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Tocqueville: A Bibliography

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  • Works by The Making of Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, Foreword by George W. Pierson (2nd edition) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000).

    Selected Bibliography

    PRIMARY MATERIALS

    The largest collection of materials relating to the American experiences and writings of Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont is the Yale Tocqueville Manuscripts Collection, begun by Paul Lambert White and J. M. S. Allison, sustained and enlarged since the 1930s by the energies of George Wilson Pierson, and presently housed in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

    The Yale collection—based on the premise that the lives of Tocqueville and Beaumont are inseparable—contains materials on the backgrounds, educations, and careers of both men, as well as numerous manuscripts relating to their joint endeavor, Du système pénitentiaire, and to Beaumont’s two books, Marie and L’Irelande. But most important—from the viewpoint of this study—are Yale’s holdings of letters, travel notes, drafts, working manuscript, and other papers concerning the genesis and growth of the Democracy.

    “Appendix E: Bibliography” in George Wilson Pierson’s Tocqueville and Beaumont in America provides a good history of the Yale collection. Pierson has updated this account in the “Bibliographical Note” of the abridged edition of his work, Tocqueville in America, 1959. Also consult the “Yale Tocqueville Manuscripts Catalogue—Revised” (1974), compiled by George Wilson Pierson. A copy is kept at the Beinecke Library with the collection.

    For additional detailed descriptions of some of the specific papers, see chapters 1 and 2 above. Concerning, in particular, the Original Working Manuscript of the Democracy, also see George Wilson Pierson, “The Manuscript of Tocqueville’s De la Démocratie en Amérique,” Yale University Library Gazette 29 (January 1955): 115–25.

    The greatest single depository of Tocqueville materials, presently at the Bibliothèque de l’Institut in Paris, is under the supervision of the Commission nationale pour l’édition des oeuvres d’Alexis de Tocqueville. Many of the papers which have been inventoried by André Jardin, Secretary of the Commission, are gradually being published as work progresses on the Oeuvres, papiers et correspondances d’Alexis de Tocqueville [Oeuvres complètes], Edition définitive sous la direction de J.-P. Mayer et sous le patronage de la Commission nationale.

    Concerning the publication plans of the Commission nationale, see Charles Pouthas, “Plan et programme des ‘Oeuvres, papiers, et correspondances d’Alexis de Tocqueville,’ ” from Alexis de Tocqueville: Livre du centenaire, 1859–1959, Paris: Editions du Centre nationale de la recherche scientifique, 1960. The following volumes of the Oeuvres complètes have appeared to date:

    • Tome I. De la Démocratie en Amérique. With an introduction by Harold Laski. 2 vols. Paris: Gallimard, 1951.
    • Tome II. vol. I. L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution. Introduction by Georges Lefebvre. Paris: Gallimard, 1953.
    • vol. II. L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution: Fragments et notes inédites sur la Révolution. Edited and annotated by André Jardin. Paris: Gallimard, 1953.
    • Tome III. Ecrits et discours politiques. Introduction by Jean-Jacques Chevallier and André Jardin. Paris: Gallimard, 1962. (A second volume is planned.)
    • Tome V. vol. I. Voyages en Sicile et aux Etats-Unis. Introduced, edited, and annotated by J.-P. Mayer. Paris: Gallimard, 1957.
    • vol. II. Voyages en Angleterre, Irelande, Suisse et Algérie. Edited and annotated by J.-P. Mayer and André Jardin. Paris: Gallimard, 1958.
    • Tome VI. Correspondance anglaise: Correspondance d’Alexis de Tocqueville avec Henry Reeve et John Stuart Mill. Introduction by J.-P. Mayer. Edited and annotated by J.-P. Mayer and Gustave Rudler. Paris: Gallimard, 1954. (A second volume is planned.)
    • Tome VIII. Correspondance d’Alexis de Tocqueville et de Gustave de Beaumont. Introduced, edited, and annotated by André Jardin. 3 vols. Paris: Gallimard, 1967.
    • Tome IX. Correspondance d’Alexis de Tocqueville et d’Arthur de Gobineau. Introduction by J.-J. Chevallier. Edited and annotated by Maurice Degros. Paris: Gallimard, 1959.
    • Tome XI. Correspondance d’Alexis de Tocqueville avec P.-P. Royer-Collard et avec J.-J. Ampère. Introduced, edited, and annotated by André Jardin. Paris: Gallimard, 1970.
    • Tome XII. Souvenirs. Introduced, edited, and annotated by Luc Monnier. Paris: Gallimard, 1964.
    • Tome XIII. Correspondance d’Alexis de Tocqueville et de Louis de Kergolay. 2 vols. Text established by André Jardin. Introduced and annotated by Jean-Alain Lesourd. Paris: Gallimard, 1977.

    Several volumes of the Edition définitive have been translated and are now available in English:

    • Democracy in America. Translated by George Lawrence and edited by J.-P. Mayer and Max Lerner. New York: Harper and Row, 1966. (A paperback edition of this work, somewhat revised, has also been published: Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1969.)
    • Journey to America. Translated by George Lawrence and edited by J.-P. Mayer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960.
    • Journeys to England and Ireland. Translated by George Lawrence and J.-P. Mayer and edited by J.-P. Mayer. London: Faber and Faber, and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958. (Also available in paper: Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1968).
    • Recollections. Translated by George Lawrence and edited by J.-P. Mayer and A. P. Kerr. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970. (Also available in paper: Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1971.)

    The Edition définitive will ultimately largely supersede the older Oeuvres complètes d’Alexis de Tocqueville, 9 vols., Paris: Michel Lévy, 1861–66, edited by Gustave de Beaumont. Beaumont, as editor, took considerable liberties with Tocqueville’s papers. Even so, his final tribute to the thought and career of his friend, when read with a healthy skepticism and when checked, as possible, against the new Edition définitive of the Commission nationale, still remains immensely valuable.

    Of the following additional published works by Tocqueville and Beaumont, several have been superseded by the new Edition définitive.

    Tocqueville

    • Adams, Herbert Baxter. “Jared Sparks and Alexis de Tocqueville.” Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 16 (December 1898): 563–611. Presents Sparks’s essay on town government in New England and correspondence between the two men.
    • Engel-Janosi, Friedrich. “New Tocqueville Material from the Johns Hopkins University Collections.” Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 71 (1955): 121–42.
    • Hawkins, R. L. “Unpublished Letters of Alexis de Tocqueville.” Romantic Review 19 (July–September 1928): 192–217; and 20 (October–December 1929): 351–56.
    • Lanzac de Laborie, L. de. “L’Amitié de Tocqueville et de Royer-Collard: D’après une correspondance inédite.” Revue des deux mondes 58 (15 August 1930): 876–911. Contains extracts from correspondence with commentary.
    • Lukacs, John. Alexis de Tocqueville: The European Revolution and Correspondence with Gobineau. Translations of parts of the Ancien régime and of the Tocqueville–Gobineau correspondence. New York: Doubleday, 1959.
    • Mayer, J.-P. “Alexis de Tocqueville: Sur la démocratie en Amérique. Fragments inédites.” Nouvelle revue française 76 (April 1959): 761–68.
    • —. “De Tocqueville: Unpublished Fragments.” Encounter 12 (April 1959): 17–22.
    • —. “Sur la démocratie en Amérique.” Revue internationale de philosophie 13 (1959): 300–12.
    • Pierson, George Wilson. “Alexis de Tocqueville in New Orleans, January 1–3, 1832.” Franco-American Review 1 (June 1936): 25–42.
    • Schleifer, James T. “Alexis de Tocqueville Describes the American Character: Two Previously Unpublished Portraits.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 74 (Spring 1975): 244–58.
    • —. “How Democracy Influences Preaching: A Previously Unpublished Fragment from Tocqueville’s Democracy in America.” The Yale University Library Gazette 52 (October 1977): 75–79.
    • Simpson, M. C. M. Correspondence and Conversations of Alexis de Tocqueville with Nassau William Senior. 2 vols. London: Henry S. King, 1872.
    • Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Edited by Phillips Bradley. Based on the Henry Reeve translation as revised by Francis Bowen. 2 vols. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945. The standard English translation until the recent publication of the Lawrence-Mayer edition. Bradley’s notes and bibliography are especially informative; see, for example, his list of editions of the Democracy. (A paperback version is available: New York: Random House, Vintage Books, 1945.)
    • —. Democracy in America. With an introduction by Daniel C. Gilman. The Henry Reeve translation as revised by Francis Bowen. 2 vols. New York: Century, 1898. Gilman’s excellent introduction and his extensive index to the Democracy distinguish this edition.
    • —. De la Démocratie en Amérique. 4 vols. Paris: Gosselin, 1835–40. The first edition.
    • —. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1955.
    • —. “Political and Social Condition of France.” London and Westminster Review 3 and 25 (April 1836): 137–69.

    Beaumont

    • Beaumont, Gustave de. L’Irelande sociale, politique et religieuse. 2 vols. Paris: Gosselin, 1839.
    • —. Lettres d’Amérique: 1831–1832. Text established and annotated by A. Jardin and G. W. Pierson. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1973.
    • —. Marie, ou l’esclavage aux Etats-Unis: Tableau des moeurs américaines. 2 vols. Paris: Gosselin, 1835.
    • —. Marie, or Slavery in the United States: A Novel of Jacksonian America. Translated by Barbara Chapman. Introduced by Alvis Tinnin. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.

    Joint Works

    • Drescher, Seymour, translator and editor. Tocqueville and Beaumont on Social Reform. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1968. A selection of writings on social questions. Note especially Drescher’s appendix: “Tocqueville and Beaumont: A Rationale for Collective Study.”
    • Tocqueville, Alexis de, and Gustave de Beaumont. On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France. Introduction by Thorsten Sellin. Foreword by Herman R. Lantz. Translated by Francis Lieber. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.

    Tocqueville’s Own Printed Sources

    For an extensive catalogue of books consulted by Tocqueville (based upon notes in the Democracy, Reading Lists in the Yale collection, and Alexis’s own library), see pages 727–30 of Pierson’s Tocqueville and Beaumont in America. Pierson lists approximately one hundred entries under the following headings: Description, Indians, History, Legal Commentary, Documents Legal and Political, Other Documents and Statistics, and Miscellaneous.

    For the themes presented in this book, each of the following of Tocqueville’s own printed sources has been closely examined. (For further commentary on certain works, consult descriptions in relevant chapters above.)

    • The American’s Guide: Comprising the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitutions of the Several States Composing the Union. Philadelphia: Towar and Hogan, 1830. On the spine, this work is called American Constitutions, and that is the title which appears in Tocqueville’s notes.
    • Blunt, Joseph. A Historical Sketch of the Formation of the Confederacy, Particularly with Reference to the Provincial Limits and the Jurisdiction of the General Government over the Indian Tribes and the Public Territory. New York: George and Charles Carvill, 1825.
    • Conseil, L. P. Mélanges politiques et philosophiques extraits des mémoires et de la correspondance de Thomas Jefferson. 2 vols. Paris: Paulin, 1833.
    • Darby, William. View of the United States Historical, Geographical, and Statistical.... Philadelphia: H. S. Tanner, 1828.
    • Darby, William, and Theodore Dwight, Jr. A New Gazetteer of the United States. Hartford: E. Hopkins, 1833. Not used by Tocqueville; a missed opportunity.
    • Duer, William Alexander. Outlines of the Constitutional Jurisprudence of the United States. New York: Collins and Hannay, 1833.
    • Force, Peter, comp. National Calendar and Annals of the United States. Vols. 10, 11, and 12. Washington, D.C., 1832, 1833, and 1834.
    • Goodwin, Isaac. Town Officer; Or, Laws of Massachusetts Relating to the Duties of Municipal Officers. Worcester: Dorr and Howland, 1825. A second revised edition appeared in 1829.
    • Guizot, François. Cours d’histoire moderne: Histoire de la civilisation en France depuis la chute de l’empire romain jusqu’en 1789. 5 vols. Paris: Pichon et Didier, 1829–32. Contains the lectures attended by Tocqueville and Beaumont in 1829 and 1830.
    • Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist on the Constitution Written in the Year 1788. Washington, D.C.: Thompson and Homans, 1831. The edition which Tocqueville read and used in the writing of the Democracy.
    • —. The Federalist Papers. With an introduction, table of contents, and index of ideas by Clinton Rossiter. A Mentor Book. New York: The New American Library, 1961.
    • James, Edwin. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains. [Under the command of Major Stephen H. Long.] 2 vols. Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1823.
    • Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Introduced by Thomas Perkins Abernethy. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1964.
    • Keating, William H. Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter’s River. [Under the command of Major Stephen H. Long.] 2 vols. Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1824.
    • Malte-Brun, Conrad, ed. Annales de voyages, de la géographie et de l’histoire. ... 24 vols. Paris: Brunet, 1808–14.
    • Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de. De l’esprit des lois. Edited and introduced by Gonzague Truc. 2 vols. Paris: Garnier, 1961.
    • Pitkin, Timothy. A Political and Civil History of the United States of America, 1763–1797. 2 vols. New Haven: H. Howe, Durrie, and Peck, 1828.
    • —. A Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States. Hartford: C. Hosmer, 1816.
    • Randolph, Thomas Jefferson, ed. Memoir, Correspondence, and Miscellanies from the Papers of Thomas Jefferson. 4 vols. Charlottesville: F. Carr, 1829.
    • Rawle, William. A View of the Constitution of the United States of America. Philadelphia: H. C. Carey and I. Lea, 1825.
    • Scheffer, Arnold. Histoire des Etats-Unis de l’Amérique septentrionale. Paris: Raymond, 1825.
    • Sergeant, Thomas. Constitutional Law; Being a View of the Practice and Jurisdiction of the Courts of the United States and of the Constitutional Points Decided. Second revised edition. Philadelphia: P. H. Nicklin and T. Johnson, 1830.
    • Story, Joseph. Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States. One-volume abridgment. Boston: Hilliard, Gray; Cambridge, Mass.: Brown, Shattuck, 1833. (A complete three-volume work was published at the same time, but Tocqueville used the shorter version.)
    • —. The Public and General Statutes Passed by the Congress of the United States of America from 1789–1827 Inclusive. 3 vols. Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1828. (Two additional volumes were published in 1837 and 1847.)
    • Villeneuve-Bargemont, Alban de. Economie politique chrétienne, ou recherches sur la nature et les causes du paupérisme en France et en Europe. 3 vols. Paris: Paulin, 1834.
    • Volney, C. F. Tableau du climat et du sol des Etats-Unis d’Amérique. 2 vols. Paris: Courcier, 1803.
    • Warden, D. B. Description statistique, historique et politiques des Etats-Unis de l’Amérique septentrionale. 5 vols. Paris: Rey et Gravier, 1820.
    • Worcester, J. E., comp. American Almanac. Boston: Gray and Bowen, 1831, 1832, and 1834.

    Also the following newspapers and journals:

    • National Intelligencer, 1832–34.
    • Niles Weekly Register, 1833–34.
    • North American Review, 1830–35. Not used by Tocqueville, but valuable nonetheless.

    The following three works also proved particularly helpful in unraveling some of the problems posed by Tocqueville’s printed sources on America:

    • Bauer, Elizabeth Kelly. Commentaries on the Constitution, 1790–1860. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.
    • Ford, Paul Leicester. A List of Editions of the Federalist. Brooklyn, 1886.
    • Lipscomb, A. A., and A. E. Bergh, eds. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. 20 vols. Under the auspices of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association. Washington, D.C., 1904. This Memorial Edition will, of course, eventually be entirely superseded by The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Julian P. Boyd, editor; Lyman H. Butterfield and Mina R. Bryan, associate editors. 19 vols. (to date). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1950– . This new edition has not yet reached the materials that I have quoted, so I have relied on the earlier work.

    SECONDARY MATERIALS

    In recent years the number of books and essays on Tocqueville’s work and thought has grown rapidly; the renaissance of interest that began in the 1930s continues unabated. The following is a selection of works that have been of particular value in the preparation of this volume.

    • Alexis de Tocqueville: Livre du Centenaire, 1859–1959. Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1960.
    • Aron, Raymond. Les Etapes de la pensée sociologique. Montesquieu. Comte. Marx. Tocqueville. Durkheim. Pareto. Weber. Paris: Gallimard, 1967.
    • Artz, Frederick B. France under the Bourbon Restoration, 1814–1830. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931.
    • Bagge, Dominique. Le Conflit des idées politiques en France sous la Restauration. Paris, 1952.
    • Barth, Niklas Peter. Die Idee der Freiheit und der Demokratie bei Alexis de Tocqueville. Aarau: Eugen Kaller, 1953.
    • Bastid, Paul. Les Institutions politiques de la monarchie parlementaire française (1814–1848). Paris: Editions du recueil Sirey, 1954.
    • Benson, Lee. Turner and Beard: American Historical Writing Reconsidered. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1960.
    • Blau, Joseph L., ed. Social Theories of Jacksonian America. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1954.
    • Blumenthal, Henry. American and French Culture, 1800–1900: Interchanges in Art, Science, Literature and Society. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975.
    • Brinton, Crane. English Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1962.
    • Brogan, Hugh. Tocqueville. Fontana: Collins, 1973.
    • Brunius, Teddy. Alexis de Tocqueville: The Sociological Aesthetician. Uppsala, 1960.
    • Bryce, James. The American Commonwealth. 2 vols. 3rd edition revised. New York: Macmillan, 1894.
    • Charléty, S. La Monarchie de juillet, 1830–1848. Vol. 5 of Histoire de France contemporaine depuis la révolution jusqu’à la paix de 1919. Edited by Ernest Lavisse. 10 vols. Paris: Hachette, 1921.
    • —. La Restauration, 1815–1830. Vol. 4 of Histoire de France contemporaine. ... Edited by Ernest Lavisse. 10 vols. Paris: Hachette, 1921.
    • Chevalier, Michel. Society, Manners, and Politics in the United States. Edited by John William Ward. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1961.
    • Chevallier, J. J. Les Grandes Oeuvres politiques de Machiavel à nos jours. Paris: Armand Colin, 1949.
    • —. Histoire des institutions et des régimes politiques de la France moderne, 1789–1958. 3rd revised edition. Paris: Librairie Dalloz, 1967.
    • Chinard, Gilbert. Saint Beuve: Thomas Jefferson et Tocqueville, avec une introduction. Institut français de Washington. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943.
    • Cobban, Alfred. A History of Modern France. Vol. 2: From the First Empire to the Second Empire, 1799–1871. 2nd edition. Pelican. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1965.
    • Commager, Henry Steele. Majority Rule and Minority Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1943.
    • Conkin, Paul K. Self-Evident Truths: Being a Discourse on the Origins andDevelopment of the First Principles of American Government—Popular Sovereignty, Natural Rights and Balance and Separation of Powers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974.
    • Cooper, James Fenimore. The American Democrat, or Hints on the Social and Civic Relations of the United States of America. New York: Vintage, 1956.
    • Dahl, Robert A. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1956.
    • Dahl, Robert A., and Edward R. Tufte. Size and Democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973.
    • Drescher, Seymour. Dilemmas of Democracy: Tocqueville and Modernization. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968.
    • —. Tocqueville and England. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964.
    • Eichtal, E. d’. Alexis de Tocqueville et la démocratie libérale. Paris: C. Lévy, 1897.
    • Fabian, Bernhard. Alexis de Tocquevilles Amerikabild. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1957.
    • Freehling, William W., ed. The Nullification Era: A Documentary Record. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1967.
    • Gargan, Edward T. Alexis de Tocqueville: The Critical Years, 1848–1851. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1955.
    • —. De Tocqueville. New York: Hillary House, 1965.
    • Gobineau, Arthur de. Essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines. Paris: P. Belfond, 1967.
    • Goldstein, Doris. Trial of Faith: Religion and Politics in Tocqueville’s Thought. New York: Elsevier, 1975.
    • Graebner, Norman A., ed. Freedom in America: A 200-Year Perspective. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.
    • Grund, Francis J. Aristocracy in America: From the Sketch-Book of a German Nobleman. Introduced by George E. Probst. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1959.
    • Guizot, François. Historical Essays and Lectures. Edited and introduced by Stanley Mellon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
    • Hartz, Louis. The Liberal Tradition in America. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1955.
    • Herr, Richard. Tocqueville and the Old Regime. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.
    • Jardin, Andre. Alexis de Tocqueville, 1805–1859. Paris: Hachette, 1984.
    • Laboulaye, Edouard. L’Etat et ses limites. Paris: Charpentier, 1863.
    • Lamberti, Jean-Claude. La Notion d’individualisme chez Tocqueville. Preface by Jean-Jacques Chevallier. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1970.
    • —. Tocqueville et les deux “Démocraties.” Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983.
    • Laski, Harold J. The Rise of European Liberalism: An Essay in Interpretation. London: Allen and Unwin, 1936.
    • Lawlor, Sister Mary. Alexis de Tocqueville in the Chamber of Deputies: His Views on Foreign and Colonial Policy. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1959.
    • Lerner, Max. Tocqueville and American Civilization. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Colophon Books, 1969. Originally published as the “Introduction” to the new George Lawrence translation of Democracy in America, edited by J. P. Mayer and Max Lerner.
    • Leroy, Maxime. Histoire des idées sociales en France. Vol. 2: De Babeuf à Tocqueville. Paris: Gallimard, 1962.
    • Lively, Jack. The Social and Political Thought of Alexis de Tocqueville. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.
    • Mahieu, Robert G. Les Enquêteurs français aux Etats-Unis de 1830 à 1837. L’Influence américaine sur l’évolution démocratique en France. Paris: Honoré Champion, 1934.
    • Marcel, R. Pierre. Essai politique sur Alexis de Tocqueville avec un grand nombre de documents inédits. Paris: Félix Alcan, 1910.
    • Mayer, J.-P. Political Thought in France from the Revolution to the Fourth Republic. Revised edition. London: Routledge and Paul, 1949.
    • —. Prophet of the Mass Age: A Study of Alexis de Tocqueville. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1939. The American edition carried a different title: Alexis de Tocqueville: A Biographical Essay in Political Science. New York: Viking Press, 1940. (The latter was revised as a new edition with a new essay, “Tocqueville after a Century,” New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1960.)
    • Mellon, Stanley. The Political Uses of History: A Study of Historians in the French Restoration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958.
    • Mélonio, Françoise, ed. Tocqueville. Paris: Bouquins, 1986.
    • Merriman, John M., ed. 1830 in France. New York: New Viewpoints, 1975.
    • Meyers, Marvin. The Jacksonian Persuasion: Politics and Belief. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957.
    • Miller, Perry, ed. The Legal Mind in America: From Independence to the Civil War. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1962.
    • —. The Life of the Mind in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1965.
    • Mueller, Iris W. John Stuart Mill and French Thought. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1956.
    • Nagel, Paul C. One Nation Indivisible, the Union in American Thought, 1776–1861. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
    • Nantet, Jacques. Tocqueville. Paris: Seghers, 1971.
    • Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality and Politics. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey Press, 1969.
    • —. Riches, Class, and Power before the Civil War. Lexington, Mass.: D.= C. Heath and Co., 1973.
    • —, ed. Three Centuries of Social Mobility in America. Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath and Co., 1974.
    • Pierson, George Wilson. Tocqueville and Beaumont in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1938. An abridged edition, entitled Tocqueville in America, was prepared by Dudley C. Lunt in paper and hardback versions; paper: New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1959; cloth: Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1969.
    • Pinkney, David H. The French Revolution of 1830. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.
    • Pole, J. R. The Pursuit of Equality in American History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.
    • Ponteil, Félix. Les Institutions de la France de 1814 à 1870. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966.
    • —. La Monarchie parlementaire: 1815–1848. 3rd edition revised. Paris: Armand Colin, 1949.
    • Potter, David M. People of Plenty: Economic Abundance and the American Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
    • Poussin, Guillaume-Tell. Chemins de fer américains. Paris: Carilian-Goeury, 1836.
    • Probst, George E., ed. The Happy Republic: A Reader in Tocqueville’s America. New York: Harper and Brothers, Harper Torchbooks, 1962.
    • Redier, Antoine. Comme disait M. de Tocqueville. ... Paris: Perrin, 1925.
    • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.
    • Rémond, René. Les Etats-Unis devant l’opinion française, 1815–1852. 2 vols. Paris: Armand Colin, 1962.
    • —. The Right Wing in France from 1815 to de Gaulle. Translated by James M. Laux. 2nd revised edition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1966.
    • Rozwenc, Edwin C., ed. Ideology and Power in the Age of Jackson. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1964.
    • Ruggiero, Guido de. History of European Liberalism. Translated by R. G. Collingwood. Boston: Beacon Press, Beacon Paperback, 1959.
    • Sauvigny, Guillaume de Bertier de. The Bourbon Restoration. Translated by Lynn M. Case. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1966.
    • Schatz, Albert. L’Individualisme économique et social: ses origines—son évolution—ses formes contemporaines. Paris: Armand Colin, 1907.
    • Schlaerth, William J., S.J., ed. A Symposium on Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. Burke Society Series. New York: Fordham University Press, 1945.
    • Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Age of Jackson. Boston: Little, Brown, 1945.
    • Soltau, Roger. French Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931.
    • Songy, Benedict Gaston, O.S.B. “Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery: Judgments and Predictions.” Ph.D. dissertation, St. Louis University, 1969. Available from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    • Starzinger, Vincent E. Middlingness, Juste Milieu Political Theory in France and England, 1815–1848. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1965.
    • Sumner, William Graham. Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1907.
    • Taylor, George R. The Transportation Revolution: 1815–1860. Vol. 4 of The Economic History of the United States. 10 vols. Edited by Henry David et al. New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1968.
    • Vail, Eugène. De la littérature et des hommes de lettres des Etats-Unis d’Amérique. Paris, 1841.
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    • Ward, John William. Red, White and Blue: Men, Books, and Ideas in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
    • White, Leonard D. The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829–1861. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
    • Zeitlin, Irving M. Liberty, Equality and Revolution in Alexis de Tocqueville. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.
    • Zetterbaum, Marvin. Tocqueville and the Problem of Democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967.

    Articles

    • Adair, Douglass. “The Authorship of the Disputed Federalist Papers.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 1 (1944): 97–122, 235–64.
    • —. “The Tenth Federalist Revisited.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 8 (January 1951): 48–67.
    • —. “That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science.” Huntington Library Quarterly 20 (August 1957): 343–60.
    • Aron, Raymond. “Idées politiques et vision historique de Tocqueville.” Revue française de science politique 10 (September 1960): 509–26.
    • Boisdettre, P. de. “Tocqueville et Gobineau.” Revue de Paris 66 (August 1959): 138–42.
    • Bourke, Paul F. “The Pluralist Reading of James Madison’s Tenth Federalist.” Perspectives in American History 9 (1975): 271–95.
    • Bourricaud, François. “Les ‘convictions’ de M. de Tocqueville.” The Tocqueville Review 7 (1985–86): 105–15.
    • Bryce, James. “The Predictions of Hamilton and de Tocqueville.” Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 5 (September 1887): 329–81.
    • —. “The United States Constitution as Seen in the Past.” Studies in History and Jurisprudence 1 (1901): 311–58.
    • Chevallier, Jean-Jacques. “De la distinction des sociétés aristocratiques et des sociétés démocratiques, en tant que fondement de la pensée politique d’Alexis de Tocqueville.” Communication à l’Académie des sciences morales et politiques. 1955.
    • Colwell, James L. “ ‘The Calamities Which They Apprehend’: Tocqueville on Race in America.” Western Humanities Review 21 (Spring 1967): 93–100.
    • Diamond, Martin. “The Ends of Federalism.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 3 (Fall 1973): 129–52.
    • Drescher, Seymour. “More Than America: Comparison and Synthesis in Democracy in America.” In Reconsidering Tocqueville’s “Democracy in America,” edited by Abraham S. Eisenstadt, 77–93. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
    • —. “Tocqueville’s Two Démocraties.” Journal of the History of Ideas 25 (April–June 1964): 201–16.
    • Furet, François. “The Intellectual Origins of Tocqueville’s Thought.” The Tocqueville Review 7 (1985–86): 117–29.
    • —. “Naissance d’un paradigme: Tocqueville et le voyage en Amérique (1825–1831).” Annales 39:2 (March–April 1984): 225–39.
    • Gargan, Edward T. “The Formation of Tocqueville’s Historical Thought.” Review of Politics 24 (January 1962): 48–61.
    • —. “Some Problems in Tocqueville Scholarship.” Mid-America 41 (January 1959): 3–26.
    • —. “Tocqueville and the Problem of Historical Prognosis.” American Historical Review 68 (January 1963): 332–45.
    • George, W. H. “Montesquieu and de Tocqueville and Corporative Individualism.” American Political Science Review 16 (February 1922): 10–21.
    • Gershman, Sally. “Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery.” French Historical Studies 9 (Spring 1976): 467–83.
    • Gilman, Daniel C. “Alexis de Tocqueville and His Book on America—Sixty Years After.” The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 56 (May–October 1898): 703–15.
    • Goldstein, Doris S. “Alexis de Tocqueville’s Concept of Citizenship.” American Philosophical Society Proceedings 108 (February 1964): 39–53.
    • —. “The Religious Beliefs of Alexis de Tocqueville.” French Historical Studies 1 (Fall 1960): 379–93.
    • Hamburger, Joseph. “Mill and Tocqueville on Liberty.” From John M. Robson and M. Laine, eds., James and John Stuart Mill. Papers of the Centenary Conference. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.
    • Heilprin, M. “De Tocqueville in the United States.” Nation 1 (24 August 1865): 247–49.
    • Horwitz, J. Morton. “Tocqueville and the Tyranny of the Majority.” The Review of Politics 28 (July 1966): 293–307.
    • Jardin, André. “Tocqueville et l’Algérie.” Revue des travaux de l’Académie des sciences morales et politiques 115 (1962): 61–74.
    • —. “Tocqueville et la décentralisation.” “La Décentralisation”: Sixth colloquium on history organized by the faculty of letters and human sciences of Aix-en-Provence, 1 and 2 December 1961. Publications des Annales, la Faculté des Lettres, Aix-en-Provence, undated.
    • Laski, Harold J. “Alexis de Tocqueville and Democracy.” From F. J. C. Hearnshaw, ed., The Social and Political Ideas of Some Representative Thinkers of the Victorian Age. London: G. G. Harrap, 1933.
    • Lukes, Steven. “The Meanings of ‘Individualism.’ ” Journal of the History of Ideas 32 (January–March 1971): 45–66.
    • —. “Types of Individualism.” Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies in Selected Pivotal Ideas. Philip P. Wiener, Editor in Chief. 4 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973. 2:593–604.
    • Mason, Alpheus Thomas. “The Federalist—A Split Personality.” American Historical Review 57 (1952): 625–43.
    • Mayer, J.-P. “Alexis de Tocqueville: A Commentated Bibliography.” Revue internationale de philosophie 13 (1959): 313–19.
    • —. “Tocqueville’s Influence.” History 3 (1960): 87–103.
    • —. “Tocqueville’s Travel Diaries.” Encounter 54 (March 1958): 54–60.
    • Mill, John Stuart. “Democracy in America.” Edinburgh Review 72 (October 1840): 1–48.
    • —. “De Tocqueville on Democracy in America.” London Review 2 (October 1835): 85–129.
    • Morgan, Edmund S. “The American Revolution Considered as an Intellectual Movement.” From Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and Morton White, eds., Paths of American Thought. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963.
    • Morgan, Robert. “Madison’s Theory of Representation in the Tenth Federalist.” Journal of Politics 36 (1974): 852–85.
    • Moulin, Léo. “On the Evolution of the Meaning of the Word ‘Individualism.’ ” International Social Science Bulletin 7 (1955): 181–85.
    • Nef, John. “Truth, Belief and Civilization: Tocqueville and Gobineau.” Review of Politics 25 (October 1963): 460–82.
    • Nisbet, Robert. “Many Tocquevilles.” The American Scholar 46 (Winter 1976–77): 59–75.
    • —. “Tocqueville’s Ideal Types.” In Reconsidering Tocqueville’s “Democracy in America,” edited by Abraham S. Eisenstadt, 171–91. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
    • Pappé, H. O. “Mill and Tocqueville.” Journal of the History of Ideas 25 (April–June 1964): 217–34.
    • Pessen, Edward. “The Egalitarian Myth and the American Social Reality: Wealth, Mobility, and Equality in the ‘Era of the Common Man.’ ” The American Historical Review 76 (October 1971): 989–1034.
    • Pierson, George Wilson. “Gustave de Beaumont: Liberal.” Franco-American Review 1 (June 1936): 307–16.
    • —. “Tocqueville’s Visions of Democracy.” The Yale University Library Gazette 51 (July 1976): 4–17.
    • Resh, Richard. “Alexis de Tocqueville and the Negro: Democracy in America Reconsidered.” Journal of Negro History 48 (October 1963): 251–59.
    • Richter, Melvin. “Debate on Race: Tocqueville-Gobineau Correspondence.” Commentary 25 (February 1958): 151–60.
    • —. “Tocqueville on Algeria.” Review of Politics 25 (July 1963): 362–98.
    • —. “The Uses of Theory: Tocqueville’s Adaptation of Montesquieu.” From Melvin Richter, ed., Essays in Theory and History: An Approach to the Social Sciences. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.
    • Riemer, Neal. “James Madison’s Theory of the Self-Destructive Features of Republican Government.” Ethics 65 (1954): 34–43.
    • —. “The Republicanism of James Madison.” Political Science Quarterly 69 (March 1954): 45–64.
    • Salomon, Albert. “Tocqueville’s Philosophy of Freedom.” Review of Politics 1 (October 1939): 400–31.
    • Schleifer, James T. “Images of America after the Revolution: Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont Visit the Early Republic.” The Yale University Library Gazette 51 (January 1977): 125–44.
    • —. “Tocqueville and Religion: Some New Perspectives.” The Tocqueville Review (Fall–Winter 1982), 303–21.
    • Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. “Individualism and Apathy in Tocqueville’s Democracy.” In Reconsidering Tocqueville’s “Democracy in America,” edited by Abraham S. Eisenstadt, 94–109. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
    • Spitz, David. “On Tocqueville and the ‘Tyranny’ of Public Sentiment.” Political Science 9 (September 1957): 3–13.
    • Strout, Cushing. “Tocqueville’s Duality: Describing America and Thinking of Europe.” American Quarterly 21 (Spring 1969): 87–99.
    • Suter, Jean François. “Tocqueville et le problème de démocratie.” Revue internationale de philosophie 13 (1959): 330–40.
    • Swart, Koenraad W. “Individualism in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826–1860).” Journal of the History of Ideas 23 (January–March 1962): 77–90.
    • Wallace, Michael. “The Uses of Violence in American History.” The American Scholar 40 (Winter 1970–71): 81–102.
    • White, Paul Lambert. “American Manners in 1830: de Tocqueville’s Letters and Diary.” Yale Review 12 (October 1922): 118–31.

    This book is set in 11.5 on 13 Minion, a typeface designed for Adobe in 1990 by Robert Slimbach. Minion is inspired by the highly readable typefaces of the Renaissance.

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    Last modified April 13, 2016