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Mill, Collected Works, Table of Contents

Table of Contents to The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill

The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, ed. J.M. Robson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963-1991), 33 vols. Editorial committee: J.M. Robinson, General Editor, Harold Bohme, J.C. Cairns, J.B. Conacher, D.P. Dryer, Marion Filipiuk, Frances Halpenny, Samuel Hollander, R.F. McRae, Ian Montagnes, Ann P. Robson, F.E. Sparshott.

All 33 vols. will be published online at the Online Library of Liberty in February 2006. The titles in bold will be republished in book form by Liberty Fund.

Contents of Volume I: Autobiography and Literary Essays

INTRODUCTION vii

Autobiography (Parallel Reading Texts of the Early Draft and the Columbia MS) 1

  • I. Childhood, and Early Education 5
  • II. Moral Influences in Early Youth. My Father's Character and Opinions 41
  • III. Last Stage of Education, and First of Self-Education 65
  • IV. Youthful Propagandism. The Westminster Review 89
  • V. A Crisis in My Mental History. One Stage Onward 137
  • VI. Commencement of the Most Valuable Friendship of My Life. My Father's Death. Writings and Other Proceedings up to 1840 193
  • VII. General View of the Remainder of My Life 229

Literary Essays

  • Periodical Literature: Edinburgh Review (1824) 291
  • On Genius (1832) 327
  • Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties (1833) 341
  • Writings of Junius Redivivus [I] (1833) 367
  • Writings of Junius Redivivus [II] (1833) 379
  • Views of the Pyrenees (1833) 391
  • Tennyson's Poems (1835) 395
  • Aphorisms: Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd (1837) 419
  • Ware's Letters from Palmyra (1838) 431
  • Writings of Alfred de Vigny (1838) 463
  • Milnes's Poems (1838) 503
  • Milnes's Poetry for the People (1840) 517
  • Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome (1843) 523
  • Letter to the Editor of the Edinburgh Review, on James Mill (1844) 533

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A. Juvenilia (1812-13?) 541
    • History of Rome 542
    • Ode to Diana 549
  • Appendix B. Mill's Early Reading (1809-22) 551
  • Appendix C. Mill's Early Writing (1811?-22) 582
  • Appendix D. A Few Observations on Mr. Mill (1833) 589
  • Appendix E. Note on Browning's Pauline (1833) 596
  • Appendix F. Editorial Notes in the London and Westminster Review (1835-39) 598
  • Appendix G. Rejected Leaves of the Early Draft of the Autobiography 608
  • Appendix H. Helen Taylor' s Continuation of the Autobiography 625
  • Appendix I. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited, with Variants and Notes 628

INDEX 747

FACSIMILES

  • Folio lr of the Early Draft MS University of Illinois facing page xx
  • Recto of "Ode to Diana" MS British Library facing page 18
  • Folio 6r of the "History of Rome" MS British Library facing page 544
  • Folio R24r of the Early Draft MS University of Illinois facing page 608

Contents of Volume II: Principles of Political Economy Part I

Contents of Volume II

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by V. W. Bladen xxiii
  • Textual Introduction, by J. M. Robson lxv

Prefaces and Book I

PREFACES lxxxix

PRELIMINARY REMARKS 3

BOOK I: PRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER I. Of the Requisites of Production 25

  • § 1. Requisites of production, what, 25
  • 2. The function of labour defined, 26
  • 3. Does nature contribute more to the efficacy of labour in some occupations than in others? 28
  • 4. Some natural agents limited, others practically unlimited, in quantity, 29

CHAPTER II. Of Labour as an Agent of Production 31

  • § 1. Labour employed either directly about the thing produced, or in operations preparatory to its production, 31
  • 2. Labour employed in producing subsistence for subsequent labour, 33
  • 3. Labour employed in producing materials, 35
  • 4. Labour employed in producing implements, 36
  • 5. Labour employed in the protection of labour, 37
  • 6. Labour employed in the transport and distribution of the produce, 38
  • 7. Labour which relates to human beings, 40
  • 8. Labour of invention and discovery, 41
  • 9. Labour agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial, 43

CHAPTER III. Of Unproductive Labour 45

  • § 1. Labour does not produce objects, but utilities, 45
  • 2. These utilities are of three kinds, 46
  • 3. Productive labour is that which produces utilities fixed and embodied in material objects, 48
  • 4. All other labour, however useful, is classed as unproductive, 50
  • 5. Productive and Unproductive Consumption, 52
  • 6. Labour for the supply of Productive Consumption, and labour for the supply of Unproductive Consumption, 53

CHAPTER IV. Of Capital 55

  • § 1. Capital is wealth appropriated to reproductive employment, 55
  • 2. More capital devoted to production than actually employed in it, 57
  • 3. Examination of some cases illustrative of the idea of Capital, 59

CHAPTER V. Fundamental Propositions Respecting Capital 63

  • § 1. Industry is limited by Capital, 63
  • 2. Industry is limited by Capital, but does not always come up to that limit, 65
  • 3. Increase of capital gives increased employment to labour, without assignable bounds, 66
  • 4. Capital is the result of saving, 68
  • 5. All capital is consumed, 70
  • 6. Capital is kept up, not by preservation, but by perpetual reproduction, 73
  • 7. Why countries recover rapidly from a state of devastation, 74
  • 8. Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans, 75
  • 9. Demand for commodities is not demand for labour, 78
  • 10. Fallacy respecting Taxation, 88

CHAPTER VI. On Circulating and Fixed Capital 91

  • § 1. Fixed and Circulating Capital, what, 91
  • 2. Increase of fixed capital, when at the expense of circulating, might be detrimental to the labourers, 93
  • 3. But this detriment to the labourers seldom if ever occurs, 97

CHAPTER VII. On What Depends the Degree of Productiveness of Productive Agents 100

  • § 1. Land, labour, and capital, are of different productiveness at different times and places, 100
  • 2. Causes of superior productiveness. Natural advantages, 101
  • 3. Causes of superior productiveness. Greater energy of labour, 102
  • 4. Causes of superior productiveness. Superior skill and knowledge, 106
  • 5. Causes of superior productiveness. Superiority of intelligence and trustworthiness in the community generally, 107
  • 6. Causes of superior productiveness. Superior security, 112

CHAPTER VIII. Of Co-operation, or the Combination of Labour 116

  • § 1. Combination of Labour a principal cause of superior productiveness, 116
  • 2. Effects of separation of employments analyzed, 118
  • 3. Combination of labour between town and country, 120
  • 4. The higher degrees of the division of labour, 122
  • 5. Analysis of the advantages of the division of labour, 124
  • 6. Limitations of the division of labour, 129

CHAPTER IX. Of Production on a Large, and Production on a Small Scale 131

  • § 1. Advantages of the large system of production in manufactures, 131
  • 2. Advantages and disadvantages of the joint-stock principle, 135
  • 3. Conditions necessary for the large system of production, 140
  • 4. Large and small farming compared, 142

CHAPTER X. Of the Law of the Increase of Labour 153

  • § 1. The law of the increase of production depends on those of three elements, Labour, Capital, and Land, 153
  • 2. The Law of Population, 154
  • 3. By what cheeks the increase of population is practically limited, 156

CHAPTER XI. Of the Law of the Increase of Capital 160

  • § 1. Means and motives to saving, on what dependent, 160
  • 2. Causes of diversity in the effective strength of the desire of accumulation, 161
  • 3. Examples of deficiency in the strength of the desire of accumulation, 164
  • 4. Exemplification of excess in the strength of the desire of accumulation, 170

CHAPTER XII. Of the Law of the Increase of Production from Land 173

  • § 1. The limited quantity and limited productiveness of land are the real limits to production, 173
  • 2. The law of production from the soil is a law of diminishing return in proportion to the increased application of labour and capital, 173
  • 3. Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return; the progress of improvements in production, 177

CHAPTER XIII. Consequences of the Foregoing Laws 186

  • § 1. Remedies when the limit to production is the weakness of the principle of accumulation, 186
  • 2. Necessity of restraining population not confined to a state of inequality of property, 187
  • 3. Necessity of restraining population not superseded by free trade in food, 190
  • 4. Necessity of restraining population not in general superseded by emigration, 194

 

BOOK II: DISTRIBUTION

CHAPTER I. Of Property 199

  • § 1. Introductory remarks, 199
  • 2. Statement of the question concerning Property, 201
  • 3. Examination of Communism, 203
  • 4. Examination of St. Simonism and Fourierism, 210

CHAPTER II. The Same Subject Continued 215

  • § 1. The institution of property implies freedom of acquisition by contract, 215
  • 2. The institution of property implies the validity of prescription, 217
  • 3. The institution of property implies the power of bequest, but not the right of inheritance. Question of inheritance examined, 218
  • 4. Should the right of bequest be limited, and how? 223
  • 5. Grounds of property in land are different from those of property in moveables, 226
  • 6., Grounds of property in land are only valid on certain conditions, which are not always realized. The limitations considered, 228
  • 7. Rights of property in abuses, 232

CHAPTER III. Of the Classes Among Whom the Produce Is Distributed 235

  • § 1. The produce is sometimes shared among three classes, 235
  • 2. The produce sometimes belongs undividedly to one, 235
  • 3. The produce is sometimes divided between two, 237

CHAPTER IV. Of Competition, and Custom 239

  • § 1. Competition is not the sole regulator of the division of the produce, 239
  • 2. Influence of custom on rents, and on the tenure of land, 240
  • 3. Influence of custom on prices, 242

CHAPTER V. Of Slavery 245

  • § 1. Slavery considered in relation to the slaves, 245
  • 2. Slavery in relation to production, 246
  • 3. Emancipation considered in relation to the interest of the slave-owners, 249

CHAPTER VI. Of Peasant Proprietors 252

  • § 1. Difference between English and Continental opinions respecting peasant properties, 252
  • 2. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Switzerland, 254
  • 3. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Norway, 259
  • 4. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Germany, 262
  • 5. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Belgium, 267
  • 6. Evidence respecting peasant properties in the Channel Islands, 271
  • 7. Evidence respecting peasant properties in France, 273

CHAPTER VII. Continuation of the Same Subject 278

  • § 1. Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry, 278
  • 2. Influence of peasant properties in training intelligence, 280
  • 3. Influence of peasant properties in promoting forethought and self-control, 281
  • 4. Their effect on population, 283
  • 5. Their effect on the subdivision of land, 292

CHAPTER VIII. Of Metayers 297

  • § 1. Nature of the metayer system, and its varieties, 297
  • 2. Its advantages and inconveniences, 299
  • 3. Evidence concerning its effects in different countries, 301
  • 4. Is its abolition desirable? 310

CHAPTER IX. Of Cottiers 313

  • § 1. Nature and operation of cottier tenure, 313
  • 2. In an overpeopled country its necessary consequence is nominal rents, 316
  • 3. Nominal rents are inconsistent with industry, frugality, or restraint on population, 318
  • 4. Ryot tenancy of India, 319

CHAPTER X. Means of Abolishing Cottier Tenancy 324

  • § 1. Irish cottiers should be converted into peasant proprietors, 324
  • 2. Present state of this question, 331

CHAPTER XI. Of Wages 337

  • § 1. Wages depend on the demand and supply of labour--in other words, on population and capital, 337
  • 2. Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages, 338
  • 3. Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply restraints on population, 343
  • 4. Restraints on population are in some cases legal, 346
  • 5. Restraints on population are in other cases the effect of particular customs, 348
  • 6. Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a labouring class, 351

CHAPTER XII. Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages 355

  • § 1. A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee of employment, 355
  • 2. Such a minimum and guarantee would require as a condition legal measures for repression of population, 357
  • 3. Allowances in aid of wages, 360
  • 4. The Allotment System, 362

CHAPTER XIII. The Remedies for Low Wages Further Considered 367

  • § 1. Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of population, 367
  • 2. Grounds for expecting improvement, 370
  • 3. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring people: by education, 374
  • 4. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring people: by large measures of immediate relief, through foreign and home colonization, 376

CHAPTER XlV. Of the Differences of Wages in Different Employments 380

  • § 1. Differences of wages arising from different degrees of attractiveness in different employments, 380
  • 2. Differences of wages arising from natural monopolies, 385
  • 3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors, 388
  • 4. Effect on wages of the competition of persons with independent means of support, 391
  • 5. Wages of women, why lower than those of men, 394
  • 6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from combinations, 396
  • 7. Cases in which wages are fixed by custom, 398

CHAPTER XV. Of Profits 400

  • § 1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and wages of superintendence, 400
  • 2. The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is liable, 402
  • 3. Differences of profits arising from the nature of the particular employment, 403
  • 4. General tendency of profits to an equality, 405
  • 5. Profits do not depend on prices, nor on purchase and sale, 410
  • 6. The advances of the capitalist consist ultimately in wages of labour, 411
  • 7. The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labour, 413

CHAPTER XVI. Of Rent 416

  • § 1. Rent is the effect of a natural monopoly, 416
  • 2. No land can pay rent except land of such quality or situation, as exists in less quantity than the demand, 417
  • 3. The rent of land consists of the excess of its return above the return to the worst land in cultivation, 419
  • 4. The rent of land consists of the excess of its return above the return to the worst land in cultivation or to the capital employed in the least advantageous circumstances, 420
  • 5. Is payment for capital sunk in the soil, rent, or profit? 423
  • 6. Rent does not enter into the cost of production of agricultural produce, 428

APPENDIX [TO BOOK II] 431

Substance of three articles in the Morning Chronicle of 11th, 13th, and 16th January, 1847, in reply to MM. Mounier and Rubichon and to the Quarterly Review, on the Subdivision of Landed Property in France, 434

 

Contents of Volume III: Principles of Political Economy Part II

BOOK III: EXCHANGE

CHAPTER I. Of Value 455

  • § 1. Preliminary remarks, 455
  • 2. Definitions of Value in Use, Exchange Value, and Price, 456
  • 3. What is meant by general purchasing power, 457
  • 4. Value a relative term. A general rise or fall of values is a contradiction, 458
  • 5. How the laws of Value are modified in their application to retail transactions, 460

CHAPTER II. Of Demand and Supply, in Their Relation to Value 462

  • § 1. Two conditions of Value: Utility, and Difficulty of Attainment, 462
  • 2. Three kinds of Difficulty of Attainment, 464
  • 3. Commodities which are absolutely limited in quantity, 465
  • 4. The Equation of Demand and Supply is the law of their value, 466
  • 5. Miscellaneous eases falling under this law, 468

CHAPTER III. Of Cost of Production, in Its Relation to Value 471

  • §1. Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication without increase of cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Production, 471
  • 2. Law of their Value, Cost of Production operating through potential, but not actual, alterations of supply, 473

CHAPTER IV. Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production 477

  • § 1. Principal element in Cost of Production---Quantity of Labour, 477
  • 2. Wages not an dement in Cost of Production, 479
  • 3. Wages not an element in Cost of Production except in so far as they vary from employment to employment, 480
  • 4. Profits an element in Cost of Production, in so far as they vary from employment to employment, 481
  • 5. Profits an element in Cost of Production, in so far as they are spread over unequal lengths of time, 482
  • 6. Occasional elements in Cost of Production: taxes, and scarcity value of materials, 485

CHAPTER V. Of Rent, in Its Relation to Value 488

  • § 1. Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication, but not without increase of cost. Law of their Value is Cost of Production in the most unfavourable existing circumstances, 488
  • 2. Such commodities, when produced in circumstances more favourable, yield a rent equal to the difference of cost, 490
  • 3. Rent of mines and fisheries, and ground-rent of buildings, 492
  • 4. Cases of extra profit analogous to rent, 494

CHAPTER VI. Summary of the Theory of Value 497

  • § 1. The theory of Value recapitulated in a series of propositions, 497
  • 2. How the theory of Value is modified by the case of labourers
  • 3. How the theory of Value is modified by the case of slave labour, 500

CHAPTER VII. Of Money 502

  • § 1. Purposes of a Circulating Medium, 502
  • 2. Why Gold and Silver are fitted for the purposes of a Circulating Medium, 503
  • 3. Money is a mere contrivance for facilitating exchanges, which does not affect the laws of Value, 505

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Value of Money, as Dependent on Demand and Supply 508

  • § 1. The value of money is an ambiguous expression, 508
  • 2. The value of money depends, caeteris paribus, on its quantity, 509
  • 3. The value of money depends also on the rapidity of circulation, 512
  • 4. Explanations and limitations of this principle, 514

CHAPTER IX. Of the Value of Money, as Dependent on Cost of Production 517

  • § 1. The value of money, in a state of freedom, conforms to the value of the bullion contained in it, 517
  • 2. The value of bullion is determined by the cost of production, 519
  • 3. How this law is related to the principle laid down in the preceding chapter, 521

CHAPTER X. Of a Double Standard, and Subsidiary Coins 524

  • § 1. Objections to a double standard, 524
  • 2. How the use of the two metals as money is obtained without making both of them legal tender, 525

CHAPTER XI. Of Credit, as a Substitute for Money 527

  • § I. Credit is not a creation but a transfer of the means of production, 527
  • 2. In what manner credit assists production, 528
  • 3. Function of credit in economizing the use of money, 530
  • 4. Bills of exchange, 531
  • 5. Promissory notes, 535
  • 6. Deposits and cheques, 536

CHAPTER XII. Influence of Credit on Prices 538

  • § 1. The influence of bank notes, bills, and cheques, on price is a part of the influence of Credit, 538
  • 2. Credit is a purchasing power similar to money, 539
  • 3. Effects of great extensions and contractions of credit. Phenomena of a commercial crisis analyzed, 540
  • 4. Bills are a more powerful instrument for acting on prices than book credits, and bank notes than bills, 544
  • 5. The distinction between bills, book credits, and bank notes is of little practical importance, 546
  • 6. Cheques are an instrument for acting on prices, equally powerful with bank notes, 550
  • 7. Are bank notes money? 552
  • 8. There is no generic distinction between bank notes and other forms of credit, 553

CHAPTER XIII. Of an Inconvertible Paper Currency 556

  • § 1. The value of an inconvertible paper, depending on its quantity, is a matter of arbitrary regulation, 556
  • 2. If regulated by the price of bullion, an inconvertible currency might be safe, but not expedient, 558
  • 3. Examination of the doctrine that an inconvertible currency is safe if representing actual property, 560
  • 4. Examination of the doctrine that an increase of the currency promotes industry , 562
  • 5. Depreciation of currency is a tax on the community, and a fraud on creditors, 565
  • 6. Examination of some pleas for committing this fraud, 566

CHAPTER XIV. Of Excess of Supply 570

  • § 1. Can there be an oversupply of commodities generally? 570
  • 2. The supply of commodities in general cannot exceed the power of purchase, 571
  • 3. The supply of commodities in general never does exceed the inclination to consume, 572
  • 4. Origin and explanation of the notion of general oversupply, 574

CHAPTER XV. Of a Measure of Value 577

  • § 1. In what sense a Measure of Exchange Value is possible, 577
  • 2. A Measure of Cost of Production, 578

CHAPTER XVI. Of Some Peculiar Cases of Value 582

  • § 1. Values of Commodities which have a joint cost of production, 582
  • 2. Values of the different kinds of agricultural produce, 584

CHAPTER XVII. Of International Trade 587

  • § 1. Cost of production is not the regulator of international values, 587
  • 2. Interchange of commodities between distant places is determined by differences not in their absolute, but in their comparative, cost of production, 589
  • 3. The direct benefits of commerce consist in increased efficiency of the productive powers of the world, 590
  • 4. The direct benefits of commerce do not consist in a vent for exports, or in the gains of merchants, 591
  • 5. Indirect benefits of commerce, economical and moral, are still greater than the direct, 593

CHAPTER XVIII. Of International Values 595

  • § 1. The values of imported commodities depend on the terms of international interchange, 595
  • 2. The terms of international interchange depend on the Equation of International Demand, 596
  • 3. Influence of cost of carriage on international values, 600
  • 4. The law of values which holds between two countries and two commodities, holds of any greater number, 601
  • 5. Effect of improvements in production on international values, 604
  • 6. The preceding theory not complete, 607
  • 7. International values depend not solely on the quantifies demanded, but also on the means of production available in each country for the supply of foreign markets, 609
  • 8. The practical result is little affected by this additional element , 612
  • 9. On what circumstances the cost to a country of its imports depends, 615

CHAPTER XIX. Of Money, Considered as an Imported Commodity 618

  • § 1. Money imported in two modes; as a commodity, and as a medium of exchange, 618
  • 2. As a commodity, it obeys the same laws of value as other imported commodities, 619
  • 3. Its value does not depend exclusively on its cost of production at the mines, 621

CHAPTER XX.Of the Foreign Exchanges 623

  • § 1. Purposes for which money passes from country to country as a medium of exchange, 623
  • 2. Mode of adjusting international payments through the exchanges, 623
  • 3. Distinction between variations in the exchanges which are self-adjusting, and those which can only be rectified through prices, 627

CHAPTER XXI. Of the Distribution of the Precious Metals Through the Commercial World 630

  • § 1. The substitution of money for barter makes no difference in exports and imports, nor in the law of international values, 630
  • 2. The preceding theorem further illustrated, 633
  • 3. The precious metals, as money, are of the same value, and distribute themselves according to the same law, with the precious metals as a commodity, 636
  • 4. International payments of a non-commercial character, 637

CHAPTER XXII. Influence of the Currency on the Exchanges and on Foreign Trade 639

  • § 1. Variations in the exchange which originate in the currency, 639
  • 2. Effect of a sudden increase of a metallic currency, or of the sudden creation of bank notes or other substitutes for money, 640
  • 3. Effect of the increase of an inconvertible paper currency. Real and nominal exchange, 644

CHAPTER XIII. Of the Rate of Interest 647

  • § 1. The rate of interest depends on the demand and supply of loans, 647
  • 2. Circumstances which determine the permanent demand and supply of loans, 648
  • 3. Circumstances which determine the fluctuations, 650
  • 4. The rate of interest, how far, and in what sense connected with the value of money, 653
  • 5. The rate of interest determines the price of land and of securities, 658

CHAPTER XXlV. Of the Regulation of a Convertible Paper Currency 660

  • § 1. Two contrary theories respecting the influence of bank issues, 660
  • 2. Examination of each theory, 662
  • 3. Reasons for thinking that the Currency Act of 1844 produces a part of the beneficial effect intended by it, 665
  • 4. But the Currency Act produces mischiefs more than equivalent, 670
  • 5. Should the issue of bank notes be confined to a single establishment? 682
  • 6. Should the holders of notes be protected in any peculiar manner against failure of payment? 684

CHAPTER XXV. Of the Competition of Different Countries in the Same Market 686

  • § 1. Causes which enable one country to undersell another, 686
  • 2. Low wages is one of the causes which enable one country to undersell another, 688
  • 3. Low wages is one of those causes when peculiar to certain branches of industry, 689
  • 4. Low wages is not one of those causes when common to all branches of industry, 691
  • 5. Some anomalous cases of trading communities examined, 693

CHAPTER XXVI. Of Distribution, as Affected by Exchange 695

  • § 1. Exchange and Money make no difference in the law of wages, 695
  • 2. Exchange and Money make no difference in the law of rent, 697
  • 3. Exchange and Money make no difference in the law of profits, 698

 

BOOK IV: INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRESS OF SOCIETY ON PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

CHAPTER I. General Characteristics of a Progressive State of Wealth 705

  • § 1. Introductory remarks, 705
  • 2. Tendency of the progress of society towards increased command over the powers of nature; increased security; and increased capacity of co-operation, 706

CHAPTER II. Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population on Values and Prices 710

  • § I. Tendency to a decline of the value and cost of production of all commodities, 710
  • 2. Tendency to a decline of the value and cost of production of all commodities except the products of agriculture and mining,which have a tendency to rise,711
  • 3. That tendency from time to time is counteracted by improvements in production,713
  • 4. Effect of the progress of society in moderating fluctuations of value, 714
  • 5. Examination of the influence of speculators, and in particular of corn-dealers, 715

CHAPTER III. Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population, on Rents, Profits, and Wages 719

  • § 1. First case; population increasing, capital stationary, 719
  • 2. Second case; capital increasing, population stationary, 722
  • 3. Third case; population and capital increasing equally, the arts of production stationary, 722
  • 4. Fourth case; the arts of production progressive, capital and population stationary, 723
  • 5. Fifth case; all the three elements progressive, 729

CHAPTER IV. Of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum 733

  • § 1. Doctrine of Adam Smith on the competition of capital, 733
  • 2. Doctrine of Mr. Wakefield respecting the field of employment, 735
  • 3. What determines the minimum rate of profit, 736
  • 4. In opulent countries, profits are habitually near to the minimum, 738
  • 5. Profits are prevented from reaching the minimum by commercial revulsions, 741
  • 6. Profits are prevented from reaching the minimum by improvements in production, 742
  • 7. Profits are prevented from reaching the minimum by the importation of cheap necessaries and instruments, 743
  • 8. Profits are prevented from reaching the minimum by the emigration of capital, 745

CHAPTER V. Consequences of the Tendency of Profits to a Minimum 747

  • § 1. Abstraction of capital is not necessarily a national loss, 747
  • 2. In opulent countries, the extension of machinery is not detrimental but beneficial to labourers, 749

CHAPTER VI. Of the Stationary State 752

  • § 1. Stationary state of wealth and population is dreaded and deprecated by writers, 752
  • 2. But the stationary state is not in itself undesirable, 753

CHAPTER VII. On the Probable Futurity of the Labouring Classes 758

  • § 1. The theory of dependence and protection is no longer applicable to the condition of modern society, 758
  • 2. The future well-being of the labouring classes is principally dependent on their own mental cultivation, 763
  • 3. Probable effects of improved intelligence in causing a better adjustment of population--Would be promoted by the social independence of women, 765
  • 4. Tendency of society towards the disuse of the relation of hiring and service, 766
  • 5. Examples of the association of labourers with capitalists, 769
  • 6. Examples of the association of labourers among themselves, 775
  • 7. Competition is not pernicious, but useful and indispensable, 794

 

BOOK V: ON THE INFLUENCE OF GOVERNMENT

CHAPTER I. Of the Functions of Government in General 799

  • § 1. Necessary and optional functions of government distinguished, 799
  • 2. Multifarious character of the necessary functions of government, 800
  • 3. Division of the subject, 804

CHAPTER II. On the GeneraI Principles of Taxation 805

  • § 1. Four fundamental rules of taxation, 805 io
  • 2. Grounds of the principle of Equality of Taxation, 806
  • 3. Should the same percentage be levied on all amounts of income? 808
  • 4. Should the same percentage be levied on perpetual and on terminable incomes? 813 i
  • 5. The increase of the rent of land from natural causes is a fit subject of peculiar taxation, 819
  • 6. A land tax, in some cases, is not taxation, but a rent-charge in favour of the public, 821
  • 7. Taxes falling on capital are not necessarily objectionable, 822

CHAPTER III. Of Direct Taxes 825

  • § 1. Direct taxes either on income or on expenditure, 825
  • 2. Taxes on rent, 825
  • 3. Taxes on profits, 826
  • 4. Taxes on wages, 828
  • 5. An Income Tax, 830
  • 6. A House Tax, 833

CHAPTER IV. Of Taxes on Commodities 838

  • § 1. A Tax on all Commodities would fall on profits, 838 ,
  • 2. Taxes on particular commodities fall on the consumer, 839
  • 3. Peculiar effects of taxes on necessaries, 840
  • 4. How the peculiar effects of taxes on necessaries are modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum, 843
  • 5. Effects of discriminating duties, 847
  • 6. Effects produced on international exchange by duties on exports and on imports, 850

CHAPTER V. Of Some Other Taxes 857

  • § 1. Taxes on contracts, 857
  • 2. Taxes oncommunication, 860
  • 3. Law Taxes, 862
  • 4. Modes of taxation for local purposes, 862

CHAPTER VI. Comparison Between Direct and Indirect Taxation 864

  • § I. Arguments for and against direct taxation, 864
  • 2. What forms of indirect taxation are most eligible, 868
  • 3. Practical rules for indirect taxation, 870

CHAPTER VII. Of a National Debt 873

  • § 1. Is it desirable to defray extraordinary public expenses by loans? 873
  • 2. Not desirable to redeem a national debt by a general contribution, 876
  • 3. In what cases it is desirable to maintain a surplus revenue for the redemption of debt, 878

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Ordinary Functions of Government, Considered as to Their Economical Effects 880

  • § 1. Effects of imperfect security of person and property, 880
  • 2. Effects of over-taxation, 882
  • 3. Effects of imperfection in the system of the laws, and in the administration of justice, 883

CHAPTER IX. The Same Subject Continued 887

  • § 1. Laws of Inheritance, 887
  • 2. Law and Custom of Primogeniture, 889
  • 3. Entails, 892
  • 4. Law of compulsory equal division of inheritances, 894
  • 5. Laws of Partnership, 895
  • 6. Partnerships with limited liability. Chartered Companies, 897
  • 7. Partnerships in commandite, 901
  • 8. Laws relating to Insolvency, 906

CHAPTER X. Of Inteferences of Government Grounded on Erroneous Theories 913

  • § 1. Doctrine of Protection to Native Industry, 913
  • 2. Usury Laws, 922
  • 3. Attempts to regulate the prices of commodities, 926
  • 4. Monopolies, 927
  • 5. Laws against Combination of Workmen, 929
  • 6. Restraints on opinion or on its publication, 934

CHAPTER XI. Of the Grounds and Limits of the Laisser-Faire or Non-Interference Principle 936

  • § 1. Governmental intervention distinguished into authoritative and unauthoritative, 936
  • 2. Objections to government intervention --the compulsory character of the intervention itself, or of the levy of funds to support it, 937
  • 3. Objections to government intervention--increase of the power and influence of government, 939
  • 4. Objections to government intervention--increase of the occupations and responsibilities of government, 940
  • 5. Objections to government intervention--superior efficiency of private agency, owing to stronger interest in the work, 941
  • 6. Objections to government intervention--importance of cultivating habits of collective action in the people, 942
  • 7. Laisser-faire the general rule, 944
  • 8. Large exceptions to laisser-faire. Cases in which the consumer is an incompetent judge of the commodity. Education, 947
  • 9. Case of persons exercising power over others. Protection of children and young persons; of the lower animals. Case of women not analogous, 950
  • 10. Case of contracts in perpetuity, 953
  • 11. Cases of delegated management, 954
  • 12. Cases in which public intervention may be necessary to give effect to the wishes of the persons interested. Examples: hours of labour; disposal of colonial lands, 956
  • 13. Case of acts done for the benefit of others than the persons concerned. Poor Laws, 960
  • 14. Case of acts done for the benefit of others. Colonization, 962
  • 15. Case of acts done for the benefit of others. Miscellaneous examples, 968
  • 16. Government intervention may be necessary in default of private agency, in cases where private agency would be more suitable, 970

 

APPENDICES

  • APPENDIX A. Book II, Chapter i, "Of Property," §§ 3-6, 2nd edition (1849), collated with the 1st edition and the MS 975
  • APPENDIX B. Book II, Chapter x, "Means of Abolishing Cottier Tenancy," §§ 1-7, 2nd edition (1849), collated with the 1st edition and the MS 988
  • APPENDIX C. Book II, Chapter x, "Means of Abolishing Cottier Tenancy," § 3, 4th edition (1857), collated with the earlier editions and the MS 1003
  • APPENDIX D. Book IV, Chapter vii, "On the Probable Futurity of the Labouring Classes," §§ 5-6, 2nd edition (1849), collated with the 1st edition 1006
  • APPENDIX E. Appendix to Vol. II, 4th edition (1857) 1015
  • APPENDIX F. Account of the MS of the Principles 1021
  • APPENDIX G. John Smart Mill--Harriet Taylor Mill correspondence concerning the Principles 1026
  • APPENDIX H. John Stuart Mill--John E. Cairnes correspondence and notes concerning the Principles 1038
  • APPENDIX I. Bibliographic Index of persons and works cited in the Principles, with variants and notes 1096

INDEX 1157

FACSIMILES

  • Facsimile of the first folio of the text, from the MS in the Pierpont Morgan Library facing page 3
  • Facsimile of the beginning of Book I, Chapter iv, from the MS in the Pierpont Morgan Library facing page 1025

Contents of Volume IV: Essays on Economics and Society Part I

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION, by Lord Robbins vii
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION, by J. M. Robson xliii

Essays on Economics and Society

  • War Expenditure (1824) 1
  • The Quarterly Review on Political Economy (1825) 23
  • The Corn Laws (1825) 45
  • Paper Currency and Commercial Distress (1826) 71
  • The Silk Trade (1826) 125
  • The New Corn Law (1827) 141
  • The Nature, Origin, and Progress of Rent (1828) 161
  • The Currency Juggle (1833) 181
  • Corporation and Church Property (1833) 193
  • Miss Martineau's Summary of Political Economy (1834) 223
  • Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844) 229
    • Preface, 231
    • Of the Laws of Interchange Between Nations, 232
    • Of the Influence of Consumption on Production, 262
    • On the Words Productive and Unproductive, 280
    • On Profits, and Interest, 290
    • On the Definition of Political Economy, 309
  • The Currency Question ( 1844) 341
  • The Claims of Labour (1845) 363
  • De Quincey's Logic of Political Economy (1845) 391

Contents of Volume V: Essays on Economics and Society Part II

Essays on Economics and Society

  • The Savings of the Middle and Working Classes (1850) 405
  • The Regulation of the London Water Supply (1851 ) 431
  • Newman's Political Economy (I 851 ) 439
  • The Law of Partnership (1851) 459
  • The Income and Property Tax (1852) 463
  • The Bank Acts (1857) 499
  • The Income and Property Tax (1861) 549
  • Currency and Banking (1867) 599
  • Endowments (1869) 613
  • Thornton on Labour and Its Claims (1869) 631
  • Leslie on the Land Question (1870) 669
  • Land Tenure Reform (1871) 687
  • Property and Taxation (1873) 697
  • Chapters on Socialism (1879) 703

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A. McCulIoch's Discourse on Political Economy (1825) 757
  • Appendix B. Petition on FreeTrade (1841) 761
  • Appendix C. Examination Paper in Political Economy (1872) 764
  • Appendix D. Circular of the Land Tenure Reform Association concerning the Public Lands and Commons Bill (1872) 765
  • Appendix E. Bibliographic Index of persons and works cited in the Essays, with variants and notes 767

INDEX 833

Contents of Volume VI: Essays on England, Ireland, and the Empire

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION by Joseph Hamburger vii
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION by J. M. Robson liv

Essays on England, Ireland, and the Empire

  • Brodie's History of the British Empire (1824) 1
  • Ireland (1825) 59
  • The Game Laws (1826) 99
  • Intercourse between the United States and the British Colonies in the West Indies (1828) 121
  • Notes on the Newspapers (1834) 149
  • The Close of the Session (1834) 281
  • Postscript to the London Review, No. 1 (1835) 289
  • Parliamentary Proceedings of the Session (1835) 295
  • Postscript: The Close of the Session (1835) 309
  • State of Politics in 1836 (1836) 319
  • Walsh's Contemporary History (1836) 329
  • Fonblanque's England under Seven Administrations (1837) 349
  • Parties and the Ministry (1837) 381
  • Radical Party and Canada: Lord Durham and the Canadians (1838) 405
  • Lord Durham and His Assailants (1838) 437
  • Lord Durham's Return (1838) 445
  • Reorganization of the Reform Party (1839) 465
  • What Is to Be Done with Ireland? (18487) 497
  • England and Ireland (1868) 505

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A. England and Ireland: First Draft (1867-68) 535
  • Appendix B. List of Titles of "Notes on the Newspapers" (1834) 544
  • Appendix C. Textual Emendations 546
  • Appendix D. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited, with Variants and Notes 550

INDEX 669 -

FACSIMILES

  • Folio lr of "What Is to Be Done with Ireland?" MS The King's School, Canterbury, 500
  • Folio 3r of draft of England and Ireland, MS Houghton Library, Harvard University, 510

 

Contents of Volume VII: System of Logic: Raciocinative and Inductive Part I

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by R. F. McRae xxi
  • Textual Introduction, by J. M. Robson xlix
  • PREFACES cix

Introduction and Book I

INTRODUCTION 3

  • § 1. A definition at the commencement of a subject must be provisional, 3
  • 2. Is logic the art and science of reasoning? 4
  • 3. Or the art and science of the pursuit of truth? 5
  • 4. Logic is concerned with inferences, not with intuitive truths, 6
  • 5. Relation of logic to the other sciences, 9
  • 6. Its utility, how shown, 11
  • 7. Definition of logic stated and illustrated, 12

BOOK I: OF NAMES AND PROPOSITIONS

CHAPTER I. Of the Necessity of commencing with an Analysis of Language 19

  • § 1. Theory of names, why a necessary part of logic, 19
  • 2. First step in the analysis of Propositions, 20
  • 3. Names must be studied before Things, 22

CHAPTER II. Of Names 24

  • § I. Names are names of things, not of our ideas, 24
  • 2. Words which are not names,but parts of names, 25
  • 3. General and Singular names, 27
  • 4. Concrete and Abstract, 29
  • 5. Connotative and Non-connotative, 30
  • 6. Positive and Negative, 41
  • 7. Relative and Absolute, 42
  • 8. Univocal and Aequivocal, 44

CHAPTER III. Of the Things denoted by Names 46

  • § 1. Necessity of an enumeration of Nameable Things. The Categories of Aristotle, 46
  • 2. Ambiguity of the most general names, 48
  • 3. Feelings, or states of consciousness, 51
  • 4. Feelings must be distinguished from their physical antecedents. Perceptions, what, 52
  • 5. Volitions, and Actions, what, 54
  • 6. Substance and Attribute, 55
  • 7. Body, 56
  • 8. Mind, 63
  • 9. Qualities, 65
  • 10. Relations, 67
  • 11. Resemblance, 70
  • 12. Quantity, 73
  • 13. All attributes of bodies are grounded on states of consciouness, 74
  • 14. So also all attributes of minds, 74
  • 15. Recapitulation, 75

CHAPTER IV. Of Propositions 78

  • § 1. Nature and office of the copula, 78
  • 2. Affirmative and Negative propositions, 80
  • 3. Simple and Complex, 81
  • 4. Universal, Particular, and Singular, 84

CHAPTER V. Of the Import of Propositions 87

  • § 1. Doctrine that a proposition is the expression of a relation between two ideas, 87
  • 2. Doctrine that it is the expression of a relation between the meanings of two names, 90
  • 3. Doctrine that it consists in referring something to, or excluding something from, a class, 93
  • 4. What it really is, 97
  • 5. It asserts (or denies) a sequence, a coexistence, a simple existence, a causation, 99
  • 6. --or a resemblance, 102
  • 7. Propositions of which the terms are abstract, 105

CHAPTER Vl. Of Propositions merely Verbal 109

  • § 1. Essential and Accidental propositions, 109
  • 2. All essential propositions are identical propositions, 110
  • 3. Individuals have no essences, 114
  • 4. Real propositions, how distinguished from verbal, 115
  • 5. Two modes of representing the import of a Real proposition, 116

CHAPTER VII. Of the Nature of Classification, and the Five Predicables 118

  • § 1. Classification, how connected with Naming, 118
  • 2. The Predicables, what, 119
  • 3. Genus and Species, 120
  • 4. Kinds have a real existence in nature, 122
  • 5. Differentia, 126
  • 6. Differentiae for general purposes, and differentim for special or technical purposes, 128
  • 7. proprium; 130
  • 8. Accidens, 132

CHAPTER VIII. Of Definition 133

  • § 1. A definition, what, 133
  • 2. Every name can be defined, whose meaning is susceptible of analysis, 134
  • 3. Complete, how distinguished from incomplete definitions, 136
  • 4. --and from descriptions, 137
  • 5. What are called definitions of Things, are definitions of Names with an implied assumption of the existence of Things corresponding to them, 142
  • 6. --even when such things do not in reality exist, 148
  • 7. Definitions, though of names only, must be grounded on knowledge of the corresponding things, 150

BOOK II: OF REASONING

  • CHAPTER I. Of Inference, or Reasoning, in general 157
  • § 1. Retrospect of the preceding book, 157
  • 2. Inferences improperly so called, 158
  • 3. Inferences proper, distinguished into inductions and ratiocinations, 162

CHAPTER II. Of Ratiocination, or Syllogism 164

  • § 1. Analysis of the Syllogism, 164
  • 2. The dictum de omni not the foundation of reasoning, but a mere identical proposition, 174
  • 3. What is the really fundamental axiom of Ratiocination, 176
  • 4. The other form of the axiom, 180

CHAPTER III. Of the Functions, and Logical Value of the Syllogism 183

  • § 1. Is the syllogism a petitio principii?, 183
  • 2. Insufficiency of the common theory, 184
  • 3. All inference is from particulars to particulars, 186
  • 4. General propositions are a record of such inferences, and the rules of the syllogism are rules for the interpretation of the record, 193
  • 5. The syllogism not the type of reasoning, but a test of it, 196
  • 6. The true type, what, 199
  • 7. Relation between Induction and Deduction, 202
  • 8. Objections answered , 203
  • 9. Of Formal Logic, and its relation to the Logic of Truth, 206

CHAPTER IV. Of Trains of Reasoning, and Deductive Sciences 209

  • § 1. For what purpose trains of reasoning exist, 209
  • 2. A train of reasoning is a series of inductive inferences, 209
  • 3. --from particulars to particulars through marks of marks, 212
  • 4. Why there are deductive sciences, 214
  • 5. Why other sciences still remain experimental, 218
  • 6. Experimental sciences may become deductive by the progress of experiment, 219
  • 7. In what manner this usually takes place, 221

CHAPTER V. Of Demonstration, and Necessary Truths 224

  • § 1. The Theorems of geometry are necessary truths only in the sense of necessarily following from hypotheses, 224
  • 2. Those hypotheses are real facts with some of their circumstances exaggerated or omitted, 227
  • 3. Some of the first principles of geometry are axioms, and these are not hypothetical, 229
  • 4. --but are experimental truths, 231
  • 5. An obiection answered, 233
  • 6. Dr. Whewell's opinions on axioms examined, 236

CHAPTER VI. The same Subject continued 252

  • § 1. All deductive sciences are inductive, 252
  • 2. The propositions of the science of number are not verbal, but generalizations from experience, 253
  • 3. In what sense hypothetical, 258
  • 4. The characteristic property of demonstrative science is to be hypothetical, 259
  • 5. Definition of demonstrative evidence, 260

CHAPTER VII. Examination of some Opinions opposed to the preceding doctrines 262

  • § 1. Doctrine of the Universal Postulate, 262
  • 2. The test of inconceivability does not represent the aggregate of past experience, 264
  • 3. --nor is implied in every process of thought, 266
  • 4. Objections answered, 273
  • 5. Sir W. Hamilton's opinion on the Principles of Contradiction and Excluded Middle , 276

BOOK III: OF INDUCTION

CHAPTER I. Preliminary Observations on Induction in general 283

  • § 1. Importance of an Inductive Logic, 283
  • 2. The logic of science is also that of business and life, 284

CHAPTER II. Of Inductions improperlyso called 288

  • § I. Inductions distinguished from verbal transformations, 288
  • 2. --from inductions, falsely so called, in mathematics, 290
  • 3. --and from descriptions, 292
  • 4. Examination of Dr. Whewell's theory of Induction, 294
  • 75. Further illustration of the preceding remarks, 303

CHAPTER III. On the Ground of Induction 306

  • § 1. Axiom of the uniformity of the course of nature, 306
  • 2. Not true in every sense. Induction per enumerationem simplicem, 311
  • 3. The question of Inductive Logic stated, 313

CHAPTER IV. Of Laws of Nature 315

  • § 1. The general regularity in nature is a tissue of partial regularities, called laws, 315
  • 2. Scientific induction must be grounded on previous spontaneous inductions, 318
  • 3. Are there any inductions fitted to be a test of all others? 320

CHAPTER V. of the Law of Universal Causation 323

  • § 1. The universal law of successive phenomena is the Law of Causation, 323
  • 2. --i.e. the law that every consequent has an invariable antecedent, 326
  • 3. The cause of a phenomenon is the assemblage of its conditions, 327
  • 4. The distinction of agent and patient illusory, 334
  • 5. Case in which the effect consists in giving a property to an object, 336
  • 6. The cause is not the invariable antecedent, but the unconditional invariable antecedent, 338
  • 7. Can a cause be simultaneous with its effect? 342
  • 8. Idea of a Permanent Cause, or original natural agent, 344
  • 9. Uniformities of co-existence between effects of different permanent causes, are not laws, 348
  • 10. Theory of the Conservation of Force, 348
  • 11. Doctrine that volition is an efficient cause, examined , 353

CHAPTER VI. Of the Composition of Causes 370

  • § 1. Two modes of the conjunct action of causes, the mechanical and the chemical, 370
  • 2. The composition of causes the general rule; the other case exceptional, 373
  • 3. Are effects proportional to their causes? 376

CHAPTER VII. Of Observation and Experiment 379

  • § 1. The first step of inductive inquiry is a mental analysis of complex phenomena into their elements, 379
  • 2. The next is an actual separation of those elements, 381
  • 3. Advantages of experiment over observation, 382
  • 4. Advantages of observation over experiment, 384

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Four Methods of Experimental Inquiry 388

  • § 1. Method of Agreement, 388
  • 2. Method of Difference, 391
  • 3. Mutual relation of these two methods, 392
  • 4. Joint Method of Agreement and Difference, 394
  • 5. Method of Residues, 397
  • 6. Method of Concomitant Variations, 398
  • 7. Limitations of this last method, 403

CHAPTER IX. Miscellaneous Examples of the Four Methods 407

  • § 1. Liebig's theory of metallic poisons, 407
  • 2. Theory of induced electricity , 410
  • 3. Dr. Wells' theory of dew, 414
  • 4. Dr. Brown-Séquard's theory of cadaveric rigidity, 421
  • 5. Examples of the Method of Residues, 426
  • 6. Dr. Whewell's objections to the Four Methods , 429

CHAPTER X. Of Plurality of Causes; and of the Intermixture of Effects 434

  • § 1. One effect may have several causes, 434
  • 2. --which is the source of a characteristic imperfection of the Method of Agreement, 435
  • 3. Plurality of Causes, how ascertained, 438
  • 4. Concurrence of Causes which do not compound their effects, 440
  • 5. Difficulties of the investigation, when causes compound their effects, 442
  • 6. Three modes of investigating the laws of complex effects, 446
  • 7. The method of simple observation inapplicable, 447
  • 8. The purely experimental method inapplicable, 449

CHAPTER XI. Of the Deductive Method 454

  • § 1. First stage; ascertainment of the laws of the separate causes by direct induction, 454
  • 2. Second stage; ratiocination from the simple laws of the complex cases, 458
  • 3. Third stage; verification by specific experience, 460

CHAPTER XlI. Of the Explanation of Laws of Nature 464

  • § 1. Explanation defined, 464
  • 2. First mode of explanation, by resolving the law of a complex effect into the laws of the concurrent causes and the fact of their coexisteuce, 464
  • 3. Second mode; by the detection of an intermediate link in the sequence, 465
  • 4. Laws are always resolved into laws more general than themselves, 466
  • 5. Third mode; the subsumption of less general laws under a more general one, 469
  • 6. What the explanation of a law of nature amounts to, 471

CHAPTER XIII. Miscellaneous Examples of the Explanation of Laws of Nature 473

  • § 1. The general theories of the sciences, 473
  • 2. Examples from chemical speculations, 474
  • 3. Example from Dr. Brown-Séquard's researches on the nervous system, 476
  • 4. Examples of following newly-discovered laws into their complex manifestations, 477
  • 5. Examples of empirical generalizations, afterwards confirmed and explained deductively, 479
  • 6. Example from mental science, 480
  • 7. Tendency of all the sciences to become deductive, 481

CHAPTER XlV. Of the Limits to the Explanation of Laws of Nature; and of Hypotheses 484

  • § 1. Can all the sequences in nature be resolvable into one law? 484
  • 2. Ultimate laws cannot be less numerous than the distinguishable feelings of our nature, 485
  • 3. In what sense ultimate facts can be explained, 488
  • 4. The proper use of scientific hypotheses, 490
  • 5. Their indispensableness, 496
  • 6. The two degrees of legitimacy in hypotheses, 498
  • 7. Some inquiries apparently hypothetical are really inductive, 5O5

CHAPTER XV. Of Progressive Effects; and of the Continued Action of Causes 509

  • § 1. How a progressive effect results from the simple continuance of the cause, 509
  • 2. --and from the progressiveness of the cause, 512
  • 3. Derivative laws generated from a single ultimate law, 514

CHAPTER XVI Of Empirical Laws 516

  • § 1. Definition of an empirical law, 516
  • 2. Derivative laws commonly depend on collocations, 517
  • 3. The collocations of the permanent causes are not reducible to any law, 518
  • 4. Hence empirical laws cannot be relied on beyond the limits of actual experience, 519
  • 5. Generalizations which rest only on the Method of Agreement can only be received as empirical laws, 520
  • 6. Signs from which an observed uniformity of sequence may be presumed to be resolvable, 521
  • 7. Two kinds of empirical laws, 524

CHAPTER XVII. Of Chance, and its Elimination 525

  • § 1. The proof of empirical laws depends on the theory of chance, 525
  • 2. Chance defined and characterized, 526
  • 3. The elimination of chance, 530
  • 4. Discovery of residual phenomena by eliminating chance, 531
  • 5. The doctrine of chances, 533

CHAPTER XVIII. Of the Calculation of Chances 534

  • § 1. Foundation of the doctrine of chances, as taught by mathematics, 534
  • 2. The doctrine tenable, 535
  • 3. On what foundation it really rests, 537
  • 4. Its ultimate dependence on causation, 540
  • 5. Theorem of the doctrine of chances which relates to the cause of a given event, 543
  • 6. How applicable to the elimination of chance, 546

CHAPTER XIX. Of the Extension of Derivative Laws to Adjacent Cases 548

  • § 1. Derivative laws, when not causal, are almost always contingent on collocations, 548
  • 2. On what grounds they can be extended to cases beyond the bounds of actual experience, 549
  • 3. Those cases must be adjacent cases, 551

CHAPTER XX. Of Analogy 554

  • § I.Various senses of the word analogy, 554
  • 2.Nature of analogical evidence, 555
  • 3. On what circumstances its value depends, 559

CHAPTER XXI Of the Evidence of the Law of Universal Causation 562

  • § 1. The law of causality does not rest on an instinc, 562
  • 2. But on an induction by simple enumeration, 567
  • 3. In what cases such induction is allowable, 569
  • 4. The universal prevalence of the law of causality, on what grounds admissible , 572

CHAPTER XXII. of Uniformities of Coexistence not dependent on Causation 578

  • § 1. Uniformities of coexistence which result from laws of sequence, 578
  • 2. The properties of Kinds are uniformities of coexistence, 579
  • 3. Some are derivative, others ultimate, 581
  • 4. No universal axiom of coexistence, 582
  • 5. The evidence of uniformities of coexistence, how measured, 583
  • 6. When derivative, their evidence is that of empirical laws, 584
  • 7. So also when ultimate, 585
  • 8. The evidence stronger in proportion as the law is more general, 586
  • 9. Every distinct Kind must be examined, 587

CHAPTER XXIII . Of Approximate Generalizations, and Probable Evidence 591

  • § 1. The inferences called probable, rest on approximate generalizations, 591
  • 2. Approximate generalizations less useful in science than in life, 591
  • 3. In what cases they cmayobe resorted to, 593
  • 4. In what manner proved, 594
  • 5. With what precautions employed, 596
  • 6. The two modes of combining probabilities, 597
  • 7. How approximate generalizations may be converted into accurate generalizations equivalent to them, 602

CHAPTER XXIV. Of the Remaining Laws of Nature 604

  • § 1. Propositions which assert mere existence, 604
  • 2. Resemblance, considered as a subject of science, 605
  • 3. The axioms and theorems of mathematics comprise the principal laws of resemblance, 607
  • 4. --and those of order in place, and rest on induction by simple enumeration, 608
  • 5. The propositions of arithmetic affirm the modes of formation of some given number, 610
  • 6. Those of algebra affirm the equivalence of different modes of formation of numbers generally, 613
  • 7. The propositions of geometry are laws of outward nature, 616
  • 8. Why geometry is almost entirely deductive, 618
  • 9. Function of mathematical truths in the other sciences, and limits of that function, 620

CHAPTER XXV. Of the Grounds of Disbelief 622

  • § 1. Improbability and impossibility, 622
  • 2. Examination of Hume's doctrine of miracles, 622
  • 3. The degrees of improbability correspond to differences in the nature of the generalization with which an assertion conflicts, 626
  • 4. A fact is not incredible because the chances are against it, 630
  • 5. Are coincidences less credible than other facts?, 632
  • 6. An opinion of Laplace examined, 634

Contents of Volume VIII: System of Logic: Raciocinative and Inductive Part II

BOOK IV: OF OPERATIONS SUBSIDIARY TO INDUCTION

CHAPTER I. Of Observation and Description 641

  • § 1. Observation, how far a subject of logic, 641
  • 2. A great part of what seems observation is really inference, 64 1
  • 3. The description of an observation affirms more than is contained in the observation, 644
  • 4. --namely, an agreement among phenomena; and the comparison of phenomena to ascertain such agreements is a preliminary to induction, 647

CHAPTER II. Of Abstraction, or the Formation of Conceptions 649

  • § 1. The comparison which is a preliminary to induction implies general conceptions, 649
  • 2. --but these need not be pre-existent, 650
  • 3. A general conception, originally the result of a comparison, becomes itself the type of comparison, 653
  • 4. What is meant by appropriate conceptions, 656
  • 5. --and by clear conceptions, 658
  • 6. Further illustration of the subject, 659

CHAPTER III. Of Naming, as subsidiary to Induction 663

  • § 1. The fundamental property of names as an instrument of thought, 663
  • 2. Names are not indispensable to induction, 664
  • 3. In what manner subservient to it, 665
  • 4. General names not a mere contrivance to economize the use of language, 666

CHAPTER IV. Of the Requisites of a Philosophical Language, and the Principles of Definition 668

  • § 1. First requisite of philosophical language, a steady and determinate meaning for every general name, 668
  • 2. Names in common use have often a loose connotation, 668
  • 3. --which the logician should fix, with as little alteration as possible, 670
  • 4. Why definition is often a question not of words but of things, 672
  • 5. How the logician should deal with the transitive applications of words, 675
  • 6. Evil consequences of casting off any portion of the customary connotation of words, 679

CHAPTER V. On the Natural History of the Variations in the Meaning of Terms 686

  • § 1. How circumstances originally accidental become incorporated into the meaning of words, 686
  • 2. --and sometimes become the whole meaning, 688
  • 3. Tendency of words to become generalized, 689
  • 4. --and to become specialized, 693

CHAPTER VI. The Principles of a Philosophical Language further considered 698

  • § 1. Second requisite of philosophical language, a name for every important meaning, 698
  • 2. --viz. first, an accurate descriptive terminology, 698
  • 3. --secondly, a name for each of the more important results of scientific abstraction, 701
  • 4. --thirdly, a nomenclature, or system of the names of Kinds, 703
  • 5. Peculiar nature of the connotation of names which belong to a nomenclature, 705
  • 6. In what cases language may, and may not, be used mechanically, 707

CHAPTER VII. Of Classification, as subsidiary to Induction 712

  • § 1. Classification as here treated of, wherein different from the classification implied in naming, 712
  • 2. Theory of natural groups, 713
  • 3. Are natural groups given by type, or by definition? 717
  • 4. Kinds are natural groups, 718
  • 5. How the names of Kinds should be constructed, 723

CHAPTER VIII. Of Classification by Series 726

  • § 1. Natural groups should be arranged in a natural series, 726
  • 2. The arrangement should follow the degrees of the main phenomenon, 727
  • 3. --which implies the assumption of a type-species, 728
  • 4. How the divisions of the series should be determined, 729
  • 5. Zoology affords the completest type of scientific classification, 731

BOOK V: ON FALLACIES

CHAPTER I. Of Fallacies in General 735

  • § 1. Theory of fallacies a necessary part of logic, 735
  • 2. Casual mistakes are not fallacies, 736
  • 3. The moral sources of erroneous opinion, how related to the intellectual, 737

CHAPTER II. Classification of Fallacies 740

  • § 1. On what criteria a classification of fallacies should be grounded, 740
  • 2. The five classes of fallacies, 741
  • 3. The reference of a fallacy to one or another class is sometimes arbitrary, 744

CHAPTER III. Fallacies of Simple Inspection, or à priori Fallacies 746

  • § 1. Character of this class of Fallacies, 746
  • 2. Natural prejudice of mistaking subjective laws for objective, exemplified in popular superstitions, 747
  • 3. Natural prejudices, that things which we think of together must exist together, and that what is inconceivable must be false, 750
  • 4. Natural prejudice, of ascribing objective existence to abstractions, 756
  • 5. Fallacy of the Sufficient Reason, 757
  • 6. Natural prejudice, that the differences in nature correspond to the distinctions in language, 760
  • 7. Prejudice, that a phenomenon cannot have more than one cause, 763
  • 8. Prejudice, that the conditions of a phenomenon must resemble the phenomenon, 765

CHAPTER IV. Fallacies of Observation 773

  • § 1. Non-observation, and Mal-observation, 773
  • 2. Non-observation of instances, and non-observation of circumstances, 773
  • 3. Examples of the former, 774
  • 4. --and of the latter, 778
  • 5. Mal-observation characterized and exemplified, 782

CHAPTER V. Fallacies of Generalization 785

  • § 1. Character of the class, 785
  • 2. Certain kinds of generalization s must always be groundless, 785
  • 3. Attempts to resolve phenomena radically different into the same, 786
  • 4. Fallacy of mistaking empirical for causal laws, 788
  • 5. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc; and the deductive fallacy corresponding to it, 792
  • 6. Fallacy of False Analogies, 794
  • 7. Function of metaphors in reasoning, 799
  • 8. How fallacies of generalization grow out of bad classification, 801

CHAPTER VI. Fallacies of Ratiocination 803

  • § 1. Introductory Remarks, 803
  • 2. Fallacies in the conversion and aequipollency of propositions, 803
  • 3. Fallacies in the syllogistic process, 804
  • 4. Fallacy of changing the premises, 805

CHAPTER VII. Fallacies of Confusion 809

  • § 1. Fallacy of Ambiguous Terms, 809
  • 2. Fallacy of Petitio Principii, 819
  • 3. Fallacy of Ignoratio Elenchi, 827

BOOK VI: ON THE LOGIC OF THE MORAL SCIENCES

CHAPTER I. Introductory Remarks 833

  • § 1. The backward state of the Moral Sciences can only be remedied by applying to them the methods of Physical Science, duly extended and generalized, 833
  • 2. How far this can be attempted in the present work, 834

CHAPTER II. Of Liberty and Necessity 836

  • § 1. Are human actions subject to the law of causality? 836
  • 2. The doctrine commonly called Philosophical Necessity, in what sense true, 836
  • 3. Inappropriateness and pernicious effect of the term Necessity, 839
  • 4. A motive not always the anticipation of a pleasure or a pain, 842

CHAPTER III. That there is, or may be, a Science of Human Nature 844

  • § 1. There may be sciences which are not exact sciences, 844
  • 2. To what scientific type the Science of Human Nature corresponds, 846

CHAPTER IV. Of the Laws of Mind 849

  • § 1. What is meant by Laws of Mind, 849
  • 2. Is there a science of Psychology? 849
  • 3. The principal investigations of Psychology characterized, 852
  • 4. Relation of mental facts to physical conditions, 856

CHAPTER V. Of Ethology, or the Science of the Formation of Character 861

  • § 1. The Empirical Laws of Human Nature, 861
  • 2. --are merely approximate generalizations. The universal laws are those of the formation of character, 863
  • 3. The laws of the formation of character cannot be ascertained by observation and experiment, 865
  • 4. --but must be studied deductively, 868
  • 5. The principles of Ethology are the axiomata media of mental science, 870
  • 6. Ethology characterized, 872

CHAPTER VI. General Considerations on the Social Science 875

  • § 1. Are Social Phenomena a subject of Science? 875
  • 2. Of what nature the Social Science must be, 877

CHAPTER VII. Of the Chemical, or Experimental, Method in the Social Science 879

  • § 1. Characters of the mode of thinking which deduces political doctrines from specific experience, 879
  • 2. In the Social Science experiments are impossible, 881
  • 3. --the Method of Difference inapplicable, 881
  • 4. --and the Methods of Agreement, and of Concomitant Variations, inconclusive, 883
  • 5. The Method of Residues also inconclusive, and presupposes Deduction, 884

CHAPTER VIII. Of the Geometrical, or Abstract Method 887

  • § 1. Characters of this mode of thinking, 887
  • 2. Examples of the Geometrical Method, 888
  • 3. The interest-philosophy of the Bentham School, 889

CHAPTER IX. Of the Physical, or Concrete Deductive Method 895

  • § 1. The Direct and Inverse Deductive Methods, 895
  • 2. Difficulties of the Direct Deductive Method in the Social Science, 898
  • 3. To what extent the different branches of sociological speculation can be studied apart. Political Economy characterized, 900
  • 4. Political Ethology, or the science of national character, 904
  • 5. The Empirical Laws of the Social Science, 907
  • 6. The Verification of the Social Science, 908

CHAPTER X. Of the Inverse Deductive, or Historical Method 911

  • § 1. Distinction between the general Science of Society, and special sociological inquiries, 911
  • 2. What is meant by a State of Society? 911
  • 3. The Progressiveness of Man and Society, 913
  • 4. The laws of the succession of states of society can only be ascertained by the Inverse-Deductive Method, 915
  • 5. Social Statics, or the science of the Coexistences of Social Phenomena, 917
  • 6. Social Dynamics, or the science of the Successions of Social Phenomena, 924
  • 7. Outlines of the Historical Method, 925
  • 8. Future prospects of Sociological Inquiry, 928

CHAPTER XI. Additional Elucidations of the Science of History 931

  • § 1. The subjection of historical facts to uniform laws is verified by statistics, 931
  • 2. ---does not imply the insignificance of moral causes, 934
  • 3. --nor the inefficacy of the characters of individuals and of the acts of governments, 936
  • 4. The historical importance of eminent men and of the policy of governments illustrated, 939

CHAPTER XII. Of the Logic of Practice, or Art; including Morality and Policy 943

  • § 1. Morality not a Science, but an Art, 943
  • 2. Relation between rules of art and the theorems of the corresponding science, 943
  • 3. What is the proper function of rules of art? 945
  • 4. Art cannot be Deductive, 946
  • 5. Every Art consists of truths of Science, arranged in the order suitable for some practical use, 947
  • 6. Teleology, or the Doctrine of Ends, 949
  • 7. Necessity of an ultimate standard, or first principle of Teleology, 951
  • 8. Conclusion, 953

APPENDICES

  • APPENDIX A. The Early Draft of the Logic 955
    • Introductory Matter, 961
    • Statement of the Problem, 969
    • Of Names, 974
    • Classification of Things, 989
    • Of Predication, 1005
    • Of the Predicables or Universals, 1030
    • Of Definition, 1040
    • Of Inference, or Reasoning, 1053
    • Of Ratiocination, or Syllogism, 1057
    • Of Trains of Reasoning, 1079
    • Of Deductive Sciences, 1083
    • Of Demonstration; and Necessary Truths, 1088
    • Of Induction in General, 1099
    • Of the Various Grounds of Induction, 1103
    • Of the Uniformity in the Course of Nature, 1106
  • APPENDIX B. Supplementary Note to Book II, Chapter iii, 4th edition, with variant notes to the 3rd and 5th to 8th editions. 1111
  • APPENDIX C. Book III, Chapter v, § 9, 2nd edition, with variant notes to the MS and 1st editions. 1118
  • APPENDIX D. Book III, Chapter x, § 4, variant, 7th edition, with variant notes to the 4th to 6th editions. 1120
  • APPENDIX E. Book III, Chapter xiii, §§ 1-3, 5th edition, with variant notes to the MS and 1st to 4th editions. 1132
  • APPENDIX F. Book III, Chapter xviii, 1st edition, with variant notes to the MS. 1140
  • APPENDIX G. Book III, Chapter xxv, § 5, 1st edition, with variant notes to the MS 1151
  • APPENDIX H. Book VI, Chapter xi, § 6, 2nd edition, with variant notes to the MS and 1st edition. 1154
  • APPENDIX I. Typographical errors in the 8th edition. 1156
  • APPENDIX J. Description of the Press-copy Manuscript. 1161
  • APPENDIX K. Bibliographic Index of persons and works cited in the Logic, with variants and notes. 1170

INDEX 1243

FACSIMILES facing pages lxxii, 17, 978, 1169

Contents of Volume IX: An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by A. Ryan vii
  • Textual Introduction, by J. M. Robson lxix

An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy

  • PREFACE to the Third Edition ciii
  • CHAPTER I. Introductory Remarks 1
  • CHAPTER II. The Relativity of Human Knowledge 4
  • CHAPTER IIl. The Doctrine of the Relativity of Human Knowledge, as Held by Sir William Hamilton 13
  • CHAPTER IV. In What Respect Sir William Hamilton Really Differs from the Philosophers of the Absolute 34
  • CHAPTER V. What is Rejected as Knowledge by Sir William Hamilton, Brought Back Under the Name of Belief 60
  • CHAPTER VI. The Philosophy of the Conditioned 66
  • CHAPTER VII. The Philosophy of the Conditioned, as Applied by Mr. Mansel to the Limits of Religious Thought 89
  • CHAPTER VIII. Of Consciousness, as Understood by Sir William Hamilton 109
  • CHAPTER IX. Of the Interpretation of Consciousness 125
  • CHAPTER X. Sir William Hamilton's View of the Different Theories Respecting the Belief in an External World 149
  • CHAPTER XI. The Psychological Theory of the Belief in an External World 177
  • CHAPTER XII. The Psychological Theory of the Belief in Matter, How Far Applicable to Mind. Appendix to the Two Preceding Chapters 188
  • CHAPTER XIII. The Psychological Theory of the Primary Qualities of Matter 210
  • CHAPTER XIV. How Sir William Hamilton and Mr. Mansel Dispose of the Law of Inseparable Association 250
  • CHAPTER XV. Sir William Hamilton's Doctrine of Unconscious Mental Modifications 272
  • CHAPTER XVI. Sir William Hamilton's Theory of Causation 286
  • CHAPTER XVII. The Doctrine of Concepts, or General Notions 301
  • CHAPTER XVIII. Of Judgment 324
  • CHAPTER XIX. Of Reasoning 342
  • CHAPTER XX. On Sir William Hamilton's Conception of Logic as a Science. Is Logic the Science of the Laws, or Forms, of Thought? 348
  • CHAPTER XXI. The Fundamental Laws of Thought According to Sir William Hamilton 372
  • CHAPTER XXII. Of Sir William Hamilton's Supposed Improvements in Formal Logic 385
  • CHAPTER XXIII. Of Some Minor Peculiarities of Doctrine in Sir William Hamilton's View of Formal Logic 404
  • CHAPTER XXlV. Of Some Natural Prejudices Countenanced by Sir William Hamilton, and Some Fallacies Which He Considers Insoluble 417
  • CHAPTER XXV.Sir William Hamilton's Theory of Pleasure and Pain 430
  • CHAPTER XXVI. On the Freedom of the Will 437
  • CHAPTER XXVII. Sir William Hamilton's Opinions on the Study of Mathematics 470
  • CHAPTER XXVIII. Concluding Remarks 490

APPENDICES

  • APPENDIX A. Manuscript Fragments 507
  • APPENDIX B. Textual Emendations 513
  • APPENDIXC. Corrected References 518
  • APPENDIX D. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Examination, with Variants and Notes 521

INDEX 597

Contents of Volume X: Essays on Ethics, Religion, and Society

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION, by F. E. L. Priestley vii
  • MILL'S UTILITARIANISM by, D. P. Dryer lxiii
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION, by J. M. Robson cxv

Essays

  • Remarks on Bentham's Philosophy (1833) 3
  • Blakey's History of Moral Science (1833) 19
  • Sedgwick's Discourse (1835) 31
  • Bentham (1838) 75
  • Coleridge (1840) 117
  • Whewell on Moral Philosophy (1852) 165

Utilitarianism (1861 ) 203

  • General Remarks, 205
  • What Utilitarianism Is, 209
  • Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility, 227
  • Of What Sort of Proof the Principle of Utility Is Susceptible, 234
  • On the Connexion between Justice and Utility, 240

Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865) 261

  • The Cours de Philosophie Positive, 263
  • The Later Speeulatiom of M. Comte, 328

Three Essays on Religion (1874) 369

  • Introductory Notice, 371
  • Nature, 373
  • Utility of Religion,403
  • Theism, 429

APPENDICES

  • Appendix A. Preface to Dissertations and Discussions (1859) 493
  • Appendix B. Obituary of Bentham (1832) 495
  • Appendix C. Comment on Bentham in Bulwer's England and the English (1833) 499
  • Appendix D. Quotation from "Coleridge" in Mill's System of Logic ( 8th ed., 1872), 519-23 (VI, x, 5 ) 503
  • Appendix E. Bibliographic Index of persons and works cited in the Essays, with variants and notes 509

INDEX 567

Contents of Volume XI: Essays on Philosophy and the Classics

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION, by F. E. Sparshott vii
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION, by J. M. Robson lxxvii

Essays on Philosophy and the Classics

  • Whately's Elements of Logic (1828) 1
  • Notes on Some of the More Popular Dialogues of Plato (1834-35) 37
    • The Progatoras, 39
    • The Phaedrus, 62
    • The Gorgias, 97
    • The Apology of Socrates, 151
    • The Charmides, 175
    • The Euthyphron, 187
    • The Laches, 197
    • The Lysis, 210
    • The Parmenides, 222
  • Two Publications on Plato (1840) 239
  • Bailey on Berkeley's Theory of Vision (1842, 1843) 245
  • Grote's History of Greece [I] (1846) 271
  • Grote's History of Greece [II] (1853) 307
  • Bain's Psychology (1859) 339
  • Grote's Plato (1866) 375
  • Taine's De L'Intelligence (1870) 441
  • Berkeley's Life and Writings (1871) 449
  • Grote's Aristotle (1873) 473

APPENDIX. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Essays, with Variants and Notes 511

INDEX 563

FACSIMILES facing pages 175,474-5

Contents of Volume XII: The Earlier Letters of John Stuart Mill 1812-1848 Part I

Front Matter

  • PREFACE vii
  • INTRODUCTION,by F. A. Hayek xv
  • ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES XXV

THE LETTERS, 1812--1837

  • 1812-1830, 3
  • 1831, 69
  • 1832, 94
  • 1833, 136
  • 1834, 204
  • 1835, 247
  • 1836, 291
  • 1837, 316

Facsimile of Letter 1, to Jeremy Bentham, from MS in the British Museum facing page 3

 

Contents of Volume XIII: The Earlier Letters of John Stuart Mill 1812-1848 Part II

Front Matter

THE LETTERS,1838-1848

  • 1838, 367
  • 1839, 395
  • 1840, 417
  • 1841, 461
  • 1842, 495
  • 1843, 565
  • 1844, 618
  • 1845, 653
  • 1846, 690
  • 1847, 706
  • 1848, 730

INDEXES

  • General Index 745
  • Index of Correspondents 780

Facsimile of Letter 405, to Macvey Napier, from MS in the British Museum facing page 367

Contents of Volume XIV: The Later Letters of John Stuart Mill 1849-1873 Part I

Front Matter

  • PREFACE vii
  • INTRODUCTION XV
  • ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES X1V

THE LETTERS, 1849-1855

  • 1849, 3
  • 1850, 41
  • 1851, 55
  • 1852, 80
  • 1853, 101
  • 1854, 119
  • 1855, 275

Portrait of Harriet Taylor (ca. 1834) facing page 3

 

Contents of Volume XV: The Later Letters of John Stuart Mill 1849-1873 Part II

Front Matter

  • ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES vii

THE LETTERS, 1856--1864

  • 1856, 503
  • 1857, 520
  • 1858, 545
  • 1859, 587
  • 1860, 658
  • 1861, 719
  • 1862, 760
  • 1863, 816
  • 1864, 915

John Stuart Mill and Helen Taylor (ca. 1869?) facing page 503

Contents of Volume XVI: The Later Letters of John Stuart Mill 1849-1873 Part III

Front Matter

  • ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES vii

THE LETTERS, 1865-1868

  • 1865, 985
  • 1866, 1130
  • 1867, 1226
  • 1868, 1347

John Stuart Mill, portrait by E. Goodwyn Lewis facing page 985

Contents of Volume XVII: The Later Letters of John Stuart Mill 1849-1873 Part IV

Front Matter

  • Abbreviations and Short Titles

The Later Letters, 1869-1873

  • 1869
  • 1870
  • 1871
  • 1872
  • 1873

Appendices

  • Appendix I: Additional Earlier Letters
  • Appendix II: Additional Later Letters

Indexes

  • General Index
  • Index of Correspondents

Detail of original Watts portrait of Mill facing page 1535

Contents of Volume XVIII: Essays on Politics and Society Part I

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION, by Alexander Brady ix
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION, by J. M. Robson lxxi

Essays on Politics and Society

  • Use and Abuse of Political Terms 1
  • Rationale of Representation 15
  • De Tocqueville on Democracy in America [I] 47
  • State of Society in America 91
  • Civilization 117
  • Essays on Government 149
  • De Tocqueville on Democracy in America [II] 153
  • Reform of the Civil Service 205

On Liberty 213

  • I Introductory. 217
  • II Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion. 228
  • III Of Individuality, as One of the Elements of Well-Being, 260
  • IV Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual, 276
  • V Applications, 292

Contents of Volume XIX: Essays on Politics and Society Part II

Front Matter

Essays On Politics And Society

  • Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform
  • Recent Writers on Reform
  • Considerations on Representative Government
    • Preface
    • I To What Extent Forms of Government are a Matter of Choice
    • II The Criterion of a Good Form of Government
    • III That the Ideally Best Form of Government is Representative Government, 399
    • IV Under What Social Conditions Representative Government is Inapplicable, 413
    • V Of the Proper Functions of Representative Bodies, 422
    • VI Of the Infirmities and Dangers to which Representative Government is Liable, 435
    • VII Of True and False Democracy; Representation of All, and Representation of the Majority Only, 448
    • VIII Of the Extension of the Suffrage
    • IX Should there be Two Stages of Election?
    • X Of the Mode of Voting
    • XI Of the Duration of Parliaments
    • XII Ought Pledges to be Required from Members of Parliament?
    • XIII Of a Second Chamber
    • XIV Of the Executive in a Representative Government
    • XV Of Local Representative Bodies
    • XVI Of Nationality, as Connected with Representative Government
    • XVII Of Federal Representative Governments
    • XVIII Of the Government of Dependencies by a Free State, 562
  • Centralisation 579

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Taylor's Statesman
  • Appendix B. Appendix to Dissertations and Discussions, Vol. I
  • Appendix C. Jowett on Civil Service Examinations
  • Appendix D. Substantive variants in the People's Edition of On Liberty 657
  • Appendix E. Substantive variants in the People's Edition of Considerations on Representative Government
  • Appendix F. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Essays, with Variants and Notes

Index

Contents of Volume XX: Essays on French History and Historians

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by John C. Calms
  • Textual Introduction, by John M. Robson

Essays On French History and Historians

  • Mignet's French Revolution (1826)
  • Modern French Historical Works (1826)
  • Scott's Life of Napoleon (1828)
  • Alison's History of the French Revolution (1833)
  • The Monster Trial (1835)
  • Carlyle's French Revolution (1837)
  • Armand Carrel (1837)
  • Michelet's History of France (1844)
  • Guizot's Essays and Lectures on History (1845)
  • Duveyrier's Political Views of French Affairs (1846)
  • Vindication of the French Revolution of February 1848 (1849)

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Guizot's Lectures on European Civilization (1836)
  • Appendix B. French Texts of Material Quoted inVindication of the French Revolution of February 1848
  • Appendix C. Textual Emendations
  • Appendix D. Index of Persons and Works Cited, with Variants and Notes

Index

Contents of Volume XXI: Essays on Equality, Law, and Education

Front Matter

  • Introduction,by Stefan Collini
  • Textual Introduction, by John M. Robson

Essays on Equality, Law, and Education

  • Law of Libel and Liberty of the Press (1825)
  • On Marriage (1832-33?)
  • Austin's Lectures on Jurisprudence (1832)
  • Reform in Education (1834)
  • On Punishment (1834)
  • Smith on Law Reform (1841)
  • The Negro Question (1850)
  • Statement on Marriage (1851 )
  • Remarks on Mr. Fitzroy's Bill for the More Effectual Prevention of Assaults on Women and Children (1853)
  • A Few Words on Non-lntervention (1859)
  • The Contest in America (1862)
  • The Slave Power (1862)
  • Austin on Jurisprudence (1863)
  • Educational Endowments (1866)
  • Inaugural Address Delivered to the University of St Andrews (1867)
  • The Subjection of Women (1869)
  • Treaty Obligations (1870)
  • The Contagious Diseases Acts (1871)

Appendices

  • Appendix A. On Marriage, by Harriet Taylor (1832-33?)
  • Appendix B. Papers on Women's Rights, by Harriet Taylor Mill and J. S. Mill (1847-50)
  • Appendix C. Enfranchisement of Women, by Harriet Taylor Mill (1851 )
  • Appendix D. Draft of a Portion of the Inaugural Address (1866)
  • Appendix E. Jamaica Committee: Public Documents (1866, 1868)
  • Appendix F. Textual Emendations
  • Appendix G. Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited. with Variants and Notes

Index

Facsimiles

  • Folio lr of"On Marriage" by J. S. Mill, 38
  • Foho lr of "On Marriage" by Harriet Taylor, 374

Contents of Volume XXII: Newspaper Writings December 1822-July 1831

Front Matter

  • INTRODUCTION, by Ann P. Robson xix
  • TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION, by John M. Robson cv

December 1822 to December 1824 3

  • 1. Exchangeable Value [1] 3
  • 2. Exchangeable Value [2] 5
  • 3. Religious Persecution 6
  • 4. The Word "Nature" 8
  • 5. Free Discussion, Letter I 9
  • 6. Free Discussion, Letter II 12
  • 7. Free Discussion, Letter III 15
  • 8. Tooke's Thoughts on High and Low Prices [1] 18
  • 9. The Debate on the Petition of Mary Ann Carlile 21
  • 10. The Debate on East and West India Sugars 25
  • 11. Judicial Oaths 30
  • 12. Tooke's Thoughts on High and Low Prices [2] 34
  • 13. Errors of the Spanish Government 39
  • 14. The Mischievousness of an Oath 42
  • 15. Blessings of Equal Justice 43
  • 16. Persecution for Religious Scruples 46
  • 17. Resurrection-Men 48
  • 18. Malthus's Measure of Value 51
  • 19. Technicalities of English Law 60
  • 20. Securities for Good Government 62
  • 21. Parliamentary Reform 64
  • 22. Atrocities of the Tread Wheel 67
  • 23. Practicability of Reform in the Law 70
  • 24. Old and New Institutions 72
  • 25. Reputed Thieves 75
  • 26. Effects of Gambling 77
  • 27. Question of Population [1] 80
  • 28. Question of Population [2] 85
  • 29. Place's On the Law of Libel 91
  • 30. Pleadings 95
  • 31. Question of Population [3] 95
  • 32. James Mill on the Question of Population 97
  • 33. Effects of Periodical Literature 100

September 1825 to October 1828 103

  • 34. Absenteeism 103
  • 35. Blunders of The Times 106
  • 36. The Inhabitants of Queenborough 108
  • 37. New Ministerial Publications 109
  • 38. Advertisements Free of Duty 111
  • 39. Dr. Croker's Opinion 113
  • 40. Another Opinion of Dr. Croker's 113
  • 41. Compensation to the Shopkeepers on the Approaches to London Bridge 114
  • 42. The Brunswick Clubs 116

July 1830 to July 1831 121

  • 43. The French Elections 121
  • 44. Prospects of France, I 128
  • 45. Prospects of France, II 134
  • 46. Mr. Huskisson and the Jacobin Club 140
  • 47. The Recent Combination of Journeymen Printers at Paris 141
  • 48. Prospects of France, III 142
  • 49. Answer to Bowring's Criticism of Prospects of France, II 147
  • 50. Prospects of France, IV 149
  • 51. Prospects of France, V 158
  • 52. Attempt to Save the Ex-Ministers 163
  • 53. The Quarterly Review versus France 168
  • 54. France and the Quarterly Review 172
  • 55. French News [1] 180
  • 56. Ignorance of French Affairs by the English Press 182
  • 57. Prospects of France, VI 184
  • 58. French News [2] 190
  • 59. French News [3] 191
  • 60. Use and Abuse of the Ballot 193
  • 61. Prospects of France, VII 196
  • 62. French News [4] 203
  • 63. The Ballot 204
  • 64. French News [5] 207
  • 65. Controversy on the Ballot 209
  • 66. French News [6] 211
  • 67. The Truck System [ 1] 212
  • 68. French News [7] 214
  • 69. The Labouring Agriculturists 216
  • 70. The Truck System [2] 218
  • 71. French News [8] 222
  • 72. French News [9] 224
  • 73. The Spirit of the Age, 1 227
  • 74. French News [ l 0] 235
  • 75. Conduct of the United States towards the Indian Tribes 235
  • 76. French News [ 11] 237
  • 77. The Spirit of the Age, II 238
  • 78. France 246
  • 79. French News [12] 247
  • 80. The Quarterly Review on the Political Economists 248
  • 81. French News [13] 250
  • 82. The Spirit of the Age, III [Part 1] 252
  • 83. French News [14] 258
  • 84. The Municipal Institutions of France 259
  • 85. French News [ 15] 262
  • 86. The Budget 263
  • 87. French News [ 16] 269
  • 88. The Emigration Bill 270
  • 89. French News [17] 273
  • 90. The Parliamentary Reform Bill 276
  • 91. French News [18] 278
  • 92. The Spirit of the Age, III [Part 2] 278
  • 93. French News [19] 283
  • 94. Herschel's Preliminary Discourse 284
  • 95. French News [20] 287
  • 96. French News [21] 288
  • 97. The Spirit of the Age, IV 289
  • 98. The Prospects of France 295
  • 99. Paragraph on France 301
  • 100. French News [22] 301
  • 101. Cavaignac's Defence 303
  • 102. French News [23] 303
  • 103. The Spirit of the Age, V [Part 1] 304
  • 104. Mile Léontine Fay [1] 307
  • 105. The Croix de Juillet 308
  • 106. Mlle Léontine Fay [2] 310
  • 107. The Spirit of the Age, V [Part 2] 312
  • 108. Death of the Abbé Grégoire 317
  • 109. Attack on Literature 318
  • 110. Whately's Introductory Lectures on Political Economy 327
  • 111. Reply of the Brighton Guardian to the Examiner 329
  • 112. Flower's Musical Illustrations of the Waverley Novels 331

Contents of Volume XXIII: Newspaper Writings August 1831-October 1834

Front Matter

August 1831 to July 1832 335

  • 113. French News [24] 335
  • 114. State of Parties in France 336
  • 115. The Peerage Question in France 341
  • 116. French News [25] 346
  • 117. French News [26] 346
  • 118. The Sugar Refinery Bill and the Slave Trade 347
  • 119. French News [27] 351
  • 120. French News [28] 351
  • 121. Dr. Whately's Elevation to an Archbishopric 356
  • 122. French News [29] 356
  • 123. French News [30] 357
  • 124. French News [31] 357
  • 125. French News [32] 359
  • 126. French News [33] 359
  • 127. French News [34] 363
  • 128. French News [35] 364
  • 129. French News [36] 364
  • 130. French News [37] 367
  • 131. French News [38] 372
  • 132. French News [39] 373
  • 133. French News [40] 377
  • 134. French News [41] 381
  • 135. French News [42] 387
  • 136. French News [43] 392
  • 137. French News [44] 395
  • 138. The Irish Character 397
  • 139. Employment of Children in Manufactories 398
  • 140. French News [45] 401
  • 141. Hickson's The New Charter 404
  • 142. French News [46] 405
  • 143. French News [47] 407
  • 144. Todd's Book of Analysis 411
  • 145. French News [48] 417
  • 146. Female Emigrants 419
  • 147. French News [49] 421
  • 148. French News [50] 422
  • 149. French News [51] 423
  • 150. French News [52] 424
  • 151. Smart's Outline of Sematology [ 1] 425
  • 152. French News [53] 427
  • 153. Smart's Outline of Sematology [2] 429
  • 154. French News [54] 435
  • 155. Flower's Songs of the Seasons 436
  • 156. French News [55] 438
  • 157. French News [56] 440
  • 158. Comparison of the Tendencies of French and English Intellect 442
  • 159. Lewis's Remarks on the Use and Abuse of Political Terms 447
  • 160. French News [57] 452
  • 161. French News [58] 453
  • 162. The Close of the Session in France 453
  • 163. Property in Land 459
  • 164. French News [59] 460
  • 165. French News [60] 461
  • 166. Deaths of Casimir Périer and Georges Cuvier 462
  • 167. French News [61] 464
  • 168. Pemberton's Lectures on Shakespeare 464
  • 169. French News [62] 466
  • 170. Death of Jeremy Bentham 467
  • 171. French News [63] 473
  • 172. French News [64] 474
  • 173. French News [65] 485
  • 174. Pledges [1] 487
  • 175. Lewin's The Fisherman of Flamborough Head 494
  • 176. French News [66] 495
  • 177. Pledges [2] 496
  • 178. French News [67] 504

September 1832 to August 1833 507

  • 179. Recommendations of Candidates to Parliament 507
  • 180. French News [68] 509
  • 181. French News [69] 511
  • 182. French News [70] 517
  • 183. French News [71] 519
  • 184. The Corn Laws 522
  • 185. French News [72] 523
  • 186. French and English Journals 525
  • 187. French News [73] 530
  • 188. French News [74] 532
  • 189. Death of Hyde Villiers 533
  • 190. French News [75] 533
  • 191. On the Necessity of Uniting the Question of Corn Laws with That of Tithes 534
  • 192. French News [76] 540
  • 193. Death of Charles Lameth 541
  • 194. The President's Message 543
  • 195. Necessity of Revising the Present System of Taxation 545
  • 196. Errors and Truths on a Property Tax 549
  • 197. Flower's Hymn of the Polish Exiles 554
  • 198. The Monthly Repository for March 1833 555
  • 199. French News [77] 560
  • 200. The Monthly Repository for April 1833 561
  • 201. Flower's Mignon's Song and When Thou Wert Here 562
  • 202. The Budget 563
  • 203. Confiscation Scheme of The Times 566
  • 204. French News [78] 568
  • 205. French News [79] 572
  • 206. Beolchi's Saggio di poesie italiane 573
  • 207. The Monthly Repository for June 1833 574
  • 208. The Bank Charter Bill [1] 575
  • 209. The Ministerial Measure Respecting the Bank 576
  • 210. French News [80] 583
  • 211. Municipal Institutions 585
  • 212. The Bank Charter Bill [2] 590

September 1833 to October 1834 593

  • 213. The Quarterly Review on France 593
  • 214. The Monthly Repository for September 1833 595
  • 215. Note on Benefactors of Mankind 596
  • 216. The Ministerial Manifesto 596
  • 217. The Marvellous Ministry 608
  • 218. The Review of the Session Continued 618
  • 219. Lord Brougham's Law Reforms 622
  • 220. The Corporation Bill 628
  • 221. Conduct of the Ministry with Respect to the Poor Laws 634
  • 222. Martineau's A Tale of the Tyne 638
  • 223. Conduct of the Ministry with Respect to the Post-Office Department, and the Payment of Officers by Fees 643
  • 224. Napier's The Colonies 647
  • 225. The Monthly Repository for December 1833 651
  • 226. French News [81] 656
  • 227. French News [82] 658
  • 228. War with Russia 658
  • 229. The Monthly Repository for January 1834 659
  • 230. French News [83] 661
  • 231. Wilson's History of Rome 663
  • 232. French News [84] 664
  • 233. French News [85] 670
  • 234. Fontana and Prati's St. Simonism in London 674
  • 235. French News [86] 680
  • 236. French News [87] 682
  • 237. French News [88] 684
  • 238. French News [89] 685
  • 239. The Poor Law Report 685
  • 240. The Poor Laws 686
  • 241. French News [90] 688
  • 242. French News [91] 689
  • 243. Reply to Dr. Prati 689
  • 244. State of Opinion in France 691
  • 245. French News [92] 698
  • 246. French News [93] 699
  • 247. French News [94] 700
  • 248. Flower's Songs of the Months [ 1] 702
  • 249. French News [95] 703
  • 250. French News [96] 706
  • 251. French News [97] 706
  • 252. Walter on the Poor Law Amendment Bill 707
  • 253. The Poor Law Amendment Bill 713
  • 254. Death of Lafayette 716
  • 255. The English National Character 717
  • 256. Sarah Austin's Translation of Cousin 727
  • 257. French News [98] 732
  • 258. French News [99] 733
  • 259. The New Colony [1] 733
  • 260. French News [100] 735
  • 261. The New Colony [2] 735
  • 262. French News [101] 737
  • 263. Wakefield's The New British Province of South Australia 738
  • 264. French News [ 102] 743
  • 265. The Poor Law Bill 743
  • 266. French News [103] 745
  • 267. Garnier's Deutsches Leben, Kunst, und Poesie [ 1] 746
  • 268. French News [104] 746
  • 269. French News [105] 747
  • 270. Gamier's Deutsches Leben, Kunst, und Poesie [2] 748
  • 271. New Australian Colony 749

FACSIMILES

  • Mill's MS list of his articles bound with his copy of the Examiner, 1833 xi
  • French News [78] Examiner, 5 May, 1833, p. 281 xii

 

Contents of Volume XXIV: Newspaper Writings January 1835-June 1847

Front Matter

Newspaper Writings: January 1835 to June 1846 753

  • 272. Senior's On National Property [ 1] 753
  • 273. Flower's Songs of the Months [2] 759
  • 274. The Word "Destructive" 760
  • 275. Senior's On National Property [2] 763
  • 276. Bribery and Intimidation at Elections 767
  • 277. The London Review on Municipal Corporation Reform 769
  • 278. Senior's Preface to the Foreign Communications in the Poor Law Report 774
  • 279. First Report of the Poor Law Commissioners 776
  • 280. The House of Lords [ 1] 779
  • 281. The House of Lords [2] 781
  • 282. Grant's Arithmetic for Young Children and Exercises for the Improvement of the Senses 785
  • 283. Wakefield's Popular Politics 787
  • 284. The Sale of Colonial Land 791
  • 285. Commercial Crisis in the United States of America 793
  • 286. Nichol's Views of the Architecture of the Heavens 794
  • 287. Molesworth's Address to the Electors of Leeds 797
  • 288. Exception to the Objections to Nominal Punishments 801
  • 289. Petition for Free Trade 803
  • 290. Steding's The Election 806
  • 291. Puseyism[1] 811
  • 292. Puseyism [2] 815
  • 293. Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain 822
  • 294. Lord Ashburton's Treaty 830
  • 295. Torrens's Letter to Sir Robert Peel 836
  • 296. Lord Brougham and M. de Tocqueville 841
  • 297. The Bank Charter Question [1] 844
  • 298. The Bank Charter Question [2] 848
  • 299. The Bank Charter Question [3] 852
  • 300. The Bank CharterQuestion [4] 856
  • 301. The Malt Tax 859
  • 302. The Poor Rates as a Burden on Agriculture 862
  • 303. The Acquittal of Captain Johnstone 865
  • 304. Grote's History of Greece [ 1] 867
  • 305. Dr. Ellis's Conviction 875

Newspaper Writings: October 1846 to June 1847 879

  • 306. The Condition of Ireland [ 1] 879
  • 307. The Case of Private Matthewson 882
  • 308. The Condition of Ireland [2] 885
  • 309. The Condition of Ireland [3] 889
  • 310. The Condition of Ireland [4] 892
  • 311. The Condition of Ireland [5] 895
  • 312. The Condition of Ireland [6] 898
  • 313. The Condition of Ireland [7] 901
  • 314. The Condition of Ireland [8] 904
  • 315. The Condition of Ireland [9] 908
  • 316. The Condition of Ireland [10] 910
  • 317. The Condition of Ireland [11] 913
  • 318. The Suicide of Sarah Brown 916
  • 319. The Condition of Ireland [12] 919
  • 320. Poulett Scrope on the Poor Laws 923
  • 321. The Condition of Ireland [13] 927
  • 322. The Condition of Ireland [ 14] 930
  • 323. The Condition of Ireland [15] 932
  • 324. The Condition of Ireland [16] 935
  • 325. The Condition of Ireland [ 17] 938
  • 326. The Condition of Ireland [18] 942
  • 327. The Appointment of Judges under the New Local Courts Act 945
  • 328. The Condition of Ireland [19] 949
  • 329. The Case of William Burn 952
  • 330. The Condition of Ireland [20] 955
  • 331. The Condition of Ireland [21] 958
  • 332. The Condition of Ireland [22] 962
  • 333. The Condition of Ireland [23] 965
  • 334. The Condition of Ireland [24] 968
  • 335. The Condition of Ireland [25] 972
  • 336. The Condition of Ireland [26] 975
  • 337. The Condition of Ireland [27] 978
  • 338. The Condition of Ireland [28] 980
  • 339. The Condition of Ireland [29] 984
  • 340. The Condition of Ireland [30] 988
  • 341, The Condition of Ireland [31] 991
  • 342. The Condition of Ireland [32] 994
  • 343. The Condition of Ireland [33] 997
  • 344. The Condition of Ireland [34] 1001
  • 345. The Condition of Ireland [35] 1004
  • 346. The Condition of Ireland [36] 1008
  • 347. The Condition of Ireland [37] 1011
  • 348. The Condition of Ireland [38] 1015
  • 349. The Condition of Ireland [39] 1017
  • 350. The Case of the North Family 1020
  • 351. The Condition of Ireland [40] 1024
  • 352. The Condition of Ireland [41] 1026
  • 353. The Condition of Ireland [42] 1030
  • 354. The Condition of Ireland [43] 1033
  • 355. The Quarterly Review on French Agriculture [ 1] 1035
  • 356. The Quarterly Review on French Agriculture [2] 1040
  • 357. The Quarterly Review on French Agriculture [3] 1046
  • 358. The Quarterly Review on French Agriculture [4] 1051
  • 359. The Irish Debates in the House of Commons 1058
  • 360. Austin on Centralization 1062
  • 361. The Proposed Irish Poor Law [1] 1066
  • 362. The Proposed Irish Poor Law [2] 1069
  • 363. The General Fast 1073
  • 364. Emigration from Ireland 1075
  • 365. "Sanitary" v. "Sanatory" 1078
  • 366. The Opening of the Prussian Diet 1079
  • 367. Enlightened Infidelity 1082
  • 368. Grote's History of Greece [2] 1084

Facsimiles

  • The Condition of Ireland 1 ix
  • Morning Chronicle, 5 October, 1846, p. 4
  • MS, Principles of Political Economy x
  • Appendix incorporating No. 356

Contents of Volume XXV: Newspaper Writings December 1847-July 1873

Front Matter

Newspaper Writings: December 1847 to July 1858 1089

  • 369. Eugene Sue 1089
  • 370. The Provisional Government in France 1091
  • 371. George Sand 1094
  • 372. England and Ireland 1095
  • 373. The Reform Debate 1101
  • 374. On Reform 1104
  • 375. Electoral Districts 1107
  • 376. French Affairs 1110
  • 377. Landed Tenure in Ireland 1112
  • 378. The French Law against the Press 1115
  • 379. Bain's On the Applications of Science to Human Health and Well-Being 1118
  • 380. Grote's History of Greece [3] 1121
  • 381. Grote's History of Greece [4] 1128
  • 382. The Attempt to Exclude Unbelievers from Parliament 1135
  • 383. Corporal Punishment 1138
  • 384. The Czar and the Hungarian Refugees in Turkey [1] 1141
  • 385. The Czar and the Hungarian Refugees in Turkey [2] 1143
  • 386. M. Cabet 1144
  • 387. Lechevalier's Declaration 1146
  • 388. The Californian Constitution 1147
  • 389. The Case of Mary Ann Parsons [1] 1151
  • 390. The Case of Anne Bird 1153
  • 391. Grote's History of Greece [5] 1157
  • 392. The Case of Mary Ann Parsons [2] 1164
  • 393. The Case of Susan Moir 1167
  • 394. Questionable Charity 1170
  • 395. The Law of Assault 1172
  • 396. Punishment of Children 1176
  • 397. Constraints of Communism 1179
  • 398. Stability of Society 1180
  • 399. Religious Sceptics 1182
  • 400. Wife Murder 1183
  • 401. Street Organs 1187
  • 402. The Rules of the Booksellers' Association [1] 1188
  • 403. The Rules of the Booksellers' Association [2] 1189
  • 404. The India Bill, I 1189
  • 405. The India Bill, II 1194
  • 406. A Recent Magisterial Decision 1196
  • 407. The Law of Lunacy 1198

Newspaper Writings: March 1863 to July 1873 1201

  • 408. Poland 1201
  • 409. The Civil War in the United States 1204
  • 410. England and Europe 1205
  • 411. On Hate's Plan 1208
  • 412. The Westminster Election [11 1210
  • 413. Romilly's Public Responsibility and the Ballot 1212
  • 414. The Westminster Election [2] 1217
  • 415. The Ballot 1218
  • 416. Gladstone for Greenwich 1219
  • 417. Bouverie versus Chadwick 1220
  • 418. New England Woman's Suffrage Association 1220
  • 419. The Case of William Smith 1221
  • 420. The Education Bill 1222
  • 421. The Treaty of 1856 [1] 1223
  • 422. The Treaty of 1856 [2] 1224
  • 423. De Laveleye on the Eastern Question 1226
  • 424. The Society of Arts 1226
  • 425. Advice to Land Reformers 1227
  • 426. Should Public Bodies Be Required to Sell Their Lands? 1232
  • 427. The Right of Property in Land 1235

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Cavaignac's Defence ( 1831) 1247
  • Appendix B. Lettre à Charles Duveyfier (1832) 1251
  • Appendix C. Enfantin's Farewell Address (1832) 1256
  • Appendix D. George Sand (1848) 1260
  • Appendix E. Death of Francis Place (1854) 1262
  • Appendix F. Textual Emendations 1266
  • Appendix G. Corrections to Mill's List of His Published Articles 1277
  • Appendix H. Signatures 1280
  • Appendix I. Newspapers for Which Mill Wrote 1282
  • Appendix J. Index of Persons and Works Cited, with Variants and Notes 1284

Index 1509

Facsimile

  • The Case of William Smith ix
  • Draft letter to the Daily News [late 1869 to early 1870]

Contents of Volume XXVI: Journals and Debating Speeches Part I

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by John M. Robson xi
  • Textual Introduction, by John M. Robson lvii

France, 1820-21

  • 1. Journal and Notebook of a Year in France (May 1820 to July 1821) 3
  • 2. Traité de Logique (1820-21 ) 145
    • I Considérations Générales 145
    • II Des Idées en Général 150
    • IIl Sources où Nous Puisons Nos ldées 152
    • IV Classification des Idées 159
    • V Des Notions Abstraites 161
    • VI De la Division 167
    • VII De la Définition 171
    • VIII Du Langage 179
    • IX De l'Origine des Idées 187
  • 3. Lecture Notes on Logic (1820-21) 191

Debating Speeches, 1823-29

  • 4. The Utility of Knowledge (1823) 257
  • 5. Parliamentary Reform [1] (Aug. 1824) 261
  • 6. Parliamentary Reform [2] (Aug. 1824) 271
  • 7. Population: Proaemium (1825) 286
  • 8. Population (1825) 287
  • 9. Population: Reply to Thirlwall (1825) 296
  • 10. Cooperation: First Speech (1825) 308
  • 11. Cooperation: Intended Speech (1825) 308
  • 12. Cooperation: Closing Speech (1825) 313
  • 13. Cooperation: Notes (1825) 325
  • 14. Influence of the Aristocracy (9 Dec., 1825) 326
  • 15. Primogeniture (20 Jan., 1826) 335
  • 16. Catiline's Conspiracy (28 Feb., 1826) 341
  • 17. The Universities [ 1] (7 Apr., 1826) 348
  • 18. The Universities [2] (7 Apr., 1826) 354
  • 19. The British Constitution [1] (19 May?, 1826) 358
  • 20. The British Constitution [2] (19 May, 1826) 371
  • 21. The Influence of Lawyers (30 Mar., 1827?) 385
  • 22. The Use of History (1827) 392
  • 23. The Coalition Ministry (29 June, 1827) 397
  • 24. The Present State of Literature (16 Nov., 1827) 409
  • 25. The Church (15 Feb., 1828) 418
  • 26. Perfectibility (2 May, 1828) 428
  • 27. Wordsworth and Byron (30 Jan., 1829) 434
  • 28. Montesquieu (3 Apr., 1829) 443

Maps

  • Sussex viii

Contents of Volume XXVII: Journals and Debating Speeches Part II

Front Matter

Walking Tours, 1827-32

  • 29. Walking Tour of Sussex (20-30 July, 1827)
  • 30. Walking Tour of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, and Surrey (3-15 July, 1828)
  • 31. Walking Tour of Yorkshire and the Lake District (July-Aug. 1831)
  • 32. Walking Tour of Hampshire, West Sussex, and the Isle of Wight (19 July-6 Aug., 1832)
  • 33. Walking Tour of Cornwall (3-9 Oct., 1832)

Diary, 1854

  • 34. Diary (8 Jan.-15 Apr., 1854)

Appendices

  • Appendix A. The Manuscripts
  • Appendix B. Journal and Notebook: Ancillary Materials (1820-21 )
    • I) Plan of a Dialogue on Government
    • II) "Lieues de poste"
    • III) Translation of Cicero
    • IV) Letter from Lady Bentham to James Mill
    • V) Letters from Richard Doane
  • Appendix C. Textual Emendations
  • Appendix D. Index of Persons and Works Cited

Index

Maps

  • Sussex viii
  • Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, and Surrey, p. 476

Contents of Volume XXVIII: Public and Parliamentary Speeches Part I

Front Matter

November 1850 to July 1865

  • 1. Secular Education (after 4 Nov., 1850?)
  • 2. Cooperation (28 Mar., 1864)
  • 3. Corruption at Elections (4 Apr., 1864)
  • 4. Hare's Plan for the Metropolis ( 10 Apr., 1864)
  • 5. The Westminster Election of 1865 [ I ] (3 July, 1865)
  • 6. The Westminster Election of 1865 [2 ] (5 July, 1865)
  • 7. The Westminster Election of 1865 [3 ] (6 July, 1865 )
  • 8. The Westminster Election of 1865 [4 ] (8 July, 1865)
  • 9. The Westminster Election of 1865 [5 ] ( 10 July, 1865 )
  • 10. The Westminster Election of 1865 [6] ( 10 July, 1865 )
  • 11. The Westminster Election of 1865 [7 ] ( 12 July, 1865)

February to August 1866

  • 12. The Cattle Diseases Bill [ 1] ( 14 Feb., 1866)
  • 13. The Cattle Diseases Bill [2] ( 16 Feb., 1866)
  • 14. Suspension of Habeas Corpus in Ireland (17 Feb., 1866)
  • 15. Representation of the People [ 1] ( 12 Apr., 1866)
  • 16. Representation of the People [2] (13 Apr., 1866)
  • 17. Representation of the People [3] ( 16 Apr., 1866)
  • 18. The Malt Duty ( 17 Apr., 1866)
  • 19. Inclosure of Hainault Forest (25 Apr., 1866)
  • 20. Representation of the People [4] (26 Apr., 1866)
  • 21. Chichester Fortescue's Land Bill ( 17 May, 1866)
  • 22. Representation of the People [5] (31 May, 1866)
  • 23. The Ministerial Crisis (23 June, 1866)
  • 24. The Jamaica Committee (9 July, 1866)
  • 25. Electoral Franchise for Women ( 17 July, 1866)
  • 26. The Disturbances in Jamaica [ 1] ( 19 July, 1866)
  • 27. The Reform Meeting in Hyde Park [ 1] ( 19 July, 1866)
  • 28. W.E. Gladstone [1] (21 July, 1866)
  • 29. The Reform Meeting in Hyde Park [2 ] (24 July, 1866 )
  • 30. The Value of Land (25 July, 1866)
  • 31. The Reform Meeting in Hyde Park [3] (26 July, 1866)
  • 32. The Reform Meeting in Hyde Park [4] (30 July, 1866)
  • 33. The Disturbances in Jamaica [2] (31 July, 1866 )
  • 34. The Reform Meeting in Hyde Park [5] (2 Aug., 1866)
  • 35. Public Health (2 Aug., 1866)
  • 36. The Extradition Treaties Act [ 1] (3 Aug., 1866)
  • 37. The Extradition Treaties Act [2] (4 Aug., 1866)
  • 38. The Naval Dockyards (4 Aug., 1866)
  • 39. The Extradition Treaties Act [ 3] (6 Aug., 1866)
  • 40. The Disturbances in Jamaica [3] ( 10 Aug., 1866)
  • 41. The Lord Chief Baron ( 10 Aug., 1866)

February to August 1867

  • 42. Political Progress (4 Feb., 1867 )
  • 43. Goldwin Smith (4 Feb., 1867)
  • 44. The Royal Commission on Trades' Unions ( 15 Feb., 1867)
  • 45. The Metropolitan Poor Bill [ 1] (8 Mar., 1867)
  • 46. The Straits Settlements (8 Mar., 1867 )
  • 47. The Metropolitan Poor Bill [2] (8 Mar., 1867)
  • 48. The Metropolitan Poor Bill [3] ( 11 Mar., 1867)
  • 49. The Metropolitan Poor Bill [4] ( 14 Mar., 1867)
  • 50. The Reform Bill [ 1] (8 Apr., 1867)
  • 51. Trades Unions (10 Apr., 1867)
  • 52. The Reform Bill [2] ( 11 Apr., 1867)
  • 53. The Reform Bill [3] (9 May, 1867)
  • 54. The Reform Bill [4] (17 May, 1867)
  • 55. The Admission of Women to the Electoral Franchise (20 May, 1867)
  • 56. The Municipal Corporations Bill (21 May, 1867 )
  • 57. The Fenian Convicts (25 May. 1867)
  • 58. Reform of Parliament (25 May, 1867 )
  • 59. The Reform Bill [5] (27 May, 1867)
  • 60. Personal Representation (30 May, 1867)
  • 61. The Bankruptcy Acts Repeal Bill (4 June, 1867)
  • 62. Petition Concerning the Fenians (14 June, 1867 )
  • 63. The Sunday Lectures Bill ( 19 June, 1867 )
  • 64. The Libel Bill (25 June, 1867 )
  • 65. The Reform Bill [6] (27 June, 1867)
  • 66. Redistribution (28 June, 1867 )
  • 67. William Lloyd Garrison (29 June, 1867 )
  • 68. Martial Law (2 July, 1867 )
  • 69. The Reform Bill [7] (4 July, 1867)
  • 70. Tancred's Charity Bill (4 July, 1867 )
  • 71. The Reform Bill [8] (5 July, 1867)
  • 72. The Case of Fulford and Wellstead (5 July, 1867 )
  • 73. The Reform Bill [9] ( 15 July, 1867)
  • 74. Commodore Wiseman and the Turkish Navy [ 1 ] ( 16 July, 1867)
  • 75. Commodore Wiseman and the Turkish Navy [ 2 ] (22 July, 1867)
  • 76. Meetings in Royal Parks [ 1] (22 July, 1867 )
  • 77. Public Education ( 29 July, 1867 )
  • 78. The Courts-Martial in Jamaica ( 1 Aug., 1867 )
  • 79. Meeting in the Tea-Room of the House of Commons (2 Aug., 1867)
  • 80. England's Danger through the Suppression of Her Maritime Power (5 Aug., 1867)
  • 81. The Extradition Treaties Act [4 ] (6 Aug., 1867)
  • 82. The Metropolitan Government Bill (7 Aug., 1867)
  • 83. The Reform Bill [ 10] (8 Aug., 1867)
  • 84. East India Revenue ( 12 Aug., 1867 )
  • 85. Meetings in Royal Parks [2 ] ( 13 Aug., 1867 )

February to November 1868

  • 86. Proportional Representation and Redistribution (29 Feb., 1868)
  • 87. The Alabama Claims (6 Mar., 1868 )
  • 88. The State of Ireland ( 12 Mar., 1868)
  • 89. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [ 1] (26 Mar., 1868 )
  • 90. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [2 ] (2 Apr., 1868 )
  • 91. Procedure in the House: Amendments (21 Apr., 1868)
  • 92. Capital Punishment (21 Apr., 1868)
  • 93. The Municipal Corporations (Metropolis) Bill [ 1] (5 May, 1868)
  • 94. The Established Church in Ireland (7 May, 1868)
  • 95. Local Charges on Real Property (12 May, 1868)
  • 96. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [ 3] (21 May, 1868)
  • 97. Representation of the People (Scotland) [ 1 ] ( 28 May, 1868 )
  • 98. Representation of the People (Scotland) [2] (8 June, 1868)
  • 99. Married Women's Property ( 10 June, 1868)
  • 100. Registration of Publications ( 12 June, 1868 )
  • 101. Representation of the People (Ireland) ( 15 June, 1868 )
  • 102. The Government of India Bill [ 1] ( 15 June, 1868)
  • 103. Lodger Registration ( 15 June, 1868)
  • 104. Public Schools [ 1] ( 16 June, 1868)
  • 105. The Municipal Corporations (Metropolis) Bill [2] ( 17 June, 1868)
  • 106. The Government of India Bill [2] (22 June, 1868 )
  • 107. Public Schools [2 ] (23 June, 1868 )
  • 108. The Sea-Fisheries (Ireland) Bill (24 June, 1868 )
  • 109. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections Bill [4] ( 25 June, 1868)
  • 110. The Municipal Corporations (Metropolis) Bill [3 ] (30 June, 1868)
  • 111. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [5 ] (6 July, 1868)
  • 112. Public Schools [3] (7 July, 1868)
  • 113. Supply--Post Office (7 July, 1868)
  • 114. The Government of India Bill [3] (8 July, 1868)
  • 115. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [6 ] ( 10 July, 1868)
  • 116. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [7 ] ( 14 July, 1868)
  • 117. The Fenian Prisoners [ 1] ( 16 July, 1868)
  • I 18. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [8 ] ( 17 July, 1868)
  • 119. Poor Relief [ 1] ( 17 July, 1868)
  • 120. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [9 ] (18 July, 1868)
  • 121. Imprisonment for Costs on a Dismissed Charge [ 1] (21 July, 1868)
  • 122. The Fenian Prisoners [2] (21 July, 1868)
  • 123. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [ 10] (22 July, 1868)
  • 124. The Westminster Election of 1868 [ 1] (22 July, 1868)
  • 125. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [ 11] (23 July, 1868)
  • 126. Election Petitions and Corrupt Practices at Elections [ 12] (24 July, 1868)
  • 127. Smoking in Railway Carriages [ 1 ] (24 July, 1868)
  • 128. The Westminster Election of 1868 [2 ] (24 July, 1868 )
  • 129. The Metropolitan Foreign Cattle Market (25 July, 1868 )
  • 130. Smoking in Railway Carriages [2] (25 July, 1868)
  • 131. Imprisonment for Costs on a Dismissed Charge [2 ] (27 July, 1868)
  • 132. Poor Relief [2] (27 July, 1868)
  • 133. The Westminster Election of 1868 [3 ] (2 Nov., 1868)
  • 134. The Westminster Election of 1868 [4] (4 Nov., 1868)
  • 135. The Westminster Election of 1868 [5 ] (6 Nov., 1868 )
  • 136. The Westminster Election of 1868 [6] (9 Nov., 1868)
  • 137. Fawcett for Brighton ( 10 Nov., 1868 )
  • 138. The Westminster Election of 1868 [7] ( 11 Nov., 1868)
  • 139. The Westminster Election of 1868 [8] ( 13 Nov., 1868)
  • 140. W.E. Gladstone [2] (14 Nov., 1868)
  • 141. The Westminster Election of 1868 [9] ( 16 Nov., 1868)
  • 142. The Westminster Election of 1868 [ 10] ( 18 Nov., 1868 )

Facsimiles

  • "Westminster Election: The Nomination in Covent-Garden" Illustrated London News, 22 July, 1865, p. 56, XXVIII, xi
  • "Nomination of Candidates for Westminster at the Hustings, Charing Cross" Illustrated London News, 21 November, 1868, p. 485, facing 370

 

Contents of Volume XXIX: Public and Parliamentary Speeches Part II

Front Matter

Public and Parliamentary Speeches: July 1869-March 1873

  • 143. The Cobden Club ( 10 July, 1869)
  • 144. Women's Suffrage [ 1 ] ( 18 July 1869)
  • 145. The Education Bill (25 Mar., 1870)
  • 146. Women's Suffrage [2] (26 Mar., 1870)
  • 147. The Elementary Education Bill (4 Apr., 1870)
  • 148. Election to School Boards [ 1 ] (22 Oct., 1870)
  • 149. Election to School Boards [2] (9 Nov., 1870)
  • 150. Women's Suffrage [3] (12 Jan., 1871 )
  • 151. The Cumulative Vote ( 13 Feb., 1871 )
  • 152. Discussion of the Contagious Diseases Acts (23 Feb., 1871)
  • 153. The Army Bill (10 Mar., 1871)
  • 154. Land Tenure Reform [ 1] ( 15 May, 1871 )
  • 155. Land Tenure Reform [2] ( 18 Mar., 1873)

Appendices

  • Appendix A. The Manuscripts
  • Appendix B. Questions before Committees of the House of Commons
    • l) Select Committee on Metropolitan Local Government (1866)
    • II) Select Committee on Extradition ( 1868 )
  • Appendix C. Petitions in the House of Commons (1866-68)
  • Appendix D. Manuscript Drafts of Speeches
    • I) No. 6(1865)
    • II) No. 16(1866)
    • III) No. 144 (1869)
    • IV) No. 145 (1870)
  • Appendix E. Missing Speeches
  • Appendix F. War and Peace, by Helen Taylor ( 1871 )
  • Appendix G. Textual Emendations
  • Appendix H. Index of Persons and Works Cited

Index

Facsimiles

  • "Miss Mill Joins the Ladies" Judy, 25 November, 1868, pp. 46-7, XXIX, vii
  • "Poor Ireland!" Fun, 28 March, 1868, facing p. 28, 432

Contents of Volume XXX: Writings on India

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by Martin Moir
  • Textual Introduction, by John M. Robson

Writings On India

  • Trade with India (1828)
  • Minute on the Black Act (1836)
  • Penal Code for India (1838)
  • The East India Company's Charter (1852)
  • The Petition of the East-India Company (1858)
  • Memorandum of the Improvements in the Administration of India during the Last Thirty Years (1858)
  • Report to the General Court of Proprietors (1858)
  • A Constitutional View of the India Question (1858)
  • Observations on the Proposed Council of India (1858)
  • Practical Observations on the First Two of the Proposed Resolutions on the Government of India (1858)
  • The Moral of the India Debate (1858)
  • A President in Council the Best Government for India (1858)
  • Letter from the East India Company to the President of the Board of Control (1858)
  • Maine on Village Communities (1871)

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Check List of Mill's Indian Despatches (1823-58)
  • Appendix B. List of Published Extracts from Mill's Indian Despatches
  • Appendix C. Editorial Emendations
  • Appendix D. Index of Persons and Works

Index

Contents of Volume XXXI: Miscellaneous Writings

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by John M. Robson

Editions of Jeremy Bentham and James Mill, 1827 and 1869

  • Jeremy Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence (1827)
  • James Mill's Analyszs of the Phenomena of the Human Mind ( 1869)

Botanical Writings, 1840-61

  • Calendar of Odours (1840)
  • Rare Plants in West Surrey ( 1841)
  • Isatls Tinctoria 11841 )
  • Notes on Plants Growing in the Neighbourhood of Guildford, Surrey ( 1841 )
  • Cnicus Forsteri ( 1841)
  • Additional Guildford Stations ( 1841 )
  • Polygonum Dumetorum ( 1841 )
  • Rarer Plants of the Isle of Wight (1841 )
  • Corrections and Additions in Mr. Mill's List of Plants in the Isle of Wight (1842)
  • The Phytologist; a Botanical Magazine (1843)
  • Notes on the Species of Oenanthe ( 1845 )
  • Correction of an Error in the "Notes on the Species of Oenanthe'" (1845)
  • Observations on Isatis Tinctoria and Other Plants (1856)
  • Plants Growing Wild in the District of Luxford's Reigate Flora (1856)
  • Note on West Surrey Plants (1856)
  • Reigate Plants (1856)
  • Plants Growing on and near Blackheath (1857)
  • Late (Early?) Flowering Plants (1858)
  • Hutchinsia Petraea (1858)
  • Leucojum Aestivum ( 1858 )
  • Clifton Plants (1858)
  • Plants on Sherborn Sands, Blackheath, and Other Stations _1858)
  • Some Derbyshlre Plants I 1858)
  • Linaria Purpurea ( 1858 )
  • Faversham Plants ( 1858 )
  • Lepidium Ruderale (1859)
  • Wallflower Growing on the Living Rock (1860)
  • Spring Flowers of the South of Europe (1860)
  • Botany of Spain (1861-62)
  • Verbascum Thapsiforme (1862)

Medical Reviews, 1834 and 1842

  • Dr. King's Lecture on Anatomy (1834)
  • Carpenter's Physiology ( 1842 )

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Wills and Deed of Gift ( 1853-72 )
  • Appendix B. The Vixen, and Circassia (1837)
  • Appendix C. The Spanish Question (1837)
  • Appendix D. Questions before the Select Committee on Metropolitan Local Government (1867)
  • Appendix E. Mill at the Political Economy Club
  • Appendix F. Textual Emendations
  • Appendix G. Index of Persons and Works

Index

Contents of Volume XXXII: Additional Letters of John Stuart Mill

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by Marion Filipiuk

Additional Earlier Letters: 1824 to 1848

Additional Later Letters: 1849 to 1873

Undated Letters

Appendices

  • Appendix A. Letters to Theodor Gomperz: Variant Readings
  • Appendix B. List of Form Letters at the India Office Library and Records
  • Appendix C. Additions and Corrections to the Check List of Mill's Indian Despatches in Volume XXX
  • Appendix D. List of Letters to Mill
  • Appendix E. Index of Correspondents
  • Appendix F. Index of Persons and Works Cited, with Variants and Notes

Index

Contents of Volume XXXIII: Indexes to the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill

Front Matter

  • Introduction, by Jean O' Grady

Alphabetical List of Titles in the Collected Works

Chronological List of Mill's Writings in the Collected Works

Index of Persons and Works

Subject Index

Last modified April 10, 2014