a right to maintenance, yet he preached gratis to the corinthians. My answer, says he, to these inquisitors, is, that though, as being an apostle, I know that I have a right to maintenance, as well as Peter, or any other of the apostles, who all have a right, as is evident from reason, and from scripture; yet I never have, nor shall make use of my privilege amongst you, for fear that, if it cost you any thing, that should hinder the effect of my preaching: I would neglect nothing, that might promote the gospel. For I do not content myself with doing barely what is my duty; for, by my extraordinary call and commission, it is now incumbent on me to preach the gospel; but I endeavour to excel in my ministry, and not to execute my commission covertly, and just enough to serve the turn. For if those, who, in the agonistic games, aiming at victory, to obtain only a corruptible crown, deny themselves in eating and drinking, and other pleasures, how much more does the eternal crown of glory deserve that we should do our utmost to obtain it? To be as careful, in not indulging our bodies, in denying our pleasures, in doing every thing we could, in order to get it, as if there were but one that should have it? Wonder not therefore, if I, having this in view, neglect my body, and those outward conveniencies, that I, as an apostle sent to preach the gospel, might claim and make use of: wonder not that I prefer the propagating of the gospel, and making of converts, to all care and regard of myself. This seems the design of the apostle, and will give light to the following discourse, which we shall now take, in the order St. Paul writ it.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Am I not an apostle? Am I not free? Have I not seen Jesus Christ, our Lord? Are not you my work in the Lord?

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Locke1824: 2If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord.

Locke1824: 3Mine answer to them that do examine me, is this:

Locke1824: 4Have we not power to eat and to drink?

Locke1824: 5Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?

Locke1824: 6Or I only, and Barnabas, have not we power to forbear working?

Locke1824: 7Who goeth a warfare, any time, at his own charges? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth the flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?

Locke1824: 8Say I these things, as a man? or saith not the law the same also?

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Locke1824: 9For it is written, in the law of Moses, “Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn.” Doth God take care for oxen?

Locke1824: 10Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that plougheth, should plough in hope; and that he, that thresheth in hope, should be partaker of his hope.

Locke1824: 11If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing, if we shall reap your carnal things?

Locke1824: 12If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless, we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ.

Locke1824: 13Do ye not know, that they which minister about holy things, live Edition: current; Page: [139] of the things of the temple? And they, which wait at the altar, are partakers with the altar?

Locke1824: 14Even so, hath the Lord ordained, that they, which preach the gospel, should live of the gospel.

Locke1824: 15But I have used none of these things: neither have I written these things, that it should be so done unto me. For it were better for me to die, than that any man should make my glorying void.

Locke1824: 16For, though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of; for necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel.

Locke1824: 17For, if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward: but if against my will, a dispensation of the gospel is committed unto me.

Locke1824: 18What is my reward then? Verily, that, when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of Christ without charge, that I abuse not my power in the gospel.

Locke1824: 19For though I be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more.

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Locke1824: 20And unto the jews, I became as a jew, that I might gain the jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them, that are under the law;

Locke1824: 21To them, that are without law, as without law, (being not without law to God, but under the law to Christ) that I might gain them, that are without law.

Locke1824: 22To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to all men, that I might, by all means, save some.

Locke1824: 23And this I do for the gospel’s sake, that I might be partaker thereof with you.

Locke1824: 24Know ye not, that they, which run in a race, run all, but one receiveth the prize? So run, that ye may obtain.

Locke1824: 25And every man that striveth for the mastery, is temperate in all things: now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible.

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Locke1824: 26I therefore so run, not as uncertainly: so fight I, not as one that beateth the air.

Locke1824: 27But I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection; lest that, by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a cast-away.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Am I not an apostle? And am I not at liberty*, as much as any other of the apostles, to make use of the Edition: current; Page: [137] privilege due to that office? Have I not had the favour to see Jesus Christ, our Lord, after an extraordinary manner? And are not you yourselves, whom I have converted, an evidence of the success of myLocke1824: 2 employment in the gospel? If others should question my being an apostle, you at least cannot doubt of it: your conversion to christianity is, as it were, a seal set to it, to make good the truth of my apostleship.Locke1824: 3 This, then, is my answer to those, who set up an inquisitionLocke1824: 4 upon me: Have not I a right to meat andLocke1824: 5 drink, where I preach? Have not I, and Barnabas, a power to take along with us, in our travelling to propagate the gospel, a christian woman*, to provide our conveniencies, and be serviceable to us, as well as Peter, and the brethren of the Lord, and the rest ofLocke1824: 6 the apostles? Or is it I only, and Barnabas, who are excluded from the privilege of being maintained withoutLocke1824: 7 working? Who goes to the war any where, and serves as a soldier, at his own charges? Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? Who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk?Locke1824: 8 This is allowed to be reason, that those, who are so Edition: current; Page: [138] employed, should be maintained by their employments; and so likewise a preacher of the gospel. But I say not this, barely upon the principles of human reason; revelation teaches the same thing,Locke1824: 9 in the law of Moses: Where it is said, “Thou shalt muzzle not the mouth of the ox, that treadeth out the corn.” Doth God take care to provide so particularlyLocke1824: 10 for oxen, by a law? No, certainly; it is said particularly for our sakes, and not for oxen: that he, who sows, may sow in hope of enjoying the fruits of his labour at harvest; and may then threshLocke1824: 11 out, and eat the corn he hoped for. If we have sowed to you spiritual things, in preaching the gospel to you, is it unreasonable, that we should expect a little meat and drink from you, a little share ofLocke1824: 12 your carnal things? If any partake of this power over you*, why not we much rather? But I made no use of it; but bear with any thing, that I may avoidLocke1824: 13 all hindrance to the progress of the gospel. Do ye not know, that they, who in the temple serve about Edition: current; Page: [139] holy things, live upon those holy things? And they, who wait at the altar, are partakers with the altar?Locke1824: 14 So has the Lord ordained, that they, who preach theLocke1824: 15 gospel, should live of the gospel. But though, as an apostle, and preacher of the gospel, I have, as you see, a right to maintenance, yet I have not taken it: neither have I written this to demand it. For I had rather perish for want, than be deprived of what I glory in, viz. preaching the gospel freely.Locke1824: 16 For if I preach the gospel, I do barely my duty, but have nothing to glory in: for I am under an obligation and command to preach*, and wo be toLocke1824: 17 me, if I preach not the gospel. Which if I do willingly, I shall have a reward: if unwillingly, the dispensation is nevertheless intrusted to me, and yeLocke1824: 18 ought to hear me as an apostle. How, therefore, do I make it turn to account to myself? Even thus: if I preach the gospel of Christ of free cost, so that I exact not the maintenance I have a rightLocke1824: 19 to, by the gospel. For being under no obligation to Edition: current; Page: [140] any man, I yet subject myself to every one, to the end that I may make the more converts to Christ.Locke1824: 20 To the jews, and those under the law of Moses, I became as a jew, and one under that law, that ILocke1824: 21 might gain the jews, and those under the law; To those without the law of Moses, I applied myself, as one not under that law, (not, indeed, as if I were under no law to God, but as obeying and following the law of Christ) that I might gain those, whoLocke1824: 22 were without the law. To the weak I became as weak, that I might gain the weak: I became all things to all men, that I might leave no lawful thing untried, whereby I might save people of all sorts.Locke1824: 23 And this I do for the gospel’s sake, that I myselfLocke1824: 24 may share in the benefits of the gospel. Know ye not that they, who run a race, run not lazily, but with their utmost force? They all endeavour to be first, because there is but one that gets the prize. It is not enough for you to run, but so to run, that ye may obtain: which they cannot do, who running only, because they are bid, do not run with all theirLocke1824: 25 might. They, who propose to themselves the getting the garland in your games, readily submit themselves to severe rules of exercise and abstinence: and yet theirs is but a fading, transitory crown; Edition: current; Page: [141] that, which we propose to ourselves, is everlasting; and therefore deserves, that we should endure greaterLocke1824: 26 hardships for it. I therefore so run, as not to leave it to uncertainty. I do what I do, not as one whoLocke1824: 27 fences for exercise, or ostentation; But I really and in earnest keep under my body, and intirely enslave it to the service of the gospel, without allowing any thing to the exigencies of this animal life, which may be the least hindrance to the propagation of the gospel; lest that I, who preach to bring others into the kingdom of heaven, should be disapproved of, and rejected myself.

SECT. VI. No. I.

CHAP. X. 1—22.

CONTENTS.

It seems, by what he here says, as if the corinthians had told St. Paul, that the temptations and constraints they were under, of going to their heathen neighbours feasts upon their sacrifices, were so many, and so great, that there was no avoiding it: and, therefore, they thought they might go to them without any offence to God, or danger to themselves; since they were the people of God, purged from sin by baptism, and fenced against it, by partaking of the body and blood of Christ, in the Lord’s supper. To which St. Paul answers, that, notwithstanding their baptism, and partaking of that spiritual meat and drink, yet they, as well as the jews of old did, might sin, and draw on themselves destruction Edition: current; Page: [142] from the hand of God: that eating of things, that were known, and owned, to be offered to idols, was partaking in the idolatrous worship; and therefore, they were to prefer even the danger of persecution before such a compliance; for God would find a way for them to escape.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Moreover, brethren, I would not, that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;

Locke1824: 2And were all baptized, unto Moses, in the cloud, and in the sea;

Locke1824: 3And did all eat the same spiritual meat;

Locke1824: 4And did all drink the same spiritual drink: (for they drank of that spiritual rock, that followed them: and that rock was Christ.)

Locke1824: 5But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.

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Locke1824: 6Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.

Locke1824: 7Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

Locke1824: 8Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed; and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.

Locke1824: 9Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

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Locke1824: 10Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.

Locke1824: 11Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.

Locke1824: 12Wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall.

Locke1824: 13There hath no temptation taken you, but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will, with the temptation, also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

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Locke1824: 14Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.

Locke1824: 15I speak as to wise men: judge ye what I say.

Locke1824: 16The cup of blessing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread, which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

Locke1824: 17For we, being many, are one bread, and one body; for we are all partakers of that one bread.

Locke1824: 18Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they, which eat of the sacrifices, partakers of the altar?

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Locke1824: 19What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols, is any thing?

Locke1824: 20But I say, that the things which the gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.

Locke1824: 21Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table, and of the table of devils.

Locke1824: 22Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he?

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that all our fathers, the whole congregation of the children of Israel, at their coming out of Egypt, were, all to a man, under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;Locke1824: 2 And were all, by this baptism*, in the cloud, and passing through the water, initiated into the mosaical institution and government, by these two miracles ofLocke1824: 3 the cloud and the sea. And they all eat the same meat, which had a typical and spiritual signification;Locke1824: 4 And they all drank the same spiritual, typical drink, which came out of the rock, and followed them, which rock typified Christ: all which were typical representations of Christ, as well as the bread and wine, which we eat and drink in the Lord’s supper, are typicalLocke1824: 5 representations of him. But yet, though every one of the children of Israel, that came out of Egypt, were thus solemnly separated from the rest of the profane, idolatrous world, and were made God’s peculiar Edition: current; Page: [143] people, sanctified and holy, every one of them to himself, and members of his church: nay, though they did all* partake of the same meat, and the same drink, which did typically represent Christ, yet they were not thereby privileged from sin: but great numbers of them provoked God, and were destroyed in theLocke1824: 6 wilderness for their disobedience. Now these things were set as patterns to us, that we, warned by these examples, should not set our minds a-longing, as they did, after meats, that would be safer let alone.Locke1824: 7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, “The people sat down to eat and drink,Locke1824: 8 and rose up to play.” Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in oneLocke1824: 9 day three and twenty thousand. Neither let us provoke Christ, as some of them provoked, and were destroyed Edition: current; Page: [144] Locke1824: 10 of serpents. Neither murmur ye, as some of them murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer*.Locke1824: 11 Now all these things happened to the jews for examples, and are written for our admonition,Locke1824: 12 upon whom the ends of the ages are come. Wherefore, taught by these examples, let him that thinks himself safe, by being in the church, and partaking of the christian sacraments, take heed lest he fall into sin, and so destruction from God overtake him.Locke1824: 13 Hitherto, the temptations you have met with, have been but light and ordinary; if you should come to be pressed harder, God, who is faithful, and never forsakes those, who forsake not him, will not suffer Edition: current; Page: [145] you to be tempted above your strength; but will either enable you to bear the persecution, orLocke1824: 14 open you a way out of it. Therefore, my beloved, take care to keep off from idolatry, and be not drawn to any approaches near it, by any temptation,Locke1824: 15 or persecution whatsoever. You are satisfied that you want not knowledge*: and therefore, as to knowing men, I appeal to you, and make you judges of what I am going to say in the case.Locke1824: 16 They, who drink of the cup of blessing, which we bless in the Lord’s supper, do they not thereby partake of the benefits, purchased by Christ’s blood, shed for them upon the cross, which they here symbolically drink? And they, who eat of the bread broken there, do they not partake in the sacrifice of the body of Christ, and profess to be membersLocke1824: 17 of him? For, by eating of that bread, we, though many in number, are all united, and make but one body, as many grains of corn are united into oneLocke1824: 18 loaf. See how it is among the jews, who are outwardly, according to the flesh, by circumcision, the people of God. Among them, they, who eat of the sacrifice, are partakers of God’s table, the altar, have fellowship with him, and share in the benefit of the sacrifice, as if it were offered for them. Edition: current; Page: [146] Locke1824: 19 Do not mistake me, as if I hereby said, that the idols of the gentiles are gods in reality; or that the things, offered to them, change their nature, and are any thing really different from what they were before,Locke1824: 20 so as to affect us, in our use of them*. No: but this I say, that the things which the gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God; and I would not that you should have fellowship, and be in league with devils, as they, who by eating of the things offered to them enter into covenant, alliance,Locke1824: 21 and friendship with them. You cannot eat and drink with God, as friends at his table, in the eucharist, and entertain familiarity and friendship with devils, by eating with them, and partaking of the sacrifices offered to them: you cannot be christians and idolaters too: nor, if you should endeavour to join these inconsistent rites, will it avail you any thing. For your partaking in the sacraments of the christian church, will no more exempt you from the anger of God, and punishment due to your idolatry, than the eating of the spiritual food, and drinking of the spiritual rock, kept the baptized Israelites, who offended God by their idolatry, or other sins,Locke1824: 22 from being destroyed in the wilderness. Dare you, then, being espoused to Christ, provoke the Edition: current; Page: [147] Lord to jealousy, by idolatry, which is spiritual whoredom? Are you stronger than he, and able to resist him, when he lets loose his fury against you?

SECT. VI. No. 2.

CHAP. X. 23.—XI. 1.

CONTENTS.

We have, here, another of his arguments against things offered to idols, wherein he shows the danger that might be in it, from the scandal it might give: supposing it a thing lawful in itself. He had formerly treated of this subject, ch. viii. so far as to let them see, that there was no good, nor virtue in eating things offered to idols, notwithstanding they knew that idols were nothing, and they might think, that their free eating, without scruple, showed that they knew their freedom in the gospel, that they knew, that idols were in reality nothing; and, therefore, they slighted and disregarded them, and their worship, as nothing; but that there might be evil in eating, by the offence it might give to weak christians, who had not that knowledge. He here takes up the argument of scandal again, and extends it to jews and gentiles; vid. ver. 32, and shows, that it is not enough to justify them, in any action, that the thing, they do, is in itself lawful, unless they seek it in the glory of God, and the good of others.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 23All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.

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Locke1824: 24Let no man seek his own: but every man another’s wealth.

Locke1824: 25Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake.

Locke1824: 26For the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof.

Locke1824: 27If any of them, that believe not, bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake.

Locke1824: 28But if any man say unto you, “This is offered in sacrifice unto idols,” eat not, for his sake that showed it, and for conscience sake. For the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof.

Locke1824: 29Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the others: for why is my liberty judged of another man’s conscience?

Locke1824: 30For, if I, by grace, be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of, for that, for which I give thanks?

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Locke1824: 31Whether, therefore, ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.

Locke1824: 32Give none offence, neither to the jews, nor to the gentiles, nor to the church of God:

Locke1824: 33Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.

Locke1824: XI. 1Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 23Farther, supposing it lawful to eat things offered to idols, yet all things that are lawful, are not expedient: Edition: current; Page: [148] things that, in themselves, are lawful for me, may not tend to the edification of others, and soLocke1824: 24 may be fit to be forborn. No one must seek barely his own private, particular interest alone, but let every one seek the good of others also.Locke1824: 25 Eat whatever is sold in the shambles, without any inquiry, or scruple, whether it had been offered toLocke1824: 26 any idol, or no. For the earth, and all therein, are the good creatures of the true God, given by himLocke1824: 27 to men, for their use. If an heathen invite you to an entertainment, and you go, eat whatever is set before you, without making any question or scruple about it, whether it had been offered in sacrifice,Locke1824: 28 or no. But if any one say to you, “This was offered in sacrifice to an idol,” eat it not, for his sake that mentioned it, and for conscience sake*.Locke1824: 29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, (for thou knowest thy liberty, and that an idol is nothing) but the conscience of the other. For why should I use my liberty so, that another man should in conscienceLocke1824: 30 think I offended? And if I, with thanksgiving, partake of what is lawful for me to eat, why do Edition: current; Page: [149] I order the matter so, that I am ill-spoken of, forLocke1824: 31 that which I bless God for? Whether, therefore, ye eat or drink, or whatever ye do, let your care andLocke1824: 32 aim be the glory of God. Give no offence to the jews, by giving them occasion to think, that christians are permitted to worship heathen idols; nor to the gentiles, by giving them occasion to think, that you allow their idolatry, by partaking of their sacrifices: nor to weak members of the church of God, by drawing them, by your examples, to eat of things offered to idols, of the lawfulness whereof they areLocke1824: 33 not fully satisfied. As I myself do, who abridge myself of many conveniencies of life, to comply with the different judgments of men, and gain the good opinion of others, that I may be instrumental to theLocke1824: XI. 1 salvation of as many as is possible. Imitate herein my example, as I do that of our Lord Christ, who neglected himself for the salvation of others*.

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SECT. VII.

CHAP. XI. 2—16.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul commends them for observing the orders he had left with them, and uses arguments to justify the rule he had given them, that women should not pray, or prophesy, in their assemblies, uncovered; which, it seems, there was some contention about, and they had writ to him to be resolved in it.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 2Now I praise you, brethren, that you remember me, in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you.

Locke1824: 3But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.

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Locke1824: 4Every man praying, or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.

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Locke1824: 5But every woman, that prayeth, or prophesieth, with her head uncovered, dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one, as if she were shaven:

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Locke1824: 6For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn, or shaven, let her be covered.

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Locke1824: 7For a man, indeed, ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.

Locke1824: 8For the man is not of the woman: but the woman of the man.

Locke1824: 9Neither was the man created for the woman: but the woman for the man.

Locke1824: 10For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head, because of the angels.

Locke1824: 11Nevertheless, neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord.

Locke1824: 12For, as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman: but all things of God.

Locke1824: 13Judge in yourselves; is it comely, that a woman pray unto God uncovered?

Locke1824: 14Doth not even nature itself teach you, that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?

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Locke1824: 15But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given her for a covering.

Locke1824: 16But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 2I commend you, brethren, for remembering all my orders, and for retaining those rules I delivered to you,Locke1824: 3 when I was with you. But for your better understanding what concerns women*, in your assemblies, you Edition: current; Page: [151] are to take notice, that Christ is the head to which every man is subjected, and the man is the head, to which every woman is subjected; and that the head,Locke1824: 4 or superiour, to Christ himself, is God. Every man, Edition: current; Page: [152] that prayeth, or prophesieth, i. e. by the gift of the Spirit of God, speaketh in the church for the edifying, exhorting, and comforting of the congregation, having his head covered, dishonoureth Christ, his head, by appearing in a garb not becoming the authority and dominion, which God, through Christ, has given him over all the things of this world; the covering of theLocke1824: 5 head being a mark of subjection. But, on the Edition: current; Page: [153] contrary, a woman praying, or prophesying in the church, with her head uncovered, dishonoureth the man, who is her head, by appearing in a garb, that disowns her subjection to him. For to appear bare-headed in public, is all one as to have her hair cut off, which is the garb and dress of the other sex, andLocke1824: 6 not of a woman. If, therefore, it be unsuitable to the female sex to have their hair shorn, or shaved off, Edition: current; Page: [154] Locke1824: 7 let her, for the same reason, be covered. A man, indeed, ought not to be veiled; because he is the image and representative of God, in his dominion over the rest of the world, which is one part of the gloryLocke1824: 8 of God: But the woman, who was made out of the man, made for him, and in subjection to him, is matterLocke1824: 9 of glory to the man. But the man, not being made out of the woman, not for her, but the womanLocke1824: 10 made out of, and for the man, She ought, for this reason, to have a veil on her head, in token of herLocke1824: 11 subjection, because of the angels*. Nevertheless, the sexes have not a being, one without the other; neither the man without the woman, nor the womanLocke1824: 12 without the man, the Lord so ordering it. For, as the first woman was made out of the man, so the race of men, ever since, is continued and propagated by the female sex: but they, and all other things,Locke1824: 13 had their being and original from God. Be you yourselves judges, whether it be decent for a woman to make a prayer to God, in the church, uncovered?Locke1824: 14 Does not even nature, that has made, and Edition: current; Page: [155] would have the distinction of sexes preserved, teach you, that if a man wear his hair long, and dressed up after the manner of women, it is misbecoming andLocke1824: 15 dishonourable to him? But to a woman, if she be curious about her hair, in having it long, and dressing herself with it, it is a grace and commendation;Locke1824: 16 since her hair is given her for a covering. But, if any show himself to be a lover of contention*, we, the apostles, have no such custom, nor any of the churches of God.

SECT. VIII.

CHAP. XI. 17—34.

CONTENTS.

One may observe from several passages in this epistle, that several judaical customs were crept into the corinthian church. This church being of St. Paul’s own planting, who spent two years at Corinth, in forming it; it is evident these abuses had their rise from some other teachers, who came to them after his leaving them, which was about five years before his writing this epistle. These disorders therefore may with reason be ascribed to the head of the faction, that opposed St. Paul, who, as has been remarked, was a jew, and probably judaized. And that, it is like, was the foundation of the great opposition between him and St. Paul, and the reason why St. Paul labours so earnestly to destroy his Edition: current; Page: [156] credit among the corinthians: this sort of men being very busy, very troublesome, and very dangerous to the gospel, as may be seen in other of St. Paul’s epistles, particularly that to the galatians.

The celebrating the passover amongst the Jews was plainly the eating of a meal distinguished from other ordinary meals, by several peculiar ceremonies. Two of these ceremonies were eating of bread solemnly broken, and drinking a cup of wine, called the cup of blessing. These two our Saviour transferred into the christian church, to be used in their assemblies, for a commemoration of his death and sufferings. In celebrating this institution of our Saviour, the judaizing corinthians followed the jewish custom of eating their passover; they eat the Lord’s supper as a part of their meal, bringing their provisions into the assembly, where they eat divided into distinct companies, some feasting to excess, whilst others, ill provided, were in want. This eating thus in the public assembly, and mixing the Lord’s supper with their ordinary meal, as a part of it, with other disorders and indecencies accompanying it, is the matter of this section. These innovations, he tells them here, he as much blames, as, in the beginning of this chapter, he commends them for keeping to his directions in some other things.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 17Now in this, that I declare unto you, I praise you not, that ye come together, not for the better, but for the worse.

Locke1824: 18For first of all, when ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it.

Locke1824: 19For there must be also heresies among you, that they, which are approved, may be made manifest among you.

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Locke1824: 20When ye come together, therefore, into one place, this is not to eat the Lord’s supper.

Locke1824: 21For, in eating, every one taketh before other, his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken.

Locke1824: 22What! have ye not houses to eat and drink in? Or despise ye Edition: current; Page: [158] the church of God? And shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you in this? I praise you not.

Locke1824: 23For I have received of the Lord, that, which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night, in which he was betrayed, took bread:

Locke1824: 24And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.”

Locke1824: 25After the same manner also, he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, “This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.”

Locke1824: 26For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord’s death till he come.

Locke1824: 27Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.

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Locke1824: 28But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.

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Locke1824: 29For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body.

Locke1824: 30For this cause, many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.

Locke1824: 31For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged.

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Locke1824: 32But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.

Locke1824: 33Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.

Locke1824: 34And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto condemnation. And the rest will I set in order, when I come.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 17Though what I said to you, concerning women’s behaviour in the church, was not without commendation of you; yet this, that I am now going to speak to you of, is without praising you, because you so order your meetings in your assemblies, thatLocke1824: 18 they are not to your advantage, but harm. For first I hear, that, when you come together in the church, you fall into parties, and I partly believeLocke1824: 19 it; Because there must be divisions and factions Edition: current; Page: [157] amongst you, that those who stand firm upon trial,Locke1824: 20 may be made manifest among you. You come together, it is true, in one place, and there you eat; but yet this makes it not to be the eating of theLocke1824: 21 Lord’s supper. For, in eating, you eat not together, but every one takes his own supper one before another*.Locke1824: 22 Have ye not houses to eat and drink in, at home, for satisfying your hunger and thirst? Or have ye a contempt for the church of God, and take a pleasure to put those out of countenance, who have not wherewithal to feast there, as you do? What is it I said to you, that I praise you for retaining Edition: current; Page: [158] what I delivered to you? On this occasion,Locke1824: 23 indeed, I praise you not for it. For what I received, concerning this institution, from the Lord himself, that I delivered unto you, when I was with you; and it was this, viz. That the Lord Jesus, in theLocke1824: 24 night, wherein he was betrayed, took bread: And, having given thanks, brake it, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body which is broken for you: this doLocke1824: 25 in remembrance of me.” So, likewise, he took the cup also when he had supped, saying, “This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as often as ye do it, in remembrance of me.”Locke1824: 26 So that the eating of this bread, and the drinking of this cup of the Lord’s supper, is not to satisfy hunger and thirst, but to show forth theLocke1824: 27 Lord’s death, till he comes. Insomuch that he, who eats this bread, and drinks this cup of the Lord, in an unworthy manner*, not suitable to that end, Edition: current; Page: [159] shall be guilty of a misuse of the body and bloodLocke1824: 28 of the Lord*. By this institution, therefore, of Christ, let a man examine himself; and, according Edition: current; Page: [160] to that*, let him eat of this bread, and drink ofLocke1824: 29 this cup. For he, who eats and drinks after an unworthy manner, without a due respect had to the Lord’s body, in a discriminating and purely sacramental use of the bread and wine, that represent it, draws punishment on himself by so doing.Locke1824: 30 And hence it is, that many among you are weak and sick, and a good number are gone to theirLocke1824: 31 graves. But if we would discriminate ourselves, i. e. by our discriminating use of the Lord’s supper, we Edition: current; Page: [161] Locke1824: 32 should not be judged, i. e. punished* by God. But, being punished by the Lord, we are corrected, that we may not be condemned hereafter, with the unbelievingLocke1824: 33 world. Wherefore, my brethren, when you have a meeting for celebrating the Lord’s supper, stay for one another, that you may eat it all together, as partakers, all in common, of the Lord’sLocke1824: 34 table, without division, or distinction. But if any one be hungry, let him eat at home to satisfy his hunger, that so the disorder in these meetings may not draw on you the punishment above mentioned. What else remains to be rectified in this matter, I will set in order when I come.

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SECT. IX.

CHAP. XII. 1.—XIV. 40.

CONTENTS.

The corinthians seem to have inquired of St. Paul, “What order of precedency and preference men were to have, in their assemblies, in regard of their spiritual gifts?” Nay, if we may guess by his answer, the question they seem more particularly to have proposed, was, “Whether those, who had the gift of tongues, ought not to take place, and speak first, and be first heard in their meetings?” Concerning this, there seems to have been some strife, maligning, and disorder among them, as may be collected from ch. xii. 21—25, and xiii. 4, 5, and xiv. 40.

To this St. Paul answers in these three chapters, as followeth

1. That they had all been heathen idolaters, and so being deniers of Christ, were in that state none of them spiritual: but that now, being christians, and owning Jesus to be the Lord (which could not be done without the Spirit of God), they were all πνευματιϰοὶ, spiritual, and so there was no reason for one to undervalue another, as if he were not spiritual, as well as himself, chap. xii. 1—3.

2. That though there be diversity of gifts, yet they are all by the same Spirit, from the same Lord, and the same God, working them all in every one, according to his good pleasure. So that, in this respect also, there is no difference or precedency; no occasion for any one’s being puffed up, or affecting priority, upon account of his gifts, chap. xii. 4—11.

3. That the diversity of gifts is for the use and benefit of the church, which is Christ’s body, wherein the members (as in the natural body) of meaner functions are as much parts, and as necessary in their use to the good of the whole, and therefore to be honoured, as much as any other. The union they have, as members in the Edition: current; Page: [163] same body, makes them all equally share in one another’s good and evil, gives them a mutual esteem and concern one for another, and leaves no room for contests or divisions amongst them, about their gifts, or the honour and place due to them, upon that account, chap. xii. 12—31.

4. That though gifts have their excellency and use, and those, who have them, may be zealous in the use of them; yet the true and sure way for a man to get an excellency and preference above others, is the enlarging himself in charity, and excelling in that, without which a christian, with all his spiritual gifts, is nothing, chap. xiii. 1—13.

5. In the comparison of spiritual gifts, he gives those the precedency, which edify most; and, in particular, prefers prophesying to tongues, chap. xiv. 1—40.

SECT. IX. No. 1.

CHAP. XII. 1—3.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.

Locke1824: 2Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.

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Locke1824: 3Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man, speaking by the Spirit of God, calleth Jesus accursed; and that no man can say, that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1As to spiritual men, or men assisted and acted by the Spirit*, I shall inform you; for I would not haveLocke1824: 2 you be ignorant. You yourselves know, that you Edition: current; Page: [164] were heathens, engaged in the worship of stocks and stones, dumb, senseless idols, by those, who were thenLocke1824: 3 your leaders. Whereupon let me tell you, that no one, who opposes Jesus Christ, or his religion, has the Spirit of God*. And whoever is brought to own Jesus to be the Messiah, the Lord, does it by the Holy Ghost. And therefore, upon account of having the Spirit, you can none of you lay any claim to superiority; or have any pretence to slight any of your brethren, as not having the Spirit of God, as well as you. For all, that own our Lord Jesus Christ, and believe in him, do it by the Spirit of God, i. e. can do it upon no other ground, but revelation, coming from the Spirit of God.

SECT. IX. No. 2.

CHAP. XII. 4—11.

CONTENTS.

Another consideration, which St. Paul offers, against any contention for superiority, or pretence to precedency, upon account of any spiritual gift, is, that those distinct gifts are all of one and the same Spirit, by the same Lord; wrought in every one, by God alone, and all for the profit of the church.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 4Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit.

Locke1824: 5And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord.

Locke1824: 6And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.

Locke1824: 7But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man, to profit withal.

Locke1824: 8For to one is given, by the Spirit, the word of wisdom; to another, the word of knowledge by the same Spirit:

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Locke1824: 9To another, faith by the same Spirit; to another, the gifts of healing, by the same Spirit;

Locke1824: 10To another, the working of miracles; to another, prophecy; to another, discerning of spirits; to another, divers kinds of tongues; to another, the interpretation of tongues.

Locke1824: 11But all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally, as he will.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 4Be not mistaken, by the diversity of gifts; for, though there be diversity of gifts among christians, yet there is no diversity of spirits, they all come from one andLocke1824: 5 the same Spirit. Though there be diversities of offices* in the church, yet all the officers have but oneLocke1824: 6 Lord. And though there be various influxes, whereby christians are enabled to do extraordinary things, yet it is the same God, that works all these extraordinaryLocke1824: 7 gifts, in every one that has them. But the way, or gift, wherein every one, who has the Spirit, is to show it, is given him, not for his private advantage, or honour§, but for the good and advantage ofLocke1824: 8 the church. For instance; to one is given, by the spirit, the word of wisdom, or the revelation of the gospel of Jesus Christ, in the full latitude of it: such as was given to the apostles: to another, by the same spirit, the knowledge of the true sense and true meaning of the holy scriptures of the Old Testament, Edition: current; Page: [166] for the explaining and confirmation of the gospel:Locke1824: 9 To another, by the same Spirit, is given an undoubting persuasion*, and stedfast confidence, of performing what he is going about; to another, the gift ofLocke1824: 10 curing diseases, by the same Spirit; To another, the working of miracles; to another, prophecy; to another, the discerning by what spirit men did any extraordinary operation; to another, diversity of languages; to another, the interpretation of languages.Locke1824: 11 All which gifts are wrought in believers, by one and the same Spirit, distributing to every one, in particular, as he thinks fit.

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SECT. IX. No. 3.

CHAP. XII. 12—31.

CONTENTS.

From the necessarily different functions in the body, and the strict union, nevertheless, of the members, adapted to those different functions, in a mutual sympathy and concern one for another; St. Paul here farther shows, that there ought not to be any strife, or division, amongst them, about precedency and preference, upon account of their distinct gifts.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 12For, as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ.

Locke1824: 13For, by one Spirit, are we all baptized into one body, whether we be jews or gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

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Locke1824: 14For the body is not one member, but many.

Locke1824: 15If the foot shall say, “Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body:” is it therefore not of the body?

Locke1824: 16And if the ear shall say, “Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body:” is it therefore not of the body?

Locke1824: 17If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?

Locke1824: 18But now hath God set the members, every one of them, in the body, as it hath pleased him.

Locke1824: 19And if they were all one member, where were the body?

Locke1824: 20But now are they many members, yet but one body.

Locke1824: 21And the eye cannot say unto the hand, “I have no need of thee:” nor, again, the head to the feet, “I have no need of you.”

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Locke1824: 22Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary.

Locke1824: 23And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour, and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.

Locke1824: 24For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked:

Locke1824: 25That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another.

Locke1824: 26And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it: or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it.

Locke1824: 27Now, ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.

Locke1824: 28And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.

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Locke1824: 29Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all workers of miracles?

Locke1824: 30Have all the gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret?

Locke1824: 31But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet show I unto you a more excellent way.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 12For as the body, being but one, hath many members, and all the members of the body, though many, yet make but one body; so is Christ, in respectLocke1824: 13 of his mystical body, the church. For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one church, and are thereby made one body, without any pre-eminence to the jew* above the gentile, to the free above the bond-man: and the blood of Christ, which we all partake of, in the Lord’s supper, makes us all have one life, one spirit, as the same blood, diffused through the whole body, communicates the Edition: current; Page: [168] Locke1824: 14 same life and spirit to all the members. For the body is not one sole member, but consists of many members, all vitally united in one common sympathyLocke1824: 15 and usefulness. If any one have not that function, orLocke1824: 16 dignity, in the church, which he desires, He must not, therefore, declare that he is not of the church, he does not thereby cease to be a member of theLocke1824: 17 church. There is as much need of several and distinct gifts and functions in the church, as there is of different senses and members in the body; and the meanest and least honourable would be missed, if it were wanting, and the whole body wouldLocke1824: 18 suffer by it. Accordingly, God hath fitted several persons, as it were so many distinct members, to several offices and functions in the church, by proper and peculiar gifts and abilities, which he has bestowed on them, according to his good pleasure.Locke1824: 19 But if all were but one member, what would become of the body? There would be no such thing as an human body; no more could the church be edified, and framed into a growing lasting society, if the giftsLocke1824: 20 of the Spirit were all reduced to one. But now, by the various gifts of the Spirit, bestowed on its several members, it is as a well organized body, wherein the most eminent member cannot despise the meanest.Locke1824: 21 The eye cannot say to the hand, “I have no need of thee;” nor the head to the feet, “I have Edition: current; Page: [169] Locke1824: 22 no need of you.” It is so far from being so, that the parts of the body, that seem in themselves weak,Locke1824: 23 are nevertheless of absolute necessity. And those parts which are thought least honourable we take care always to cover with the more respect; and our least graceful parts have thereby a more studied and adventitiousLocke1824: 24 comeliness. For our comely parts have no need of any borrowed helps, or ornaments: but God hath so contrived the symmetry of the body, that he hath added honour to those parts, that might seemLocke1824: 25 naturally to want it: That there might be no disunion, no schism in the body; but that the members should all have the same care and concern one forLocke1824: 26 another; And all equally partake and share in the harm, or honour, that is done to any of them in particular.Locke1824: 27 Now, in like manner, you are, by your particular gifts, each of you, in his peculiar station and aptitude, members of the body of Christ, which isLocke1824: 28 the church: Wherein God hath set, first some apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, next workers of miracles, then those, who have the gift of healing, helpers*, governors, and such as are able to speak Edition: current; Page: [170] Locke1824: 29 diversity of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all workers ofLocke1824: 30 miracles? Have all the gift of healing? Do all speak diversity of tongues? Are all interpreters ofLocke1824: 31 tongues? But ye contest one with another, whose particular gift is best, and most preferable*; but I will show you a more excellent way, viz. mutual good-will, affection and charity.

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SECT. IX. No. 4.

CHAP. XIII. 1—13.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having told the corinthians, in the last words of the preceding chapter, that he would show them a more excellent way, than the emulous producing of their gifts in the assembly, he, in this chapter tells them, that this more excellent way is charity, which he at large explains, and shows the excellency of.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Though I speak with the tongues of men, and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

Locke1824: 2And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have no charity, I am nothing.

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Locke1824: 3And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.

Locke1824: 4Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up;

Locke1824: 5Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil;

Locke1824: 6Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth:

Locke1824: 7Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things.

Locke1824: 8Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away.

Locke1824: 9For we know in part, and we prophesy in part.

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Locke1824: 10But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.

Locke1824: 11When I was a child, I spake as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things.

Locke1824: 12For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know, even as also I am known.

Locke1824: 13And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three: but the greatest of these is charity.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1If I speak all the languages of men and angels*, and yet have not charity, to make use of them entirely for the good and benefit of others, I am no better than a sounding brass, or noisy cymbal, which fills the ears of others, without any advantage to itself,Locke1824: 2 by the sound it makes. And if I have the gift of prophecy, and see, in the law and the prophets, all the mysteries contained in them, and comprehend Edition: current; Page: [172] all the knowledge they teach; and if I have faith to the highest degree, and power of miracles, so as to be able to remove mountains*, and have not charity,Locke1824: 3 I am nothing: I am of no value. And if I bestow all I have, in relief of the poor, and give myself to be burnt, and have not charity, it profits me nothing.Locke1824: 4 Charity is long-suffering, is gentle and benign, withoutLocke1824: 5 emulation, insolence, or being puffed up; Is not ambitious, nor at all self-interested, is not sharp uponLocke1824: 6 others failings, or inclined to ill interpretations: Charity rejoices with others, when they do well; and, when any thing is amiss, is troubled, and covers their failings:Locke1824: 7 Charity believes well, hopes well of every one,Locke1824: 8 and patiently bears with every thing: Charity will never cease, as a thing out of use; but the gifts of prophecy, and tongues, and the knowledge whereby men look into, and explain the meaning of the scriptures, the time will be, when they will be laid aside,Locke1824: 9 as no longer of any use. For the knowledge we have now in this state, and the explication we give of scripture, Edition: current; Page: [173] Locke1824: 10 is short, partial, and defective. But when, hereafter, we shall be got into the state of accomplishment and perfection, wherein we are to remain in the other world, there will no longer be any need of these imperfecter ways of information, wherebyLocke1824: 11 we arrive at but a partial knowledge here. Thus, when I was in the imperfect state of childhood, I talked, I understood, I reasoned after the imperfect manner of a child: but, when I came to the state and perfection of manhood, I laid aside those childishLocke1824: 12 ways. Now we see but by reflection, the dim, and as it were, enigmatical representation of things: but then we shall see things directly, and as they are in themselves, as a man sees another, when they are face to face. Now I have but a superficial, partial knowledge of things; but then I shall have an intuitive, comprehensive knowledge of them, as I myself am known, and lie open to the view of superiour, seraphic beings, not by the obscure and imperfectLocke1824: 13 way of deductions and reasoning. But then, even in that state, faith, hope, and charity, will remain: but the greatest of the three is charity.

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SECT. IX. No. 5.

CHAP. XIV. 1—40.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, in this chapter, concludes his answer to the corinthians, concerning spiritual men, and their gifts; and having told them, that those were most preferable, that tended most to edification; and particularly shown, that prophecy was to be preferred to tongues; he gives them directions for the decent, orderly, and profitable exercise of their gifts, in their assemblies.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy.

Locke1824: 2For he, that speaketh in an unknown tongue, speaketh not unto Edition: current; Page: [175] men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit, in the Spirit, he speaketh mysteries.

Locke1824: 3But he, that prophesieth, speaketh unto men, to edification, and exhortation, and comfort.

Locke1824: 4He that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself: but he, that prophesieth, edifieth the church.

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Locke1824: 5I would that ye all spake with tongues, but rather that ye prophesied: for greater is he that prophesieth, than he that speaketh with tongues, except he interpret, that the church may receive edifying.

Locke1824: 6Now, brethren, if I come unto you, speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you, either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by doctrine?

Locke1824: 7And even things without life, giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped, or harped?

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Locke1824: 8For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?

Locke1824: 9So likewise you, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? For ye shall speak into the air.

Locke1824: 10There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification.

Locke1824: 11Therefore, if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian; and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.

Locke1824: 12Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek that ye may excel to the edifying of the church.

Locke1824: 13Wherefore, let him, that speaketh in an unknown tongue, pray that he may interpret.

Locke1824: 14For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful.

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Locke1824: 15What is it then? I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the Spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.

Locke1824: 16Else, when thou shalt bless with the Spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned, say Amen, at thy giving of thanks; seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?

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Locke1824: 17For thou verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.

Locke1824: 18I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than you all:

Locke1824: 19Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.

Locke1824: 20Brethren, be not children in understanding: howbeit, in malice be ye children, but in understanding be men.

Locke1824: 21In the law it is written, “With men of other tongues, and other lips, will I speak unto this people: and yet, for all that, will they not hear me, saith the Lord.”

Locke1824: 22Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to them that believe, but Edition: current; Page: [180] to them that believe not: but prophesying serveth not for them that believe not, but for them which believe.

Locke1824: 23If, therefore, the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those, that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say, that ye are mad?

Locke1824: 24But if all prophesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all.

Locke1824: 25And thus are the secrets of his heart made manifest! and so, falling down on his face, he will worship God, and report that God is in you of a truth.

Locke1824: 26How is it then, brethren? When ye come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done to edifying.

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Locke1824: 27If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret.

Locke1824: 28But if there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself and to God.

Locke1824: 29Let the prophets speak, two or three, and let the other judge.

Locke1824: 30If any thing be revealed to another, that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace.

Locke1824: 31For ye may all prophesy, one by one, that all may learn, that all may be comforted.

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Locke1824: 32And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.

Locke1824: 33For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.

Locke1824: 34Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.

Locke1824: 35And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.

Locke1824: 36What! came the word of God out from you? Or came it unto you only?

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Locke1824: 37If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge, that the things, that I write unto you, are the commandments of the Lord.

Locke1824: 38But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.

Locke1824: 39Wherefore, brethren, covet to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues.

Locke1824: 40Let all things be done decently, and in order.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Let your endeavours, let your pursuit, therefore, be after charity; not that you should neglect the useLocke1824: 2 of your spiritual gifts*, especially the gift of prophecy: Edition: current; Page: [175] Locke1824: 2 For he, that speaks in an unknown tongue*, speaks to God alone, but not to men: for nobody understands him; the things he utters, by the Spirit, in an unknown tongue, are mysteries, things notLocke1824: 3 understood, by those who hear them. But he, that prophesieth, speaks to men, who are exhorted and comforted thereby, and helped forwards in religionLocke1824: 4 and piety. He that speaks in an unknown tongue, edifies himself alone; but he that prophesieth, edifieth Edition: current; Page: [176] Locke1824: 5 the church. I wish that ye had all the gift of tongues, but rather that ye all prophesied; for greater is he that prophesieth, than he that speaks with tongues, unless he interprets what he delivers in an unknown tongue, that the church may be edified by it.Locke1824: 6 For example, should I apply myself to you in a tongue you knew not, what good should I do you, unless I interpreted to you what I said, that you might understand the revelation, or knowledge, or prophecy,Locke1824: 7 or doctrine* contained in it? Even inanimate instruments of sound, as pipe or harp, are not made use of, to make an insignificant noise; but distinct notes, expressing mirth, or mourning, or the like, are played upon them, whereby the tune Edition: current; Page: [177] Locke1824: 8 and composure are understood. And if the trumpet sound not some point of war, that is understood, theLocke1824: 9 soldier is not thereby instructed what to do. So likewise ye, unless with the tongue, which you use, utter words of a clear and known signification to your hearers, you talk to the wind; for your auditorsLocke1824: 10 understand nothing that you say. There is a great number of significant languages in the world, ILocke1824: 11 know not how many, every nation has its own. If then I understand not another’s language, and the force of his words, I am to him, when he speaks, a barbarian; and whatever he says, is all gibberish to me; and so is it with you; ye are barbarians one to another, as far as ye speak to one another in unknownLocke1824: 12 tongues. But since there is emulation amongst you, concerning spiritual gifts, seek to abound in the exercise of those which tend most to the edificationLocke1824: 13 of the church. Wherefore, let him that speaks an unknown tongue, pray that he may interpret whatLocke1824: 14 he says. For if I pray in the congregation in an unknown tongue, my spirit, it is true, accompanies my words, which I understand, and so my spirit prays*; but my meaning is unprofitable to others Edition: current; Page: [178] Locke1824: 15 who understand not my words. What, then, is to be done in the case? Why, I will, when moved to it by the Spirit, pray in an unknown tongue, but so that my meaning* may be understood by others i. e. I will not do it but when there is somebody by, to interpret. And so will I do also in singing; I will sing by the Spirit, in an unknown tongue; but I will take care that the meaning of what I sing shallLocke1824: 16 be understood by the assistants. And thus ye shall all do, in all like cases. For if thou, by the impulse of the Spirit, givest thanks to God, in an unknown tongue, which all understand not, how shall the hearer, who, in this respect, is unlearned, and, being ignorant in that tongue, knows not what thou sayest, how shall he say Amen? How shall he join Edition: current; Page: [179] Locke1824: 17 in the thanks, which he understands not? Thou, indeed, givest thanks well; but the other isLocke1824: 18 not at all edified by it. I thank God, I speak withLocke1824: 19 tongues more than you all: But I had rather speak in the church five words that are understood, that I might instruct others also, than, in an unknown tongue, ten thousand, that others understand not.Locke1824: 20 My brethren, be not, in understanding, children, who are apt to be taken with the novelty, or strangeness of things: in temper and disposition, be as children, void of malice*; but, in matters of understanding, be ye perfect men, and use your understandings.Locke1824: 21 Be not so zealous for the use of unknown tongues in the church; they are not so proper there: it is written in the law, “With men of other tongues, and other lips, will I speak unto this people: and yet, for all that, will theyLocke1824: 22 not hear me, saith the Lord.” So that, you see, the speaking of strange tongues miraculously, is not Edition: current; Page: [180] for those, who are already converted, but for a sign to those, who are unbelievers: but prophecy is for believers, and not for unbelievers; and therefore,Locke1824: 23 fitter for your assemblies. If, therefore, when the church is all come together, you should all speak in unknown tongues, and men unlearned, or unbelievers should come in, would they not say,Locke1824: 24 “that you are mad?” But if ye all prophesy, and an unbeliever, or an ignorant man, come in, the discourse he hears from you reaching hisLocke1824: 25 conscience, And the secret thoughts of his heart, he is convinced, and wrought upon; and so, falling down, worships God, and declares that God is certainlyLocke1824: 26 amongst you. What then is to be done, brethren? When you come together, every one is ready*, one with a psalm, another with a doctrine, another with a strange tongue, another with a revelation, another with an interpretation. Let all things be Edition: current; Page: [181] Locke1824: 27 done to edification. Even though* any one speak in an unknown tongue, which is a gift that seems least intended for edification; let but two or three at most, at any one meeting, speak in an unknown tongue; and that separately, one after another; andLocke1824: 28 let there be but one interpreter. But if there be no-body present, that can interpret, let not any one use his gift of tongues in the congregation; but let him, silently, within himself, speak to himself, and toLocke1824: 29 God. Of those, who have the gift of prophecy, let but two or three speak at the same meeting, and letLocke1824: 30 the others examine and discuss it. But if, during their debate, the meaning of it be revealed to one that sits by, let him, that was discoursing of it before,Locke1824: 31 give off. For ye may all prophesy, one after another, that all may in their turns be hearers, and Edition: current; Page: [182] Locke1824: 32 receive exhortation and instruction. For the gifts of the Holy Ghost are not like the possession of the heathen priests, who are not masters of the Spirit that possesses them. But christians, however filled with the Holy Ghost, are masters of their own actions, can speak, or hold their peace, as they see occasion, and are not hurried away by any compulsion.Locke1824: 33 It is, therefore, no reason for you to speak, more than one at once, or to interrupt one another, because you find yourselves inspired and moved by the Spirit of God. For God is not the author of confusion and disorder, but of quietness and peace. And this is what is observed in all the churches ofLocke1824: 34 God. As to your women, let them keep silence in your assemblies; for it is not permitted them to discourse there, or pretend to teach; that does no way suit their state of subjection, appointed them in the law.Locke1824: 35 But, if they have a mind to have any thing explained to them, that passes in the church, let them, for their information, ask their husbands at home, for it is a shame for women to discourse and debate withLocke1824: 36 men publicly, in the congregation*. What! do you pretend to give laws to the church of God, or to a right to do what you please amongst yourselves, Edition: current; Page: [183] as if the gospel began at Corinth, and issuing from you was communicated to the rest of the world; or, as if it were communicated to you alone,Locke1824: 37 of all the world? If any man amongst you think, that he hath the gift of prophecies, and would pass for a man knowing in the revealed will of God*, let him acknowledge, that these rules, which I have here given, are the commandments of the Lord.Locke1824: 38 But if any man be ignorant that they are so, I have no more to say to him; I leave him to his ignorance.Locke1824: 39 To conclude, brethren, let prophecy have the preference in the exercise of it; but yet forbidLocke1824: 40 not the speaking unknown tongues. But whether a man prophesies, or speaks with tongues, whatever spiritual gift he exercises in your assemblies, let it be done without any indecorum, or disorder.

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SECT. X.

CHAP. XV. 1—58.

CONTENTS.

After St. Paul (who had taught them another doctrine) had left Corinth, some among them denied the resurrection of the dead. This he confutes by Christ’s resurrection, which the number of witnesses, yet remaining, that had seen him, put past question, besides the constant inculcating of it, by all the apostles, every-where. From the resurrection of Christ, thus established, he infers the resurrection of the dead; shows the order they shall rise in, and what sort of bodies they shall have.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also you have received, and wherein ye stand;

Locke1824: 2By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.

Locke1824: 3For I delivered unto you, first of all, that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures:

Locke1824: 4And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the scriptures:

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Locke1824: 5And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:

Locke1824: 6After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remained unto this present, but some are fallen asleep:

Locke1824: 7After that, he was seen of James: then, of all the apostles.

Locke1824: 8And, last of all, he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.

Locke1824: 9For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.

Locke1824: 10But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace, which was bestowed upon me, was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.

Locke1824: 11Therefore, whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.

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Locke1824: 12Now, if Christ be preached, that he rose from the dead, how say some among you, that there is no resurrection of the dead?

Locke1824: 13But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen.

Locke1824: 14And, if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.

Locke1824: 15Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God, that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not.

Locke1824: 16For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised.

Locke1824: 17And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.

Locke1824: 18Then they also, which are fallen asleep in Christ, are perished.

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Locke1824: 19If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.

Locke1824: 20But, now, is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.

Locke1824: 21For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.

Locke1824: 22For, as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

Locke1824: 23But every man in his own order: Christ the first-fruits, afterwards they that are Christ’s, at his coming.

Locke1824: 24Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority, and power.

Locke1824: 25For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

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Locke1824: 26The last enemy, that shall be destroyed, is death.

Locke1824: 27For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith, “All things are put under him,” it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.

Locke1824: 28And, when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him, that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

Locke1824: 29Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? Why are they, then, baptized for the dead?

Locke1824: 30And why stand we in jeopardy every hour?

Locke1824: 31I protest, by your rejoicing, which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.

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Locke1824: 32If, after the manner of men, I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? Let us eat, and drink; for to-morrow we die.

Locke1824: 33Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.

Locke1824: 34Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame.

Locke1824: 35But some man will say, “How are the dead raised up? And with what body do they come?”

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Locke1824: 36Thou fool! that, which thou sowest, is not quickened, except it die.

Locke1824: 37And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain.

Locke1824: 38But God giveth it a body, as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body.

Locke1824: 39All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds.

Locke1824: 40There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another.

Locke1824: 41There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differeth from another star in glory.

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Locke1824: 42So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption;

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Locke1824: 43It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power.

Locke1824: 44It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.

Locke1824: 45And so it is written, The first man, Adam, was made a living soul, the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.

Locke1824: 46Howbeit, that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward, that which is spiritual.

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Locke1824: 47The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven.

Locke1824: 48As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.

Locke1824: 49And, as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

Locke1824: 50Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.

Locke1824: 51Behold, I show you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,

Locke1824: 52In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump, (for the trumpet shall sound;) and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

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Locke1824: 53For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.

Locke1824: 54So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory.”

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Locke1824: 55O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?

Locke1824: 56The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.

Locke1824: 57But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 58Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord; forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1In what I am now going to say to you, brethren, I make known to you no other gospel, than what I formerly preached to you, and you received, and have hitherto professed, and by which alone you are to beLocke1824: 2 saved. This you will find to be so, if you retain in your memories what it was that I preached to you, which you certainly do, unless you have taken up the christian name and profession to no purpose.Locke1824: 3 For I delivered to you, and particularly insisted on this, which I had received, viz. that Christ died for our sins, according to the scriptures:Locke1824: 4 And that he was buried, and that he was raised again, the third day, according to the scriptures: Edition: current; Page: [185] Locke1824: 5 And that he was seen by Peter; afterwards by theLocke1824: 6 twelve apostles: And after that, by above five hundred christians at once; of whom the greatest part remain alive to this day, but some of them are deceased:Locke1824: 7 Afterwards he was seen by James; and afterLocke1824: 8 that, by all the apostles: Last of all, he was seenLocke1824: 9 by me also, as by one born before my time*. For I am the least of the apostles, not worthy the name of an apostle; because I persecuted the church ofLocke1824: 10 God. But, by the free bounty of God, I am what it hath pleased him to make me: and this favour, which he hath bestowed on me, hath not been altogether fruitless; for I have laboured in preaching of the gospel, more than all the other apostles: which yet I do not ascribe to any thing of myself, but toLocke1824: 11 the favour of God, which accompanied me. But whether I, or the other apostles, preached, this was that which we preached, and this was the faith ye were baptized into, viz. that Christ died, and rose Edition: current; Page: [186] Locke1824: 12 again the third day. If, therefore, this be so, if this be that, which has been preached to you, viz. that Christ has been raised from the dead; how comes it that some amongst* you say, as they do, that thereLocke1824: 13 is no resurrection of the dead? And if there be no resurrection of the dead, then even Christ himself isLocke1824: 14 not risen: And if Christ be not risen, our preaching is idle talk, and your believing it is to no purpose.Locke1824: 15 And we, who pretend to be witnesses for God, and his truth, shall be found lyars, bearing witness against God, and his truth, affirming, that he raised Christ, whom in truth he did not raise, if it be so, that theLocke1824: 16 dead are not raised. For if the dead shall not beLocke1824: 17 raised, neither is Christ raised. And if Christ be not risen, your faith is to no purpose; your sins are not forgiven, but you are still liable to the punishmentLocke1824: 18 due to them. And they also, who died in the Edition: current; Page: [187] Locke1824: 19 belief of the gospel, are perished and lost. If the advantages we expect from Christ, are confined to this life, and we have no hope of any benefit from him, in another life hereafter, we christians are theLocke1824: 20 most miserable of all men. But, in truth, Christ is actually risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits*Locke1824: 21 of those who were dead. For, since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection ofLocke1824: 22 the dead, or restoration to life. For, as the death that all men suffer, is owing to Adam, so the life, that all shall be restored to again, is procured themLocke1824: 23 by Christ. But they shall return to life again not all at once, but in their proper order: Christ, the first-fruits, is already risen; next after him shall rise those, who are his people, his church, and thisLocke1824: 24 shall be at his second coming. After that shall be the day of judgment, which shall bring to a conclusion and finish the whole dispensation to the race and posterity of Adam, in this world: when Christ shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, the Father; which he shall not do, till he hath destroyed all empire, power, and authority, thatLocke1824: 25 shall be in the world besides. For he must reign, till Edition: current; Page: [188] he has totally subdued and brought all his enemiesLocke1824: 26 into subjection to his kingdom. The last enemy,Locke1824: 27 that shall be destroyed, is death. For God hath subjected all things to Christ: but when it is said, “All things are subjected,” it is plain that he is to be excepted, who did subject all things to him.Locke1824: 28 But when all things shall be actually reduced under subjection to him, then, even the Son himself, i. e. Christ and his whole kingdom, he and all his subjects and members, shall be subjected to him, that gave him this kingdom, and universal dominion, that God may immediately govern and influence all.Locke1824: 29 Else*, what shall they do, who are baptized for theLocke1824: 30 dead? And, why do we venture our lives continually?Locke1824: 31 As to myself, I am exposed, vilified, treated so, that I die daily. And for this I call to witness your glorying against me, in which I really glory, Edition: current; Page: [189] as coming on me for our Lord Jesus Christ’s sake.Locke1824: 32 And particularly, to what purpose did I suffer myself to be exposed to wild beasts at Ephesus, if the dead rise not? If there be no resurrection, it is wiser a great deal to preserve ourselves, as long as we can, in a free enjoyment of all the pleasures of this life; for when death comes, as it shortly will,Locke1824: 33 there is an end of us for ever. Take heed that you be not misled by such discourses: for evil communicationLocke1824: 34 is apt to corrupt even good minds. Awake from such dreams, as it is fit you should, and give not yourselves up sinfully to the enjoyments of this life. For there are some atheistical* people amongLocke1824: 35 you: this I say to make you ashamed. But possibly it will be asked, “How comes it to pass, that dead men are raised, and with what kind of bodies do they come? Shall they have, at the resurrection, Edition: current; Page: [190] Locke1824: 36 “such bodies as they have now?” Thou fool! does not daily experience teach thee, that the seed, which thou sowest, corrupts and dies, before itLocke1824: 37 springs up and lives again! That, which thou sowest, is the bare grain, of wheat, or barley, or the like; but the body, which it has, when it rises up, is differentLocke1824: 38 from the seed that is sown. For it is not the seed that rises up again, but a quite different body, such as God has thought fit to give it, viz. a plant, of a particular shape and size, which God has appointedLocke1824: 39 to each sort of seed. And so, likewise, it is in animals; there are different kinds of flesh*: for the flesh of men is of one kind: the flesh of cattle is of another kind; that of fish is different from them both; and the flesh of birds is of a peculiar sort, differentLocke1824: 40 from them all. To look yet farther into the difference of bodies, there be both heavenly and earthly bodies; but the beauty and excellency of the Edition: current; Page: [191] heavenly bodies is of one kind, and that of earthlyLocke1824: 41 bodies of another. The sun, moon, and stars, have each of them their particular beauty and brightness, and one star differs from another inLocke1824: 42 glory. And so shall the resurrection of the dead* Edition: current; Page: [192] Edition: current; Page: [193] be: that, which is sown in this world*, and comes to die, is a poor, weak, contemptible, corruptibleLocke1824: 43 thing: When it is raised again, it shall be powerful,Locke1824: 44 glorious, and incorruptible. The body, we have here, surpasses not the animal nature. At the resurrection, it shall be spiritual. There are bothLocke1824: 45 animal and spiritual bodies. And so it is written, “The first man Adam was made a living soul,” i. e. made of an animal constitution, endowed with an animal life; the second Adam was made of a spiritual constitution, with a power to give lifeLocke1824: 46 to others. Howbeit, the spiritual was not first, but the animal; and afterwards the spiritual. Edition: current; Page: [194] Locke1824: 47 The first man was of the earth, made up of dust, or earthy particles: the second man is the Lord fromLocke1824: 48 heaven. Those who have no higher an extraction, than barely from the earthy man, they, like him, have barely an animal life and constitution: but those, who are regenerate, and born of the heavenly seed, are, asLocke1824: 49 he that is heavenly, spiritual and immortal. And as in the animal, corruptible, mortal state, we were born in, we have been like him, that was earthy; so also shall we, who, at the resurrection, partake of a spiritual life from Christ, be made like him, the Lord from heaven, heavenly, i. e. live, as the spirits in heaven do, without the need of food, or nourishment, to support it, and without infirmities, decay andLocke1824: 50 death, enjoying a fixed, stable, unfleeting life. This I say to you, brethren, to satisfy those that ask, “with what bodies the dead shall come?” that we shall not at the resurrection have such bodies as we have now: for flesh and blood cannot enter into the kingdom, which the saints shall inherit in heaven; nor are such fleeting, corruptible things as our present bodies are, fitted to that state of immutable incorruptibility.Locke1824: 51 To which let me add, what has not been hitherto discovered, viz. that we shall not allLocke1824: 52 die, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the sounding of the last trumpet; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead Edition: current; Page: [195] shall rise: and as many of us, believers, as are thenLocke1824: 53 alive, shall be changed. For this corruptible frame and constitution* of ours, must put on incorruption,Locke1824: 54 and from mortal become immortal. And, when we are got into that state of incorruptibility and immortality, then shall be fulfilled what was foretold in these words, “Death is swallowed up of victory;” i. e. death is perfectly subdued and exterminated, by a complete victory over it, so that Edition: current; Page: [196] Locke1824: 55 there shall be no death any more. Where, O death, is now that power, whereby thou deprivest men of life? What is become of the dominion of the grave, whereby they were detained prisoners there*?Locke1824: 56 That, which gives death the power of men is sin,Locke1824: 57 and it is the law, by which sin has this power. But thanks be to God, who gives us deliverance and victory over death, the punishment of sin, by the law, through our Lord Jesus Christ, who has deliveredLocke1824: 58 us from the rigour of the law. Wherefore, my beloved brethren, continue stedfast and unmoveable in the christian faith, always abounding in your obedience to the precepts of Christ, and in those duties which are required of us, by our Lord and Saviour, knowing that your labour will not be lost. Whatsoever you shall do, or suffer for him, will be abundantly rewarded, by eternal life.

SECT. XI.

CHAP. XVI. 1—4.

CONTENTS.

He gives directions concerning their contribution to the poor christians at Jerusalem.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.

Locke1824: 2Upon the first day of the week, let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.

Locke1824: 3And when I come, whomsoever you shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem.

Locke1824: 4And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1As to the collection for the converts to christianity, who are at Jerusalem, I would have you do, as ILocke1824: 2 have directed the churches of Galatia. Let every one of you, according as he thrives in his calling, lay aside some part of his gain by itself, which, the first day of the week, let him put into the common treasury* of the church, that there may be no need ofLocke1824: 3 any gathering, when I come. And when I come, those, whom you shall approve of, will I send with letters to Jerusalem, to carry thither your benevolence.Locke1824: 4 Which if it deserves, that I also should go, they shall go along with me.

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SECT. XII.

CHAP. XVI. 5—12.

CONTENTS.

He gives them an account of his own, Timothy’s, and Apollos’s intention of coming to them.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 5Now I will come unto you, when I shall pass through Macedonia (for I do pass through Macedonia:)

Locke1824: 6And it may be, that I will abide, yea, and winter with you, that ye may bring me on my journey, whithersoever I go.

Locke1824: 7For I will not see you now, by the way; but I trust to tarry awhile with you, if the Lord permit.

Locke1824: 8But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost.

Locke1824: 9For a great door, and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries.

Locke1824: 10Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be with you without fear: for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do.

Locke1824: 11Let no man, therefore, despise him; but conduct him forth in peace, that he may come unto me: for I look for him with the brethren.

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Locke1824: 12As touching our brother Apollos, I greatly desired him to come unto you, with the brethren: but his will was not at all to come at this time; but he will come, when he shall have convenient time.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 5I will come unto you, when I have been in Macedonia;Locke1824: 6 for I intend to take that in my way: And perhaps I shall make some stay, nay, winter with you, that you may bring me going on my way,Locke1824: 7 whithersoever I go. For I do not intend just to call in upon you, as I pass by; but I hope to spendLocke1824: 8 some time with you, if the Lord permit. But I shall stay at Ephesus till Pentecost, i. e. Whitsuntide.Locke1824: 9 For now I have a very fair and promising opportunity given me of propagating the gospel, thoughLocke1824: 10 there be many opposers. If Timothy come to you, pray take care, that he be easy, and without fear amongst you: for he promotes the work of theLocke1824: 11 Lord, in preaching the gospel, even as I do. Let no-body, therefore, despise him; but treat him kindly, and bring him going, that he may come unto me: for I expect him with the brethren. Edition: current; Page: [199] Locke1824: 12 As to brother* Apollos, I have earnestly endeavoured to prevail with him to come to you with the brethren: but he has no mind to it at all, at present. He will come, however, when there shall be a fit occasion.

SECT. XIII.

CHAP. XVI. 13.—24.

CONTENTS.

The conclusion, wherein St. Paul, according to his custom, leaves with them some, which he thinks most necessary, exhortations, and sends particular greetings.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 13Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like men, be strong.

Locke1824: 14Let all your things be done with charity.

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Locke1824: 15I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is the first-fruits of Achaia, and that they have addicted themselves to the ministry of the saints)

Locke1824: 16That ye submit yourselves unto such, and to every one that helpeth with us, and laboureth.

Locke1824: 17I am glad of the coming of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus: for that, which was lacking on your part, they have supplied.

Locke1824: 18For they have refreshed my spirit and yours: therefore, acknowledge ye them that are such.

Locke1824: 19The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.

Locke1824: 20All the brethren greet you. Greet you one another with an holy kiss.

Locke1824: 21The salutation of me, Paul, with mine own hand.

Locke1824: 22If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be anathema, maranatha.

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Locke1824: 23The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

Locke1824: 24My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 13Be upon your guard, stand firm in the faith, behave yourselves like men, with courage and resolution:Locke1824: 14 And whatever is done amongst you, either in public assemblies, or elsewhere, let it all be done with Edition: current; Page: [200] Locke1824: 15 affection, and good-will, one to another*. You know the house of Stephanas, that they were the first converts of Achaia, and have all along made itLocke1824: 16 their business to minister to the saints: To such, I beseech you to submit yourselves: let such as, withLocke1824: 17 us, labour to promote the gospel, be your leaders. I am glad, that Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus came to me; because they have supplied what wasLocke1824: 18 deficient on your side. For, by the account they have given me of you, they have quieted my mind, and yours too: therefore have a regard to suchLocke1824: 19 men as these. The churches of Asia salute you, and so do Aquila and Priscilla, with much christianLocke1824: 20 affection; with the church that is in their house. All the brethren here salute you: salute one anotherLocke1824: 21 with an holy kiss. That, which followeth, is theLocke1824: 22 salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand. If any one be an enemy to the Lord Jesus Christ, and his gospel, let him be accursed, or devoted to destruction. Edition: current; Page: [201] The Lord cometh to execute vengeanceLocke1824: 23 on him*. The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My love be with you all in ChristLocke1824: 24 Jesus. Amen.

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A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE SECOND EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE CORINTHIANS.

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THE SECOND EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE CORINTHIANS;
WRITTEN FROM ROME IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 57, OF NERO III.

SYNOPSIS.

Saint Paul having writ his first epistle to the corinthians, to try, as he says himself, chap. ii. 9, what power he had still with that church, wherein there was a great faction against him, which he was attempting to break, was in pain, till he found what success it had; chap. ii. 12, 13, and vii. 5. But when he had, by Titus, received an account of their repentance, upon his former letter, of their submission to his orders, and of their good disposition of mind towards him, he takes courage, speaks of himself more freely, and justifies himself more boldly; as may be seen, chap. i. 12, and ii. 14, and vi. 10, and x. 1, and xiii. 10. And, as to his opposers, he deals more roundly and sharply with them, than he had done in his former epistle; as appears from chap. ii. 17, and iv. 2—5, and v. 12, and vi. 11—16, and xi. 11, and xii. 15.

The observation of these particulars may possibly be of use to give us some light, for the better understanding of his second epistle, especially if we add, that the main business of this, as of his former epistle, is to take off the people from the new leader they had got, who was St. Paul’s opposer; and wholly to put an end to the faction and disorder, which that false apostle had caused Edition: current; Page: [206] in the church of Corinth. He also, in this epistle, stirs them up again to a liberal contribution to the poor saints at Jerusalem.

This epistle was writ in the same year, not long after the former.

SECT. I.

CHAP. I. 1, 2.
INTRODUCTION.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Paul an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Timothy, our brother, unto the church of God, which is at Corinth, with all the saints, which are in all Achaia:

Locke1824: 2Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, and Timothy, our brother*, to the church of God, which is in Corinth, with all the christians, thatLocke1824: 2 are in all Achaia: Favour and peace be to you, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

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SECT. II.

CHAP. I. 3—VII. 16.

CONTENTS.

This first part of this second epistle, of St. Paul to the corinthians, is spent in justifying himself, against several imputations, from the opposite faction; and setting himself right, in the opinion of the corinthians. The particulars whereof we shall take notice of, in the following numbers.

SECT. II. No. 1.

CHAP. I.—3—14.

CONTENTS.

He begins with justifying his former letter to them, which had afflicted them, (vid. chap. vii. 7, 8,) by telling them, that he thanks God for his deliverance out of his afflictions, because it enables him to comfort them, by the example, both of his affliction and deliverance; acknowledging the obligation he had to them, and others, for their prayers and thanks for his deliverance, which, he presumes, they could not but put up for him, since his conscience bears him witness (which was his comfort) that, in his carriage to all men, and to them more especially, he had been direct and sincere, without any self, or carnal interest; and that what he writ to them had no other design but what lay open, and they read in his words, and did also acknowledge; and he doubted not, but they should always acknowledge; part of them acknowledging also, that he was the man they gloried in, as they shall be his glory in the day of the Lord. From what St. Paul says, in this section, (which, if read with attention, will appear to be writ with a turn of great insinuation) it may be gathered, that the opposite faction Edition: current; Page: [208] endeavoured to evade the force of the former epistle, by suggesting, that, whatever he might pretend, St. Paul was a cunning, artificial, self-interested man, and had some hidden design in it, which accusation appears in other parts of this epistle: as chap. iv. 2, 5.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 3Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort;

Locke1824: 4Who comforteth us, in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them, which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.

Locke1824: 5For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.

Locke1824: 6And, whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation, which is effectual, in the enduring of the same sufferings, which we also suffer: or, whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation and salvation.

Locke1824: 7And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing that, as you are partakers of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation.

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Locke1824: 8For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble, which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength; insomuch that we despaired even of life.

Locke1824: 9But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God, which raised the dead:

Locke1824: 10Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver; in whom we trust, that he will yet deliver us:

Locke1824: 11You also helping together by prayer for us: that, for the gift bestowed upon us, by the means of many persons, thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

Locke1824: 12For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity, and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-wards.

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Locke1824: 13For we write none other things unto you, than what you read, or acknowledge, and I trust you shall acknowledge even to the end.

Locke1824: 14As also you have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours, in the day of the Lord Jesus.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 3Blessed be the God* and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and God of all consolation;Locke1824: 4 Who comforteth me, in all my tribulations, that I may be able to comfort them, who are in any trouble,Locke1824: 5 by the comfort, which I receive from him. Because, as I have suffered abundantly for Christ, so through Christ, I have been abundantly comforted; and bothLocke1824: 6 these, for your advantage. For my affliction is for your consolation and relief, which is effected by a patient enduring those sufferings whereof you see an example in me. And again, when I am comforted, it is for your consolation and relief, who may expect the like, from the same compassionateLocke1824: 7 God and Father. Upon which ground, I have firm Edition: current; Page: [209] hopes, as concerning you; being assured, that as you have had your share of sufferings, so ye shall, likewise,Locke1824: 8 have of consolation. For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, of the load of afflictions in Asia that were beyond measure heavy upon me, and beyond my strength: so that I could see no wayLocke1824: 9 of escaping with life. But I had the sentence of death in myself, that I might not trust in myself, but in God, who can restore to life even those whoLocke1824: 10 are actually dead: Who delivered me from so imminent a danger of death, who doth deliver, and inLocke1824: 11 whom I trust, he will yet deliver me: You also joining the assistance of your prayers for me; so that thanks may be returned by many, for the deliverance procured me, by the prayers of many persons.Locke1824: 12 For I cannot doubt of the prayers and concern of you, and many others for me; since my glorying in this, viz. the testimony of my own conscience, that, in plainness of heart, and sincerity before God, not in fleshly wisdom*, but by the favour of God directing me, I have behaved myself towards Edition: current; Page: [210] all men, but more particularly towards you.Locke1824: 13 For I have no design, no meaning, in what I write to you, but what lies open, and is legible, in what you read: and you yourselves cannot but acknowledge it to be so; and I hope you shall always acknowledgeLocke1824: 14 it to the end. As part of you have already acknowledged that I am your glory*; as you will be mine, at the day of judgment, when, being my scholars and converts, ye shall be saved.

SECT. II. No. 2.

CHAP. I. 15.—II. 17.

CONTENTS.

The next thing St. Paul justifies is, his not coming to them. St. Paul had promised to call on the corinthians, in his way to Macedonia; but failed. This his opposers would have to be from levity in him; or a mind, that regulated itself wholly by carnal interest; vid. ver. 17. To which he answers, that God himself, having confirmed him amongst them, by the unction and earnest of his Spirit, in the ministry of the gospel of his Son, whom he, Paul, had preached to them steadily the same, without any the least variation, or unsaying any thing, he had at any time delivered; they Edition: current; Page: [211] could have no ground to suspect him to be an unstable, uncertain man, that would play fast and loose with them, and could not be depended on, in what he said to them. This is what he says, ch. i. 15—22.

In the next place, he, with a solemn asseveration, professes, that it was to spare them, that he came not to them. This he explains, ch. i. 23, and ii. 2, 3.

He gives another reason, chap. ii. 12, 13, why he went on to Macedonia, without coming to Corinth, as he had purposed; and that was the uncertainty he was in, by the not coming of Titus, what temper they were in, at Corinth. Having mentioned his journey to Macedonia, he takes notice of the success, which God gave to him there, and every where, declaring of what consequence his preaching was, both to the salvation, and condemnation, of those, who received, or rejected it; professing again his sincerity and disinterestedness, not without a severe reflection on their false apostle. All which we find in the following verses, viz. ch. ii. 14—17, and is all very suitable, and pursuant to his design in this epistle, which was to establish his authority and credit amongst the corinthians.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 15And, in this confidence, I was minded to come unto you before, that you might have a second benefit;

Locke1824: 16And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again, out of Macedonia, unto you; and, of you, to be brought on my way towards Judea.

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Locke1824: 17When I, therefore, was thus minded, did I use lightness? Or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea, yea, and nay, nay?

Locke1824: 18But, as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay.

Locke1824: 19For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you, by us, even by me, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, was not yea and nay; but in him was yea.

Locke1824: 20For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him amen, unto the glory of God, by us.

Locke1824: 21Now he, which establisheth us with you, in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God:

Locke1824: 22Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit, in our hearts.

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Locke1824: 23Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you, I came not as yet unto Corinth.

Locke1824: 24Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy; for, by faith, ye stand.

Locke1824: II. 1But I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to you in heaviness.

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Locke1824: 2For if I make you sorry, who is he, then, that maketh me glad, but the same which is made sorry by me?

Locke1824: 3And I wrote this same unto you, lest, when I came, I should have sorrow from them, of whom I ought to rejoice; having confidence in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all.

Locke1824: 4For, out of much affliction and anguish of heart, I wrote unto you with many tears; not that you should be grieved, but that ye might know the love, which I have more abundantly unto you.

Locke1824: 5But, if any have caused grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part; that I may not overcharge you all.

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Locke1824: 6Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many.

Locke1824: 7So that, contrariwise, ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him; lest perhaps such an one should be swallowed up with over-much sorrow.

Locke1824: 8Wherefore, I beseech you, that ye would confirm your love towards him.

Locke1824: 9For to this end, also, did I write, that I might know the proof of you, whether ye be obedient in all things.

Locke1824: 10To whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive also: for, if I forgive any thing, to whom I forgave it, for your sakes forgave I it, in the person of Christ.

Locke1824: 11Lest Satan should get an advantage of us: for we are not ignorant of his devices.

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Locke1824: 12Furthermore, when I came to Troas, to preach Christ’s gospel, and a door was opened unto me of the Lord,

Locke1824: 13I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus, my brother: but, taking my leave of them, I went from thence, into Macedonia.

Locke1824: 14Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge, by us, in every place.

Locke1824: 15For we are, unto God, a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish.

Locke1824: 16To the one, we are the savour of death unto death; and to the other, the savour of life unto life; and who is sufficient for these things?

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Locke1824: 17For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God, speak we in Christ.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 15Having this persuasion, (viz.) of your love and esteem of me, I purposed to come unto you ere this, that youLocke1824: 16 might have a second gratification*; And to take you in my way to Macedonia, and from thence return Edition: current; Page: [212] to you again, and, by you, be brought on inLocke1824: 17 my way to Judea. If this fell not out so, as I purposed, am I, therefore, to be condemned of fickleness? Or am I to be thought an uncertain man, that talks forwards and backwards, one that has no regard to his word, any farther than may suit hisLocke1824: 18 carnal interest? But God is my witness, that what you have heard from me, has not been uncertain,Locke1824: 19 deceitful, or variable. For Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was preached among you, by me, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, was not sometimes one thing and sometimes another; but has been shown to be uniformly one and the same, in the counsel,Locke1824: 20 or revelation of God. (For the promises of God do all consent, and stand firm, in him) to the glory ofLocke1824: 21 God, by my preaching. Now it is God, who establishes me with you, for the preaching of the gospel,Locke1824: 22 who has anointed*, And also sealed me, and given me the earnest of his Spirit, in my heart. Edition: current; Page: [213] Locke1824: 23 Moreover, I call God to witness, and may I die if it is not so, that it was to spare you, that I came notLocke1824: 24 yet to Corinth. Not that I pretend to such a dominion over your faith, as to require you to believe what I have taught you, without coming to you, when I am expected there, to maintain and make it good; for it is by that faith you stand: but I forbore to come, as one concerned to preserve and help forward your joy, which I am tender of, and therefore declined coming to you, whilst I thought you in an estate, that would require severity from me, thatLocke1824: II. 1. would trouble you*. I purposed in myself, it is true, to come to you again, but I resolved too, it should Edition: current; Page: [214] Locke1824: 2 be, without bringing sorrow with me*. For if I grieve you, who is there, when I am with you, to comfort me, but those very persons, whom I have discomposedLocke1824: 3 with grief? And this very thing, which made you sad, I writ to you, not coming myself; on purpose that, when I came, I might not have sorrow from those, from whom I ought to receive comfort: having this belief and confidence in you all, that you, all of you, make my joy and satisfaction so much your own, that you would remove all cause of disturbance,Locke1824: 4 before I came. For I writ unto you with great sadness of heart and many tears; not with an intention to grieve you, but that you might know the overflowLocke1824: 5 of tenderness and affection, which I have for you. But if the fornicator has been the cause of grief, I do not say, he has been so to me, but in some degree to you Edition: current; Page: [215] Locke1824: 6 all; that I may not lay a load on him*. The correction he hath received from the majority of you, isLocke1824: 7 sufficient in the case. So that, on the contrary, it is fit rather that you forgive and comfort him, lest he should be swallowed up, by an excess of sorrow.Locke1824: 8 Wherefore, I beseech you to confirm your love toLocke1824: 9 him, which I doubt not of. For this, also, was one end of my writing to you, viz. To have a trial of you, and to know whether you are ready to obey me inLocke1824: 10 all things. To whom you forgive any thing, I also forgive. For if I have forgiven any thing, I have forgiven it to him for your sakes, by the authority,Locke1824: 11 and in the name of Christ; That we may not be over-reached by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his wiles. Edition: current; Page: [216] Locke1824: 12 Furthermore, being arrived at Troas, because Titus, whom I expected from Corinth, with news of you, was not come, I was very uneasy* there; insomuch that I made not use of the opportunity, which was put into my hands by the Lord, of preaching theLocke1824: 13 gospel of Christ, for which I came thither. I hastily left those of Troas, and departed thence to Macedonia.Locke1824: 14 But thanks be to God, in that he always makes me triumph every-where, through Christ, who gives me success in preaching the gospel, andLocke1824: 15 spreads the knowledge of Christ by me. For my ministry, and labour in the gospel, is a service, or sweet-smelling sacrifice to God, through Christ, both in regard of those that are saved, and those that perish.Locke1824: 16 To the one my preaching is of ill savour, unacceptable and offensive, by their rejecting whereof they draw death on themselves; and to the other, being as a sweet savour, acceptable, they thereby receive eternal life. And who is sufficient for these things? Edition: current; Page: [217] And yet, as I said, my service in the gospel is well-pleasingLocke1824: 17 to God. For I am not, as several* are, who are hucksters of the word of God, preaching it for gain; but I preach the gospel of Jesus Christ, in sincerity. I speak, as from God himself, and I deliver it, as in the presence of God.

SECT. II. No. 3.

CHAP. III. 1.—VII. 16.

CONTENTS.

His speaking well of himself (as he did sometimes in his first epistle, and, with much more freedom, in this, which, as it seems, had been objected to him, amongst the corinthians) his plainness of speech, and his sincerity in preaching the gospel, are the things, which he chiefly justifies, in this section, many ways. We shall observe his arguments, as they come in the order of St. Paul’s discourse, in which are mingled, with great insinuation, many expressions of an overflowing kindness to the corinthians, not without some exhortations to them.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Do we begin, again, to commend ourselves? or need we as some others, epistles of commendation, to you, or letters of commendation, from you?

Locke1824: 2Ye are our epistle, written in our hearts, known and read of all men:

Locke1824: 3Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written, not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart.

Locke1824: 4And such trust have we, through Christ to Godward.

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Locke1824: 5Not that we are sufficient of ourselves, to think any thing, as of ourselves; but our sufficiency is of God:

Locke1824: 6Who also hath made us able ministers of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the spirit; for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life.

Locke1824: 7But if the ministration of death written and ingraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away;

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Locke1824: 8How shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious?

Locke1824: 9For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory.

Locke1824: 10For even that, which was made glorious, had no glory, in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth.

Locke1824: 11For, if that which is done away was glorious, much more that, which remaineth, is glorious.

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Locke1824: 12Seeing then, that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech.

Locke1824: 13And not as Moses, which put a veil over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished.

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Locke1824: 14But their minds were blinded; for until this day remaineth the same veil untaken away, in the reading of the Old Testament; which veil is done away in Christ.

Locke1824: 15But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart.

Locke1824: 16Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken away.

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Locke1824: 17Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.

Locke1824: 18But we all, with open face, beholding, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.

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Locke1824: IV. 1.Therefore, seeing we have this ministry, as we have received mercy, we faint not:

Locke1824: 2But have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but, by manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every man’s conscience, in the sight of God.

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Locke1824: 3But, if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost:

Locke1824: 4In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

Locke1824: 5For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake.

Locke1824: 6For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face of Jesus Christ.

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Locke1824: 7But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellency of the power may be of God, and not of us.

Locke1824: 8We are troubled, on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair;

Locke1824: 9Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed;

Locke1824: 10Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body.

Locke1824: 11For we, which live, are alway delivered unto death for Jesus sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.

Locke1824: 12So then death worketh in us; but life in you.

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Locke1824: 13We having the same Spirit of faith according as it is written, “I believed, and therefore have I spoken:” we also believe, and therefore speak;

Locke1824: 14Knowing that he, which raised up the Lord Jesus, shall raise up us also, by Jesus, and shall present us with you.

Locke1824: 15For all things are for your sakes, that the abundant grace might, through the thanksgiving of many, redound to the glory of God.

Locke1824: 16For which cause we faint not; but, though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day.

Locke1824: 17For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.

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Locke1824: 18While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen, are temporal, but the things which are not seen, are eternal.

Locke1824: V. 1For we know, that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

Locke1824: 2For in this we groan earnestly, desiring to be cloathed upon, with our house, which is from heaven:

Locke1824: 3If so be, that being cloathed we shall not be found naked.

Locke1824: 4For we, that are in this tabernacle, do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life.

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Locke1824: 5Now he, that hath wrought us for the self-same thing, is God; who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit.

Locke1824: 6Therefore, we are always confident, knowing that whilst we are at home in the body we are absent from the Lord:

Locke1824: 7(For we walk by faith, not by sight.)

Locke1824: 8We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.

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Locke1824: 9Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him.

Locke1824: 10For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

Locke1824: 11Knowing, therefore, the terrour of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God, and I trust, also, are made manifest in your consciences.

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Locke1824: 12For we commend not ourselves again unto you, but give you occasion to glory on our behalf, that you may have somewhat to answer them, which glory in appearance, and not in heart.

Locke1824: 13For, whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God: or, whether we be sober, it is for your cause.

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Locke1824: 14For the love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus judge, that, if one died for all, then were all dead:

Locke1824: 15And that he died for all, that they, which live, should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him, which died for them, and rose again.

Locke1824: 16Wherefore, henceforth, know we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we him no more.

Locke1824: 17Therefore, if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are past away, behold, all things are become new.

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Locke1824: 18And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation;

Locke1824: 19To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.

Locke1824: 20Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you, in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God.

Locke1824: 21For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

Locke1824: VI. 1.We then as workers together with him, beseech you also, that ye receive not the grace of God in vain:

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Locke1824: 2(For he saith, “I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee:” behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation!)

Locke1824: 3Giving no offence, in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed:

Locke1824: 4But, in all things, approving ourselves, as the ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses,

Locke1824: 5In stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings.

Locke1824: 6By pureness, by knowledge, by long-suffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love, unfeigned.

Locke1824: 7By the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness, on the right hand, and on the left.

Locke1824: 8By honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report: as deceivers, and yet true;

Locke1824: 9As unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and behold we live; as chastened, and not killed;

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Locke1824: 10As sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things.

Locke1824: 11O ye corinthians, our mouth is open unto you, our heart is enlarged.

Locke1824: 12Ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own bowels.

Locke1824: 13Now, for a recompence in the same, (I speak as unto my children) be ye also enlarged.

Locke1824: 14Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness?

Locke1824: 15And what concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?

Locke1824: 16And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For Edition: current; Page: [236] ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, “I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.”

Locke1824: 17Wherefore, “Come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.

Locke1824: 18“And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters,” saith the Lord Almighty.

Locke1824: VII. 1Having therefore these promises, (dearly beloved) let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

Locke1824: 2Receive us: we have wronged no man, we have corrupted no man, we have defrauded no man.

Locke1824: 3I speak not this to condemn you: for I have said before, that you are in our hearts, to die and live with you.

Locke1824: 4Great is my boldness of speech toward you, great is my glorying of you: I am filled with comfort, I am exceeding joyful, in all our tribulation.

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Locke1824: 5For, when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest, but we were troubled on every side; without were fightings, within were fears.

Locke1824: 6Nevertheless, God, that comforteth those that are cast down, comforted us, by the coming of Titus:

Locke1824: 7And not by his coming only, but by the consolation, wherewith he was comforted in you, when he told us your earnest desire, your mourning, your fervent mind toward me; so that I rejoiced the more.

Locke1824: 8For, though I made you sorry with a letter, I do not repent; though I did repent; for I perceive that the same epistle made you sorry, though it were but for a season.

Locke1824: 9Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that ye sorrowed to repentance: for ye were made sorry, after a godly manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing.

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Locke1824: 10For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation, not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world worketh death.

Locke1824: 11For, behold, this self-same thing that ye sorrowed, after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you: yea, what clearing of yourselves; yea, what indignation; yea, what fear; yea, what vehement desire; yea, what zeal; yea, what revenge! in all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter.

Locke1824: 12Wherefore, though I wrote unto you, I did it not for his cause, Edition: current; Page: [239] that had done the wrong, nor for his cause, that suffered wrong, but that our care for you, in the sight of God, might appear unto you.

Locke1824: 13Therefore, we were comforted in your comfort: yea, and exceedingly the more joyed we, for the joy of Titus, because his spirit was refreshed by you all.

Locke1824: 14For if I have boasted any thing to him of you, I am not ashamed; but as we spake all things to you in truth, even so our boasting, which I made before Titus, is found a truth.

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Locke1824: 15And his inward affection is more abundant toward you, whilst he remembereth the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling you received him.

Locke1824: 16I rejoice, therefore, that I have confidence in you, in all things.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Do I begin again to commend myself*; or need I, asLocke1824: 2 some, commendatory letters to, or from you? You are my commendatory epistle, written in my heart,Locke1824: 3 known and read by all men. I need no other commendatory letter, but that you being manifested to be the commendatory epistle of Christ, written on my behalf; not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not on tables of stone, but of the heart, whereof I was the amanuensis; i. e. your conversationLocke1824: 4 was the effect of my ministry. §And this so great confidence have I, through Christ, in God. Edition: current; Page: [219] Locke1824: 5 Not as if I were sufficient of myself to reckon* upon any thing, as of myself; but my sufficiency, my ability,Locke1824: 6 to perform any thing, is wholly from God: Who has fitted and enabled me to be a minister of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the spirit; forLocke1824: 7 the letter kills, but the spirit gives life. But, if the ministry of the law written in stone, which condemns to death, were so glorious to Moses, that his face shone so, that the children of Israel could not steadily Edition: current; Page: [220] behold the brightness of it, which was but temporary,Locke1824: 8 and was quickly to vanish*; How can it be otherwise, but that the ministry of the Spirit which giveth life should confer more glory and lustre on the ministersLocke1824: 9 of the gospel? For, if the ministration of condemnation were glory, the ministry of justification, in the gospel, doth certainly much more exceed inLocke1824: 10 glory. Though even the glory, that Moses’s ministration had, was no glory, in comparison of the far moreLocke1824: 11 excelling glory of the gospel-ministry. Farther, if that which is temporary, and to be done away, were Edition: current; Page: [221] delivered with glory, how much rather is that, which remains, without being done away, to appearLocke1824: 12 in glory*? Wherefore, having such hope, weLocke1824: 13 use great freedom and plainness of speech. And not as Moses, who put a veil over his face, do we veil the light; so that the obscurity of what we deliver should hinder the children of Israel from seeing, Edition: current; Page: [222] in the law, which was to be done away, Christ,Locke1824: 14 who was the end* of the law. But their not seeing it, is from the blindness of their own minds: for, unto this day, the same veil remains upon their understandings, in reading of the Old Testament; which veil is done away in Christ; i. e. Christ, now he is come, so exactly answers all the types, prefigurations, and predictions of him, in the Old Testament, that presently, upon turning our eyes upon him, he visibly appears to be the person designed, and all the obscurity of those passages concerning him, which before were not understood, is takenLocke1824: 15 away, and ceases. Nevertheless, even until now, when the writings of Moses are read, the veil remains upon their hearts, they see not the spiritual andLocke1824: 16 evangelical truths contained in them. But, when their heart shall turn to the Lord, and, laying by prejudice and aversion, shall be willing to receive the truth, the veil shall be taken away, and they shall plainly see him to be the person spoken of, and intended. Edition: current; Page: [223] Locke1824: 17 But the Lord is the Spirit*, whereof we are ministers; and they, who have this Spirit, they have liberty, so that they speak openly and freely.Locke1824: 18 But we, all the faithful ministers of the New Testament, not veiled, but with open countenances, as mirrours, reflecting the glory of the Lord, Edition: current; Page: [224] are changed into his very image, by a continued succession of glory, as it were, streaming upon us from the Lord, who is the Spirit, who gives us thisLocke1824: IV. 1. clearness and freedom. Seeing, therefore, I am intrusted with such a ministry, as this, according as I have received great mercy, being extraordinarily and miraculously called, when I was a persecutor, I do not fail*, nor flag: I do not behave myself unworthily in it, nor misbecoming the honourLocke1824: 2 and dignity of such an employment: But, having renounced all unworthy and indirect designs, which will not bear the light, free from craft, and from playing any deceitful tricks, in my preaching the word of Edition: current; Page: [225] God; I recommend myself to every one’s conscience, only by making plain* the truth which I deliver, asLocke1824: 3 in the presence of God. But if the gospel, which I preach, be obscure and hidden, it is so, only to thoseLocke1824: 4 who are lost: In whom, being unbelievers, the God of this world has blinded their minds, so that the glorious§ brightness of the light of the gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, cannot enlighten them.Locke1824: 5 For I seek not my own glory, or secular advantage, in preaching, but only the propagating of the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ; professing myself your servantLocke1824: 6 for Jesus’ sake. For God, who made light to shine out of darkness, hath enlightened also my dark heart, who before saw not the end of the law, that I might communicate the knowledge and light of the glory of God, which shines in the face of Jesus Edition: current; Page: [226] Locke1824: 7 Christ. But yet we, to whom this treasure of knowledge, the gospel of Jesus Christ, is committed, to be propagated in the world, are but frail men: that so the exceeding great power, that accompanies it, mayLocke1824: 8 appear to be from God and not from us. I am pressed on every side, but do not shrink; I am perplexed,Locke1824: 9 but yet not so as to despond; Persecuted, but yet not left to sink under it; thrown down, butLocke1824: 10 not slain; Carrying about every-where, in my body, the mortification, i. e. a representation of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus, that also the life of Jesus, risen from the dead, may be made manifest by the energy, that accompanies my preaching in this frailLocke1824: 11 body. For, as long as I live, I shall be exposed to the danger of death, for the sake of Jesus, that the life of Jesus, risen from the dead, may be made manifest by my preaching, and sufferings, in this mortalLocke1824: 12 flesh of mine. So that the preaching of the gospel Edition: current; Page: [227] procures sufferings and danger of death to me; but to you it procures life, i. e. the energy of the Spirit of Christ, whereby he lives in, and gives life to thoseLocke1824: 13 who believe in him. Nevertheless, though suffering and death accompany the preaching of the gospel; yet, having the same Spirit of faith that David had, when he said, “I believe, therefore have ILocke1824: 14 spoken,” I also, believing, therefore speak; Knowing that he, who raised up the Lord Jesus, shall raise me up also, by Jesus, and present me, with you,Locke1824: 15 to God. For I do, and suffer, all things, for your sakes, that the exuberant favour of God may abound, by the thanksgiving of a greater number, to the glory of God; i. e. I endeavour, by my sufferings and preaching, to make as many converts as I can, that so the more partaking of the mercy and favour of God, of which there is a plentiful and inexhaustible store, the more may give thanks unto him, it being more for the glory of God, that a greaterLocke1824: 16 number should give thanks and pray to him. For which reason I faint not*, I flag not; but though my bodily strength decay, yet the vigour of my mindLocke1824: 17 is daily renewed. For the more my sufferings are Edition: current; Page: [228] here in propagating the gospel, which at worst are but transient and light, the more will they procure me an exceedingly far greater addition of that glory*Locke1824: 18 in heaven, which is solid and eternal; I having no regard to the visible things of this world, but to the invisible things of the other: for the things, that are seen, are temporal; but those, that are not seen, eternal.Locke1824: V. 1 For I know, that if this my body, which is but as a tent for my sojourning here upon earth, for a short time, were dissolved, I shall have another, of a divine original, which shall not, like buildings made with men’s hands, be subject to decay, but shall beLocke1824: 2 eternal in the heavens. For in this tabernacle, I groan earnestly, desiring, without putting off this mortal, earthly body, by death, to have that celestialLocke1824: 3 body superinduced; If so be the coming of Christ shall overtake me, in this life, before I put offLocke1824: 4 this body. For we, that are in the body, groan under the pressures and inconveniencies, that attend us Edition: current; Page: [229] in it; which yet we are not, therefore, willing to put off, but had rather, without dying, have it changed* into a celestial, immortal body, that so this mortal state may be put an end to, by an immediate entranceLocke1824: 5 into an immortal life. Now it is God, who prepares and fits us for this immortal state, who alsoLocke1824: 6 gives us the Spirit as a pledge of it. Wherefore, being always undaunted, and knowing, that whilst I dwell, or sojourn, in this body, I am absent from myLocke1824: 7 proper home, which is with the Lord, (For I regulate my conduct, not by the enjoyment of the visible things of this world, but by my hope and expectation of theLocke1824: 8 invisible things of the world to come) I, with boldness, preach the gospel, preferring, in my choice, the Edition: current; Page: [230] quitting this habitation to get home to the Lord.Locke1824: 9 Wherefore, I make this my only aim, whether staying* here in this body, or departing out of it, so toLocke1824: 10 acquit myself, as to be acceptable to him. For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive according to what he has done in the body, whether it be good,Locke1824: 11 or bad. Knowing, therefore, this terrible judgment of the Lord, I preach the gospel, persuading men Edition: current; Page: [231] to be christians. And with what integrity I discharge that duty, is manifest to God, and I trust, you also are convinced of it, in your consciences.Locke1824: 12 And this I say, not that I commend* myself again: but that I may give you an occasion not to be ashamed of me, but to glory on my behalf, having wherewithal to reply to those, who make a show of glorying in outward appearance, without doing soLocke1824: 13 inwardly in their hearts. For if I am besides myself§, in speaking, as I do of myself, it is between God and me; he must judge: men are not concerned in it, nor hurt by it. Or, if I do it soberly, Edition: current; Page: [232] and upon good ground; if what I profess of myself be in reality true, it is for your sake and advantage.Locke1824: 14 For it is the love of Christ constraineth me, judging as I do, that, if Christ died for all, thenLocke1824: 15 all were dead: And that, if he died for all, his intention was, that they who by him have attained to a state of life, should not any longer live to themselves alone, seeking only their own private advantage; but should employ their lives in promoting the gospel and kingdom of Christ, who for them died,Locke1824: 16 and rose again: So that, from henceforth, I have no regard to any one, according to the flesh*, i. e. for being circumcised, or a jew. For, if I myself have gloried in this, that Christ himself was circumcised, as I am, and was of my blood and nation, I do soLocke1824: 17 now no more any longer. So that if any one be in Christ, it is, as if he were in a new creation, wherein all former, mundane relations, considerations, and Edition: current; Page: [233] interests*, are ceased, and at an end; all things inLocke1824: 18 that state are new to him: And he owes his very being in it, and the advantages he therein enjoys, not, in the least measure, to his birth, extraction, or any legal observances, or privileges, but whollyLocke1824: 19 and solely to God alone; Reconciling the world to himself by Jesus Christ, and not imputing their trespasses to them. And therefore I, whom God hath reconciled to himself, and to whom he hath given the ministry, and committed the word of his reconciliation;Locke1824: 20 As an ambassador for Christ, as though God did by me beseech you, I pray you in Christ’sLocke1824: 21 stead, be ye reconciled to God. For God hath made him subject to sufferings and death, the punishment and consequence of sin, as if he had been a sinner, though he were guilty of no sin; that we, in and by him, might be made righteous, by a righteousnessLocke1824: VI. 1 imputed to us by God. I therefore, working together with him, beseech you also, that Edition: current; Page: [234] you receive not the favour of God, in the gospel,Locke1824: 2 preached to you, in vain*. (For he saith, “I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee:” behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation!)Locke1824: 3 Giving no offence to any one, in any thing, that theLocke1824: 4 ministry be not blamed: But, in every thing, approving myself, as becomes the minister of God, by muchLocke1824: 5 patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in straits, In stripes, in imprisonments, in being tossed up andLocke1824: 6 down, in labours, in watchings, in fastings; By a life undefiled; by knowledge; by long-sufferings; by theLocke1824: 7 gifts of the Holy Ghost; by love unfeigned; By preaching the gospel of truth sincerely; by the power of God, assisting my ministry; by uprightness of mind, wherewith I am armed at all points, both to doLocke1824: 8 and to suffer; By honour and disgrace; by good andLocke1824: 9 bad report: as a deceiver, and yet faithful; As an Edition: current; Page: [235] obscure, unknown man, but yet known and owned; as one often in danger of death, and yet, behold, ILocke1824: 10 live; as chastened, but yet not killed; As sorrowful, but yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessingLocke1824: 11 all things. O ye corinthians, my mouth is opened to you, my heart is enlarged* to you; my affection, my tenderness, my compliance for you is not strait,Locke1824: 12 or narrow. It is your own narrowness makes youLocke1824: 13 uneasy. Let me speak to you, as a father to his children; in return, do you, likewise, enlarge yourLocke1824: 14 affections and deference to me. Be ye not associated with unbelievers, having nothing to do with them in their vices, or worship: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? WhatLocke1824: 15 communion hath light with darkness? What concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what partLocke1824: 16 hath a believer with an unbeliever? What agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For ye Edition: current; Page: [236] are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, “I will dwell in them, among them will I walk; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.”Locke1824: 17 Wherefore, “Come out from among them, and be separate, saith the Lord, and touch not theLocke1824: 18 unclean thing, and I will receive you to me; And I will be a Father, and ye shall be my sons andLocke1824: VII. 1 daughters,” saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore, these promises, (dearly beloved) let us cleanse ourselves from the defilement of all sorts of sins, whether of body or mind, endeavouring afterLocke1824: 2 perfect holiness, in the fear of God. Receive me, as one to be hearkened to, as one to be followed, as one that hath done nothing to forfeit your esteem. I have wronged no man: I have corrupted no man:Locke1824: 3 I have defrauded no man. I say not this to reflect on your carriage towards me: for I have already assured you, that I have so great an affectionLocke1824: 4 for you, that I could live and die with you. But, Edition: current; Page: [237] in the transport of my joy, I use great liberty of speech towards you. But let it not be thought to be of ill-will, for I boast much of you: I am filled with comfort, and my joy abounds exceedingly in all myLocke1824: 5 afflictions. For when I came to Macedonia, I had no respite from continual trouble, that beset me on every side. From without, I met with strife and opposition, in preaching the gospel: and within, I was filled with fear, upon your account; lest the false apostle, continuing his credit and faction amongst you, should pervert you from the simplicity of theLocke1824: 6 gospel*. But God, who comforteth those who are cast down, comforted me, by the coming of Titus.Locke1824: 7 Not barely by his presence, but by the comfort I received from you, by him, when he acquainted me with your great desire of conforming yourselves to my orders; your trouble for any neglects, you have been guilty of, towards me; the great warmth of your affection and concern for me; so that I rejoicedLocke1824: 8 the more, for my past fears; Having writ to you a letter, which I repented of, but now do not repent of, perceiving, that, though that letter grieved you,Locke1824: 9 it made you sad but for a short time: But now I Edition: current; Page: [238] rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that you were made sorry to repentance. For this proved a beneficial sorrow, acceptable to God, that, in nothing, you might have cause to complain, that you wereLocke1824: 10 damaged by me. For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation, not to be repented of: but sorrow arising from worldly interest, worketh death.Locke1824: 11 In the present case, mark it*, that godly sorrow, which you had, what carefulness it wrought in you, to conform yourselves to my orders; yea, what clearing yourselves from your former miscarriages; yea, what indignation against those who led you into them; yea, what fear to offend me; yea, what vehement desire of satisfying me; yea, what zeal for me; yea, what revenge against yourselves, for having been so misled! You have shown yourselves to be set right, and be, as you should be, in everyLocke1824: 12 thing, by this carriage of yours§. If, therefore, I Edition: current; Page: [239] wrote unto you, concerning the fornicator, it was not for his sake, that had done, nor his that had suffered the wrong; but principally, that my care and concern for you might be made known to you,Locke1824: 13 as in the presence of God. Therefore, I was comforted in your comfort: but much more exceedingly rejoiced I, in the joy of Titus; because his mind was set at ease, by the good disposition he found you allLocke1824: 14 in towards me*. So that I am not ashamed of having boasted of you to him. For all that I have said to you, is truth; so, what I said to Titus, in your commendation, he has found to be true; Edition: current; Page: [240] Locke1824: 15 Whereby his affection to you is abundantly increased, he carrying in his mind the universal obedience of you all, unanimously to me, and the manner of your receiving him with fear and trembling.Locke1824: 16 I rejoice, therefore, that I have confidence in you in all things.

SECT. III.

CHAP. VIII. 1.—IX. 15.

CONTENTS.

The apostle having employed the seven foregoing chapters, in his own justification, in the close whereof he expresses the great satisfaction he had, in their being all united again, in their affection, and obedience to him; he, in the two next chapters, exhorts them, especially by the example of the churches of Macedonia, to a liberal contribution to the poor christians in Judea.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God, bestowed on the churches of Macedonia.

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Locke1824: 2How that, in a great trial of affliction, the abundance of their joy, and their deep poverty, abounded unto the riches of their liberality.

Locke1824: 3For to their power, (I bear record) yea, and beyond their power, they were willing of themselves;

Locke1824: 4Praying us, with much intreaty, that we would receive the gift, and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.

Locke1824: 5And this they did, not as we hoped; but first gave their own selves to the Lord, and unto us by the will of God.

Locke1824: 6Insomuch that we desired Titus, that, as he had begun, so he would also finish in you the same grace also.

Locke1824: 7Therefore, as ye abound in every thing, in faith, in utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us; see that you abound in this grace also.

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Locke1824: 8I speak not by commandment, but by occasion of the forwardness of others, and to prove the sincerity of your love.

Locke1824: 9For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet, for your sakes, he became poor, that ye, through his poverty, might be rich.

Locke1824: 10And herein I give my advice: for this is expedient for you, who have begun before, not only to do, but also to be forward a year ago.

Locke1824: 11Now, therefore, perform the doing of it; that, as there was a Edition: current; Page: [243] readiness to will, so there may be a performance also, out of that which you have.

Locke1824: 12For, if there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not.

Locke1824: 13For I mean not, that other men may be eased, and you burdened:

Locke1824: 14But, by an equality, that now, at this time, your abundance may be a supply for their want; that their abundance also may be a supply for your want, that there may be equality;

Locke1824: 15As it is written, “He that hath gathered much, had nothing over; and he that had gathered little, had no lack.”

Locke1824: 16But thanks be to God, which put the same earnest care into the heart of Titus, for you.

Locke1824: 17For, indeed, he accepted the exhortation; but being more forward, of his own accord, he went unto you.

Locke1824: 18And we have sent with him the brother, whose praise is in the gospel, throughout all the churches:

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Locke1824: 19(And not that only, but who was also chosen of the churches to travel with us, with this grace, which is administered by us to the glory of the same Lord, and declaration of your ready mind)

Locke1824: 20Avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this abundance, which is administered by us:

Locke1824: 21Providing for honest things, not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men.

Locke1824: 22And we have sent with them our brother, whom we have oftentimes proved diligent in many things; but now much more diligent, upon the great confidence which I have in you.

Locke1824: 23Whether any do inquire of Titus, he is my partner, and fellow-helper concerning you: or our brethren be inquired of, they are the messengers of the churches, and the glory of Christ.

Locke1824: 24Wherefore show ye to them, and before the churches, the proof of your love, and of our boasting on your behalf.

Locke1824: IX. 1.For, as touching the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you.

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Locke1824: 2For I know the forwardness of your mind, for which I boast of you to them of Macedonia, that Achaia was ready a year ago, and your zeal hath provoked very many.

Locke1824: 3Yet have I sent the brethren, lest our boasting of you should be in vain, in this behalf; that, as I said, ye may be ready:

Locke1824: 4Lest haply, if they of Macedonia come with me, and find you unprepared, we (that we say not you) should be ashamed in this same confident boasting.

Locke1824: 5Therefore, I thought it necessary to exhort the brethren, that they would go before unto you, and make up before-hand your bounty, whereof ye had notice before, that the same might be ready as a matter of bounty, and not as of covetousness.

Locke1824: 6But this I say, He, which soweth sparingly, shall reap also sparingly: and he, which soweth bountifully, shall reap also bountifully.

Locke1824: 7Every man, according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a chearful giver.

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Locke1824: 8And God is able to make all grace abound towards you; that ye, always having all-sufficiency, in all things, may abound to every good work:

Locke1824: 9(As it is written, “He hath dispersed abroad; he hath given to the poor: his righteousness remaineth for ever.”

Locke1824: 10Now he that ministereth seed to the sower, both minister bread for your food, and multiply your seed sown, and increase the fruits of your righteousness:)

Locke1824: 11Being enriched in every thing to all bountifulness, which causeth, through us, thanksgiving to God.

Locke1824: 12For the administration of this service, not only supplieth the want of the saints, but is abundant also, by many thanksgivings unto God.

Locke1824: 13(Whilst, by the experiment of this ministration, they glorify God, for your professed subjection unto the gospel of Christ, and for your liberal distribution unto them, and unto all men;)

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Locke1824: 14And, by their prayer for you, which long after you, for the exceeding grace of God in you.

Locke1824: 15Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Moreover, brethren, I make known to you the gift*, which, by the grace of God, is given in the churches Edition: current; Page: [241] Locke1824: 2 of Macedonia: viz. That amidst the afflictions* they have been much tried with, they have, with exceeding chearfulness and joy, made their very low estate of poverty yield a rich contribution of liberality:Locke1824: 3 Being forward of themselves (as I must bear them witness) to the utmost of their power; nay, and beyondLocke1824: 4 their power: Earnestly intreating me to receive their contribution, and be a partner with others, in the charge of conveying and distributing it to theLocke1824: 5 saints. And in this they out-did my expectation, who could not hope for so large a collection from them. But they gave themselves first to the Lord, and to me, to dispose of what they had, according as the goodLocke1824: 6 pleasure of God should direct. Insomuch that I was moved to persuade Titus, that, as he had begun, so he would also see this charitable contribution carriedLocke1824: 7 on among you, till it was perfected: That, as you excel in every thing, abounding in faith, in well-speaking, in knowledge, in every good quality, and in Edition: current; Page: [242] your affection to me; ye might abound in this act ofLocke1824: 8 charitable liberality also. This I say to you, not as a command from God, but on occasion of the great liberality of the churches of Macedonia, and to show the world a proof of the genuine, noble temper of yourLocke1824: 9 love*. For ye know the munificence of our Lord Jesus Christ, who, being rich, made himself poor for your sakes, that you, by his poverty, might becomeLocke1824: 10 rich. I give you my opinion in the case, because it becomes you so to do, as having begun not only to do something in it, but to show a willingness to it,Locke1824: 11 above a year ago. Now, therefore, apply yourselves Edition: current; Page: [243] to the doing of it in earnest; so that, as you undertook it readily, you would as readily perform it, outLocke1824: 12 of what you have: For every man’s charity is accepted by God, according to the largeness and willingness of his heart, in giving, and not accordingLocke1824: 13 to the narrowness of his fortune. For my meaning is not, that you should be burthened to ease others:Locke1824: 14 But that, at this time, your abundance should make up, what they, through want, come short in; that, on another occasion, their abundance may supplyLocke1824: 15 your deficiency, that there may be an equality: As it is written, “He that had much, had nothingLocke1824: 16 over, and he that had little, had no lack.” But thanks be to God, who put into the heart of Titus theLocke1824: 17 same concern for you, Who not only yielded to my exhortation*: but, being more than ordinary concerned for you, of his own accord went unto you:Locke1824: 18 With whom I have sent the brother, who has praise through all the churches, for his labour in the Edition: current; Page: [244] Locke1824: 19 gospel: (And not that only, but who was also chosen of the churches, to accompany me, in the carrying this collection, which service I undertook for the glory of our Lord, and for your encouragement toLocke1824: 20 a liberal contribution:) To prevent any aspersion might be cast on me, by any one, on occasion of my meddling with the management of so great a sum;Locke1824: 21 And to take care, by having such men joined with me, in the same trust, that my integrity and credit should be preserved, not only in the sight of theLocke1824: 22 Lord, but also in the sight of men. With them I have sent our brother, of whom I have had frequent experience, in sundry affairs, to be a forward, active man; but now much more earnestly intent, by reason of the strong pursuasion he has, of your contributingLocke1824: 23 liberally. Now, whether I speak of Titus, he is my partner, and one, who, with me, promotes your interest; or the two other brethren sent with him, they are the messengers of the churches of Macedonia, by whom their collection is sent, and areLocke1824: 24 promoters of the glory of Christ. Give, therefore, to them, and, by them, to those churches, a demonstration of your love, and a justification of my boastingLocke1824: IX. 1 of you. For, as touching the relief of the poor Edition: current; Page: [245] christians in Jerusalem, it is needless for me to writeLocke1824: 2 to you. For I know the forwardness of your minds, which I boasted of on your behalf, to the macedonians, that Achaia* was ready a year ago, and your zeal inLocke1824: 3 this matter hath been a spur to many others. Yet I have sent these brethren, that my boasting of you may not appear to be vain and groundless, in this part; but that you may, as I said, have your collectionLocke1824: 4 ready: Lest, if perchance the macedonians should come with me, and find it not ready, I (not to say, you) should be ashamed in this matter, whereof ILocke1824: 5 have boasted. I thought it, therefore, necessary to put the brethren upon going before unto you, to prepare things, by a timely notice before-hand, that your contribution may be ready, as a free benevolence of yours, and not as a niggardly gift, extorted fromLocke1824: 6 you. This I say, “He who soweth sparingly, shall reap also sparingly; and he who soweth plentifully,Locke1824: 7 shall also reap plentifully.” So give, as you find Edition: current; Page: [246] yourselves disposed, every one, in his own heart, not grudgingly, as if it were wrung from you; forLocke1824: 8 God loves a chearful giver. For God is able to make every charitable gift* of yours redound to your advantage; that, you having in every thing, always, a fulness of plenty, ye may abound in everyLocke1824: 9 good work: (As it is written, “He hath scattered, he hath given to the poor, and his liberality remainethLocke1824: 10 for ever.” Now he, that supplies seed to the sower, and bread for food, supply and multiply your stock of seed, and increase the fruit ofLocke1824: 11 your liberality:) Enriched in every thing to all beneficence, which, by me, as instrumental in it,Locke1824: 12 procureth thanksgiving to God. For the performance of this service doth not only bring supply to the wants of the saints, but reacheth farther, evenLocke1824: 13 to God himself, by many thanksgivings (Whilst Edition: current; Page: [247] they, having such a proof of you, in this your supply, glorify God for your professed subjection to the gospel of Christ, and for your liberality, in communicatingLocke1824: 14 to them, and to all men;) And to the procuring their prayers for you, they having a great inclination towards you, because of that gracious gift of God bestowed on them, by your liberality.Locke1824: 15 Thanks be to God for this his unspeakable gift.

SECT. IV.

CHAP. X. 1.—XIII. 10.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having finished his exhortation to liberality, in their collection for the christians at Jerusalem, he here resumes his former argument, and prosecutes the main purpose of this epistle, which was totally to reduce and put a final end to the adverse faction, (which seems not yet to be entirely extinct,) by bringing the corinthians wholly off from the false apostle they had adhered to: and to re-establish himself and his authority in the minds of all the members of that church. And this he does, by the steps contained in the following numbers.

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SECT. IV. No. 1.

CHAP. X. 1—6.

CONTENTS.

He declares the extraordinary power he hath in preaching the gospel, and to punish his opposers amongst them.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Now I Paul, myself, beseech you, by the meekness and gentleness of Christ, who in presence am base among you, but being absent am bold toward you.

Locke1824: 2But I beseech you, that I may not be bold, when I am present, with that confidence wherewith I think to be bold against some, which think of us, as if we walked according to the flesh.

Locke1824: 3For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh:

Locke1824: 4(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God, to the pulling down of strong holds:)

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Locke1824: 5Casting down imaginations, and every high thing, that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God; and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ:

Locke1824: 6And having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience is fulfilled.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Now I, the same Paul, who am (as it is said amongst you*) base and mean, when present with you, but bold towards you, when absent, beseech you, by theLocke1824: 2 meekness and gentleness of Christ; I beseech you, I say, that I may not, when present among you, be bold, after that manner I have resolved to be bold towards some, who account that, in my conduct and ministry, I regulate myself wholly by carnal considerations.Locke1824: 3 For, though I live in the flesh, yet I do not carry on the work of the gospel (which is a warfare)Locke1824: 4 according to the flesh: (For the weapons of my warfare are not fleshly, but such, as God hath made Edition: current; Page: [249] mighty, to the pulling down of strong holds, i. e.Locke1824: 5 whatever is made use of in opposition:) Beating down human reasonings, and all the towering and most elevated superstructures raised thereon, by the wit of men, against the knowledge of God, as held forth in the gospel; captivating all their notions, and bringingLocke1824: 6 them into subjection to Christ: And having by me, in a readiness, power wherewithal to punish and chastise all disobedience, when you, who have been misled by your false apostle, withdrawing yourselves from him, shall return to a perfect obedience*.

SECT. IV. No. 2.

CHAP. X. 7—18.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul examines the false apostle’s pretensions, and compares his own with his performances.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 7Do ye look on things after the outward appearance? If any man trust to himself, that he is Christ’s, let him of himself think this again, that, as he is Christ’s, even so are we Christ’s.

Locke1824: 8For though I should boast somewhat more of our authority, (which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction,) I should not be ashamed.

Locke1824: 9That I may not seem, as if I would terrify you by letters.

Locke1824: 10“For his letters,” say they, “are weighty and powerful, but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible.”

Locke1824: 11Let such an one think this, that such as we are in word by letters when we are absent, such will we be also in deed, when we are present.

Locke1824: 12For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some, that commend themselves: but they, measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves amongst themselves, are not wise.

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Locke1824: 13But we will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the measure of the rule, which God hath distributed to us, a measure to reach even unto you.

Locke1824: 14For we stretch not ourselves beyond our measure, as though we reached not unto you: for we are come as far as to you also, in preaching the gospel of Christ:

Locke1824: 15Not boasting of things without our measure, that is, of other Edition: current; Page: [252] men’s labours: but having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be enlarged by you, according to our rule, abundantly:

Locke1824: 16To preach the gospel in the regions beyond you, and not to boast, in another man’s line, of things made ready to our hand.

Locke1824: 17But he, that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

Locke1824: 18For not he, that commendeth himself, is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 7Do ye judge of men, by the outward appearance of things? Is it by such measures you take an estimate of me and my adversaries? If he has confidence in himself, that he is Christ’s, i. e. assumes to himself the authority of one employed and commissioned by Christ*, let him, on the other side, count thus with himself, that, as he is Christ’s, soLocke1824: 8 I also am Christ’s. Nay, if I should boastingly say something more, of the authority and power, which the Lord has given me for your edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be putLocke1824: 9 to shame§: But that I may not seem to terrifyLocke1824: 10 you by letters, as is objected to me by some, Who say that my letters are weighty and powerful, but my bodily presence weak, and my discourse contemptible.Locke1824: 11 Let him, that says so, reckon upon this, that such as I am in word, by letters, when I am absent, such shall I be also in deed, when present.Locke1824: 12 For I dare not be so bold, as to rank or compare myself with some, who vaunt themselves: but Edition: current; Page: [251] they measuring themselves within themselves*, and comparing themselves with themselves, do not understand.Locke1824: 13 But I, for my part, will not boast of myself in what has not been measured out, or allotted to me; i. e. I will not go out of my own province, to seek matter of commendation; but proceeding orderly, in the province, which God hath measured out, and allotted to me, I have reached even unto you; i. e. I preached the gospel in everyLocke1824: 14 country, as I went, till I came as far as you. For I do not extend myself farther than I should, as if I had skipped over other countries in my way, without proceeding gradually to you; no, for I have reached even unto you, in preaching of the gospel inLocke1824: 15 all countries, as I passed along§: Not extending my boasting, beyond my own bounds, into provinces Edition: current; Page: [252] not allotted to me, nor vaunting myself of any thing, I have done, in another’s labour*, i. e. in a church planted by another man’s pains: but having hope, that, your faith increasing, my province willLocke1824: 16 be enlarged by you yet farther: So that I may preach the gospel to the yet unconverted countries beyond you, and not take glory to myself, from another man’s province, where all things are madeLocke1824: 17 ready to my hand*. But he that will glory, let him glory, or seek praise, from that which is committed to him by the Lord, or in that which is acceptableLocke1824: 18 to the Lord. For not he, who commends himself, does thereby give a proof of his authority, or mission; but he, whom the Lord commends by the gifts of the Holy Ghost.

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SECT. IV. No. 3.

CHAP. XI. 1—6.

CONTENTS.

He shows that their pretended apostle, bringing to them no other Saviour or gospel, nor conferring greater power of miracles, than he [St. Paul] had done, was not to be preferred before him.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Would to God ye could bear with me a little, in my folly; and, indeed, bear with me.

Locke1824: 2For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.

Locke1824: 3But I fear lest, by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve, through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.

Locke1824: 4For if he, that cometh, preacheth another Jesus, whom we have not preached; or if ye receive another Spirit, which ye have not received; or another gospel, which ye have not accepted, ye might well bear with him.

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Locke1824: 5For, I suppose, I was not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles.

Locke1824: 6But, though I be rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but we have been thoroughly made manifest, among you, in all things.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Would you could bear me a little, in my folly*;Locke1824: 2 and, indeed, to bear with me. For I am jealous over you, with a jealousy, that is for God: for I have fitted and prepared you for one alone, to be your husband, viz. that I might deliver you up a pureLocke1824: 3 virgin, to Christ. But, I fear, lest, some way or other, as the serpent beguiled Eve by his cunning; so your minds should be debauched from that singlenessLocke1824: 4 which is due to Christ. For if this intruder, who Edition: current; Page: [254] has been a leader amongst you, can preach to you another Saviour, whom I have not preached; or if you receive from him other, or greater gifts of the Spirit, than those you received from me; or another gospel than what you accepted from me; you might well bear with him, and allow his pretensions of beingLocke1824: 5 a new and greater apostle. For, as to the apostles of Christ, I suppose I am not a whit behind theLocke1824: 6 chiefest of them. For though I am but a mean speaker, yet I am not without knowledge; but in every thing have been made manifest unto you, i. e. to be an apostle.

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SECT. IV. No. 4.

CHAP. XI. 7—15.

CONTENTS.

He justifies himself to them, in his having taken nothing of them. There had been great talk about this, and objections raised against St. Paul thereupon; vid. 1 Cor. ix. 1—3. As if, by this, he had discovered himself not to be an apostle: to which he there answers, and here toucheth it again, and answers another objection, which it seems was made, viz. that he refused to receive maintenance from them out of unkindness to them.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 7Have I committed an offence, in abasing myself, that you might be exalted, because I have preached to you the gospel of God freely?

Locke1824: 8I robbed other churches, taking wages of them, to do you service.

Locke1824: 9And, when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no man; for that, which was lacking to me, the brethren which came from Macedonia, supplied: and in all things I have kept myself from being burdensome unto you, and so will I keep myself.

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Locke1824: 10As the truth of Christ is in me, no man shall stop me of this boasting, in the regions of Achaia.

Locke1824: 11Wherefore? because I love you not? God knoweth.

Locke1824: 12But what I do, that I will do, that I may cut off occasion from them, which desire occasion, that, wherein they glory, they may be found even as we.

Locke1824: 13For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ.

Locke1824: 14And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.

Locke1824: 15Therefore it is no great thing, if his ministers also be transformed, as the ministers of righteousness: whose end shall be according to their works.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 7Have I committed an offence* in abasing myself, to work with my hands, neglecting my right of maintenance, due to me, as an apostle, that you might be exalted in christianity, because I preached the gospelLocke1824: 8 of God to you gratis? I robbed other churches, takingLocke1824: 9 wages of them, to do you service. And, being with you and in want, I was chargeable to not a man of you: for the brethren, who came from Macedonia, Edition: current; Page: [256] supplied me with what I needed: and, in all things, I have kept myself from being burdensomeLocke1824: 10 to you, and so I will continue to do. The truth and sincerity I owe to Christ is, in what I say to you, viz. This boasting of mine shall not in theLocke1824: 11 regions of Achaia be stopped in me. Why so? Is it, because I love you not? For that God can beLocke1824: 12 my witness, he knoweth. But what I do, and shall do*, is, that I may cut off all occasion from those, who, if I took any thing of you, would be glad of that occasion to boast, that in it they had me for a pattern, and did nothing but what even I myselfLocke1824: 13 had done. For these are false apostles, deceitful labourers in the gospel, having put on the counterfeitLocke1824: 14 shape and outside of apostles of Christ: And no marvel; for Satan himself is sometimes transformedLocke1824: 15 into an angel of light. Therefore it is not strange, if so be his ministers are disguised so, as to appear ministers of the gospel: whose end shall be according to their works.

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SECT. IV. No. 5.

CHAP. XI. 16—33.

CONTENTS.

He goes on, in his justification, reflecting upon the carriage of the false apostle towards the corinthians, ver. 16—21. He compares himself with the false apostle, in what he boasts of, as being a Hebrew, ver. 21, 22, or minister of Christ, ver. 23, and here St. Paul enlarges upon his labours and sufferings.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 16I say again, Let no man think me a fool; if otherwise, yet as a fool receive me, that I may boast myself a little.

Locke1824: 17That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord, but, as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting.

Locke1824: 18Seeing that many glory after the flesh, I will glory also.

Locke1824: 19For ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise.

Locke1824: 20For ye suffer, if a man bring you into bondage, if a man devour Edition: current; Page: [258] you, if a man take of you, if a man exalt himself, if a man smite you on the face.

Locke1824: 21I speak, as concerning reproach, as though we had been weak: howbeit, whereinsoever any are bold, (I speak foolishly) I am bold also.

Locke1824: 22Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? So am I.

Locke1824: 23Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool) I am more: in Edition: current; Page: [259] labours more abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent, in deaths oft.

Locke1824: 24Of the jews five times received I forty stripes save one.

Locke1824: 25Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck; a night and a day I have been in the deep:

Locke1824: 26In journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren;

Locke1824: 27In weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.

Locke1824: 28Besides those things that are without, that which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches.

Locke1824: 29Who is weak, and I am not weak; who is offended, and I burn not?

Locke1824: 30If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine infirmities.

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Locke1824: 31The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lye not.

Locke1824: 32In Damascus, the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the damascenes, with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me:

Locke1824: 33And, through a window, in a basket, was I let down by the wall, and escaped his hands.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 16I say again, Let no man think me a fool, that I speak so much of myself: or, at least, if it be a folly in me, bear with me as a fool, that I too, as well asLocke1824: 17 others*, may boast myself a little. That, which I say on this occasion, is not by command from Christ, but, as it were, foolishly, in this matter of boasting.Locke1824: 18 Since many glory in their circumcision, or extraction,Locke1824: 19 I will glory also. For ye bear with foolsLocke1824: 20 easily§, being yourselves wise. For you bear with it, if a man bring you into bondage, i. e. domineer Edition: current; Page: [258] over you, and use you like his bondmen; if he make a prey of you; if he take, or extort presents, or a salary, from you; if he be elevated, and high, amongst you; if he smite you on the face, i. e. treat you contumeliously.Locke1824: 21 I speak, according to the reproach has been cast upon me, as if I were weak, i. e. destitute of what might support me in dignity and authority, equal to this false apostle, as if I had not as fair pretencesLocke1824: 22 to power and profit amongst you, as he. Is he an hebrew*, i. e. by language an hebrew? So am I. Is he an israelite, truly of the jewish nation, and bred up in that religion? So am I. Is he of the seed of Abraham, really descended from him? And not a proselyte, of a foreign extraction? So am I.Locke1824: 23 Is he a minister of Jesus Christ? (I speak in my foolish way of boasting) I am more so: in toilsome labours I surpass him: in stripes I am exceedingly beyond him: in prisons I have been oftener; and Edition: current; Page: [259] Locke1824: 24 in the very jaws of death, more than once: Of the jews I have, five times, received forty stripes saveLocke1824: 25 one. Thrice was I whipped with rods: once was I stoned: thrice shipwrecked: I have passed a nightLocke1824: 26 and a day in the sea: In journeyings often: in perils by water; in perils by robbers; in perils by mine own countrymen; in perils from the heathen; in perils in the city; in perils in the country; in perilsLocke1824: 27 at sea; in perils among false brethren; In toil and trouble, and sleepless nights, often; in hunger and thirst; in fastings, often; in cold and nakedness.Locke1824: 28 Besides these troubles from without the disturbance that comes daily upon me, from my concern for allLocke1824: 29 the churches. Who is a weak christian, in danger, through frailty or ignorance, to be misled, whose weakness I do not feel and suffer in, as if it were my own? Who is actually misled, for whom my zeal and concern do not make me uneasy, as if I had a fireLocke1824: 30 in me? If I must be compelled* to glory, I will Edition: current; Page: [260] glory of those things which are of my weak and sufferingLocke1824: 31 side. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed for ever, knoweth that I lyeLocke1824: 32 not. In Damascus, the governor, under Aretas the king, who kept the town with a garrison, being desirousLocke1824: 33 to apprehend me; I was, through a window, let down in a basket, and escaped his hands.

SECT. IV. No. 6.

CHAP. XII. 1—11.

CONTENTS.

He makes good his apostleship, by the extraordinary visions and revelations, which he had received.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1It is not expedient for me, doubtless, to glory: I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord.

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Locke1824: 2I knew a man in Christ, above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell; God knoweth,) such an one caught up to the third heaven.

Locke1824: 3And I knew such a man, (whether in the body, or out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth)

Locke1824: 4How that he was caught up into paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter.

Locke1824: 5Of such an one will I glory: yet of myself I will not glory, but in mine infirmities.

Locke1824: 6For, though I would desire to glory, I shall not be a fool; for I will say the truth: but now I forbear, lest any man should think of me above that which he seeth me to be, or that he heareth of me.

Locke1824: 7And, lest I should be exalted above measure, through the abundance Edition: current; Page: [262] of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure.

Locke1824: 8For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me.

Locke1824: 9And he said unto me, “My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness.” Most gladly, therefore, will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me.

Locke1824: 10Therefore, I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong.

Locke1824: 11I am become a fool in glorying: ye have compelled me; for I ought to have been commended of you; for in nothing am I behind the very chiefest apostles, though I be nothing.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1If I must be forced to glory* for your sakes; (for me it is not expedient) I will come to visions and revelations Edition: current; Page: [261] Locke1824: 2 of the Lord. I knew a man*, by the power of Christ, above fourteen years ago, caught up into the third heaven, whether the intire man, body and all, or out of the body in an ecstacy, I know not; God knows.Locke1824: 3 And I knew such an one*, whether in the body, or outLocke1824: 4 of the body, I know not, God knows, That he was caught up into paradise, and there heard what is not inLocke1824: 5 the power of man to utter. Of such an one, I will glory; but myself I will not mention, with any boasting, unless in things that carry the marks of weakness,Locke1824: 6 and show my sufferings. But if I should have a mind to glory in other things, I might do it, without being a fool; for I would speak nothing but what is true, having matter in abundance, but I forbear, lest any one should think of me beyond what he sees me, orLocke1824: 7 hears commonly reported of me. And that I might not be exalted above measure, by reason of the abundance of revelations that I had, there was given me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet Edition: current; Page: [262] Locke1824: 8 me, that I might not be over-much elevated. Concerning this thing, I besought the Lord thrice, thatLocke1824: 9 it might depart from me. And he said, My favour is sufficient for thee: for my power exerts itself, and its sufficiency is seen the more perfectly, the weaker thou thyself art. I, therefore, most willingly choose to glory, rather in things that show my weakness, than in my abundance of glorious revelations, that the power of Christ may the more visibly beLocke1824: 10 seen to dwell in me. Wherefore, I have satisfaction in weaknesses, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses, for Christ’s sake. For when I, looked upon in my outward state, appear weak, then by the power of Christ, which dwelleth in me,Locke1824: 11 I am found to be strong. I am become foolish in glorying thus: but it is you, who have forced me to it. For I ought to have been commended by you; since in nothing came I behind the chiefest of the apostles, though in myself I am nothing.

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SECT. IV. No. 7.

CHAP. XII. 12, 13.

CONTENTS.

He continues to justify himself to be an apostle, by the miracles he did, and the supernatural gifts he bestowed amongst the corinthians.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 12Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought among you, in all patience, in signs and wonders and mighty deeds.

Locke1824: 13For what is it wherein ye were inferiour to other churches, except it be that I myself was not burdensome to you? Forgive me this wrong.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 12Truly the signs whereby an apostle might be known, were wrought among you, by me, in all patience* and submission, under the difficulties I there met with, in miraculous, wonderful and mighty works,Locke1824: 13 performed by me. For what is there, which you were any way shortened in, and had not equally with other churches, except it be that I myself was not burdensome to you? Forgive me this injury.

SECT. IV. No. 8.

CHAP. XII. 14—21.

CONTENTS.

He farther justifies himself, to the corinthians, by his past disinterestedness, and his continued kind intentions to them.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 14Behold, the third time, I am ready to come to you; and will not be burdensome to you: for I seek not yours, but you: for the children ought not to lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children.

Locke1824: 15And I will very gladly spend, and be spent, for you, though, the more abundantly I love you, the less I be loved.

Locke1824: 16“But be it so, I did not burden you: nevertheless being crafty, I caught you with guile.”

Locke1824: 17Did I make a gain of you, by any of them, whom I sent unto you?

Locke1824: 18I desired Titus, and with him I sent a brother; did Titus make a gain of you? Walked we not in the same spirit? Walked we not in the same steps?

Locke1824: 19Again, think you that we excuse ourselves unto you? We speak Edition: current; Page: [265] before God, in Christ; but we do all things, dearly beloved, for your edifying.

Locke1824: 20For I fear, lest, when I come, I shall not find you such as I would, and that I shall be found unto you, such as ye would not: lest there be debates, envyings, wraths, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings, tumults:

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Locke1824: 21And lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail many, which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness, which they have committed.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 14Behold, this is the third time I am ready to come unto you; but I will not be burdensome to you; for I seek not what is yours, but you: for it is not expected, nor usual, that children should lay up forLocke1824: 15 their parents, but parents* for their children. I will gladly lay out whatever is in my possession, or power; nay, even wear out and hazard myself for your souls, though it should so fall out that the more I love you, the less I should be beloved byLocke1824: 16 you. “Be it so, as some suggest, that I was not burdensome to you; but it was in truth out of cunning, with a design to catch you, with that trick, drawing from you, by others, what I refusedLocke1824: 17 in person.” In answer to which, I ask, Did I, by any of those, I sent unto you, make aLocke1824: 18 gain of you? I desired Titus to go to you, and with him I sent a brother: did Titus make a gain of you? Did not they behave themselves with the same temper, that I did, amongst you? Did we not walk in the same steps? i. e. neither they, norLocke1824: 19 I, received any thing from you. Again§, do not, Edition: current; Page: [265] upon my mentioning my sending of Titus to you, think that I apologize for my not coming myself: I speak, as in the presence of God, and as a christian, there is no such thing: in all my whole carriage towards you, beloved, all that has been done, has been done only for your edification. No, there is no need of an apology for my not coming to youLocke1824: 20 sooner: For I fear, when I do come, I shall not find you such as I would, and that you will find me such as you would not: I am afraid, that among you there are disputes, envyings, animosities, strifes, backbitings, whisperings, swellings of mind, disturbances: Edition: current; Page: [266] Locke1824: 21 And that my God, when I come to you again, will humble me amongst you, and I shall bewail many, who have formerly sinned, and have not yet repented of the uncleanness, fornication, and lasciviousness, whereof they are guilty.

SECT. IV. No. 9.

CHAP. XIII. 1—10.

CONTENTS.

He re-assumes what he was going to say, ch. xii. 14, and tells them, how he intends to deal with them, when he comes to them: and assures them, that, however they question it, he shall be able, by miracles, to give proof of his authority and commission from Christ.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1This is the third time I am coming to you: in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.

Locke1824: 2I told you before, and foretel you, as if I were present the second time; and, being absent, now I write to them, which heretofore have sinned, and to all other, that, if I come again, I will not spare:

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Locke1824: 3Since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me, which to you-ward is not weak, but is mighty in you.

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Locke1824: 4For though he was crucified through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God: for we also are weak in him, but we shall live, with him, by the power of God towards you.

Locke1824: 5Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves: know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?

Locke1824: 6But I trust that ye shall know, that we are not reprobates.

Locke1824: 7Now I pray to God, that ye do no evil; not that we should appear approved, but that ye should do that which is honest, though we be as reprobates.

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Locke1824: 8For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.

Locke1824: 9For we are glad, when we are weak, and ye are strong: and this also we wish, even your perfection.

Locke1824: 10Therefore I write these things, being absent; lest, being present, I should use sharpness, according to the power, which the Lord hath given me, to edification, and not to destruction.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1This is now, the third time, I am coming to you; and, when I come, I shall not spare you, having proceeded, according to our Saviour’s rule, and endeavoured by fair means, first to reclaim you, before ILocke1824: 2 come to the last extremity. And of this my former Edition: current; Page: [267] epistle, wherein I applied myself to you, and this, wherein I now, as if I were present wiih you, foretel those, who have formerly sinned, and all the rest, to whom, being now absent, I write, that when I come, I will not spare you. I say, these two letters are my witnesses, according to our Saviour’s rule, which says, “In the mouth of two or three witnesses every wordLocke1824: 3 shall be established*:” Since you demand a proof of my mission, and of what I deliver, that it is dictated by Christ speaking in me, who must be acknowledged not to be weak to you-ward, but has given sufficient Edition: current; Page: [268] Locke1824: 4 marks of his power amongst you. For, though his crucifixion and death were with appearance* of weakness; yet he liveth with the manifestation* of the power of God, appearing in my punishing you.Locke1824: 5 You examine me, whether I can, by any miraculous operation, give a proof, that Christ is in me. Pray, examine yourselves, whether you be in the faith; make a trial upon yourselves, whether you yourselves are not somewhat destitute of proofs. Or, are you so little acquainted with yourselves, as notLocke1824: 6 to know, whether Christ be in you? But, if you do not know yourselves, whether you can give proofs or no, yet I hope, you shall know, that I am not unableLocke1824: 7 to give proof of Christ in me. But I pray to God that you may do no evil, wishing not for an opportunity to show my proofs: but that you, doing what is right, I may be, as if I had no proofs, no supernatural Edition: current; Page: [269] Locke1824: 8 power. For though I have the power of punishing supernaturally, I cannot show this power upon any of you, unless it be that you are offenders, and yourLocke1824: 9 punishment be for the advantage of the gospel. I am, therefore, glad, when I am weak, and can inflict no punishment upon you; and you are so strong, i. e. clear of faults, that ye cannot be touched. For all the power I have is only for promoting the truth of the gospel; whoever are faithful and obedient to that, I can do nothing to; I cannot make examples of them, by all the extraordinary power I have, if I would: nay, this also I wish, even your perfection.Locke1824: 10 These things, therefore, I write to you, being absent, that when I come, I may not use severity, according to the power which the Lord hath given me, for edification, not for destruction.

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SECT. V.

CHAP. XIII. 11—14.

CONCLUSION.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 11Finally, brethren, farewell; be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and peace shall be with you.

Locke1824: 12Greet one another with an holy kiss.

Locke1824: 13All the saints salute you.

Locke1824: 14The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 11Finally, brethren, farewell: bring yourselves into one well-united, firm, unjarring society*; be of good comfort; be of one mind; live in peace, andLocke1824: 12 the God of love and peace shall be with you. SaluteLocke1824: 13 one another with an holy kiss: All the saints saluteLocke1824: 14 you. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.

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A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE ROMANS.

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THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE ROMANS;
WRIT IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 57, OF NERO III.

SYNOPSIS.

Before we take into consideration the epistle to the Romans in particular, it may not be amiss to premise, that the miraculous birth, life, death, resurrection, and ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ, were all events, that came to pass within the confines of Judea; and that the ancient writings of the jewish nation, allowed by the christians to be of divine original, were appealed to, as witnessing the truth of his mission and doctrine; whereby it was manifest, that the jews were the depositaries of the proofs of the christian religion. This could not choose but give the jews, who were owned to be the people of God, even in the days of our Saviour, a great authority among the convert gentiles, who knew nothing of the Messiah, they were to believe in, but what they derived from that nation, out of which he and his doctrine sprung. Nor did the jews fail to make use of this advantage, several ways to the disturbance of the gentiles, that embraced christianity. The jews, even those of them that received the gospel, were for the most part, so devoted to the law of Moses and their ancient rites, that they could by no means, bring themselves to think, that they were to be laid aside. They were, every-where, stiff and zealous for them, and contended that they were necessary to be observed, even by christians, by all that pretended to be the people of God, and hoped to be accepted by him. This gave no small trouble to the newly-converted gentiles, and was Edition: current; Page: [274] a great prejudice to the gospel, and therefore we find it complained of, in more places than one; vid. Acts xv. 1; 2 Cor. xi. 3; Gal. ii. 4, and v. 1, 10, 12; Phil. iii. 2; Col. ii. 4, 8, 16; Tit. i. 10, 11, 14, &c. This remark may serve to give light, not only to this epistle to the romans, but to several other of St. Paul’s epistles, written to the churches of converted gentiles.

As to this epistle to the romans, the apostle’s principal aim in it seems to be, to persuade them to a steady perseverance in the profession of christianity, by convincing them, that God is the God of the gentiles, as well as of the jews; and that now, under the gospel, there is no difference between jew and gentile. This he does several ways:

1. By showing, that, though the gentiles were very sinful, yet the jews, who had the law, kept it not, and so could not, upon account of their having the law (which being broken aggravated their faults, and made them as far from righteous, as the gentiles themselves) have a title to exclude the gentiles, from being the people of God, under the gospel.

2. That Abraham was a father of all that believe, as well uncircumcised, as circumcised; so that those, that walk in the steps of the faith of Abraham, though uncircumcised, are the seed, to which the promise is made, and shall receive the blessing.

3. That it was the purpose of God, from the beginning, to take the gentiles to be his people under the Messias, in the place of the jews, who had been so, till that time, but were then nationally rejected, because they nationally rejected the Messias, whom he sent to them to be their King and Deliverer, but was received by but a very small number of them, which remnant was received into the kingdom of Christ, and so continued to be his people, with the converted gentiles, who all together made now the church and people of God.

4. That the jewish nation had no reason to complain of any unrighteousness in God, or hardship from him, in their being cast off, for their unbelief, since they had been warned of it, and they might find it threatened in their ancient prophets. Besides, the raising or depressing Edition: current; Page: [275] of any nation is the prerogative of God’s sovereignty. Preservation in the land, that God has given them, being not the right of any one race of men, above another. And God might, when he thought fit, reject the nation of the jews, by the same sovereignty, whereby he at first chose the posterity of Jacob to be his people, passing by other nations, even such as descended from Abraham and Isaac: but yet he tells them, that at last they shall be restored again.

Besides the assurance he labours to give the romans, that they are, by faith in Jesus Christ, the people of God, without circumcision, or other observances of the jews, whatever they may say, (which is the main drift of this epistle,) it is farther remarkable, that this epistle being writ to a church of gentiles, in the metropolis of the roman empire, but not planted by St. Paul himself; he, as apostle of the gentiles, out of care that they should rightly understand the gospel, has woven into his discourse the chief doctrines of it, and given them a comprehensive view of God’s dealing with mankind, from first to last, in reference to eternal life. The principal heads whereof are these:

That, by Adam’s transgression, sin entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death reigned over all men, from Adam to Moses.

That, by Moses, God gave the children of Israel (who were his people, i. e. owned him for their God, and kept themselves free from the idolatry and revolt of the heathen world) a law, which if they obeyed they should have life thereby, i. e. attain to immortal life, which had been lost by Adam’s transgression.

That though this law, which was righteous, just, and good, were ordained to life, yet, not being able to give strength to perform what it could not but require, it failed, by reason of the weakness of human nature, to help men to life. So that, though the israelites had statutes, which if a man did, he should live in them; yet they all transgressed, and attained not to righteousness and life, by the deeds of the law.

That, therefore, there was no way to life left to those under the law, but by the righteousness of faith in Jesus Edition: current; Page: [276] Christ, by which faith alone they were that seed of Abraham, to whom the blessing was promised.

This was the state of the israelites.

As to the gentile world, he tells them,

That, though God made himself known to them, by legible characters of his being and power, visible in the works of the creation; yet they glorified him not, nor were thankful to him; they did not own nor worship the one, only, true, invisible God, the creator of all things, but revolted from him, to gods set up by themselves, in their own vain imaginations, and worshipped stocks and stones, the corruptible images of corruptible things.

That, they having thus cast off their allegiance to him, their proper Lord, and revolted to other gods, God, therefore cast them off, and gave them up to vile affections, and to the conduct of their own darkened hearts, which led them into all sorts of vices.

That both jews and gentiles, being thus all under sin, and coming short of the glory of God; God, by sending his Son Jesus Christ, shows himself to be the God both of the jews and gentiles; since he justifieth the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through faith, so that all, that believe, are freely justified by his grace.

That though justification unto eternal life be only by grace, through faith in Jesus Christ; yet we are, to the utmost of our power, sincerely to endeavour after righteousness, and from our hearts obey the precepts of the gospel, whereby we become the servants of God; for his servants we are whom we obey, whether of sin unto death, or obedience unto righteousness.

These are but some of the more general and comprehensive heads of the christian doctrine, to be found in this epistle. The design of a synopsis will not permit me to descend more minutely to particulars. But this let me say, that he, that would have an enlarged view of true christianity, will do well to study this epistle.

Several exhortations, suited to the state that the christians of Rome were then in, make up the latter part of the epistle.

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This epistle was writ from Corinth, the year of our Lord, according to the common account, 57, the third year of Nero, a little after the second epistle to the corinthians.

SECT. I.

CHAP. I. 1—15.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION,
With his profession of a desire to see them.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Locke1824: 2(Which he had promised afore, by his prophets, in the holy scriptures)

Locke1824: 3Concerning his son Jesus Christ our Lord, (which was made of the seed of David, according to the flesh;

Locke1824: 4And declared to be the son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

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Locke1824: 5By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations for his name;

Locke1824: 6Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ.)

Locke1824: 7To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: grace to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 8First, I thank my God, through Jesus Christ, for you all, that your faith is spoken of, throughout the whole world.

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Locke1824: 9For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit, in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;

Locke1824: 10Making request (if by any means, now at length, I might have a prosperous journey, by the will of God) to come unto you.

Locke1824: 11For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end you may be established;

Locke1824: 12That is, that I may be comforted together with you, by the mutual faith both of you and me.

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Locke1824: 13Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you (but was let hitherto) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other gentiles.

Locke1824: 14I am debtor both to the greeks and to the barbarians, both to the wise and to the unwise.

Locke1824: 15So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called* to be an apostle, separated to the preaching of the gospel ofLocke1824: 2 God (Which he had heretofore promised, by his prophets,Locke1824: 3 in the holy scriptures) Concerning his son Jesus Christ our Lord, (who according to the flesh, i. e. as to the body, which he took in the womb of the blessed virgin, his mother, was of the posterityLocke1824: 4 and lineage of David; According to the spirit of Edition: current; Page: [278] holiness*, i. e. as to that more pure and spiritual part, which in him over-ruled all, and kept even his frail flesh holy and spotless from the least taint of sin, and was of another extraction, with most mighty power declared§ to be the son of God, by his resurrectionLocke1824: 5 from the dead; By whom I have received favour, and the office of an apostle, for the bringing of the gentiles, every where, to the obedience of faith,Locke1824: 6 which I preach in his name; Of which number, i. e. gentiles, that I am sent to preach to, are ye whoLocke1824: 7 are already called, and become christians.) To all the beloved of God, and called to be saints, who are in Rome, favour and peace be to you from GodLocke1824: 8 our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. In the first Edition: current; Page: [279] place, I thank my God, through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the wholeLocke1824: 9 world. For God is my witness, whom I serve with the whole bent of my mind, in preaching the gospel of his son, that without ceasing I constantly makeLocke1824: 10 mention of you in my prayers. Requesting (if it be God’s will, that I may now at length, if possible,Locke1824: 11 have a good opportunity) to come unto you. For I long to see you, that I may communicate to you some spiritual gift*, for your establishment in theLocke1824: 12 faith; That is, that, when I am among you, I may be comforted together with you, both with your Edition: current; Page: [280] Locke1824: 13 faith and my own. This I think fit you should know, brethren, that I often purposed to come unto you, that I may have some fruit of my ministry,Locke1824: 14 among you also, even as among other gentiles. I owe, what service I can do, to the gentiles of all kinds, whether greeks or barbarians, to both the more knowing and civilized, and the uncultivatedLocke1824: 15 and ignorant: So that, as much as in me lies, I am ready to preach the gospel to you also, who are at Rome.

SECT. II.

CHAP. I. 16.—II. 29.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, in this section, shows, that the jews exclude themselves from being the people of God, under the gospel, by the same reason that they would have the gentiles excluded.

It cannot be sufficiently admired how skilfully, to avoid offending those of his own nation, St. Paul here enters into an argument, so unpleasing to the jews, as this of persuading them, that the gentiles had as good a title to be taken in, to be the people of God, under the Messias, as they themselves, which is the main design of this epistle.

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In this latter part of the first chapter, he gives a description of the gentile world in very black colours, but very adroitly interweaves such an apology for them, in respect of the jews, as was sufficient to beat that assuming nation out of all their pretences to a right to continue to be alone the people of God, with an exclusion of the gentiles. This may be seen, if one carefully attends to the particulars, that he mentions, relating to the jews and gentiles; and observes how, what he says of the jews, in the second chapter, answers to what he had charged on the gentiles, in the first. For there is a secret comparison of them, one with another, runs through these two chapters, which, as soon as it comes to be minded, gives such a light and lustre to St. Paul’s discourse, that one cannot but admire the skilful turn of it: and look on it as the most soft, the most beautiful, and most pressing argumentation, that one shall any where meet with, altogether: since it leaves the jews nothing to say for themselves, why they should have the privilege continued to them, under the gospel, of being alone the people of God. All the things they stood upon, and boasted in, giving them no preference, in this respect, to the gentiles; nor any ground to judge them to be incapable, or unworthy to be their fellow-subjects, in the kingdom of the Messias. This is what he says, speaking of them nationally. But as to every one’s personal concerns in a future state, he assures them, both jews and gentiles, that the unrighteous of both nations, whether admitted, or not, into the visible communion of the people of God, are liable to condemnation. Those, who have sinned without law, shall perish without law; and those, who have sinned in the law, shall be judged, i. e. condemned by the law.

Perhaps some readers will not think it superfluous, if I give a short draught of St. Paul’s management of himself here for allaying the sourness of the jews, against the gentiles, and their offence at the gospel, for allowing any of them place among the people of God, under the Messias.

After he had declared that the gospel is the power of God unto salvation, to those who believe; to the jew first, and also to the gentile; and that the way of this Edition: current; Page: [282] salvation is revealed to be, by the righteousness of God, which is by faith; he tells them, that the wrath of God is also now revealed against all atheism, polytheism, idolatry, and vice whatsoever, of men holding the truth in unrighteousness, because they might come to the knowledge of the true God, by the visible works of the creation; so that the gentiles were without excuse, for turning from the true God to idolatry, and the worship of false gods, whereby their hearts were darkened; so that they were without God in the world. Wherefore, God gave them up to vile affections, and all manner of vices, in which state, though, by the light of nature, they know what was right, yet understanding not that such things were worthy of death, they not only do them themselves, but abstaining from censure, live fairly and in fellowship with those that do them. Whereupon he tells the jews, that they are more inexcusable than the heathen, in that they judge, abhor, and have in aversion, the gentiles, for what they themselves do with greater provocation. Their censure and judgment in the case is unjust and wrong: but the judgment of God is always right and just, which will certainly overtake those who judge others, for the same things they do themselves; and do not consider, that God’s forbearance to them ought to bring them to repentance. For God will render to every one according to his deeds; to those that in meekness and patience continue in well-doing, everlasting life; but to those who are censorious, proud and contentious, and will not obey the gospel, condemnation and wrath, at the day of judgment, whether they be jews or gentiles: for God puts no difference between them. Thou, that art a jew, boastest that God is thy God; that he has enlightened thee by the law that he himself gave thee from heaven, and hath, by that immediate revelation, taught thee what things are excellent and tend to life, and what are evil and have death annexed to them. If, therefore, thou transgressest, dost not thou more dishonour God and provoke him, than a poor heathen, that knows not God, nor that the things he doth, deserve death, which is their reward? Shall not he, if, by the light of nature, he do what is conormable to the revealed law of God, judge thee, who Edition: current; Page: [283] hast received that law from God, by revelation, and breakest it? Shall not this, rather than circumcision, make him an israelite? For he is not a jew, i. e. one of God’s people, who is one outwardly, by circumcision of the flesh; but he that is one inwardly, by the circumcision of the flesh; but he that is one inwardly, by the circumcision of the heart.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 16For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ; for it is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth, to the jew first, and also to the greek.

Locke1824: 17For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

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Locke1824: 18For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven, against all ungodliness, and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness.

Locke1824: 19Because that, which may be known of God, is manifest in them; for God hath showed it unto them.

Locke1824: 20For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, Edition: current; Page: [285] even his eternal power and godhead; so that they are without excuse.

Locke1824: 21Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

Locke1824: 22Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools:

Locke1824: 23And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image, made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things.

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Locke1824: 24Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:

Locke1824: 25Who changed the truth of God into a lye, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

Locke1824: 26For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:

Locke1824: 27And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust, one toward another, men with men, working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their errour, which was meet.

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Locke1824: 28And, even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient:

Locke1824: 29Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity, whisperers,

Locke1824: 30Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

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Locke1824: 31Without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful;

Locke1824: 32Who knowing the judgment of God (that they which commit such things are worthy of death) not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

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Locke1824: II. 1Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou, that judgest, dost the same thing.

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Locke1824: 2But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth, against them which commit such things.

Locke1824: 3And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and dost the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?

Locke1824: 4Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

Locke1824: 5But, after thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath, against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

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Locke1824: 6Who will render to every man according to his deeds:

Locke1824: 7To them who by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for glory, and honour, and immortality; eternal life:

Locke1824: 8But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness; indignation and wrath;

Locke1824: 9Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doth evil, of the jew first, and also of the gentile.

Locke1824: 10But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the jew first, and also to the gentile.

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Locke1824: 11For there is no respect of persons with God.

Locke1824: 12For, as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law;

Locke1824: 13(For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.

Locke1824: 14For when the gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves.

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Locke1824: 15Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts, the mean while, accusing, or else excusing one another)

Locke1824: 16In the day, when God shall judge the secrets of men, by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

Locke1824: 17Behold, thou art called a jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God:

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Locke1824: 18And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law.

Locke1824: 19And art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,

Locke1824: 20An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law.

Locke1824: 21Thou, therefore, which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal?

Locke1824: 22Thou, that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou, that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege?

Locke1824: 23Thou, that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law, dishonourest thou God?

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Locke1824: 24For the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles, through you, as it is written.

Locke1824: 25For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

Locke1824: 26Therefore, if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

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Locke1824: 27And shall not uncircumcision, which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost transgress the law?

Locke1824: 28For he is not a jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:

Locke1824: 29But he is a jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter, whose praise is not of men, but of God.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 16For I am not ashamed to preach the gospel of Christ, even at Rome itself, that mistress of the world: for, whatever it may be thought of there*, by that vain and haughty people, it is that, wherein God exerts himself, and shows his power, for the salvation of those who believe, of the jews in theLocke1824: 17 first place, and also of the gentiles. For therein is the righteousness§, which is of the free grace of God, through Jesus Christ, revealed to be wholly by faith, as it is written, The just shall live by Edition: current; Page: [284] Locke1824: 18 faith. And it is no more than need, that the gospel, wherein the righteousness of God, by faith in Jesus Christ, is revealed, should be preached to you gentiles, since the wrath of God is now revealed* from heaven, by Jesus Christ, against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who live notLocke1824: 19 up to the light that God has given them§. Because God, in a clear manifestation of himself amongst them, has laid before them, ever since the creation of the world, his divine nature and eternalLocke1824: 20 power; So that what is to be known, of his invisible Edition: current; Page: [285] being, might be clearly discovered and understood, from the visible beauty, order, and operations, observable in the constitution and parts of the universe, by all those, that would cast their regards, and apply their minds* that way: insomuch thatLocke1824: 21 they are utterly without excuse: For that, when the Deity was so plainly discovered to them, yet they glorified him not, as was suitable to the excellency of his divine nature: nor did they, with due thankfulness, acknowledge him as the author of their being, and the giver of all the good they enjoyed: but, following the vain fancies of their own vain minds, set up to themselves fictitious no-gods, andLocke1824: 22 their foolish understandings were darkened. Assuming to themselves the opinion and name ofLocke1824: 23 being wise, they became fools; And, quitting the incomprehensible majesty and glory of the eternal, Edition: current; Page: [286] incorruptible Deity, set up to themselves the images of corruptible men, birds, beasts, and insects, as fitLocke1824: 24 objects of their adoration and worship. Wherefore, they having forsaken God, he also left them to the lusts of their own hearts, and that uncleanness their darkened hearts led them into, to dishonourLocke1824: 25 their bodies among themselves: Who so much debased themselves, as to change the true God, who made them, for a lye* of their own making, worshipping and serving the creature, and things even of a lower rank than themselves, more than the Creator, who is God over all, blessed for evermore. Amen.Locke1824: 26 (For this cause God gave them up to shameful and infamous lusts and passions, for even their women did change their natural use, into that which isLocke1824: 27 against nature: And likewise, their men, leaving also the natural use of the women, burned in their lusts one towards another, men with men practising that which is shameful, and receiving in themselves a fit reward of their errour, i. e. idolatry.) Edition: current; Page: [287] Locke1824: 28 And.*, as they did not search out God, whom they had in the world, so as to have him with a due acknowledgment of him, God gave them up to an unsearching and unjudicious§ mind, to do thingsLocke1824: 29 incongruous, and not meet to be done; Being filled with all manner of iniquity, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, malice, full of envy, contention,Locke1824: 30 deceit, malignity even to murder, Backbiters, haters of God, insulters of men, proud, boasters, inventors of new arts of debauchery, disobedient to parents, Edition: current; Page: [288] Locke1824: 31 Without understanding, covenant-breakers, withoutLocke1824: 32 natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: Who, though they acknowledge the rule of right* prescribed them by God, and discovered by the light of nature, did not yet understand that those, who did such things, were worthy of death, do not only do them themselves, but live well together, without any mark of Edition: current; Page: [289] disesteem, or censure, with them that do them.Locke1824: II. 1 Therefore*, thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art, that judgest or censurest another: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself: Edition: current; Page: [290] for thou, that judgest, art alike guilty, in doingLocke1824: 2 the same things. But this we are sure of, that the judgment, that God passes upon any offenders, is accordingLocke1824: 3 to* truth, right and just. Canst thou, who dost those things which thou condemnest in another, think that thou shalt escape the condemning sentenceLocke1824: 4 of God? Or slightest thou the riches of his goodness, forbearance, and long-suffering, not knowing, nor considering, that the goodness of God ought to lead theeLocke1824: 5 to repentance? But layest up to thyself wrath and Edition: current; Page: [291] punishment, which thou wilt meet with, at the day of judgment, and that just retribution, which shall be awarded thee by God, in proportion to thy impenitency,Locke1824: 6 and the hardness of thy heart; Who will retribute to every one according to his works, viz.Locke1824: 7 Eternal life to all those who by patience* and gentleness in well-doing seek glory and honour, and aLocke1824: 8 state of immortality: But to them who are contentiousa and forward, and will not obey the truth, but subject themselves to unrighteousness;Locke1824: 9 indignation and wrath; Tribulation and anguish shall be poured out upon every soul of man that worketh evil, of the jew first, and also of the gentile.Locke1824: 10 But glory, honour, and peace, shall be bestowed on every man, that worketh good, on the jew first, Edition: current; Page: [292] Locke1824: 11 and also on the gentile. For with God there is noLocke1824: 12 respect of persons. For all, that have sinned without having the positive law of God, which was given the israelites, shall perish* without the law; and all, who have sinned, being under the law, shall beLocke1824: 13 judged by the law, (For the bare hearers of the law are not thereby just, or righteous, in the sight of God, but the doers of the law; they, who exactly performLocke1824: 14 all that is commanded in it, shall be justified. For, when the gentiles, who have no positive law given them by God, do, by the direction of the Edition: current; Page: [293] light of nature, observe, or keep to the moral rectitude, contained in the positive law, given by God to the israelites, they being without any positive law given them, have nevertheless a law within themselves.Locke1824: 15 And show the rule of the law written in their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness to that law, they amongst themselves, in the reasoning of their own minds, accusing, or excusing oneLocke1824: 16 another) At the day of judgment, when, as I make known in my preaching the gospel*, God shallLocke1824: 17 judge all the actions of men, by Jesus Christ. Behold, thou art named a jew; and thou, with satisfaction, restest in the privilege of having the law, as a mark of God’s peculiar favour, whom thou gloriest in, as being thy God, and thou one of his people; a people, who alone know and worship the Edition: current; Page: [294] Locke1824: 18 true God; And thou knowest his will, and hast the touch-stone of things excellent*, having been educatedLocke1824: 19 in the law, And takest upon thee as one, who art a guide to the blind, a light to the ignorantLocke1824: 20 gentiles, who are in darkness, An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, having an exact draught, and a complete system of knowledge andLocke1824: 21 truth in the law. Thou, therefore, who art a master in this knowledge, and teachest others, teachest thou not thyself? Thou, that preachest that a man shouldLocke1824: 22 not steal, dost thou steal? Thou, that declarest adultery to be unlawful, dost thou commit it? Thou, that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege?Locke1824: 23 Thou, who gloriest in the law, dost thou, by breaking Edition: current; Page: [295] of the law, dishonour God? For the name of God is blasphemed amongst the gentiles, by reasonLocke1824: 25 of your miscarriages, as it is written*, Circumcision indeed, and thy being a jew, profiteth, if thou keep the law: but, if thou be a transgressor of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision;Locke1824: 26 thou art no way better than an heathen. If, therefore, an uncircumcised gentile keep the moral rectitudes§ of the law, shall he not be reckoned Edition: current; Page: [296] Edition: current; Page: [297] and accounted of, as if he were circumcised, and everyLocke1824: 27 way a jew? And shall not a gentile, who, in his natural state of uncircumcision, fulfils the law, condemn* thee, who, notwithstanding the advantage of having the law and circumcision, art a transgressorLocke1824: 28 of the law? For he is not a jew, who is one in outward appearance and conformity, nor is that the circumcision, which renders a man acceptable toLocke1824: 29 God, which is outwardly in the flesh. But he is a jew, and one of the people of God, who is one in an inward conformity to the law: and that is the circumcision which avails a man, which is of the heart§, according to the spiritual sense of the law, which is the purging our hearts from iniquity, by faith in Jesus Christ, and not in an external observance Edition: current; Page: [298] of the letter*, by which a man cannot attain life; such true israelites as these, though they are judged, condemned, and rejected by men of the jewish nation, are nevertheless honoured and accepted by God.

SECT.

CHAP. III. 1—31.

CONTENTS.

In this third chapter, St. Paul goes on to show, that the national privileges the jews had over the gentiles, in being the people of God, gave them no peculiar right, or better title to the kingdom of the Messias, than what the gentiles had. Because they, as well as the gentiles, all sinned, and, not being able to attain righteousness by the deeds of the law, more than the gentiles, justification was to be had, only by the free grace of God, through faith in Jesus Christ; so that, upon their believing, God, who is the God not of the jews alone, but also of the gentiles, accepted the gentiles, as well as the jews; and now admits all, who profess faith in Jesus Christ, to be equally his people.

To clear his way to this, he begins, with removing an objection of the jews, ready to say: “if it be so, as ye have told us in the foregoing section, that it is the circumcision of the heart alone that availeth, what advantage have the jews, who keep to the circumcision of the flesh, and the other observances of the law, by being the people of God?” To which he answers, that the jews had many advantages above the gentiles; but yet that, in respect of their acceptance with God under the gospel, they had none at all. He declares that both jews and gentiles are sinners, both Edition: current; Page: [299] equally uncapable of being justified by their own performances: that God was equally the God, both of jews and gentiles, and out of his free grace justified those, and only those, who believed, whether jews, or gentiles.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1What advantage then hath the jew? or what profit is there of circumcision?

Locke1824: 2Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.

Locke1824: 3For what if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect?

Locke1824: 4God forbid! yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is Edition: current; Page: [300] written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.

Locke1824: 5But if our unrighteousness commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous, who taketh vengeance? (I speak as a man)

Locke1824: 6God forbid! for then, how shall God judge the world?

Locke1824: 7For, if the truth of God hath more abounded, through my lye, unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?

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Locke1824: 8And not rather (as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say) “Let us do evil, that good may come?” whose damnation is just.

Locke1824: 9What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both jews and gentiles, that they are all under sin:

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Locke1824: 10As it is written, There is none righteous, no not one:

Locke1824: 11There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God.

Locke1824: 12They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable, there is none that doeth good, no not one.

Locke1824: 13Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips;

Locke1824: 14Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.

Locke1824: 15Their feet are swift to shed blood.

Locke1824: 16Destruction and misery are in their ways:

Locke1824: 17And the way of peace have they not known.

Locke1824: 18There is no fear of God before their eyes.

Locke1824: 19Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

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Locke1824: 20Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

Locke1824: 21But now the righteousness of God, without the law, is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

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Locke1824: 22Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all, and upon all them that believe; for there is no difference:

Locke1824: 23For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

Locke1824: 24Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ:

Locke1824: 25Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in Edition: current; Page: [305] his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God.

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To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness; that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

Locke1824: 27Where is boasting then? it is excluded. By what law? of works? nay: but by the law of faith.

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Locke1824: 28Therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of the law.

Locke1824: 29Is he the God of the jews only? Is he not also of the gentiles? yes, of the gentiles also.

Locke1824: 30Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

Locke1824: 31Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea we establish the law.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1If it be thus, that circumcision, by a failure of obedience to the law, becomes uncircumcision; and that the gentiles, who keep the righteousness, or moral part of the law, shall judge the jews, that transgress the law, what advantage have the jews? or whatLocke1824: 2 profit is there of circumcision? I answer, Much every way*; chiefly, that God, particularly present amongst them, revealed his mind and will, and engaged himself in promises to them, by Moses and other his prophets, which oracles they had, and kept amongst them, whilst the rest of mankind had no such communication with the Deity, had no revelation of his purposes of mercy to mankind, but wereLocke1824: 3 as it were, without God in the world. For, though some of the jews, who had the promises of the Messias, did not believe in him, when he came, and so did not receive the righteousness, which is by faith in Jesus Christ: yet their unbelief cannot render the faithfulness and truth of God of no effect, who had promised to be a God to Abraham and his seed afterLocke1824: 4 him, and bless them to all generations. No, by no Edition: current; Page: [300] means, God forbid that any one should entertain such a thought: yea, let God be acknowledged to be true, and every man a liar, as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings,Locke1824: 5 and mightest overcome when thou art judged. But you will say farther, if it be so, that our sinfulness commendeth the righteousness of God, shown in keeping his word given* to our forefathers, what shall I say, is it not injustice in God to punish us for it, and cast us off? (I must be understood to say this, in the person of a carnal man, pleading for himself)Locke1824: 6 God forbid! For if God be unrighteous, howLocke1824: 7 shall he judge the world? For, if the truth and Edition: current; Page: [301] veracity of God hath the more appeared to his glory, by reason of my lye*, i. e. my sin, why yet am I condemnedLocke1824: 8 for a sinner, and punished for it? Why rather should not this be thought a right consequence, and a just excuse? Let us do evil that good may come of it, that glory may come to God by it. This some maliciously and slanderously report us christians to say, for which they deserve, and will from God receive, punishment, as they deserve.Locke1824: 9 Are we jews, then, in any whit a better condition than the gentiles? Not at all. For I have already§ brought a charge of guilt and sin, both against jews Edition: current; Page: [302] and gentiles, and urged that there is not one of them clear, which I shall prove now against youLocke1824: 10 jews; For it is written, There is none righteous, noLocke1824: 11 not one: There is none that understandeth, thereLocke1824: 12 is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable, there is none that doth good, no, not one.Locke1824: 13 Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of aspsLocke1824: 14 is under their lips; Whose mouth is full of cursingLocke1824: 15 and bitterness. Their feet are swift to shed blood:Locke1824: 16 17 Destruction and misery are in their ways: And theLocke1824: 18 way of peace have they not known. There is noLocke1824: 19 fear of God before their eyes. This is all said in the sacred book of our law*; and what is said there, we know is said to the jews, who are under the law, Edition: current; Page: [303] that the mouth of every jew, that would justify himself, might be stopped, and all the world, jews as well as gentiles, may be forced to acknowledgeLocke1824: 20 themselves guilty before God. From whence it is evident, that by his own performances, in obedience a law*, no man can attain to an exact conformity to the rule of right, so as to be righteous in the sight of God. For by law, which is the publishing the rule with a penalty, we are not delivered from the power of sin, nor can it help men to righteousness, but by law we come experimentally to know sin, in the force and power of it, since we find it prevail upon us, notwithstanding the punishment ofLocke1824: 21 death is, by the law, annexed to it§. But the righteousness of God, that righteousness which he intended, and will accept, and is a righteousness not within the rule and rigour of law, is now made manifest, and confirmed by the testimony of the law and the prophets, which bear witness of this truth, that Jesus is the Messias, and that it is according Edition: current; Page: [304] Locke1824: 22 to his purpose and promise, That the righteousness of God, by faith in Jesus the Messias, is extended to, and bestowed on all who believe in him*,Locke1824: 23 (for there is no difference between them. They have all, both jews and gentiles, sinned, and fail of attaining that glory which God hath appointedLocke1824: 24 for the righteous,) Being made righteous gratis, by the favour of God, through the redemptionLocke1824: 25 which is by Jesus Christ; Whom God hath set Edition: current; Page: [305] forth to be the propitiatory, or mercy-seat* in his own blood, for the manifestation of his [God’s] righteousness, by passing over§ their transgressions, Edition: current; Page: [306] formerly committed, which he hath borne with hitherto, so as to withhold his hand from casting off the nation of the jews, as their past sins deserved.Locke1824: 26 For the manifesting of his righteousness* at this time, that he might be just, in keeping his promise, and be the justifier of every one, not who is of the jewish nation, or extraction, but of the faithLocke1824: 27 in Jesus Christ. What reason, then, have you jews to glory§, and set yourselves so much above the Edition: current; Page: [307] gentiles, in judging them, as you do? None at all: boasting is totally excluded. By what law? By theLocke1824: 28 law of works? No, but by the law of faith. I conclude therefore*, that a man is justified by faith,Locke1824: 29 and not by the works of the law. Is God the God of the jews only, and not of the gentiles also?Locke1824: 30 Yea, certainly of the gentiles also. Since the time is come that God is no longer one to the jews, and another to the gentiles, but he is now become one and the same God to them all, and will justify the jews by faith, and the gentiles also through faith, who, by the law of Moses, were heretofore shut out§Locke1824: 31 from being the people of God. Do we then make the law insignificant, or useless, by our doctrine Edition: current; Page: [308] of faith? By no means: but, on the contrary, we establish* and confirm the law.

SECT. IV.

CHAP. IV. 1—25.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having, in the foregoing section, cut off all glorying from the jews upon the account of their having the law, and shown, that that gave them no manner of title or pretence to be the people of God, more than the gentiles under the Messias, and so they had no reason to judge, or exclude the gentiles, as they did; he comes here to prove that their lineal extraction from their father Abraham gave them no better a pretence of glorying, or of setting themselves upon that account above the gentiles, now, in the time of the gospel.

1. Because Abraham himself was justified by faith, and so had not whereof to glory; for as much as he that receiveth righteousness, as a boon, has no reason to glory: but he that attains it by works.

2. Because neither they, who had circumcision derived down to them, as the posterity of Abraham, nor they who had the law; but they only, who had faith, were the seed of Abraham, to whom the promise was made. And therefore the blessing of justification was intended for the gentiles, and bestowed on them as well as on the jews, and upon the same ground.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1What shall we say then, that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found?

Locke1824: 2For, if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, but not before God.

Locke1824: 3For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

Locke1824: 4Now to him that worketh, is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt.

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Locke1824: 5But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him, that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.

Locke1824: 6Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works.

Locke1824: 7Saying, Blessed are they, whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.

Locke1824: 8Blessed is the man, to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

Locke1824: 9Cometh this blessedness, then, upon the circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say, that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.

Locke1824: 10How was it, then, reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.

Locke1824: 11And he received a sign of circumcision, a seal of righteousness Edition: current; Page: [311] of the faith, which he had, being yet uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:

Locke1824: 12And the father of circumcision to them, who are not of the circumcision only, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised.

Locke1824: 13For the promise that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.

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Locke1824: 14For if they, which are of the law, be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect.

Locke1824: 15Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

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Locke1824: 16Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed, not to that only, which is of the law, but to that also, which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all.

Locke1824: 17(As it is written, “I have made thee a father of many nations”) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things, which be not, as though they were;

Locke1824: 18Who, against hope, believed in hope, that he might become the Edition: current; Page: [314] father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, “So shall thy seed be.”

Locke1824: 19And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb.

Locke1824: 20He staggered not at the promise of God, through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God:

Locke1824: 21And being fully persuaded, that what he had promised, he was able also to perform.

Locke1824: 22And, therefore, it was imputed to him for righteousness.

Locke1824: 23Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him;

Locke1824: 24But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead,

Locke1824: 25Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1What then shall we say of Abraham our father, according to the flesh*, what has he obtained? hasLocke1824: 2 not he found matter of glorying? Yes; if he were justified by works, he had matter of glorying, he might then have gloried over the rest of the gentile world, in having God for his God, and he and his family being God’s people; but he had no subject ofLocke1824: 3 glorying before God. As it is evident from sacred scripture, which telleth us, that Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness.Locke1824: 4 Now there had been no need of any such counting, any such allowance, if he had attained righteousness by works of obedience, exactly conformable, and coming up, to the rule of righteousness. For what reward a man has made himself a title to, by the performances, that he receives as a debt that is due, Edition: current; Page: [310] Locke1824: 5 and not as a gift of favour. But to him, that by his works attains not righteousness, but only believeth on God, who justifieth him, being ungodly*, to him justification is a favour of grace: because his believing is accounted to him for righteousness, orLocke1824: 6 perfect obedience. Even as David speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom God reckonethLocke1824: 7 righteousness without works, Saying, “Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sinsLocke1824: 8 are covered. Blessed is the man to whom theLocke1824: 9 Lord will not reckon sin.” Is this blessedness then upon the circumcised only, or upon the uncircumcised also? for we say that faith was reckoned toLocke1824: 10 Abraham for righteousness. When, therefore, was it reckoned to him? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? not in circumcision,Locke1824: 11 but in uncircumcision. For he received the sign Edition: current; Page: [311] of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith, which he had, being yet uncircumcised*, that he might be the father of all those who believed, being uncircumcised, that righteousness might beLocke1824: 12 reckoned to them also; And the father of the circumcised, that righteousness might be reckoned, not to those who were barely of the circumcision, but to such of the circumcision as did also walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham,Locke1824: 13 which he had, being uncircumcised. For the promise*, Edition: current; Page: [312] that he should be possessor of the world, was not that Abraham, and those of his seed, who were under the law, should, by virtue of their having and owning the law, be possessed of it; but by the righteousness of faith, whereby those who were, without the law, scattered all over the world, beyond the borders of Canaan, became his posterity, and had him for their father, and inherited theLocke1824: 14 blessing of justification by faith. For, if they only who had the law of Moses given them, were heirs of Abraham, faith is made void and useless, it receiving no benefit of the promise, which was made to the heirs of Abraham’s faith, and so the promiseLocke1824: 15 becomes of no effect. Because the law procures them not justification§, but renders them liable to the wrath and punishment of God, who, by the Edition: current; Page: [313] law, has made known to them what is sin, and what punishment he has annexed to it. For there is no incurring wrath, or punishment, where there is noLocke1824: 16 law that says any thing of it*: Therefore the inheritance is of faith, that it might be merely of favour, to the end that the promise might be sure to all the seed of Abraham; not to that part of it only, which has faith, being under the law; but to that part also, who without the law, inherit the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all who believe,Locke1824: 17 whether jews or gentiles, (As it is written, “I have made thee a father of many nations.”) I say the father of us all (in the account of God, whom he believed, and who accordingly quickened the dead, i. e. Abraham and Sarah, whose bodies were dead: and called things that are not, as if they were§;)Locke1824: 18 Who without any hope, which the natural course of things could afford, did in hope believe, that he Edition: current; Page: [314] should become the father of many nations, according to what God had spoken, by God’s showing him the stars of heaven, saying, So shall thy seed be.Locke1824: 19 And being firm and unshaken in his faith, he regarded not his own body, now dead, he being about an hundred years old; nor the deadness of Sarah’sLocke1824: 20 womb; He staggered not at the promise of God, through unbelief, but was strong in faith, therebyLocke1824: 21 giving glory to God; By the full persuasion he had, that God was able to perform what he had promised:Locke1824: 22 And therefore it was accounted to him forLocke1824: 23 righteousness. Now this, of its being reckoned toLocke1824: 24 him, was not written for his sake alone, But for ours also, to whom faith also will be reckoned for righteousness, viz. to as many as believe in him, whoLocke1824: 25 raised Jesus our Lord from the dead*, Who was delivered to death for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.

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SECT. V.

CHAP. V. 1—11

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, in the foregoing chapters, has examined the glorying of the jews, and their valuing themselves so highly above the gentiles, and shown the vanity of their boasting in circumcision and the law, since neither they, nor their father Abraham, were justified, or found acceptance with God, by circumcision, or the deeds of the law: and therefore they had no reason so as they did to press circumcision and the law on the gentiles, or exclude those who had them not, from being the people of God, and unfit for their communion, in and under the gospel. In this section, he comes to show what the convert gentiles, by faith, without circumcision, or the law, had to glory in, viz. the hope of glory, ver. 2, their sufferings for the gospel, ver. 3. And God as their God, ver. 11. In these three it is easy to observe the thread and coherence of St. Paul’s discourse here, the intermediate verses, (according to that abounding with matter and overflowing of thought, he was filled with) being taken up with an accidental train of considerations, to show the reason they had to glory in tribulations.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 2By whom also we have access, by faith, into this grace, wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

Locke1824: 3And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation worketh patience;

Locke1824: 4And patience, experience; and experience, hope;

Locke1824: 5And hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us.

Locke1824: 6For, when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.

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Locke1824: 7For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure, for a good man some would even dare to die.

Locke1824: 8But God commendeth his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.

Locke1824: 9Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.

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Locke1824: 10For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, by the death of his son; much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

Locke1824: 11And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Therefore, being justified by faith, we* have peaceLocke1824: 2 with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, By whom we have had admittance, through faith, into that favour, in which we have stood, and glory in the hopeLocke1824: 3 of the glory, which God has in store for us. And not only so, but we glory in tribulation also, knowingLocke1824: 4 that tribulation worketh patience; And patience giveth us a proof of ourselves, which furnishes us withLocke1824: 5 hope; And our hope maketh not ashamed, will not deceive us, because the sense of the love of God is poured out into our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which isLocke1824: 6 given unto us (a). For, when the gentiles were yet Edition: current; Page: [317] without strength (b), void of all help, or ability to deliver ourselves, Christ, in the time that God had appointed and foretold, died for us, who lived without the acknowledgment and worship of theLocke1824: 7 true God (b). Scarce is it to be found that any one will die for a just man, if peradventure one shouldLocke1824: 8 dare to die for a good man; But God recommends, and herein shows the greatness of his love* towards us, in that, whilst we gentiles were a mass ofLocke1824: 9 profligate sinners, Christ died for us. Much Edition: current; Page: [318] Edition: current; Page: [319] more, therefore, now being justified by his death, shall Edition: current; Page: [320] we through him be delivered from condemnation*Locke1824: 10 at the day of judgment. For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, by the death of his son, much more, being reconciled, shall we beLocke1824: 11 saved by his life. And not only do we glory in tribulation, but also in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom now§ we have received reconciliation.

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SECT. VI.

CHAP. V. 12.—VII. 25.

CONTENTS.

The apostle here goes on with his design, of showing that the gentiles, under the gospel, have as good a title to the favour of God, as the jews; there being no other way for either jew or gentile, to find acceptance with God, but by faith in Jesus Christ. In the foregoing section he reckoned up several subjects of glorying, which the convert gentiles had without the law, and concludes them with this chief and principal matter of glorying, even God himself, whom, now that they were, by Jesus Christ their Lord, reconciled to him, they could glory in as their God.

To give them a more full and satisfactory comprehension of this, he leads them back to the times before the giving of the law, and the very being of the jewish nation; and lays before them, in short, the whole scene of God’s œconomy, and his dealing with mankind, from the beginning, in reference to life and death.

1. He teaches them, that by Adam’s lapse all men were brought into a state of death, and by Christ’s death all are restored to life. By Christ also, as many as believe are instated in eternal life.

2. That the law, when it came, laid the israelites faster under death, by enlarging the offence, which had death annexed to it. For, by the law, every transgression that any one under the law committed, had death for its punishment, notwithstanding which, by Christ, those under the law, who believe, receive life.

3. That, though the gentiles, who believe, come not under the rigour of the law, yet the covenant of grace, which they are under, requires that they should not be servants and vassals to sin, to obey it in the lusts of it, but sincerely endeavour after righteousness, the end whereof would be everlasting life.

4. That the jews also, who receive the gospel, are Edition: current; Page: [322] delivered from the law; not that the law is sin; but because, though the law forbid the obeying of sin, as well as the gospel; yet not enabling them to resist their sinful lusts, but making each compliance with any sinful lust deadly, it settles upon them the dominion of sin, by death, from which they are delivered by the grace of God alone, which frees them from the condemnation of the law, for every actual transgression, and requires no more, but that they should, with the whole bent of their mind, serve the law of God, and not their carnal lusts. In all which cases the salvation of the gentiles is wholly by grace, without their being at all under the law. And the salvation of the jews is wholly by grace also, without any aid, or help from the law: from which also, by Christ, they are delivered.

Thus lies the thread of St. Paul’s argument, wherein we may see how he pursues his design, of satisfying of gentile converts at Rome, that they were not required to submit to the law of Moses; and of fortifying them against the jews, who troubled them about it.

For the more distinct and easy apprehension of St. Paul’s discoursing on these four heads, I shall divide this section into the four following numbers, taking them up, as they lie in the order of the text.

SECT. VI. No. I.

CHAP. V. 12—19.

CONTENTS.

Here he instructs them in the state of mankind in general, before the law, and before the separation that was made thereby of the israelites from all the other nations of the earth. And here he shows, that Adam, transgressing the law, which forbad him the eating of the tree of knowledge, upon pain of death, forfeited immortality, and becoming thereby mortal, all his posterity, descending from the loins of a mortal man, were mortal too, and all died, though none of them broke that Edition: current; Page: [323] law, but Adam himself: but, by Christ, they are all restored to life again. And, God justifying those who believe in Christ, they are restored to their primitive state of righteousness and immortality; so that the gentiles, being the descendants of Adam, as well as the jews, stand as fair for all the advantages, that accrue to the posterity of Adam, by Christ, as the jews themselves, it being all wholly and solely from grace.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 12Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin: and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.

Locke1824: 13For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

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Locke1824: 14Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over Edition: current; Page: [325] them that had not sinned, after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

Locke1824: 15But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if, through the offence of one, many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

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Locke1824: 16And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment Edition: current; Page: [327] was by one, to condemnation; but the free gift is of many offences, unto justification.

Locke1824: 17For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 18Therefore as, by the offence of one, judgment came upon all Edition: current; Page: [328] men to condemnation: even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men, unto justification of life.

Locke1824: 19For, as by one man’s disobedience, many were made sinners: so, by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 12Wherefore, to give you a state of the whole matter, from the beginning you must know, that, as by the act of one man, Adam, the father of us all, sin entered into the world, and death, which was the punishment annexed to the offence of eating the forbidden fruit, entered by that sin, for that allLocke1824: 13 Adam’s posterity thereby became mortal*. It is true, indeed, sin was universally committed in the Edition: current; Page: [324] world by all men, all the time before the positive law of God delivered by Moses: but it is as true* that there is no certain, determined punishment affixedLocke1824: 14 to sin, without a positive law declaring it. Nevertheless, Edition: current; Page: [325] we see that, in all that space of time, which was before the positive law of God by Moses, men from the beginning of the world, died, all as well as their father Adam; though none of them, but he alone, had eaten of the forbidden fruit*; and thereby, as he had committed that sin, to which sin alone the punishment of death was annexed, by the positive sanction of God, denounced to Adam, who was the figure and type of Christ, who was toLocke1824: 15 come. But yet though he were the type of Christ, yet the gift, or benefit, received by Christ, is not exactly conformed and confined to the dimensions of the damage, received by Adam’s fall. For if, by the lapse of one man, the multitude, i. e. all men died, much more did the favour of God; and the free gift by the bounty or good-will which is in Jesus Christ, exceed to the multitude, i. e. to all men. Edition: current; Page: [326] Locke1824: 16 Furthermore, neither is the gift, as was the lapse, by one sin*. For the judgment or sentence was for one* offence, to condemnation: but the gift of favour reaches, notwithstanding many* sins, to Edition: current; Page: [327] Locke1824: 17 justification of life*. For if, by one lapse, death reigned, by reason of one offence, much more shall they who receiving the surplusage of favour, and of the gift of righteousness, reign in life by one, evenLocke1824: 18 Jesus Christ. Therefore as, by one§ offence, (viz.) Adam’s eating the forbidden fruit, all men fell under Edition: current; Page: [328] the condemnation of death: so, by one act of righteousness, viz. Christ’s obedience to death upon theLocke1824: 19 cross*, all men are restored to life. For as, by one man’s disobedience, many were brought into a state of mortality, which is the state of sinners; so, by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous, i. e. be restored to life again, as if they were not sinners.

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SECT. VI. No. 2.

CHAP. V. 20, 21.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, pursuing his design in this epistle, of satisfying the gentiles, that there was no need of their submitting to the law, in order to their partaking of the benefits of the gospel, having, in the foregoing eight verses taught them, that Adam’s one sin had brought death upon them all, from which they were all restored by Christ’s death, with addition of eternal bliss and glory, to all those who believe in him; all which being the effect of God’s free grace and favour, to those who were never under the law, excludes the law from having any part in it, and so fully makes out the title of the gentiles to God’s favour, through Jesus Christ, under the gospel, without the intervention of the law. Here, for the farther satisfaction of the gentile converts, he shows them, in these two verses, that the nation of the hebrews, who had the law, were not delivered from the state of death by it, but rather plunged deeper under it, by the law, and so stood more in need of favour, and indeed had a greater abundance of grace afforded them, for their recovery to life by Jesus Christ, than the gentiles themselves. Thus the jews themselves, not being saved by the law, but by an excess of grace, this is a farther proof of the point St. Paul was upon, viz. that the gentiles had no need of the law, for the obtaining of life, under the gospel.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 20Moreover, the law entered, that the offence might abound: but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound;

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Locke1824: 21That, as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign Edition: current; Page: [332] through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ, our Lord.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 20This was the state of all* mankind, before the law, Edition: current; Page: [330] they all died for the one παράπτωμα, lapse, or offence, of one man which was the only irregularity, that had death annexed to it: but the law entered, and took place over a small part of mankind*, that this παράπτωμα, lapse, or offence, to which death was Edition: current; Page: [331] annexed, might abound, i. e. the multiplied transgressions of many men, viz. all that were under the law of Moses, might have death annexed to them, by the positive sanction of that law, whereby the offence*, to which death was annexed, did abound, i. e. sins that had death for their punishment, were increased. But, by the goodness of God, where sin, with death annexed to it, did abound, graceLocke1824: 21 did much more abound. That as sin had reigned, or showed its mastery, in the death of the israelites, Edition: current; Page: [332] who were under the law; so grace, in its turn, might reign, or show its mastery, by justifying them, from all those many sins, which they had committed, each whereof, by the law, brought death with it; and so bestowing on them the righteousness of faith, instate them in eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

SECT. VI. No. 3.

CHAP. VI. 1—23.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having, in the foregoing chapter, very much magnified free grace, by showing that all men, having lost their lives by Adam’s sin, were, by grace, through Christ, restored to life again; and also, as many of them as believed in Christ, were re-established in immortality by grace; and that even the jews, who, by their own trespasses against the law, had forfeited their lives, over and over again, were also, by grace, restored to life, grace super-abounding, where sin abounded; he here obviates a wrong inference, which might be apt to mislead the convert gentiles, viz. “therefore, let us continue in sin, that grace may abound.” The contrary whereof he shows their very taking upon them the profession of christianity required of them, by the very initiating ceremony of baptism, wherein they were typically buried with Christ, to teach them that they, as he did, ought to die to sin; and, as he rose to live to God, they should rise to a new life of obedience to God, and be no more slaves to sin, in an obedience and resignation of themselves to its commands. For, if their obedience Edition: current; Page: [333] were to sin, they were vassals of sin, and would certainly receive the wages of that master, which was nothing but death: but, if they obeyed righteousness, i. e. sincerely endeavoured after righteousness, though they did not attain it, sin should not have dominion over them, by death, i. e. should not bring death upon them. Because they were not under the law, which condemned them to death for every transgression; but under grace, which, by faith in Jesus Christ, justified them to eternal life, from their many transgressions. And thus he shows the gentiles not only the no necessity, but the advantage of their not being under the law.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1What shall we say then? shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?

Locke1824: 2God forbid: how shall we that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?

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Locke1824: 3Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death?

Locke1824: 4Therefore we are buried with him by baptism, into death; that, like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.

Locke1824: 5For, if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:

Locke1824: 6Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

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Locke1824: 7For he that is dead, is freed from sin.

Locke1824: 8Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him.

Locke1824: 9Knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him.

Locke1824: 10For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God.

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Locke1824: 11Likewise, reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin; but alive unto God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Locke1824: 12Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it, in the lusts thereof.

Locke1824: 13Neither yield ye your members, as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead; and your members, as instruments of righteousness, unto God.

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Locke1824: 14For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

Locke1824: 15What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid!

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Locke1824: 16Know ye not, that, to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are, to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness.

Locke1824: 17But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin: but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine, which was delivered you.

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Locke1824: 18Being then made free from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness.

Locke1824: 19I speak after the manner of men, because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as ye have yielded your members servants to uncleanness, and to iniquity unto iniquity; even so now yield your members servants to righteousness, unto holiness.

Locke1824: 20For, when ye were the servants of sin, ye were free from righteousness.

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Locke1824: 21What fruit had ye then, in those things, whereof ye are now ashamed? for the end of those things is death.

Locke1824: 22But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.

Locke1824: 23For the wages of sin is death: but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin,Locke1824: 2 that grace may abound? God forbid: how can it be that we*, who, by our embracing christianity, have renounced our former sinful courses, and have professed a death to sin, should live any longer in it? Edition: current; Page: [334] Locke1824: 3 For this I hope you are not ignorant of, that we christians, who by baptism were admitted into the kingdom and church of Christ, were baptized into aLocke1824: 4 similitude of his death: We did own some kind of death, by being buried under water, which, being buried with him, i. e. in conformity to his burial, as a confession of our being dead, was to signify, that as Christ was raised up from the dead, into* a glorious life with his Father, even so we, being raised from our typical death and burial in baptism, should lead a new sort of life, wholly different from our former, in some approaches towards that heavenly life thatLocke1824: 5 Christ is risen to. For, if we have been ingrafted into him, in the similitude of his death, we shall be also in a conformity to the life, which he is enteredLocke1824: 6 into, by his resurrection: Knowing this, that we are to live so, as if our old man, our wicked and corrupt fleshly self which we were before, were crucified with him, that the prevalency of our carnal sinful propensities, which are from our bodies, might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin, Edition: current; Page: [335] Locke1824: 7 as vassals to it. For he, that is dead, is set free from the vassalage* of sin, as a slave is from the vassalageLocke1824: 8 of his master. Now, if we understand by our being buried in baptism, that we died with Christ, we cannot but think and believe, thatLocke1824: 9 we should live a life conformable to his; Knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, returns no more to a mortal life, death hath no more dominionLocke1824: 10 over him, he is no more subject to death. For in that he died, he died unto sin, i. e. upon the account of sin, once for all: but his life, now after his resurrection, is a life wholly appropriated Edition: current; Page: [336] to God, with which sin, or death, shall never have any more to do, or come in reach of.Locke1824: 11 In like manner, do you also make your reckoning, account yourselves dead to sin*, freed from that master; so as not to suffer yourselves, any more, to be commanded, or employed by it, as if it were still your master; but alive to God, i. e. that it is your business now to live wholly for his service, and toLocke1824: 12 his glory, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Permit not, therefore, sin to reign over you, by your mortal bodies, which you will do, if you obeyLocke1824: 13 your carnal lusts: Neither deliver up your members§ to sin, to be employed by sin, as instruments of iniquity, but deliver up yourselves unto God, as those who have got to a new life from among the dead, and choosing him for your Lord and Master, Edition: current; Page: [337] yield your members to him, as instruments ofLocke1824: 14 righteousness. For if you do so, sin shall not have dominion over you*, you shall not be as its slaves, in its power, to be by it delivered over to death. For you are not under the law, in the legal state; but you are under grace, in the gospel-state of theLocke1824: 15 covenant of grace. What then, shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under the covenantLocke1824: 16 of grace? God forbid! Know ye not that, to whom Edition: current; Page: [338] you subject yourselves* as vassals, to be at his beck, his vassals you are whom you thus obey, whether it be of sin, which vassalage ends in death; or of Christ, in obeying the gospel, to the obtaining ofLocke1824: 17 righteousness and life. But God be thanked, that you who were the vassals of sin, have sincerely, and from your heart, obeyed, so as to receive the form, or be cast into the mould of that doctrine, under Edition: current; Page: [339] whose direction or regulation* you were put, thatLocke1824: 18 you might conform yourselves to it. Being therefore set free from the vassalage of sin, you becameLocke1824: 19 the servants or vassals of righteousness. (I make use of this metaphor, of the passing of slaves from one master to another, well known to you romans, the better to let my meaning into your understandings, that are yet weak in these matters, being more accustomed to fleshly than spiritual things.) For as you yielded your natural§ faculties obedient, slavish instruments to uncleanness, to be wholly employed in all manner of iniquity; so now ye ought to yield up your natural faculties to a perfectLocke1824: 20 and ready obedience to righteousness. For, when you were the vassals of sin, you were not at all subject to, nor paid any obedience to righteousness: therefore, by a parity of reason, now righteousness is your master, you ought to pay no obedience to Edition: current; Page: [340] Locke1824: 21 sin. What fruit, or benefit, had you then in those things, in that course of things, whereof you are now ashamed? For the end of those things, whichLocke1824: 22 are done in obedience to sin, is death. But now, being set free from sin, being no longer vassals to that master, but having God now for your lord and master, to whom you are become subjects or vassals, your course of life tends to holiness, and will end inLocke1824: 23 everlasting life. For the wages* that sin pays, is death: but that which God’s servants receive, from his bounty, is the gift of eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

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SECT. VI. No. 4.

CHAP. VII. 1—25.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, in the foregoing chapter, addressing himself to the convert gentiles, shows them, that, not being under the law, they were obliged only to keep themselves free from the vassalage of sin, by a sincere endeavour after righteousness, forasmuch as God gave eternal life to all those who, being under grace, i. e. being converted to christianity, did so.

In this chapter, addressing himself to those of his own nation in the roman church, he tells them, that, the death of Christ having put an end to the obligation of the law, they were at their liberty to quit the observances of the law, and were guilty of no disloyalty, in putting themselves under the gospel. And here St. Paul shows the deficiency of the law, which rendered it necessary to be laid aside, by the coming and reception of the gospel. Not that it allowed any sin, but, on the contrary, forbad even concupiscence, which was not known to be sin, without the law. Nor was it the law that brought death upon those who were under it, but sin, that herein it might show the extreme malignant influence it had, upon our weak fleshly natures, in that it could prevail on us to transgress the law, (which we could not but acknowledge to be holy, just and good) though death was the declared penalty of every transgression: but herein lay the deficiency of the law, as spiritual and opposite to sin as it was, that it could not master and root it out, but sin remained and dwelt in men, as before, and by the strength of their carnal appetites, which were not subdued by the law, carried them to transgressions, that they approved not. Nor did it avail them to disapprove, or struggle, since, though the bent of their minds were the other way, yet their endeavours after obedience delivered them not from that death, which their bodies, or carnal appetites, running them into transgressions, brought upon them. That deliverance was to be had from grace, by Edition: current; Page: [342] which those who, putting themselves from under the law into the gospel-state, were accepted, if with the bent of their minds they sincerely endeavoured to serve and obey the law of God, though sometimes, through the frailty of their flesh, they fell into sin.

This is a farther demonstration to the converted gentiles of Rome, that they are under no obligation of submitting themselves to the law, in order to be the people of God, or partake of the advantages of the gospel, since it was necessary, even to the jews themselves, to quit the terms of the law, that they might be delivered from death, by the gospel. And thus we see how steadily and skilfully he pursues his design, and with what evidence and strength he fortifies the gentile converts, against all attempts of the jews, who went about to bring them under the observances of the law of Moses.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law) how that the law hath dominion over a man, as long as he liveth.

Locke1824: 2For the woman, which hath an husband, is bound by the law to Edition: current; Page: [343] her husband, so long as he liveth: but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.

Locke1824: 3So then, if while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress: but, if her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress, though she be married to another man.

Locke1824: 4Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law, by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him, who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God.

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Locke1824: 5For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members, to bring forth fruit unto death.

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Locke1824: 6But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead, wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.

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Locke1824: 7What shall we say then? is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

Locke1824: 8But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead.

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Locke1824: 9For I was alive without the law, once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.

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Locke1824: 10And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death.

Locke1824: 11For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.

Locke1824: 12Wherefore the law is holy; and the commandment holy, and just, and good.

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Locke1824: 13Was then that, which is good, made death unto me? God forbid! but sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me, by that which is good; that sin, by the commandment, might become exceeding sinful.

Locke1824: 14For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.

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Locke1824: 15For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that I do.

Locke1824: 16If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law, that it is good.

Locke1824: 17Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.

Locke1824: 18For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not.

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Locke1824: 19For the good, that I would, I do not: but the evil, which I would not, that I do.

Locke1824: 20Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I, that do it; but sin, that dwelleth in me.

Locke1824: 21I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.

Locke1824: 22For I delight in the law of God, after the inward man.

Locke1824: 23But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members.

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Locke1824: 24O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

Locke1824: 25I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then, with the mind, I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh, the law of sin.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1I have let those of you, who were formerly gentiles, see, that they are not under the law, but under grace*: I now apply myself to you, my brethren, of my own nation, who know the law. You cannot be ignorant that the authority of the law reaches, or concerns aLocke1824: 2 man, so long as he liveth, and no longer. For§ Edition: current; Page: [343] a woman who hath an husband, is bound by the law* to her living husband; but if her husband dieth, she is loosed from the law, which made her her husband’s, because the authority of the law, whereby he had a right to her, ceased in respect of him, as soon as he died.Locke1824: 3 Wherefore she shall be called an adulteress, if while her husband liveth, she become another man’s. But if her husband dies, the right he had to her by the law ceasing, she is freed from the law, so that she is not an adulteress, though she become another man’s.Locke1824: 4 So that even ye, my brethren, by the body of Edition: current; Page: [344] Christ*, are become dead to the law, whereby the dominion of the law over you has ceased, that you should subject yourselves to the dominion of Christ, in the gospel, which you may do with as much freedom from blame, or the imputation of disloyalty, as a woman whose husband is dead, may, without the imputation of adultery, marry another man. And this making yourselves another’s, even Christ’s, who is risen from the dead, is, that we§ Edition: current; Page: [345] Locke1824: 5 should bring forth fruit unto God*. For when we were after so fleshly a manner, under the law, as not to comprehend the spiritual meaning of it, that directed us to Christ, the spiritual end of the law, our sinful lust, that remained in us under the law§, or in the state under the law, wrought in our members, Edition: current; Page: [346] i. e. set our members and faculties* on work, inLocke1824: 6 doing that, whose end was death. But now the law, under which we were heretofore held in subjection, being dead, we are set free from the dominion of the law, that we should perform our obedience, as under the new and spiritual covenant of the gospel, wherein there is a remission of frailties, and not as still under the old rigour of the letter of the law, which condemns every one, who does not perform exact obedience Edition: current; Page: [347] Locke1824: 7 to every tittle*. What shall we then think, that the law, because it is set aside, was unrighteous, or gave any allowance, or contributed any thing to sin? By no means: for the law, on the contrary, tied men stricter up from sin, forbidding concupiscence, which they did not know to be sin, but by the law. For I had not known concupiscence to be sin, unless the lawLocke1824: 8 had said, Thou shalt not covet. Nevertheless sin, taking opportunity§, during the law, or whilst I was under the commandment, wrought in me all Edition: current; Page: [348] manner of concupiscence: for without the law, sin isLocke1824: 9 dead*, not able to hurt me; And there was a time once, when I being without the law, was in a state of life; but the commandment coming, sin got life and strength again, and I found myself a dead man; Edition: current; Page: [349] Locke1824: 10 And that very law, which was given me for the attaining of life*, was found to produce death toLocke1824: 11 me. For my mortal enemy, sin, taking the opportunity of my being under the law, slew me by the law, which it inveigled§ me to disobey, i. e. the frailty and vicious inclinations of nature remaining in me under the law, as they were before, able still to bring me into transgressions, each whereof was mortal, sin had, by my being under the law, a sureLocke1824: 12 opportunity of bringing death upon me. So that the law is holy, just, and good, such as the eternal, immutable rule of right and good required it to be. Edition: current; Page: [350] Locke1824: 13 Was then the law, that in itself was good, made death to me? No*, by no means: but it was sin, that by the law was made death unto me, to the end that the power of sin might appear, by its being able to bring death upon me, by that very law, that was intended for my good, that so, by the commandment, the power of sin and corruption in me mightLocke1824: 14 be shown to be exceeding great; For we know that the law is spiritual, requiring actions quite opposite§ to our carnal affections. But I am so carnal, as to be enslaved to them, and forced against my will to Edition: current; Page: [351] do the drudgery of sin, as if I were a slave, that had been sold into the hands of that my domineeringLocke1824: 15 enemy. For what I do, is not of my own contrivance*; for that which I have a mind to, I do not;Locke1824: 16 and what I have an aversion to, that I do. If then my transgressing the law be what I, in my mind, am against, it is plain, the consent of my mind goesLocke1824: 17 with the law that it is good. If so, then it is not I, a willing agent of my own free purpose, that do what is contrary to the law, but as a poor slave in captivity, not able to follow my own understanding and choice, forced by the prevalency of my own sinful affections, and sin that remains still in me notwithstandingLocke1824: 18 the law. For I know, by woeful experience, that in me, viz. in my flesh, that part, which is the seat of carnal appetites, there inhabits no good. For, in the judgment and purpose of my Edition: current; Page: [352] mind, I am readily carried into a conformity and obedience to the law: but, the strength of my carnal affections not being abated by the law, I am not able to execute what I judge to be right, andLocke1824: 19 intend to perform. For the good, that is my purpose and aim, that I do not: but the evil, that is contrary to my intention, that in my practice takes place, i. e. I purpose and aim at universal obedience,Locke1824: 20 but cannot in fact attain it. Now if I do that, which is against the full bent and intention of me* myself, it is, as I said before, not I, my true self, who do it, but the true author of it is my old enemy, sin, which still remains and dwells in me, and I would fain getLocke1824: 21 rid of. I find it, therefore, as by a law settled in me, that when my intentions aim at good, evil is ready atLocke1824: 22 hand, to make my actions wrong and faulty. For that which my inward man is delighted with, that, which with satisfaction my mind would make its rule, isLocke1824: 23 the law of God. But I see in my members another principle of action, equivalent to a law, directly Edition: current; Page: [353] waging war against that law, which my mind would follow, leading me captive into an unwilling subjection to the constant inclination and impulse of my carnal appetite, which, as steadily as if it were aLocke1824: 24 law, carries me to sin. O miserable man that I am, who shall deliver me* from this body of death?Locke1824: 25 The grace of God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Edition: current; Page: [354] To comfort myself, therefore, as that state requires, for my deliverance from death, I myself*, with full purpose and sincere endeavours of mind, give up myself to obey the law of God; though my carnal inclinations are enslaved, and have a constant tendency to sin. This is all I can do, and this is all, I being under grace, that is required of me, and through Christ will be accepted.

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SECT. VII.

CHAP. VIII. 1—39.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul having, chap. vi. shown that the gentiles, who were not under the law, were saved only by grace, which required that they should not indulge themselves in sin, but steadily and sincerely endeavour after perfect obedience: having also, ch. vii. shown, that the jews who were under the law, were also saved by grace only, because the law could not enable them wholly to avoid sin, which, by the law, was in every the least slip made death; he in this chapter shows, that both jews and gentiles, who are under grace, i. e. converts to christianity, are free from condemnation, if they perform what is required of them; and thereupon he sets forth the terms of the covenant of grace, and presses their observance, viz. not to live after the flesh, but after the spirit, mortifying the deeds of the body; forasmuch as those, that do so, are the sons of God. This being laid down, he makes use of it to arm them with patience against afflictions, assuring them, that, whilst they remain in this state, nothing can separate them from the love of God, nor shut them out from the inheritance of eternal life with Christ, in glory, to which all the sufferings of this life bear not any the least proportion.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit.

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Locke1824: 2For the law of the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath made me free from the law of sin and death.

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For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending his own son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh:

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Locke1824: 4That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit.

Locke1824: 5For they, that are after the flesh, do mind the things of the flesh: but they that are after the spirit, the things of the spirit.

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Locke1824: 6For to be carnally minded, is death; but to be spiritually minded, is life and peace:

Locke1824: 7Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

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Locke1824: 8So then they that are in the flesh, cannot please God.

Locke1824: 9But ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so be that the spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

Locke1824: 10And if Christ be in you, the body is dead, because of sin, but the spirit is life, because of righteousness.

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Locke1824: 11But if the spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead, dwell in you: he that raised up Christ from the dead, shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his spirit that dwelleth in you.

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Locke1824: 12Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh to live after the flesh.

Locke1824: 13For, if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye, through the spirit, do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.

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Locke1824: 14For as many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God.

Locke1824: 15For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

Locke1824: 16The spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God.

Locke1824: 17And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.

Locke1824: 18For I reckon, that the sufferings of this present time are not Edition: current; Page: [365] worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.

Locke1824: 19For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.

Locke1824: 20For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope:

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Locke1824: 21Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

Locke1824: 22For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together, until now.

Locke1824: 23And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first-fruits of the spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.

Locke1824: 24For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen, is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?

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Locke1824: 25But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.

Locke1824: 26Likewise the spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for, as we ought: but the spirit itself maketh intercession for us, with groanings, which cannot be uttered.

Locke1824: 27And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints, according to the will of God.

Locke1824: 28And we know that all things work together for good, to them that love God, to them, who are the called according to his purpose.

Locke1824: 29For whom he did fore-know, he also did predestinate to be conformed Edition: current; Page: [368] to the image of his son, that he might be the first-born among many brethren.

Locke1824: 30Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

Locke1824: 31What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?

Locke1824: 32He that spared not his own son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?

Locke1824: 33Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that justifieth:

Locke1824: 34Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather Edition: current; Page: [369] that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.

Locke1824: 35Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

Locke1824: 36(As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter).

Locke1824: 37Nay in all these things we are more than conquerors, through him that loved us.

Locke1824: 38For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,

Locke1824: 39Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1There is, therefore*, now, no condemnation to, i. e. no sentence of death shall pass upon, those who Edition: current; Page: [356] are christians*, if so be they obey not the sinful lusts of the flesh, but follow, with sincerity of heart,Locke1824: 2 the dictates of the spirit, §in the gospel. For the grace of God, which is effectual to life, has set me free from the law in my members, which cannot now produce sin in me, unto death. Edition: current; Page: [357] Locke1824: 3 For this (viz. the delivering us from sin) being beyond the power of the law, which was too weak* to master the propensities of the flesh, God, sending his son in flesh, that in all things, except sin, was like unto our frail, sinful flesh, and sending him also to be an offering§ for sin, he put to death, or extinguished, or Edition: current; Page: [358] suppressed sin* in the flesh, i. e. sending his son into the world, with the body, wherein the flesh couldLocke1824: 4 never prevail, to the producing of any one sin; To the end that, under this example of the flesh, wherein sin was perfectly mastered and excluded from any life, the moral rectitude of the law might be conformed to by us, who, abandoning the lusts of the flesh, follow the guidance of the spirit, in the law of our minds, and make it our business to live, not afterLocke1824: 5 the flesh, but after the spirit. For as for those who § are still under the direction of the flesh, and its sinful appetites, who are under obedience to the law in their Edition: current; Page: [359] members, they have the thoughts and bent of their minds set upon the things of the flesh, to obey it in the lusts of it: but they, who are under the spiritual law of their minds, the thoughts and bent of their hearts is to follow the dictates of the spirit, in thatLocke1824: 6 law. For* to have our minds set upon the satisfaction of the lusts of the flesh, in a slavish obedience to them, does certainly produce and bring death upon us; but our setting ourselves, seriously and sincerely, to obey the dictates and direction of the spirit, produces life and peace, which are not to be had in the contrary,Locke1824: 7 carnal state: Because to be carnally minded is direct enmity and opposition against God, for such a temper of mind, given up to the lusts of the flesh, is in no subjection to the law of God, nor indeed can be§, it Edition: current; Page: [360] Locke1824: 8 having a quite contrary tendency. So then* they that are in the flesh, i. e. under the fleshly dispensation of the law, without regarding Christ,Locke1824: 9 the spirit of it, in it cannot please God. But ye are not in that state, of having all your expectation from the law, and the benefits, that are to be obtained barely by that; but are in the spiritual state of the law, i. e. the gospel, which is the end of the law, and to which the law leads you. And so, having received the gospel, you have therewith received the spirit of God: for, as many as receive Christ, he gives power to become the § sons of God: and toLocke1824: 10 those that are his sons, God gives his spirit. And if Christ be in you, by his spirit, the body is dead Edition: current; Page: [361] as to all activity to sin*, sin no longer reigns in it, but your sinful, carnal lusts are mortified. But the spirit of your mind liveth, i. e. is enlivened, in order to righteousness, or living righteously.Locke1824: 11 But, if the spirit of God, who had power able to raise Jesus Christ from the dead, dwell in you, as certainly it does, he, that raised Christ from the dead, is certainly able, and will, by his spirit that dwells in you, enliven even your mortal bodies*, Edition: current; Page: [362] Edition: current; Page: [363] that sin shall not have the sole power and rule there, but your members may be made livingLocke1824: 12 instruments of righteousness. Therefore, brethren, we are not under any obligation to the flesh, to obeyLocke1824: 13 the lusts of it. For, if ye live after the flesh, that mortal part shall lead you to death irrecoverable; but if by the spirit, whereby Christ totally suppressed Edition: current; Page: [364] and hindered sin from having any life in his flesh, you mortify the deeds of the body*, ye shall haveLocke1824: 14 eternal life. For, as many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God, of an immortal race, and consequently like their Father immortal.Locke1824: 15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again§, to fear; but ye have received the spirit of God, (which is given to those who, having received adoption, are sons) whereby we are all enabledLocke1824: 16 to call God our Father. The spirit of God himself beareth witness** with our spirits that we areLocke1824: 17 the children of God, And if children, then heirs of God, joint-heirs with Christ, if so be we suffer†† with him, that we may also be glorified with him.Locke1824: 18 For I count that the sufferings of this transitory Edition: current; Page: [365] life bear no proportion to that glorious state, that shall be hereafter *revealed, and set before the eyesLocke1824: 19 of the whole world, at our admittance into it. For the whole race of mankind, in an earnest expectation of this inconceivable, glorious immortality thatLocke1824: 20 shall be bestowed on the sons§ of God (For mankind, created in a better state, was made subject to the vanity of this calamitous fleeting life, not of its own choice, but by the guile of the devil, who brought mankind into this mortal state) waiteth in Edition: current; Page: [366] Locke1824: 21 hope*, That even they also shall be delivered from this subjection to corruption, and shall be brought into that glorious freedom from death, which is theLocke1824: 22 proper inheritance of the children of God. For we know that mankind, all of them, groan together, and unto this day are in pain, as a woman in labour, to be delivered out of the uneasiness of this mortalLocke1824: 23 state. And not only they, but even those, who have the first fruits of the spirit, and therein the earnest§ of eternal life, we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the fruit of our adoption, which is, that, as we are by adoption made sons and co-heirs with Jesus Christ, so we may have bodies like unto hisLocke1824: 24 most glorious body, spiritual and immortal. But we must wait with patience, for we have hitherto been Edition: current; Page: [367] saved but in hope and expectation: but hope is of things not in present possession, or enjoyment. For what a man hath, and seeth in his own hands, he noLocke1824: 25 longer hopes for. But if we hope for what is out of sight, and yet to come, then do we withLocke1824: 26 patience wait for it*. Such, therefore, are our groans, which the spirit, in aid to our infirmity, makes use of. For we know not what prayers to make as we ought, but the spirit itself layeth for us our requests before God, in groans that cannot be expressedLocke1824: 27 in words. And God, the searcher of hearts, who understandeth this language of the spirit, knoweth what the spirit would have, because the spirit is wont to make intercession for theLocke1824: 28 saints, acceptably to God. Bear, therefore, your sufferings with patience and constancy, for we certainly know that all things work together for good, to those that love God, who are the called, accordingLocke1824: 29 to his purpose of calling the gentiles. In Edition: current; Page: [368] which purpose the gentiles, whom he fore-knew, as he did the jews*, with an intention of his kindness, and of making them his people, he pre-ordained to be conformable to the image of his son, that he might be the first-born, the chief amongst manyLocke1824: 30 brethren. Moreover, whom he did thus preordain to be his people, them he also called, by sending preachers of the gospel to them: and whom he called, if they obeyed the truth, those he also justified, by counting their faith for righteousness: and whom he justified, them he also glorified, viz. inLocke1824: 31 his purpose. What shall we say, then, to these things? If God be for us, as, by what he has already done for us, it appears he is, who can beLocke1824: 32 against us? He that spared not his own son, but delivered him up to death for us all, gentiles as well as jews, how shall he not with him also give us allLocke1824: 33 things? Who shall be the prosecutor of those, whom God hath chosen? Shall God, who justifiethLocke1824: 34 them§? Who, as judge, shall condemn them? Edition: current; Page: [369] Christ, that died for us, yea rather that is risen again for our justification, and is at the right hand of God,Locke1824: 35 making intercession for us? Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril,Locke1824: 36 or sword? For this is our lot, as it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long, we are accountedLocke1824: 37 as sheep for the slaughter. Nay, in all these things, we are already more than conquerors, by the grace and assistance of him that loved us.Locke1824: 38 For I am stedfastly persuaded, that neither the terrours of death, nor the allurements of life, nor angels, nor the princes and powers of this world;Locke1824: 39 nor things present; nor any thing future; Nor the height of prosperity; nor the depth of misery; nor any thing else whatsoever; shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

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SECT. VIII.

CHAP. IX. 1.—X. 21.

CONTENTS.

There was nothing more grating and offensive to the jews, than the thoughts of having the gentiles joined with them, and partaking equally in the privileges and advantages of the kingdom of the Messiah: and, which was yet worse, to be told that those aliens should be admitted, and they, who presumed themselves children of that kingdom, to be shut out. St. Paul, who had insisted much on this doctrine, in all the foregoing chapters of this epistle, to show that he had not done it out of any aversion, or unkindness, to his nation and brethren, the jews, does here express his great affection to them, and declares an extreme concern for their salvation. But withal he shows, that whatever privileges they had received from God, above other nations, whatever expectation the promises, made to their forefathers, might raise in them, they had yet no just reason of complaining of God’s dealing with them, now under the gospel, since it was according to his promise to Abraham, and his frequent declarations in sacred scripture. Nor was it any injustice to the jewish nation, if God now acted by the same sovereign power, wherewith he preferred Jacob (the younger brother, without any merit of his) and his posterity, to be his people, before Esau and his posterity, whom he rejected. The earth is all his; nor have the nations, that possess it, any title of their own, but what he gives them, to the countries they inhabit, nor the good things they enjoy; and he may dispossess, or exterminate them, when he pleaseth. And as he destroyed the egyptians, for the glory of his name, in the deliverance of the israelites; so he may, according to his good pleasure, raise or depress, take into favour, or reject, the several nations of this world. And particularly, as to the nation of the jews, all, but a small remnant, were rejected, and Edition: current; Page: [371] the gentiles taken in, in their room, to be the people and church of God; because they were a gainsaying and disobedient people, that would not receive the Messiah, whom he had promised, and, in the appointed time, sent to them. He that will, with moderate attention and indifferency of mind, read this ninth chapter, will see that what is said, of God’s exercising of an absolute power, according to the good pleasure of his will, relates only to nations, or bodies politick, of men, incorporated in civil societies, which feel the effects of it only in the prosperity, or calamity, they meet with, in this world, but extends not to their eternal state, in another world, considered as particular persons, wherein they stand each man by himself, upon his own bottom, and shall so answer separately, at the day of judgment. They may be punished here, with their fellow-citizens, as part of a sinful nation, and that be but temporal chastisement for their good, and yet be advanced to eternal life and bliss, in the world to come.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1I say the truth in Christ, I lye not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,

Locke1824: 2That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow at my heart.

Locke1824: 3For I could wish, that myself were accursed from Christ, for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh:

Locke1824: 4Who are israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises;

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Locke1824: 5Whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

Locke1824: 6Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel.

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Locke1824: 7Neither because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

Locke1824: 8That is, they which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.

Locke1824: 9For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sarah shall have a son.

Locke1824: 10And not only this, but when Rebecca also had conceived by one, even by our father Isaac,

Locke1824: 11(For the children being not yet born, neither having done any Edition: current; Page: [374] good, or evil, that the purpose of God, according to election, might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth)

Locke1824: 12It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Locke1824: 13As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.

Locke1824: 14What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid.

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Locke1824: 15For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.

Locke1824: 16So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy.

Locke1824: 17For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.

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Locke1824: 18Therefore, hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will, he hardeneth.

Locke1824: 19Thou wilt say then unto me, Why do he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?

Locke1824: 20Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? shall the thing formed, say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?

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Locke1824: 21Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?

Locke1824: 22What, if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath, fitted to destruction:

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Locke1824: 23And that he might make known the riches of his glory, on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory?

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Locke1824: 24Even us, whom he hath called, not of the jews only, but also of the gentiles.

Locke1824: 25As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.

Locke1824: 26And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.

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Locke1824: 27Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved.

Locke1824: 28For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.

Locke1824: 29And as Esaias said before, Except the Lord of Sabbaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodome, and been made like unto Gomorrah.

Locke1824: 30What shall we say then? That the gentiles, which followed not after righteousness have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.

Locke1824: 31But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

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Locke1824: 32Wherefore? Because they sought it, not by faith, but (as it were) by the works of the law: for they stumbled at that stumbling-stone.

Locke1824: 33As it is written, Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone, and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him, shall not be ashamed.

Locke1824: X. 1Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.

Locke1824: 2For I bear them record, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.

Locke1824: 3For they, being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

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Locke1824: 4For Christ is the end of the law, for righteousness, to every one that believeth.

Locke1824: 5For Moses describeth the righteousness, which is of the law, That the man, which doth these things, shall live by them.

Locke1824: 6But the righteousness which is of faith, speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above)

Locke1824: 7Or who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again, from the dead)

Locke1824: 8But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith which we preach,

Locke1824: 9That, if thou shalt confess, with thy mouth, the Lord Jesus, and Edition: current; Page: [383] shalt believe in thine heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.

Locke1824: 10For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.

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Locke1824: 11For the scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

Locke1824: 12For there is no difference between the jew and the greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.

Locke1824: 13For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord, shall be saved.

Locke1824: 14How then shall they call on him, in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?

Locke1824: 15And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, Edition: current; Page: [385] How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things?

Locke1824: 16But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?

Locke1824: 17So then, faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

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Locke1824: 18But I say, Have they not heard? Yes, verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.

Locke1824: 19But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you.

Locke1824: 20But Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me.

Locke1824: 21But to Israel he saith, All day long have I stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1I as a christian speak truth, and my conscience, guided and enlightened by the Holy Ghost, bears meLocke1824: 2 witness, that I lye not, In my profession of greatLocke1824: 3 heaviness and continual sorrow of heart; I could even wish that* the destruction and extermination, to which my brethren the jews are devoted by Christ, might, if it could save them from ruin, be executed on me, in the stead of those my kinsmen after theLocke1824: 4 flesh; Who are israelites, a nation dignified with Edition: current; Page: [372] these privileges, which were peculiar to them; adoption, whereby they were in a particular manner the sons of God*; the glory of the divine presence amongst them; covenants, made between them and the great God of heaven and the earth; the moral law§, a constitution of civil government, and a form of divine worship prescribed by God himself; and allLocke1824: 5 the promises of the Old Testament; Had the patriarchs, to whom the promises were made, for their fore-fathers; and of them, as to his fleshly extraction, Christ is come, he who is over all, God beLocke1824: 6 blessed for ever, Amen. I commiserate my nation for not receiving the promised Messiah, now he is come; and I speak of the great prerogatives, they had from God, above other nations; but I say not this, as if it were possible, that the promise of God should fail of performance, and not have its effect. But it is to be observed, for a right understanding of the promise, that the sole descendants of Jacob, or Israel, do not make up the whole nation of Israel**, or the people of God, comprehended Edition: current; Page: [373] Locke1824: 7 in the promise; Nor are they, who are the race of Abraham, all children, but only his posterity by Isaac, as it is said, “In Isaac shall thy seed beLocke1824: 8 “called.” That is, the children of the flesh, descended out of Abraham’s loins, are not thereby the children of God*, and to be esteemed his people: but the children of the promise, as Isaac was, areLocke1824: 9 alone to be accounted his seed. For thus runs the word of promise, “At this time I will come, andLocke1824: 10 Sarah shall have a son.” Nor was this the only limitation of the seed of Abraham, to whom the promise belonged; but also, when Rebecca had conceived by that one of Abraham’s issue, to whom the promise was made, viz. our father Isaac, and thereLocke1824: 11 were twins in her womb, of that one father, Before Edition: current; Page: [374] the children were born, or had done any good, or evil*, to show that his making any stock, or race, of men his peculiar people, depended solely on his own purpose and good pleasure, in choosing and calling them, and not on any works or deserts of theirs, he, acting here in the case of Jacob and Esau, accordingLocke1824: 12 to the predetermination of his own choice, It was declared unto her, that there were two nations in her womb, and that the descendants of the elderLocke1824: 13 brother should serve those of the younger, As it is written, “Jacob have I loved, so as to make his posterity my chosen people; and Esau I put so much behind him§, as to lay his mountains andLocke1824: 14 his heritage waste.” What shall we say then, is there any injustice with God, in choosing one people Edition: current; Page: [375] to himself before another, according to his goodLocke1824: 15 pleasure? By no means. My brethren, the jews themselves cannot charge any such thing on what I say; since they have it from Moses himself*, that God declared to him, that he would be gracious, to whom he would be gracious; and show mercy, onLocke1824: 16 whom he would show mercy. So then, neither the purpose of Isaac, who designed it for Esau, and willed him to prepare himself for it; nor the endeavours of Esau, who ran a hunting for venison to come and receive it, could place on him the blessing; but the favour of being made, in his posterity, a great and prosperous nation, the peculiar people of God, preferred to that which should descend from his brother, was bestowed on Jacob, by the mereLocke1824: 17 bounty and good pleasure of God himself. The like hath Moses left us upon record, of God’s dealing with Pharaoh and his subjects, the people of Egypt, to whom God saith, “Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and that my name might be Edition: current; Page: [376] Locke1824: 18 renowned through all the earth.” Therefore*, that his name and power may be made known, and taken notice of, in the world, he is kind and bountiful to one nation, and lets another go on obstinately, in their opposition to him, that his taking them off, by some signal calamity and ruin, brought on them by the visible hand of his providence, may be seen, and acknowledged to be an effect of their standing out against him, as in the case of Pharaoh: for this end he is bountiful, to whom he will be bountiful; and whom he will, he permits to make such an use of his forbearance towards them, as to persist obdurate in their provocation of him, and draw on themselvesLocke1824: 19 exemplary destruction. To this, some may be ready to say, why then does he find fault? For who, at any time, hath been able to resist hisLocke1824: 20 will? Say you so, indeed? But who art thou, O man, that repliest thus to God? shall the nations§, Edition: current; Page: [377] that are made great or little, shall kingdoms, that are raised or depressed, say to him, in whose hands they are, to dispose of them as he pleases, “WhyLocke1824: 21 hast thou made us thus?” Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump, to make thisLocke1824: 22 a vessel of honour, and that of dishonour*? But what hast thou to say, O man of Judea, if God, willing to show his wrath, and have his power taken Edition: current; Page: [378] notice of, in the execution of it, did, with much long-suffering*, bear with the sinful nation of the jews, even when they were proper objects of that wrath, fit to have it poured out upon them, in their destruction;Locke1824: 23 That he might make known the riches of Edition: current; Page: [379] his glory*, on those whom, being objects of hisLocke1824: 24 mercy, he had before prepared to glory? Even us christians, whom he hath also called, not only ofLocke1824: 25 the jews, but also of the gentiles; As he hath declared in Osee; “I will call them my people, who were not my people; and her beloved, who wasLocke1824: 26 not beloved. And it shall come to pass, that in the place, where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children Edition: current; Page: [380] Locke1824: 27 “of the living God.” Isaiah crieth also, concerning Israel, “Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, yet it is but* a remnantLocke1824: 28 that shall be saved. For the Lord, finishing and contracting the account in righteousness, shall make aLocke1824: 29 short, or small remainder in the earth.” And, as Isaiah said before, “Unless the Lord of hosts had left us a seed, we had been as Sodom, and been made like unto Gomorrah;” we had utterlyLocke1824: 30 been extirpated. What then remains to be said, but this? That the gentiles who sought not after righteousness, have obtained the righteousness, which is by faith, and thereby are become the people ofLocke1824: 31 God; But the children of Israel, who followed the law, which contained the rule of righteousness, have not attained to that law, whereby righteousness is to be attained, i. e. have not received the gospel§, Edition: current; Page: [381] Locke1824: 32 and so are not the people of God. How came they to miss it? Because they sought not to attain it by faith; but as if it were to be obtained by the works of the law. A crucified Messiah was a stumblingblock to them*; and at that they stumbled, As itLocke1824: 33 is written, “Behold, I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone, and a rock of offence: and whosoever believeth in him shall not be ashamed.”

Locke1824: X. 1Brethren, my hearty desire and prayer to God forLocke1824: 2 Israel is, that they may be saved. For I bear them witness that they are zealous, and as they think for God and his law; but their zeal is not guided byLocke1824: 3 true knowledge; For they, being ignorant of the righteousness that is of God, viz. That righteousness which he graciously bestows and accepts of; and going about to establish a righteousness of their own, which they seek for, in their own performances; Edition: current; Page: [382] have not brought themselves to submit to the law of the gospel, wherein the righteousness of God,Locke1824: 4 i. e. righteousness by faith is offered. For the end of the law* was to bring men to Christ, that, by believing in him, every one, that did so, might be justifiedLocke1824: 5 by faith; For Moses describeth the righteousness, that was to be had by the law, thus: “That the man, which doth the things required in the law, shallLocke1824: 6 have life thereby.” But the righteousness, which is of faith, speaketh after this manner: “Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven;” that is, to bring down the Messiah from thence, whom weLocke1824: 7 expect personally here on earth to deliver us? “Or who shall descend into the deep?” i. e. to bring up Christ again from the dead, to be our Saviour? you mistake the deliverance, you expect by the Messiah, there needs not the fetching him from the otherLocke1824: 8 world, to be present with you: The deliverance, by him, is a deliverance from sin, that you may be made righteous by faith in him, and that speaks thus: “The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart;” that is, the word of faith, or the doctrineLocke1824: 9 of the gospel, which we preach, viz. If thou Edition: current; Page: [383] shalt confess with “thy mouth*,” i. e. openly own Jesus the Lord, i. e. Jesus to be the Messiah, thy Lord, and shalt believe in thy heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, otherwise he cannot be believed to be the Messiah; thou shalt be saved.Locke1824: 10 It was not for nothing that Moses, in the place Edition: current; Page: [384] above-cited, mentioned both heart and mouth; there is use of both in the case. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with theLocke1824: 11 mouth confession* is made unto salvation. For the scripture saith, “Whosoever believe on him, shall not be ashamed:” shall not repent his having believed,Locke1824: 12 and owning it. The scripture saith, Whosoever, for in this case there is no distinction of jew and gentile. For it is he, the same who is Lord of them all, and is abundantly bountiful to all that callLocke1824: 13 upon him. For whosoever shall call upon hisLocke1824: 14 name, shall be saved. But how shall they call upon him, on whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe on him, of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear, without aLocke1824: 15 preacher? And how shall they preach, except Edition: current; Page: [385] they be sent*? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things?”Locke1824: 16 But, though there be messengers sent from God, to preach the gospel; yet it is not to be expected, that all should receive and obey it. For Isaiah hath foretold that they should not, saying, “Lord, whoLocke1824: 17 hath believed our report?” That which we may learn from thence is, that faith cometh by hearing, and hearing from the word of God, i. e. the revelation of the gospel, in the writings of the sacred scriptures, communicated by those, whom God sends as preachers thereof, to those who are ignorant of it; and there is no need, that Christ should be brought down from heaven, to be personally with Edition: current; Page: [386] Locke1824: 18 you, to be your Saviour. It is enough, that both jews and gentiles have heard of him, by messengers, whose voice is gone out into the whole earth, and words unto the ends of the world, far beyond theLocke1824: 19 bounds of Judea. But I ask, Did not Israel know* this, that the gentiles were to be taken in, and made the people of God? First Moses tells it them, from God, who says, “I will provoke you to jealousy, by them who are no people; and by aLocke1824: 20 foolish nation I will anger you.” But Isaiah declares it yet much plainer, in these words: “I was found of them that sought me not; I was madeLocke1824: 21 manifest to them that asked not after me.” And to Israel, to show their refusal, he saith: “All day long have I stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.”

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SECT. IX.

CHAP. XI. 1—36.

CONTENTS.

The apostle, in this chapter, goes on to show the future state of the jews and gentiles, in respect of christianity; viz. that, though the nation of the jews were, for their unbelief, rejected, and the gentiles taken, in their room, to be the people of God; yet there were a few of the jews, that believed in Christ, and so a small remnant of them continued to be God’s people, being incorporated, with the converted gentiles, into the christian church. But they shall, the whole nation of them, when the fulness of the gentiles is come in, be converted to the gospel, and again be restored to be the people of God.

The apostle takes occasion also, from God’s having rejected the jews, to warn the gentile converts, that they take heed: since, if God cast off his ancient people, the jews, for their unbelief, the gentiles could not expect to be preserved, if they apostatized from the faith, and kept not firm in their obedience to the gospel.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.

Locke1824: 2God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew. Wot Edition: current; Page: [388] ye not what the scripture saith, of Elias? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,

Locke1824: 3Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life.

Locke1824: 4But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal.

Locke1824: 5Even so, then, at this present time also, there is a remnant, according to the election of grace.

Locke1824: 6And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is Edition: current; Page: [389] no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.

Locke1824: 7What then? Israel hath not obtained that, which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded:

Locke1824: 8According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, unto this day.

Locke1824: 9And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling-block, and a recompence unto them:

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Locke1824: 10Let their eyes be darkened that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.

Locke1824: 11I say then, have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the gentiles for to provoke them to jealousy.

Locke1824: 12Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the gentiles: how much more their fulness?

Locke1824: 13For I speak to you gentiles, in as much as I am the apostle of the gentiles, I magnify mine office:

Locke1824: 14If, by any means, I may provoke to emulation them, which are my flesh, and might save some of them.

Locke1824: 15For, if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?

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Locke1824: 16For if the first fruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.

Locke1824: 17And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive-tree, were graffed in amongst them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive-tree;

Locke1824: 18Boast not against the branches: but if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

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Locke1824: 19Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in.

Locke1824: 20Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not high-minded, but fear.

Locke1824: 21For, if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee.

Locke1824: 22Behold, therefore, the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but towards thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.

Locke1824: 23And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.

Locke1824: 24For, if thou wert cut out of the olive-tree, which is wild by nature, Edition: current; Page: [393] and wert graffed, contrary to nature, into a good olive-tree; how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive-tree?

Locke1824: 25For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, (lest ye should be wise in your own conceits) that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the gentiles be come in.

Locke1824: 26And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.

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Locke1824: 27For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.

Locke1824: 28As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes.

Locke1824: 29For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.

Locke1824: 30For as ye, in times past, have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy, through their unbelief:

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Locke1824: 31Even so have these also now not believed, that, through your mercy, they also may obtain mercy.

Locke1824: 32For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.

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Locke1824: 33O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!

Locke1824: 34For who hath known the mind of the Lord, or who hath been his counsellor?

Locke1824: 35Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?

Locke1824: 36For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1I say then, “Has *God wholly cast away his people, the jews, from being his people?” By no means, for I myself am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham,Locke1824: 2 of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not utterly cast off his people, whom he formerly owned, with so Edition: current; Page: [388] peculiar a respect. Know ye not what the scripture saith, concerning Elijah? How he complained toLocke1824: 3 the God of Israel, in these words: “Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and have digged down thine altars, and of all that worshipped thee, ILocke1824: 4 alone am left, and they seek my life also.” But what saith the answer of God to him? “I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal*,” i.e. have not beenLocke1824: 5 guilty of idolatry. Even so at this time also, there is a remnant reserved and segregated, by the favourLocke1824: 6 and free choice of God. Which reservation of a remnant, if it be by grace and favour, it is not of works, for then grace would not be grace. But if Edition: current; Page: [389] it were of works, then is it not grace. For then work would not be work, i. e. work gives a right, grace bestows the favour, where there is no right to it; so that what is conferred by the one, cannot be ascribedLocke1824: 7 to the other. How is it then? Even thus, Israel, or the nation of the jews, obtained not what it seeks*, but the election, or that part, which was to remain God’s elect, chosen people, obtained it, butLocke1824: 8 the rest of them were blinded: According as it is written§, “God hath given them the spirit of slumber; eyes that they should not see, and ears thatLocke1824: 9 they should not hear, unto this day.” And David saith, “Let their table be made a snare and a trap, Edition: current; Page: [390] and a stumbling-block, and a recompence untoLocke1824: 10 them: Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.”Locke1824: 11 What then do I say, that they have so stumbled, as to be fallen past recovery? By no means: but this I say, that by their fall, by their rejection for refusing the* gospel, the privilege of becoming the people of God, by receiving the doctrine of salvation, is come to the gentiles, to provoke the jews toLocke1824: 12 jealousy. Now, if the fall of the jews hath been to the enriching of the rest of the world, and their damage an advantage to the gentiles, by letting them into the church, how much more shall their completion be so, when their whole nation shallLocke1824: 13 be restored? This I say to you gentiles, forasmuch as being apostle of the gentiles, I magnifyLocke1824: 14 mine office: If, by any means, I may provoke to emulation the jews, who are my own flesh and blood, and bring some of them into the way ofLocke1824: 15 salvation. For, if the casting them off be a means of reconciling the world, what shall their Edition: current; Page: [391] restoration be, when they are taken again into favour, but as it were life from the dead, which is toLocke1824: 16 all mankind of all nations? For if the first fruits* be holy and accepted, the whole product of the year is holy, and will be accepted. And if Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, from whom the jewish nation had their original, were holy, the branches also, thatLocke1824: 17 sprang from this root, are holy. If then some of the natural branches were broken off: if some of the natural jews, of the stock of Israel, were broken off and rejected, and thou a heathen, of the wild gentile race, wert taken in, and ingrafted into the church of God, in their room; and there partakest of the blessings,Locke1824: 18 promised to Abraham and his seed; Be not so conceited of thyself, as to show any disrespect to the jews. If any such vanity possesses thee, remember that the privilege thou hast, in being a christian, is derived to thee from the promise made to Abraham, and his seed, but nothing accrues to Abraham, or his Edition: current; Page: [392] Locke1824: 19 race, by any thing derived from thee. Thou wilt perhaps say, “The jews were rejected to make wayLocke1824: 20 for me.” Well, let it be so; but remember that it was because of unbelief, that they were broken off, and that it is by faith alone, that thou hast obtained, and must keep thy present station. This ought to be a warning to thee, not to have any haughty conceitLocke1824: 21 of thyself, but with modesty to fear. For if God spared not the seed of Abraham, but cast off even the children of Israel, for their unbelief he will certainly not spare thee, if thou art guilty of the likeLocke1824: 22 miscarriage. Mind, therefore, the benignity and rigour of God; rigour to them that stumbled at the gospel and fell, but benignity to thee, if thou continue within the sphere of his benignity, i. e. in the faith, by which thou partakest of the privilege of being one of his people; otherwise even thou alsoLocke1824: 23 shalt be cut off. And the jews also, if they continue not in unbelief, shall be again grafted into the stock of Abraham, and be re-established the people of God. For, however they are now scattered, and under subjection to strangers, God is able to collect them again into one body, make them his people, and set themLocke1824: 24 in a flourishing condition, in their own land*. For Edition: current; Page: [393] if you, who are heathens by birth, and not of the promised seed, were, when you had neither claim, nor inclination to it, brought into the church, and made the people of God; how much more shall those, who are the posterity and descendants of him to whom the promise was made, be restored to the state,Locke1824: 25 which the promise vested in that family? For to prevent your being conceited of yourselves, my brethren, let me make known to you, which has yet been undiscovered to the world, viz. That the blindness, which has fallen upon part of Israel, shall remain upon them, but till the time be come, wherein the whole* gentile world shall enter into the church,Locke1824: 26 and make profession of christianity. And so all Israel shall be converted to the christian faith, and the whole nation become the people of God: as it is written, “There shall come out of Sion the deliverer, Edition: current; Page: [394] and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.Locke1824: 27 For this is my covenant to them, when ILocke1824: 28 shall take away* their sins.” They are, indeed, at present, strangers to the gospel, and so are in the state of enemies; but this is for your sakes: their fall and loss is your enriching, you having obtained admittance, through their being cast out: but yet they, being within the election, that God made, of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their posterity, to be his people, are still his beloved people, for Abraham, Isaac, andLocke1824: 29 Jacob’s sake, from whom they are descended. For the favours, that God showed those their fathers, in calling them and their posterity to be his people, he doth not repent of; but his promise, that theyLocke1824: 30 shall be his people, shall stand good. For as you, the gentiles, formerly stood out, and were not the people of God, but yet have now obtained mercy, Edition: current; Page: [395] so as to be taken in, through the standing out of theLocke1824: 31 jews, who submit not to the gospel*: Even so they, now, have stood out, by reason of your being in mercy admitted, that they also, through the mercy you have received, may again hereafter be admitted.Locke1824: 32 For God hath put up together, in a state of revolt from their allegiance to him, as it were in one fold, Edition: current; Page: [396] all men, both jews and gentiles, that, through his mercy, they might all, both jews and gentiles, come to be his people, i. e. he hath suffered both jews and gentiles, in their turns, not to be his people, that he might bring the whole body both of jews and gentiles,Locke1824: 33 to be his people. O the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God*! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways not to beLocke1824: 34 traced! For who hath known the mind of the Lord;Locke1824: 35 or who hath sat in counsel with him? Or who hath been before-hand with him, in bestowing any thing upon him, that God may repay it to him again?Locke1824: 36 The thought of any such thing is absurd. For from him all things have their being and original; Edition: current; Page: [397] by him they are all ordered and disposed of, and, for him and his glory, they are all made and regulated, to whom be glory for ever. Amen.

SECT. X.

CHAP. XII. 1—21.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul, in the end of the foregoing chapter, with a very solemn epiphonema, closes that admirable, evangelical discourse, to the church at Rome, which had taken up the eleven foregoing chapters. It was addressed to the two sorts of converts, viz. gentiles and jews, into which, as into two distinct bodies, he all along, through this epistle, divides all mankind, and considers them, as so divided, into two separate corporations.

1. As to the gentiles, he endeavours to satisfy them, that though they, for their apostacy from God to idolatry, and the worship of false gods, had been abandoned by God, and lived in sin and blindness, without God in the world, strangers from the knowledge and acknowledgment of him; yet that the mercy of God, through Jesus Christ, was extended to them, whereby there was a way now open to them, to become the people of God. For since no man could be saved, by his own righteousness, no not the jews themselves, by the deeds of the law; the only way to salvation, both for jews and gentiles, was by faith in Jesus Christ. Nor had the jews any other way, now, to continue themselves the people of God, than by receiving the gospel; which way was opened also to the gentiles, and they as freely admitted into the kingdom of God, now erected under Jesus Christ, as the jews, and upon the sole terms of believing. So that there was no need at all for the gentiles to be circumcised, to become jews, that they might be partakers of the benefits of the gospel.

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2. As to the jews, the apostle’s other great aim, in the foregoing discourse, is to remove the offence the jews took at the gospel, because the gentiles were received into the church, as the people of God, and were allowed to be subjects of the kingdom of the Messiah. To bring them to a better temper, he shows them, from the sacred scripture, that they could not be saved by the deeds of the law, and therefore the doctrine of righteousness, by faith, ought not to be so strange a thing to them. And, as to their being, for their unbelief, rejected from being the people of God, and the gentiles taken in their room, he shows plainly, that this was foretold them in the Old Testament; and that herein God did them no injustice. He was sovereign over all mankind, and might choose whom he would, to be his people, with the same freedom that he chose the posterity of Abraham, among all the nations of the earth, and of that race chose the descendants of Jacob, before those of his elder brother Esau, and that, before they had a being, or were capable of doing good or evil. In all which discourse of his it is plain, the election spoken of has for its object only nations, or collective bodies politic, in this world, and not particular persons, in reference to their eternal state in the world to come.

Having thus finished the principal design of his writing, he here, in this, as is usual with him in all his epistles, concludes with practical and moral exhortations, whereof there are several in this chapter, which we shall take in their order.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1I Beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.

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Locke1824: 2And be not conformed to this world; but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God.

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Locke1824: 3For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith.

Locke1824: 4For, as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office;

Locke1824: 5So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

Locke1824: 6Having then gifts, differing according to the grace that is given to Edition: current; Page: [401] us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith.

Locke1824: 7Or ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teacheth, on teaching;

Locke1824: 8Or he that exhorteth, on exhortation: he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity: he that ruleth, with diligence; he that showeth mercy, with chearfulness.

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Locke1824: 9Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil, cleave to that which is good.

Locke1824: 10Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love; in honour preferring one another.

Locke1824: 11Not slothful in business: fervent in spirit; serving the Lord.

Locke1824: 12Rejoicing in hope: patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer:

Locke1824: 13Distributing to the necessity of saints; given to hospitality.

Locke1824: 14Bless them which persecute you: bless and curse not.

Locke1824: 15Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep.

Locke1824: 16Be of the same mind one towards another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own conceits.

Locke1824: 17Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men.

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Locke1824: 18If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.

Locke1824: 19Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath; for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Locke1824: 20Therefore, if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink, for, in so doing, thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.

Locke1824: 21Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1It being so then, that you are become the people of God, in the room of the jews, do not ye fail to offer him that sacrifice, that it is reasonable for you to do, I mean your bodies*, not to be slain, but the lusts Edition: current; Page: [399] thereof being mortified, and the body cleansed from the spots and blemishes of sin, will be an acceptable offering to him, and such a way of worship, as becomes a rational creature, which therefore I beseech you, by the mercies of God to you, who has made you hisLocke1824: 2 people to present to him. And be not conformed to the fashion of this world*: but be ye transformed, in the renewing of your minds; that you may, upon examination, find out what is the good, the acceptable and perfect will of God, which now, under the gospel, has shown itself to be in purity and holiness of life: the ritual observances, which he once instituted, not being that, his good, acceptable, and perfect will, which he always intended, they were made only the types and preparatory way to this more perfect Edition: current; Page: [400] Locke1824: 3 state under the gospel*. For by virtue of that commission, to be the apostle of the gentiles, which, by the favour of God, is bestowed on me, I bid every one of you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to have sober and modest thoughts of himself, according to that measure of spiritual gifts, which God has bestowed upon him.Locke1824: 4 For, as there are many members in one and the same body, but all the members are not appointed to theLocke1824: 5 same work; So we, who are many, make all but one body in Christ, and are all fellow members oneLocke1824: 6 of another. But having, according to the respective favour that is bestowed upon us, every one of us different gifts; whether it be prophecy§, let us prophesy, according to the proportion of faith; or gift of interpretation, which is given us, Edition: current; Page: [401] i. e. as far forth as we are enabled by revelation and an extraordinary illumination to understand and expoundLocke1824: 7 it, and no farther: Or, if it be ministry, let us wait on our ministering; he that is a teacher, let himLocke1824: 8 take care to teach. He, whose gift is exhortation, let him be diligent in exhorting: he that giveth, let him do it liberally, and without the mixture of any Edition: current; Page: [402] self-interest: he that presideth*, let him do it with diligence: he that showeth mercy, let him doLocke1824: 9 it with chearfulness. Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil, stick to thatLocke1824: 10 which is good. Be kindly affectioned one towards another, with brotherly love: in honour preferringLocke1824: 11 one another. Not slothful in business; but active and vigorous in mind, directing all the service ofLocke1824: 12 Christ and the gospel, Rejoicing in the hope you have of heaven and happiness; patient in tribulation;Locke1824: 13 frequent and instant in prayer: Forward to help christians in want, according to their necessities;Locke1824: 14 given to hospitality. Bless them who persecuteLocke1824: 15 you: bless and curse not. Rejoice with themLocke1824: 16 that rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Be of the same mind one towards another. Do not mind only high things; but suit yourselves to the mean condition and low concerns of persons beneath you.Locke1824: 17 Be not wise in your own conceits. Render to no man evil for evil; but take care that your carriage Edition: current; Page: [403] Locke1824: 18 be such as may be approved by all men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably withLocke1824: 19 all men. Dearly beloved, do not avenge yourselves, but rather leave that to God. For it is written, “Vengeance is mine, and I will repay it, saith theLocke1824: 20 Lord.” Therefore, if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink; if this prevail on him, thou subduest an enemy, and gainest a friend; if he persists still in his enmity, in so doing, thou heapest coals of fire on his head, i. e. exposest himLocke1824: 21 to the wrath of God, who will be thy avenger. Be not overcome and prevailed on, by the evil thou receivest, to retaliate; but endeavour to master the malice of an enemy in injuring thee, by a return of kindness and good offices to him.

SECT. XI.

CHAP. XIII. 1—7.

CONTENTS.

This section contains the duty of christians to the civil magistrate: for the understanding this right, we must consider these two things:

1. That these rules are given to christians, that were members of a heathen commonwealth, to show them that, by being made christians and subjects of Christ’s kingdom, Edition: current; Page: [404] they were not, by the freedom of the gospel, exempt from any ties of duty, or subjection, which by the laws of their country, they were in, and ought to observe, to the government and magistrates of it, though heathens, any more than any of their heathen subjects. But, on the other side, these rules did not tie them up, any more than any of their fellow-citizens, who were not christians, from any of those due rights, which, by the law of nature, or the constitutions of their country, belonged to them. Whatsoever any other of their fellow-subjects, being in a like station with them, might do without sinning, that they were not abridged of, but might do still, being christians. The rule here being the same with that given by St. Paul, 1 Cor. vii. 17, “As God has called every one, so let him walk.” The rules of civil right and wrong, that he is to walk by, are to him the same they were before.

2. That St. Paul, in this direction to the romans, does not so much describe the magistrates that then were in Rome, as tells whence they, and all magistrates, everywhere, have their authority; and for what end they have it, and should use it. And this he does, as becomes his prudence, to avoid bringing any imputation on christians, from heathen magistrates, especially those insolent and vicious ones of Rome, who could not brook any thing to be told them as their duty, and so might be apt to interpret such plain truths, laid down in a dogmatical way, into sauciness, sedition, or treason, a scandal cautiously to be kept off from the christian doctrine! nor does he, in what he says, in the least flatter the roman emperor, let it be either Claudius, as some think, or Nero, as others, who then was in possession of that empire. For he here speaks of the higher powers, i. e. the supreme, civil power, which is, in every commonwealth, derived from God, and is of the same extent everywhere, i. e. is absolute and unlimited by any thing, but the end for which God gave it, viz. the good of the people, sincerely pursued, according to the best of the skill of those who share that power, and so not to be resisted. But, how men come by a rightful title to this power, or who has that title, he is wholly silent, and says nothing of it. To Edition: current; Page: [405] have meddled with that, would have been to decide of civil rights, contrary to the design and business of the gospel, and the example of our Saviour, who refused meddling in such cases with this decisive question, “Who made me a judge, or divider, over you?” Luke xii. 14.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power, but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.

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Locke1824: 2Whosoever, therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist, shall receive to themselves damnation.

Locke1824: 3For rulers are not a terrour to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same.

Locke1824: 4For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid: for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doth evil.

Locke1824: 5Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.

Locke1824: 6For, for this cause, pay you tribute also; for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.

Locke1824: 7Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is Edition: current; Page: [407] due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Let every one of you, none excepted*, be subject to the over-ruling powers of the government he lives in. Edition: current; Page: [406] Locke1824: 2 There is no power but what is from God: The powers that are in being, are ordained by God: so that he, who resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist, will be punished by thoseLocke1824: 3 powers that they resist. What should you be afraid of? Rulers are no terrour to those that do well, but to those that do ill. Wilt thou then not live in dread of the civil power? Do that which is good and right, and then praise only is thy due from the magistrate.Locke1824: 4 For he is the officer and minister of God, appointed only for thy good. But, if thou doest amiss, then thou hast reason to be afraid. For he bears not the sword in vain. For he is the minister of God, and executioner of wrath and punishment upon him thatLocke1824: 5 doth ill. This being the end of government, and the business of the magistrate, to cherish the good, and punish ill men, it is necessary for you to submit to government, not only in apprehension of the punishment, which disobedience will draw on you, but out of conscience, as a duty required of you by God.Locke1824: 6 This is the reason why also you pay tribute, which is due to the magistrates, because they employ their care, time and pains, for the publick weal, in punishing and restraining the wicked and vicious; and in countenancing and supporting the virtuousLocke1824: 7 and good. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute Edition: current; Page: [407] to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, and honour to whom honour.

SECT. XII.

CHAP. XIII. 8—14.

CONTENTS.

He exhorts them to love, which is, in effect, the fulfilling of the whole law.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 8Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he, that loveth another, hath fulfilled the law.

Locke1824: 9For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness, thou shalt not covet; and, if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Locke1824: 10Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law.

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Locke1824: 11And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep; for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed.

Locke1824: 12The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us, therefore, cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.

Locke1824: 13Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.

Locke1824: 14But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 8Owe nothing to any body, but affection and good will, mutually to one another: for he, that loves others sincerely, as he does himself, has fulfilled the law.Locke1824: 9 For this precept, Thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness, thou shalt not covet; and whatever other command there be, concerning social duties, it in short is comprehended in this, “ThouLocke1824: 10 shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” Love permits us to do no harm to our neighbour, and therefore is the fulfilling of the whole law of the second Edition: current; Page: [408] Locke1824: 11 table. And all this do, considering that it is now high time that we rouse ourselves up, shake off sleep, and betake ourselves, with vigilancy and vigour, to the duties of a christian life. For the time of your removal, out of this place of exercise and probationership, is nearer than when you first enteredLocke1824: 12 into the profession of christianity*. The night, the dark state of this world, wherein the good and the bad can scarce be distinguished, is far spent. The day, that will show every one in his own dress and colours, is at hand. Let us, therefore, put away the works, that we should be ashamed of, but in the dark; and let us put on the dress and ornaments, that we should be willing to appear in, in the light.Locke1824: 13 Let our behaviour be decent, and our carriage such, as fears not the light, nor the eyes of men; not in disorderly feastings and drunkenness; nor in dalliance and wantonness: nor in strife and envy§.Locke1824: 14 But walk in newness of life, in obedience to the precepts of the gospel, as becomes those who are baptized Edition: current; Page: [409] into the faith of Christ, and let not the great employment of your thoughts and cares be wholly in making provision for the body, that you may have wherewithal to satisfy your carnal lusts.

SECT. XIII.

CHAP. XIV. 1.—XV. 13.

CONTENTS.

St. Paul instructs both the strong and the weak in their mutual duties one to another, in respect of things indifferent, teaching them, that the strong should not use their liberty, where it might offend a weak brother: nor the weak censure the strong, for using their liberty.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Him that is weak in the faith receive you, but not to doubtful disputations.

Locke1824: 2For one believeth that he may eat all things: another, who is weak, eateth herbs.

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Locke1824: 3Let not him, that eateth, despise him that eateth not: and let not him, which eateth not, judge him that eateth: for God hath received him.

Locke1824: 4Who art thou, that judgest another man’s servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth: yea, he shall be holden up; for God is able to make him stand.

Locke1824: 5One man esteemeth one day above another: another esteemeth every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind.

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Locke1824: 6He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.

Locke1824: 7For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself.

Locke1824: 8For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live, therefore, or die, we are the Lord’s.

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Locke1824: 9For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.

Locke1824: 10But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

Locke1824: 11For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

Locke1824: 12So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.

Locke1824: 13Let us not, therefore, judge one another any more: but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling-block, or an occasion to fall, in his brother’s way.

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Locke1824: 14I know, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

Locke1824: 15But if thy brother be grieved with thy meat, now walkest thou not charitably. Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ did.

Locke1824: 16Let not then your good be evil spoken of.

Locke1824: 17For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

Locke1824: 18For he that in these things serveth Christ, is acceptable to God, and approved of men.

Locke1824: 19Let us, therefore, follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify another.

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Locke1824: 20For meat destroy not the work of God. All things indeed are pure; but it is evil for that man who eateth with offence.

Locke1824: 21It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak.

Locke1824: 22Hast thou faith? have it to thyself before God. Happy is he that condemneth not himself, in that thing which he alloweth.

Locke1824: 23And he that doubteth, is damned if he eat, because he eateth not of faith: for whatsoever is not of faith, is sin.

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Locke1824: XV. 1.We then that are strong, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.

Locke1824: 2Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.

Locke1824: 3For even Christ pleased not himself; but as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee, fell on me.

Locke1824: 4For whatsoever things were written, aforetime, were written for our learning, that we, through patience and comfort of the scriptures, might have hope.

Locke1824: 5Now the God of patience and consolation, grant you to be likeminded one towards another, according to Christ Jesus:

Locke1824: 6That ye may, with one mind and one mouth, glorify God, even the father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Locke1824: 7Wherefore, receive ye one another, as Christ also received us, to the glory of God.

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Locke1824: 8Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers:

Locke1824: 9And that the gentiles might glorify God, for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will confess to thee among the gentiles, and sing unto thy name.

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Locke1824: 10And again he saith, Rejoice, ye gentiles, with his people.

Locke1824: 11And again, Praise the Lord, all ye gentiles, and laud him, all ye people.

Locke1824: 12And again Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the gentiles, in him shall the gentiles trust.

Locke1824: 13Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Him, that is weak in the faith, i. e. not fully persuaded of his christian liberty, in the use of some indifferent thing, receive you into your friendship and conversation*, without any coldness, or distinction, but do not engage him in disputes and controversiesLocke1824: 2 about it. For such variety is there in men’s persuasions, about their christian liberty, that one believeth Edition: current; Page: [410] that he may, without restraint, eat all things; another is so scrupulous, that he eateth nothing butLocke1824: 3 herbs. Let not him, that is persuaded of his liberty, and eateth, despise him that, through scruple, eateth not: and let not him, that is more doubtful, and eateth not, judge, or censure, him that eateth, for God hath received* him into his church and family:Locke1824: 4 And who art thou, that takest upon thee to judge the domestic of another, whether he be of his family, or no? It is his own master alone, who is to judge, whether he be, or shall continue, his domestic, or no: what hast thou to do, to meddle in the case? But trouble not thyself, he shall stand and stay in the family. For God is able to confirm and establish himLocke1824: 5 there. One man judgeth one day to be set apart Edition: current; Page: [411] to God, more than another: another man judgeth every day to be God’s alike. Let every one take care to be satisfied in his own mind, touching theLocke1824: 6 matter. But let him not censure* another in what he doth. He that observeth a day, observeth it as the Lord’s servant, in obedience to him: and he that observeth it not, passes by that observance, as the Lord’s servant, in obedience also to the Lord. He that eateth what another out of scruple forbears, eateth it as the Lord’s servant: for he giveth God thanks. And he that, out of scruple, forbeareth to eat, does it also as the Lord’s servant: for he giveth God thanks, even for that which he doth,Locke1824: 7 and thinks he may not eat. For no one of us christians liveth, as if he were his own man, perfectly at his own disposal: and no one of us diesLocke1824: 8 so. For, whether we live, our life is appropriated to the Lord: or, whether we die, to him we die, as his servants. For whether we live, or die, we are his, in his family, his domestics, appropriated to him. Edition: current; Page: [412] Locke1824: 9 For to this end Christ died, and rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord and proprietor of us*, bothLocke1824: 10 dead and living. What hast thou then to do, to judge thy brother, who is none of thy servant, but thy equal? Or how darest thou to think contemptibly of him? For we shall, thou, and he, and all of us, be brought before the judgment-seat of Christ, and there we shall answer, every one for himself, toLocke1824: 11 our Lord and master. For it is written, “As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, andLocke1824: 12 every tongue shall confess to God.” So then every one of us shall give an account of himself toLocke1824: 13 God. Let us not, therefore, take upon us to judge one another; but rather come to this judgment, or determination of mind, that no man put a tsumbling-block, or an occasion of falling, in his brother’s Edition: current; Page: [413] Locke1824: 14 way. I know and am fully assured by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean or unlawful to be eaten, of itself. But to him, that accounts anyLocke1824: 15 thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean. But if thy brother be grieved* with thy meat, thy carriage is uncharitable to him. Destroy not him with thyLocke1824: 16 meat, for whom Christ died. Let not then your liberty, which is a good you enjoy, under the gospel,Locke1824: 17 be evil spoken of. For the privileges and advantages of the kingdom of God do not consist in the enjoyment of greater variety of meats and drinks, but in uprightness of life, peace of all kinds, and joy in the gifts and benefits of the Holy Ghost,Locke1824: 18 under the gospel. For he that, in these things, pays his allegiance and service to Jesus Christ, as a dutiful subject of his kingdom, is acceptable to God,Locke1824: 19 and approved of men. The things, therefore, that we set our hearts upon, to pursue and promote, let them be such as tend to peace and good-will, and Edition: current; Page: [414] Locke1824: 20 the mutual edification of one another. Do not, for a little meat, destroy a man, that is the work* of God, and no ordinary piece of workmanship. It is true, all sort of wholesome food is pure, and defileth not a man’s conscience; but yet it is evil to him, whoLocke1824: 21 eateth any thing so as to offend his brother. It is better to forbear flesh, and wine, and any thing, rather than in the use of thy liberty, in any indifferent things, to do that, whereby thy brotherLocke1824: 22 stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak. Thou art fully persuaded of the lawfulness of eating the meat which thou eatest: it is well. Happy is he, that is not self-condemned, in the thing that he practises. But have a care to keep this faith or persuasion, to thyself; let it be between God and thy own conscience: raise no dispute about it; neither makeLocke1824: 23 ostentation of it, by thy practice before others. But he that is in doubt, and balanceth§, is self-condemned, if he eat; because he doth it, without a full persuasion of the lawfulness of it. For whatever a man doth, which he is not fully persuaded in his own Edition: current; Page: [415] Locke1824: XV. 1. mind to be lawful, is sin. We, then, that are strong, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to indulge our own appetites, or inclinations, in such an use of indifferent things, as may offend theLocke1824: 2 weak. But let every one of us please his neighbour, comply with his infirmities for his good, and to edification.Locke1824: 3 For even Christ, our Lord, pleased not himself: but as it is written, “The reproaches of themLocke1824: 4 that reproached thee, are fallen upon me.” For whatsoever was heretofore written, i. e. in the Old Testament, was written for our learning, that we through patience, and the comfort which the scriptures giveLocke1824: 5 us, might have hope. Now God, who is the giver of patience and consolation, make you to be at unity one with another, according to the will of Christ Jesus;Locke1824: 6 That you may, with one mind and one mouth, glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.Locke1824: 7 Wherefore, admit and receive one another* into fellowship Edition: current; Page: [416] and familiarity, without shyness, or distance, upon occasion of differences about things indifferent,Locke1824: 8 even as Christ received us jews to glorify* God, (For I must tell you, ye converted romans, that Christ was sent to the jews, and employed all his ministry on those of the circumcision) for his truth, in making good his promise made to the fathers, i. e. Abraham,Locke1824: 9 Isaac, and Jacob; And received you, the gentiles, Edition: current; Page: [417] to glorify God for his mercy to you, as it is written, “For this cause I will confess to thee among the gentiles, and sing unto thy name.”Locke1824: 10 And again, he saith, “Rejoice, ye gentiles, withLocke1824: 11 his people.” And again, “Praise the Lord, all yeLocke1824: 12 gentiles, and laud him, all ye nations.” And again, Isaiah saith, “There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the gentiles,Locke1824: 13 in him shall the gentiles trust*.” Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.

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SECT. XIV.

CHAP. XV. 14—33.

CONTENTS.

In the remaining part of this chapter, St. Paul makes a very kind and skilful apology to them, for this epistle: expresses an earnest desire of coming to them: touches upon the reasons, that hitherto had hindered him: desires their prayers for his deliverance from the jews, in his journey to Jerusalem, whither he was going; and promises that, from thence, he will make them a visit in his way to Spain.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 14And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.

Locke1824: 15Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you, in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace, that is given to me of God.

Locke1824: 16That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost.

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Locke1824: 17I have therefore whereof I may glory, through Jesus Christ, in those things which pertain unto God.

Locke1824: 18For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the gentiles obedient, by word and deed.

Locke1824: 19Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.

Locke1824: 20Yea, so have I strived to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man’s foundation.

Locke1824: 21But as it is written, To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see: and they that have not heard, shall understand.

Locke1824: 22For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you.

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Locke1824: 23But now, having no more place in these parts, and having a great desire, these many years, to come unto you,

Locke1824: 24Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you: for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way thither-ward by you, if first I be somewhat filled with your company.

Locke1824: 25But now I go unto Jerusalem, to minister unto the saints.

Locke1824: 26For it hath pleased them of Macedonia, and Achaia, to make a certain contribution for the poor saints, which are at Jerusalem.

Locke1824: 27It hath pleased them verily, and their debtors they are. For, if the gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things.

Locke1824: 28When, therefore, I have performed this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will come, by you, into Spain.

Locke1824: 29And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fulness of the gospel of Christ.

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Locke1824: 30Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ’s sake, and for the love of the spirit, that ye strive, together with me, in your prayers to God for me.

Locke1824: 31That I may be delivered from them that do not believe, in Judea; and that my service, which I have for Jerusalem, may be accepted of the saints;

Locke1824: 32That I may come unto you with joy, by the will of God, and may with you be refreshed.

Locke1824: 33Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 14As to my own thoughts concerning you, my brethren, I am persuaded that you also, as well as others, are full of goodness, abounding in all knowledge, andLocke1824: 15 able to instruct one another. Nevertheless, brethren, I have written to you, in some things, pretty freely, as your remembrancer, which I have been emboldened to do, by the commission, which God has beenLocke1824: 16 graciously pleased to bestow on me, Whom he hath made to be the minister of Jesus Christ to the gentiles, in the gospel of God, in which holy ministration I officiate, that the gentiles may be made an acceptable offering* to God, sanctified by the pouring Edition: current; Page: [419] Locke1824: 17 out of the Holy Ghost upon them. I have, therefore, matter of glorying, through Jesus Christ,Locke1824: 18 as to those things that pertain* to God. For I shall not venture to trouble you with any concerning myself, but only what Christ hath wrought by me, for the bringing of the gentiles to christianity, bothLocke1824: 19 in profession and practice. Through mighty signs and wonders by the power of the Holy Ghost, so that, from Jerusalem and the neighbouring countries, all along, quite to Illyricum, I have effectuallyLocke1824: 20 preached the gospel of Christ; But so as studiously to avoid the carrying of it to those places, where it was already planted, and where the people were already christians, lest I should build upon anotherLocke1824: 21 man’s foundation. But as it is written, “To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see: and they,Locke1824: 22 that have not heard, shall understand.” This has Edition: current; Page: [420] Locke1824: 23 often hindered me from coming to you: But now, having in these parts no place, where Christ hath not been heard of, to preach the gospel in; and having had, for these many years, a desire to come toLocke1824: 24 you; I will, when I take my journey to Spain, take you in my way: for I hope, then, to see you, and to be brought on my way thither-ward by you, when I have, for some time, enjoyed your company, and pretty well satisfied my longing, on that account.Locke1824: 25 But, at present, I am setting out for Jerusalem,Locke1824: 26 going to minister to the saints there. For it hath pleased those of Macedonia and Achaia to make a contribution for the poor, among the saints at Jerusalem.Locke1824: 27 It hath pleased them to do so, and they are, indeed, their debtors. For, if the gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they are bound, on their side, to minister to them, for theLocke1824: 28 support of this temporal life. When, therefore, I have dispatched this business, and put this fruit of my labours into their hands, I will come to you inLocke1824: 29 my way to Spain. And I know that, when I come unto you, I shall bring with me to your full satisfaction, concerning the blessedness, which you receive Edition: current; Page: [421] Locke1824: 30 by the gospel* of Christ. Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love which comes from the spirit of God, to joinLocke1824: 31 with me in earnest prayers to God for me, That I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea; and that the service I am doing the saints there,Locke1824: 32 may be acceptable to them: That, if it be the will of God, I may come to you with joy, and may beLocke1824: 33 refreshed together with you. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.

SECT. XV.

CHAP. XVI. 1—27.

CONTENTS.

The foregoing epistle furnishes us with reasons to conclude, that the divisions and offences, that were in the roman church, were between the jewish and gentile converts, whilst the one, over-zealous for the rituals of the law, endeavoured to impose circumcision and other mosaical rites, as necessary to be observed, by all that professed christianity; and the other, without due regard Edition: current; Page: [422] to the weakness of the jews, showed a too open neglect of those their observances, which were of so great account with them. St. Paul was so sensible, how much the churches of Christ suffered, on this occasion, and so careful to prevent this, which was a disturbance almost every where (as may be seen in the history of the Acts, and collected out of the epistles) that, after he had finished his discourse to them, (which we may observe solemnly closed, in the end of the foregoing chapter) he here, in the middle of his salutations, cannot forbear to caution them against the authors and fomenters of these divisions, and that very pathetically, ver. 17—20. All the rest of this chapter is spent, almost wholly, in salutations. Only the four last verses contain a conclusion, after St. Paul’s manner.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 1I commend unto you Phœbe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Kenchrea:

Locke1824: 2That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her, in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and myself also.

Locke1824: 3Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus:

Locke1824: 4(Who have, for my life, laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the gentiles.)

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Locke1824: 5Likewise greet the church that is in their house, Salute my well-beloved Epænetus, who is the first fruits of Achaia unto Christ.

Locke1824: 6Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us.

Locke1824: 7Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen and fellow-prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Locke1824: 8Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord.

Locke1824: 9Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved.

Locke1824: 10Salute Apelles, approved in Christ. Salute them, which are of Aristobulus’ houshold.

Locke1824: 11Salute Herodian, my kinsman. Greet them that be of the houshold of Narcissus, which are in the Lord.

Locke1824: 12Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord.

Locke1824: 13Salute Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.

Locke1824: 14Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.

Locke1824: 15Salute Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them.

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Locke1824: 16Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.

Locke1824: 17Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.

Locke1824: 18For they, that are such, serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and, by good words and fair speeches, deceive the hearts of the simple.

Locke1824: 19For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad, therefore, on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good; and simple concerning evil.

Locke1824: 20And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

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Locke1824: 21Timotheus, my work-fellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.

Locke1824: 22I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

Locke1824: 23Gaius mine host, and of the whole church saluteth you. Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, saluteth you, and Quartus, a brother.

Locke1824: 24The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

Locke1824: 25Now to him, that is of power to stablish you, according to my Edition: current; Page: [426] gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, (according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret, since the world began;

Locke1824: 26But now is made manifest, and, by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations, for the obedience of faith.)

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Locke1824: 27To God, only wise, be glory, through Jesus Christ, for ever. Amen.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1I commend to you Phœbe, our sister, who is a servantLocke1824: 2 of the church, which is at Kenchrea*, That you receive her, for Christ’s sake, as becomes christians, and that you assist her, in whatever business she has need of you, for she has assisted many, andLocke1824: 3 me in particular. Salute Priscilla and Aquila, myLocke1824: 4 fellow-labourers in the gospel, (Who have, for my life, exposed their own to danger, unto whom not Edition: current; Page: [423] only I give thanks, but also all the churches of theLocke1824: 5 gentiles.) Greet also the church that is in their house. Salute my well-beloved Epænetus, who isLocke1824: 6 the first-fruits of Achaia unto Christ. Greet Mary,Locke1824: 7 who took a great deal of pains for our sakes. Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsfolk and fellow-prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, whoLocke1824: 8 also were christians before me. Greet Amplias, myLocke1824: 9 beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbane, our helper inLocke1824: 10 Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute those who are of theLocke1824: 11 houshold of Aristobulus. Salute Herodian, my kinsman. Salute all those of the houshold of Narcissus,Locke1824: 12 who have embraced the gospel. Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who take pains in the gospel. Salute the beloved Persis, who laboured much in theLocke1824: 13 Lord. Salute Rufus, chosen, or selected to be aLocke1824: 14 disciple of the Lord; and his mother and mine. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes,Locke1824: 15 and the brethren who are with them. Salute Philologus, Edition: current; Page: [424] and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas,Locke1824: 16 and all the saints who are with them. Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.Locke1824: 17 Now I beseech you, brethren, mark those who cause divisions and offences, contrary to the doctrine, whichLocke1824: 18 you have learned, and avoid them. For they serve* not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own bellies, and by good words and fair speeches, insinuating themselves,Locke1824: 19 deceive well-meaning, simple men. Your conversion and ready compliance with the doctrine of the gospel, when it was brought to you, is known in the world, and generally talked of: I am glad, for your sakes, that you so forwardly obeyed the gospel. But give me leave to advise you to be wise and cautious in preserving yourselves steady in what is wise and good; but employ no thought, or skill, how to circumvent, or injure another: be in this regardLocke1824: 20 very plain and simple. For God, who is the giver and lover of peace, will soon rid you of these ministers of Satan§, the disturbers of your peace, Edition: current; Page: [425] who make divisions amongst you*. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

Locke1824: 21Timothy, my work-fellow, and Lucius and Jason,Locke1824: 22 and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you. I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.Locke1824: 23 Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus, the chamberlain of the city, salutethLocke1824: 24 you; and Quartus, a brother. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

Locke1824: 25Now, to him that is able to settle and establish you in an adherence to my gospel, and to that which I Edition: current; Page: [426] deliver, concerning Jesus Christ, in my preaching, conformable to the revelation of the mystery*,Locke1824: 26 which lay unexplained in the secular times; But now is laid open, and, by the writings of the prophets, Edition: current; Page: [427] made known (according to the commandment of the everlasting God) to the gentiles of all nations, for the bringing them in, to the obedience of the lawLocke1824: 27 of faith. To the only wise God be glory, through Jesus Christ, for ever. Amen.

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A PARAPHRASE AND NOTES ON THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE EPHESIANS.

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THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE EPHESIANS;
WRIT IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 63, OF NERO IX.

SYNOPSIS.

Our Saviour had, so openly and expressly, declared, to his disciples, the destruction of the temple, that they could, by no means, doubt of it; nor of this consequence of it, viz. that the ἔθη, customs or rites of the mosaical law, as they are called, Acts vi. 14, and xxi. 21, were to cease with it. And this St. Stephen, by what is laid to his charge, Acts vi. 13, 14, seems to have taught. And upon this ground it might very well be, that the apostles and church of Jerusalem required no more of the convert gentiles, than the observance of such things as were sufficient to satisfy the jews, that they were not still heathens and idolaters. But, as for the rest of the mosaical rites, they required not the convert gentiles (to whom the mosaical law was not given) to observe them. This being a very natural and obvious consequence, which they could not but see, that if by the destruction of the temple and worship of the jews, those rites were speedily to be taken away, they were not observances necessary to the people of God, and of perpetual obligation. Thus far, it is plain, the other apostles were instructed, and satisfied of the freedom of the gentile converts from complying with the ritual law. But, whether it was revealed to them, with the same clearness as it was to St. Paul, that the jews too, as well as the gentiles, who were converted to the christian faith, were discharged from their former obligation to the ritual law Edition: current; Page: [432] of Moses, and freed from those observances, may be doubted: because, as we see, they had not at all instructed their converts of the circumcision, of their being set at liberty from that yoke; which, it is very likely, they would not have forborn to have done, if they had been convinced of it themselves. For, in all that discourse concerning this question, Acts xv. 1—21, there is not one syllable said, of the jews being discharged, by faith in the Messiah, from the observance of any of the mosaical rites. Nor does it appear, that the apostles of the circumcision ever taught their disciples, or suggested to them, any such thing, which one can scarce imagine, they could have neglected, if it had been revealed to them, and so given them in charge. It is certain, their converts had never been taught any such thing. For St. James himself acquaints us, Acts xxi. 20, that the “many thousands, that believed, were all zealous of the law.” And what his own opinion of those rites, was, may be seen, ver. 24, where he calls keeping this part of the law, “walking orderly:” and he is concerned to have St. Paul thought a strict observer thereof. All which could not have been, if it had been revealed to him, as positively and expressly as it was to St. Paul, that all believers, in the Messiah, jews as well as gentiles, were absolved from the law of Moses, and were under no obligation to observe those ceremonies any longer, they being now no longer necessary to the people of God, in this his new kingdom, erected under the Messiah; nor indeed was it necessary, that this particular point should have been, from the beginning, revealed to the other apostles, who were sufficiently instructed for their mission, and the conversion of their brethren, the jews, by the Holy Ghost bringing to their minds (as was promised) all that our Saviour had said unto them, in his life-time here, amongst them, in the true sense of it. But the sending them to the jews with this message, that the law was abolished, was to cross the very design of sending them; it was to bespeak an aversion to their doctrine; and to stop the ears of the jews, and turn their hearts from them. But St. Paul, receiving his whole knowledge of the gospel, immediately from heaven, by revelation, seems to have this particular instruction Edition: current; Page: [433] added, to fit him for the mission he was chosen to, and make him an effectual messenger of the gospel, by furnishing him presently with this necessary truth, concerning the cessation of the law, the knowledge whereof could not but come in time to the other apostles, when it should be seasonable. Whether this be not so, I leave it to be considered.

This, at least, is certain, that St. Paul alone, more than all the rest of the apostles, was taken notice of to have preached, that the coming of Christ put an end to the law, and that, in the kingdom of God, erected under the Messiah, the observation of the law was neither required, nor availed aught; faith in Christ was the only condition of admittance, both for jew and gentile, all, who believed, being now equally the people of God, whether circumcised, or uncircumcised. This was that, which the jews, zealous of the law, which they took to be the irrevocable, unalterable charter of the people of God, and the standing rule of his kingdom, could by no means bear. And therefore, provoked by this report of St. Paul, the jews, both converts as well as others, looked upon him as a dangerous innovator, and an enemy to the true religion, and, as such, seized on him in the temple, Acts xxi. upon occasion whereof it was, that he was a prisoner at Rome, when he writ this epistle, where he seems to be concerned, lest now, he, that was the apostle of the gentiles, from whom alone the doctrine of their exemption from the law had its rise and support, was in bonds, upon that very account, it might give an opportunity to those judaizing professors of christianity, who contended that the gentiles, unless they were circumcised after the manner of Moses, could not be saved, to unsettle the minds, and shake the faith of those, whom he had converted. This being the controversy, from whence rose the great trouble and danger that, in the time of our apostle, disturbed the churches collected from among the gentiles. That, which chiefly disquieted the minds, and shook the faith of those, who from heathenism were converted to christianity, was this doctrine, that, except the converts from paganism were circumcised, and thereby subjected themselves to the law and the jewish rites, they Edition: current; Page: [434] could have no benefit by the gospel, as may be seen all through the Acts, and in almost all St. Paul’s epistles. Wherefore, when he heard that the ephesians stood firm in the faith, whereby he means their confidence of their title to the privileges and benefits of the gospel, without submission to the law (for the introducing the legal observances into the kingdom of the Messiah, he declared to be a subversion of the gospel, and contrary to the great and glorious design of that kingdom) he thanks God for them, and, setting forth the gracious and glorious design of God towards them, prays that they may be enlightened, so as to be able to see the mighty things done for them, and the immense advantages they receive by it. In all which he displays the glorious state of that kingdom, not in the ordinary way of argumentation and formal reasoning; which had no place in an epistle, writ as this is, all as it were in a rapture, and in a style far above the plain, didactical way; he pretends not to teach them any thing, but couches all, that he would drop into their minds, in thanksgivings and prayers, which affording a greater liberty and flight to his thoughts, he gives utterance to them, in noble and sublime expressions, suitable to the unsearchable wisdom and goodness of God, shown to the world in the work of redemption. This, though perhaps at first sight, it may render his meaning a little obscure, and his expressions the harder to be understood, yet, by the assistance of the two following epistles, which were both writ, whilst he was in the same circumstances, upon the same occasion, and to the same purpose, the sense and doctrine of the apostle here may be so clearly seen, and so perfectly comprehended, that there can hardly be a doubt left about it, to any one, who will examine them diligently and carefully compare them together. The epistle to the colossians seems to be writ the very same time, in the same run and warmth of thoughts, so that the very same expressions, yet fresh in his mind, are repeated in many places; the form, phrase, matter, and all the parts quite through, of these two epistles do so perfectly correspond, that one cannot be mistaken, in thinking one of them very fit to give light to the other. And that to the philippians, writ also by St. Paul, during his bonds at Rome, when attentively looked into, will be Edition: current; Page: [435] found to have the same aim with the other two; so that, in these three epistles taken together, one may see the great design of the gospel laid down, as far surpassing the law, both in glory, greatness, comprehension, grace, and bounty, and therefore they were opposers, not promoters of the true doctrine of the gospel, and the kingdom of God under the Messiah, who would confine it to the narrow and beggarly elements of this world, as St. Paul calls the positive ordinances of the mosaical institution. To confirm the gentile churches, whom he had converted, in this faith which he had instructed them in, and keep them from submitting to the mosaical rites, in the kingdom of Christ, by giving them a nobler and more glorious view of the gospel, is the design of this and the two following epistles. For the better understanding these epistles, it might be worth while to show their harmony all through, but this synopsis is not a place for it; the following paraphrase and notes will give an opportunity to point out several passages wherein their agreement will appear.

The latter end of this epistle, according to St. Paul’s usual method, contains practical directions and exhortations.

He that desires to inform himself in what is left upon record, in sacred scripture, concerning the church of the ephesians, which was the metropolis of Asia, strictly so called, may read the 19th and 20th of the Acts.

SECT. I.

CHAP. I. 1, 2.

CONTENTS.

These two verses contain St. Paul’s inscription, or introduction of this epistle; what there is in it remarkable for its difference, from what is to be found in his other epistles, we shall take notice of in the notes.

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TEXT.

Locke1824: 1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:

Locke1824: 2Grace be to you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the declared will and special appointment of God, to the professors of the gospel*, who are in Ephesus; converts, whoLocke1824: 2 stand firm in the faith of Christ Jesus; Favour and peace be to you from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

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SECT. II.

CHAP. I. 3—14.

CONTENTS.

In this section St. Paul thanks God for his grace and bounty to the gentiles, wherein he so sets forth both God’s gracious purpose of bringing the gentiles into his kingdom under the Messiah, and his actual bestowing on them blessings of all kinds, in Jesus Christ, for a complete re-instating them in that his heavenly kingdom, that there could be nothing stronger suggested to make the ephesians, and other gentile converts, not to think any more of the law, and that much inferiour kingdom of his, established upon the mosaical institution, and adapted to a little canton of the earth, and a small tribe of men; as now necessary to be retained under this more spiritual institution, and celestial kingdom, erected under Jesus Christ, intended to comprehend men of all nations, and extend itself to the utmost bounds of the earth, for the greater honour of God, or, as St. Paul speaks, “to the praise of the glory of God.”

TEXT.

Locke1824: 3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings, in heavenly places, in Christ:

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Locke1824: 4According as he hath chosen us in him, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and without blame before him in love:

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Locke1824: 5Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children, by Jesus Christ, to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will.

Locke1824: 6To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

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Locke1824: 7In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins according to the riches of his grace;

Locke1824: 8Wherein he hath abounded towards us in all wisdom and prudence,

Locke1824: 9Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in himself:

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Locke1824: 10That, in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one all things, in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth, even in him:

Locke1824: 11In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated Edition: current; Page: [443] according to the purpose of him, who worketh all things, after the counsel of his own will:

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Locke1824: 12That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ.

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Locke1824: 13In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise.

Locke1824: 14Which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.

PARAPHRASE.

Locke1824: 3Blessed and magnified be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has, in and by Jesus Christ*, furnished us gentiles with all sorts of blessings, that Edition: current; Page: [438] Edition: current; Page: [439] may fit us to be partakers of his heavenly kingdom,Locke1824: 4 without need of any assistance from the law, According as he chose us gentiles, upon Christ’s account alone*, before the law was, even before the foundation of the world, to be his people under Jesus the Messiah, and to live unblameable lives before him, in all love and affection§, to all the saints, or believers, Edition: current; Page: [440] Locke1824: 5 of what nation soever; Having predetermined to take us gentiles, by* Jesus Christ, to be his sons and people, according to the good pleasure of hisLocke1824: 6 will. To the end that the gentiles too might praise him for his grace and mercy to them, and all mankind magnify his glory for his abundant goodness to them, by receiving them freely into the kingdom of the Messiah, to be his people again, in a state of peace with him§, barely for the sake of him, that is his Edition: current; Page: [441] Locke1824: 7 beloved: In whom we* have redemption by his blood, viz. the forgiveness of transgressions, according to theLocke1824: 8 greatness of his grace and favour, Which he has overflowed in towards us, in bestowing on us so full a knowledge and comprehension of the extent and design of the gospel, and prudence to comply with it,Locke1824: 9 as it becomes you; In that he hath made known to you the good pleasure of his will and purpose, which was a §mystery, that he hath purposed Edition: current; Page: [442] Locke1824: 10 in himself*. Until the coming of the due time of that dispensation, wherein he hath predetermined to reduce all things again, both in heaven andLocke1824: 11 earth, under one head in Christ; In whom we became Edition: current; Page: [443] his possession* and the lot of his inheritance, Edition: current; Page: [444] being predetermined thereunto, according to the purpose of him, who never fails to bring to passLocke1824: 12 what he hath purposed within himself*: That we of the gentiles, who first through Christ entertained hope, might bring praise and glory to God. Edition: current; Page: [445] Locke1824: 13 And ye, ephesians, are also, in Jesus Christ, become God’s people and inheritance*, having heard the word of truth, the good tidings of your salvation, and, having believed in him, have been sealed by theLocke1824: 14 Holy Ghost; Which was promised, and is the pledge and evidence of being the people of God, his inheritance given out for the redemption§ of the Edition: current; Page: [446] purchased possession, that ye might also bring praise and glory to God*.

SECT. III.

CHAP. I. 15.—II. 10.

CONTENTS.

Having in the foregoing section thanked God for the great favours and mercies which, from the beginning, he had purposed for the gentiles, under the Messiah, in such a description of that design of the Almighty, as was fit to raise their thoughts above the law, and, as St. Paul calls them, beggarly elements of the jewish constitution, which was nothing in comparison of the great and glorious design of the gospel, taking notice Edition: current; Page: [447] of their standing firm in the faith he had taught them, and thanking God for it: he here, in this, prays God, that he would enlighten the minds of the ephesian converts, to see fully the great things, that were actually done for them, and the glorious estate, they were in, under the gospel, of which, in this section, he gives such a draught, as in every part of it shows, that in the kingdom of Christ they are set far above the mosaical rites, and enjoy the spiritual and incomprehensible benefits of it, not by the tenure of a few outward ceremonies: but by their faith, alone, in Jesus Christ, to whom they are united, and of whom they are members, who is exalted to the top of all dignity, dominion, and power, and they with him, their head.

TEXT.

Locke1824: 15Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,

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Locke1824: 16Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers;

Locke1824: 17That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation, in the knewledge of him:

Locke1824: 18The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,

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Locke1824: 19And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power;

Locke1824: 20Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand, in the heavenly places,

Locke1824: 21Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, Edition: current; Page: [451] and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come.

Locke1824: 22And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church.

Locke1824: 23Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.

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Locke1824: II. 1And you hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins,

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Locke1824: 2Wherein, in time past, ye walked, according to the course of this Edition: current; Page: [454] world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience.

Locke1824: 3Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

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Locke1824: 4But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,

Locke1824: 5Even when ye were dead in sins,