Online Library of Liberty

A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.

Advanced Search

Madison’s Notes: Analytical Index (Hunt ed.)

Related Links:
Related External Links:

Source: The Writings of James Madison, comprising his Public Papers and his Private Correspondence, including his numerous letters and documents now for the first time printed, ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1900). Vol. IV (1787, The Journal of the Constitutional Convention, Part II)

Copyright: The text is in the public domain.

Fair Use: This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.

INDEX TO VOLUMES III. AND IV., BEING THE JOURNAL OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION.

[The page and volume numbers refer to the original edition of the book and can be viewed in the facsimile PDF version of the title.]

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accounts of expenditures. See Expenditures of government.
Acts, originating of. See Legislature, national, acts of.
Address to accompany constitution, moved, iv., 421;
considered, 458.
Adjournment of legislature. See Legislature, national, power of.
Age, of executive. See Legislature, national, age of.
Of Representatives. See Legislature, national, House of Representatives.
Of Senators. See Legislature, national, Senate.
Allen, Paul, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Allen, Philip, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Amendments to constitution,
provision for, debated, iii., 94, 145, iv., 467;
postponed, iii., 94;
debated, 146, 344;
agreed to, 164, iv., 36;
motion to reconsider clause, 412;
moved that states agree to, 413.
Appointment, power of. See Executive, national, power of, Judiciary, national, supreme, Legislature, national, Senate.
Appropriations, originating of, See Legislature, national, money bills; accounts of, see Expenditures of government.
Aristocracy, fear of, expressed by Mason, iii., 371;
defended by G. Morris, 372, iv., 118;
probability of, 193.
Armies, power to raise and support. See Legislature, national, power of.
Arnold, Welcome, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Arsenals, Forts, etc. See Forts, Arsenals, etc.
Articles of Confederation, amendments to, proposed by Dickinson, iii., 199.

B

Baldwin, Abraham, Ga.,
attends convention, iii., 136;
favors representation in Senate by wealth of states, 324;
Pierce’s sketch of, 324, n.;
on compromise committee on representation, 350;
thinks foreigners should be excluded from government, iv., 175;
thinks provisions on citizenship should not extend to those already citizens, 179;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks slave trade not a national question, 269;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
moves that duty on slaves be uniform, 305;
thinks public lands should be guaranteed to states, 341;
on committee of August, 31, 354;
thinks members of legislature should be ineligible to other offices, 359;
approves plan of electing executive by electors, 367;
moves to exclude from new offices members of first legislature, 450.
Bankruptcy, uniform law of. See Legislature, national, power of, House of Representatives.
Barton, William, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Bassett, Richard, Del.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
Pierce’s sketch of, 2, n.
Bedford, Gunning, Del.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
favors short term for executive, 63;
Pierce’s sketch of, 63, n.;
opposes absolute veto in executive, 85;
opposes negative of state laws by legislature, 125;
threatens foreign alliance of small states, 339;
on compromise committee on representation, 350;
explains threat of foreign alliance, 359;
moves that national legislature make laws when harmony would be interrupted by state legislation, 446;
prefers appointment of judges by Senate, 464;
opposes provision against standing army, iv., 455;
favors increase in representation of Rhode Island and Delaware, 460.
Bill of Rights, inclusion of, debated, iv., 442.
Bills of attainder. See Legislature, national, power of.
Bills of credit, power to emit. See Legislature, national, power of.
Blair, John, Va.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
Pierce’s sketch of, 2, n.
Blount, William, N. C.,
attends convention, iii., 226;
announces he will sign constitution, iv., 478;
Pierce’s sketch of, 478, n.
Bowen, Jabez, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Brearley, David, N. J.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
favors equal vote of states in national legislature, 130;
Pierce’s sketch of, 130, n.;
moves that New Hampshire delegates be sent for, 325;
opposes election of executive by joint ballot, iv., 295;
seconds motion to elect executive by states, 296;
on committee of August 31, 354;
reports from committee, 354, 360, 369;
seconds motion against amendments, 469.
Broome, Jacob, Del.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
favors nine years’ term for Senators, 284;
insists upon equal representation for New Jersey in Senate, 392;
opposes adjournment on question of representation, 442;
opposes seven years’ term for executive, 455;
Pierce’s sketch of, iv., 9, n.;
seconds motion to postpone clause fixing term of executive, 52;
seconds motion to except army and navy from disqualification from legislature, 201;
thinks legislature can fix their own compensation, 203;
favors same compensation for both houses of legislature, 205;
thinks national government should punish for treason, 249;
seconds motion in favor of national negative of state laws, 286;
moves reference of question of term of executive, 297.
Brown, John, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Brown, Nicholas, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Butler, Pierce, S. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
moves secrecy of proceedings, 11;
Pierce’s sketch of, 12, n.;
moves debate on national government, 38;
wants explanation of personnel of Senate, 50;
fears deprivation of state powers, 54;
favors single executive, 78;
opposes absolute negative in executive, 85;
proposes power of suspending legislation for executive, 88;
opposed to institution of inferior judiciary, 98, 467;
opposes indefinite negative of state laws by legislature, 127;
favors wealth as basis of representation, 137, 143, 367, 385;
thinks Senators should have no compensation, 155;
thinks Senate should have power to originate money bills, 158;
moves vote on compensation of legislature, 254;
favors ineligibility to all other offices of Representatives, 256;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to offices created during their term, 260;
thinks candidates for office will not be wanting, 265;
moves question of representation in Senate, 281;
opposes ineligibility of Senators to state offices, 295;
opposes report of compromise committee on representation, 357;
moves increase in representation of South Carolina, 389;
insists upon inclusion of blacks in representation, 397;
thinks slave labor as productive as free labor, 308;
favors representation by population, 409;
demands security for slavery, 422;
thinks powers of legislature loosely defined, 440;
opposes frequent elections of executive, iv., 11;
favors election of executive by electors chosen by state legislatures, 64;
opposes re-eligibility of executive, 64;
moves to refer question of executive to committee of detail, 68;
favors fixing plan for national capital, 81;
thinks question of suffrage should be left to states, 117;
moves three years’ inhabitancy for Representatives, 132;
thinks money bills should originate in House, 139;
favors long inhabitancy for Senators, 147;
urges postponement of clause concerning eligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 201;
favors state compensation for members of legislature, 202;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 219, 221;
thinks President should have power to declare war, 227;
moves that legislature have power to declare peace, 228;
thinks militia should be under national control, 237;
favors adjustment of taxation to representation, 257;
opposes federal power over exports, 259, 271;
moves discrimination in paying creditors, 288;
moves reconsideration of question of discharging debts, 292;
thinks creditors should stand where they are, 302;
on committee of August 25, 308;
moves that fugitive slaves and servants be surrendered, 323, 324, 332;
favors commercial regulations to be made by two-thirds vote, 328;
thinks new states should not be made without consent of old states, 335;
thinks nine states may ratify constitution, 345;
on committee of August 31, 354;
thinks election of executive by electors objectionable, 366;
favors making treaties of peace without President, 400;
thinks Congress must sanction state export duties, 444;
dislikes form of signing, 481, n.

C

Canals, provision for, proposed. See Legislature, national, power of.
Capital, national. See Seat of government.
Capitation tax. See Taxation, capitation.
Captures. See Legislature, national, power of.
Carrington, Edward,
to Jefferson, on progress of convention, iii., 128, n.;
to Madison, 156, n.;
to Monroe, iv., 109, n.;
to Madison, 172, n.
Carroll, Daniel, Md.,
attends convention, iii., 381;
favors national power to suppress insurrection, 471;
Pierce’s sketch of, iv., 47, n.;
doubts propriety of per capita voting in Senate, 47;
favors election of executive by electors chosen by lot from national legislature, 57;
thinks direct taxation should depend on census, 57;
opposes disqualification from legislature of persons having unsettled government accounts, 77;
thinks number for quorum cannot be fixed, 163;
thinks right of expulsion should be with two-thirds of legislature, 164;
moves Senators be permitted to enter dissent to measures, 165;
fears New York will be capital, 169;
moves five years’ citizenship for Representatives, 179;
explains provision as to money bills in Maryland, 190;
favors national compensation for members of legislature, 203, 204;
thinks greater checks to bad laws necessary, 211;
thinks a quorum should be more than a majority, 215;
thinks exports should not be taxed, 218;
opposes taxation by congressional representation, 253;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws necessary, 276;
moves election of executive by the people, 294, 297;
moves provision to prevent favoring ports of entry, 306;
on committee of August 25, 308;
objects to requiring consent of states to dismemberment, 336;
moves that right of U. S. to public lands be confirmed, 340;
moves that land question go to Supreme Court, 341;
moves to postpone question of ratification, 344, 346;
thinks all the states must ratify, 346;
thinks Maryland must ratify as required by Maryland law, 347;
thinks vessels should enter and clear in their own states, 353;
on committee of August 31, 354;
proposes an address to the people, 458;
moves states have power to lay tonnage taxes, 461;
urges larger representation, 476.
Census, taking of,
debated, iii., 393, 408;
every fifteen years, vote on, 409;
two years after meeting of legislature, 413;
ordered within six years after meeting of legislature, 415;
every ten years, 416;
every twenty years, 416;
first to be in three years, iv., 252.
Charters, power to grant, proposed. See Legislature, national, power of.
Citizenship, of Representatives, See Legislature, national, House of Representatives, Senate; uniformity of, in the several states, agreed to, iv., 323.
Clymer, George, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
appointed on grand committee, iv., 258;
thinks power to tax exports should exist for revenue only, 263;
Pierce’s sketch of, 263, n.;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
disapproves slave-trade arrangement, 304;
thinks states should regulate their own manufactures, 322;
favors commercial regulations, 327;
moves to postpone ratification question, 346;
favors ratification by a majority of the people and the states, 349;
objects to Senate’s power, 383;
thinks old Congress need not sanction constitution, 419.
Commercial regulations. See Navigation acts.
Committee, grand, appointed, iv., 233.
Committee of the whole,
convention goes into, iii., 37;
reports, 160;
last session, 198.
Committee on detail,
resolutions referred to, iv., 82;
report of, 92;
debated, 109.
Committee on plan of compromise,
appointed, iii., 350;
reports, 352.
Committee on rules,
appointed, iii., 5;
reports, 7.
Committee on style and arrangement,
appointed, iv., 411;
report of, 422, 448;
debated, 445, 447.
Committee on sumptuary legislation, appointed, iv., 445.
Compensation of executive. See Executive, national, compensation of.
Compensation of judiciary. See Judiciary, national, compensation of.
Compensation of legislature. See Legislature, national, compensation of.
Compromise on representation,
debate on, iii., 344;
report of committee on, 352.
Confederation, articles of. See Articles of Confederation.
Congress See Legislature, national.
Constitution, engrossed,
read, iv., 472;
text of, 482.
Continental Congress, continuance of, till constitution goes into effect,
proposed, iii., 93;
agreed to, 164;
debate on, 468.
Contracts, impairment of, prohibited, iv., 458.
Copyright law. See Legislature, national, power of.
Council, executive. See Executive council.
Council of revision of laws, debate on, iii., 81, iv., 21.
Counterfeiting, power to punish, debated, iv., 223.
Courts See Judiciary.
Credentials of delegates read, iii., 5.

D

Davie, William Richardson, N. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
Pierce’s sketch of, 77, n.;
opposes unequal representation in Senate, 334;
on committee on compromise on representation, 350;
insists that blacks be included in basis of representation, 411;
favors impeachability of executive, iv., 13;
proposes eight years’ term for executive, 52.
Dayton, Jonathan, N. J.,
attends convention, iii., 238;
opposes compensation of Senators by state legislatures, 294;
Pierce’s sketch of, 294, n.;
favors voting in House by states, 302;
favors equal representation in Senate, 338;
insists on equality of small states, 428;
favors representation by free inhabitants, iv., 137;
thinks a standing army necessary, 236;
proposes mixed control of militia, 280, 281;
thinks judiciary will decide controversies between states, 203;
opposes election of executive by joint ballot, 294;
moves election of executive by states, 296;
on committee of August 25, 308;
thinks tranquillity of states should be guaranteed, 343;
moves ratification by ten states, 349;
moves that treaties be made without two-thirds of Senate, 405;
objects to state export duties, 443.
Debt, national,
report on, iv., 253;
debate on, 254;
proposition for settling, 255;
provision for payment of, 274, 288;
reconsideration of, proposed, 292;
motion to make payment obligatory, debated, 302. See Legislature, national, power of.
Delaware, increase in representation of, moved, iv., 460.
Detail, committee on. See Committee on detail.
Dickinson, John, Del.,
attends convention, iii., 13;
moves removability of executive by state legislatures, 73;
Pierce’s sketch of, 73, n.;
favors separation of branches of government, 75;
favors institution of inferior judiciary, 98;
favors election of Representatives by people, 105;
favors negative over laws by executive, 111;
moves that Senators be elected by legislatures, 112;
thinks Senate should resemble House of Lords, 112;
thinks preservation of states necessary, 115;
favors negative by legislature over state laws, 125;
favors representation by wealth, 137;
proposes postponement of Jersey plan, 182;
proposes amendment of articles of confederation, 182;
favors three years’ term for Representatives, 247;
favors election of executive by the people, iv., 67;
opposes property qualification for legislature, 75;
favors restriction of suffrage to freeholders, 117;
proposes — years’ residency for Representatives, 131;
thinks provision as to money bills should stand, 187;
proposes fixed payment for members of legislature every twelve years, 204;
moves both branches of legislature receive the same pay, 205;
thinks judiciary should not have power to set a law aside, 210;
moves that rebellion against government be suppressed, 226;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks great appointments should be made by legislature, 235;
thinks treason should be defined, 247;
thinks war against one state the same as against all, 251;
moves that representation of large states be limited, 254;
favors power over exports, 260;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
thinks President should share in treaty-making power, 290;
moves executive have power to appoint to future offices, 299;
moves executive appoint officers not to be appointed by states, 299;
moves to permit slave trade in states permitting it, 304;
favors postponement of question of executive succession, 310;
thinks legislature will not improperly ask removal of judges, 312;
moves that judiciary have equity power, 315;
explains meaning of ex post facto laws, 325;
thinks small states should not secure claims of large states, 335;
moves that legislatures consent to formation of new states, 340;
thinks tranquillity of states should be guaranteed, 342, 343;
asks if Congress is to concur in constitution, 345;
on committee of August 31, 354;
thinks eventual election of President should be with whole legislature, 376;
moves that vote of presidential electors be from all who are appointed, 378;
favors an executive council, 402;
objects to state export duties, 444;
on committee on sumptuary legislation, 445;
moves to strike out “direct taxes,” 446.
Duties on exports. See Exports Imports. See Imports.

E

Election, of executive. See Executive, national, election of.
Of Representatives. See Legislature, national, House of Representatives, election of.
Of Senators. See Legislature, national, Senate, election of.
Electors. See Executive, national, election of.
Ellsworth, Oliver, Conn.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
Pierce’s sketch of, 144, n.;
opposes ratification by conventions, 226;
favors one-year term for Representatives, 247;
favors payment of Representatives by states, 250;
favors payment of Senators by states, 293;
favors election of Senators by legislatures, 279;
favors equal state representation in Senate, 322, 329, 341;
on committee on compromise on representation, 350;
favors compromise on representation, 361;
opposes increase in representation, 390;
favors free inhabitants and three-fifths of slaves as basis of taxation, 412;
favors representation by free inhabitants and three-fifths slaves, 413;
opposes adjustment of taxation and representation after census, 418;
insists upon state equality in Senate, 436;
moves election of executive by electors appointed by legislatures, iv., 9,
favors six years’ term for executive, 11;
moves increase in electors of New Hampshire and Georgia, 12;
favors inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 22;
favors appointment of judges by Senate with power negative of appointment by executive, 33;
favors ratification of constitution by state legislatures, 37, 41;
favors voting per capita in Senate, 46;
favors re-eligibility of executive, 51;
on committee to report constitution, 58;
moves election of executive by legislature and re-election by electors named by state legislatures, 59;
opposes election of executive by the people, 63;
opposes disqualification of public debtors from legislature, 79;
thinks time of meeting of legislature ought to be fixed, 112;
thinks legislature ought to meet in winter, 115;
thinks question of suffrage should be left to states, 117;
thinks suffrage should be liberal, 118;
thinks Representatives should reside in their states, 131;
moves that Representatives be residents of their states for a year, 132;
thinks ratio of Representatives to inhabitants may change, 135;
thinks originating money bills in House unimportant, 139, 143;
thinks state executives should fill vacancies in Senate, 141;
opposes fourteen years’ citizenship for Senators, 146;
proposes one-year term for Representatives, 148;
thinks property qualification for members of government should not be fixed, 157, 158;
thinks number for quorum should not be small, 162;
thinks no provision necessary for yeas and nays, 164;
thinks provision for journal unnecessary, 167;
favors ineligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 199;
favors national compensation for members of legislature, 201;
thinks members of legislature may fix their pay, 204;
moves $5 per day as payment for legislature, 205;
urges necessity of reaching a decision, 212;
thinks exports should not be taxed, 216;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 220;
moves to enlarge power over piracies felonies etc., 225;
thinks executive should have power to suppress rebellion in a state, 225;
defines power of making war and peace, 228;
thinks state debts may be assumed by nation, 232;
urges consideration of President’s council, 234;
thinks states should have partial control over militia, 237, 238;
thinks power of taxation includes sumptuary power, 245;
thinks treason sufficiently defined, 246, 248, 251;
moves census in three years, 252;
moves report on state debts he on table, 254;
thinks adjustment of debts necessary, 255;
thinks taxation by representation unjust, 256;
thinks states may tax exports, 258;
thinks an embargo permissible, 261;
thinks slave trade a question for the states, 265, 267;
favors accepting constitution as it stands, 273;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 276;
thinks requirement of fulfilment of old government’s engagements unnecessary, 277;
favors national power to train militia, 279;
proposes mixed control of militia, 280;
opposes national negative of state laws, 287.
Emancipation. See Slavery.
Embargo, power to lay,
debated, iv., 260, 261;
by states, debated, 320.
Executive council,
proposed, iii., 80;
debated, iv., 234, 401, 402.
Executive, national,
debate on, iii., 57;
provisions reconsidered, iv., 9;
referred to committee on detail, 68;
vote on, 72.
Age, nativity, and residence of, agreed to, iv., 395.
Compensation of, Franklin proposes no salary, iii., 67, iv., 463;
mode of payment, 20.
Correspondence of, with states, debated, iv., 301.
Election of, proposed by district electors, iii., 65, 66;
by national legislature for seven years, proposed, 67;
mode of, reconsidered, 62, 120, 127, 128, iv., 54, 56, 57, 59, 64, 65;
by state conventions, proposed, iii., 130;
by national legislature, 450, 454, 455, iv., 49, 51, 67, 294;
by electors chosen by state legislatures, iii., 454, iv., 10;
ratio of electors considered, 12;
electors not to be officials, 20;
by electors, debated, 47, 48, 361, 365, 373, 388, 391;
term of electors debated, 57;
re-election of electors considered, 63;
regulations as to age and residence debated, 274;
by states, proposed, 296;
by electors, defeated, 297;
when to take place, proposed, 352;
to be at seat of government, proposed, 385;
how vote is to be counted, debated, 385;
to fill vacancy, considered, 463;
verbal amendment of clause, 465.
Eligibility of, to re-election, debated, iii., 77, 455, 460, iv., 1, 10, 49, 51.
Exclusion from, of those indebted to government, considered, iv., 74.
Foreign ambassadors to be received by, iv., 308.
Impeachability of, agreed to, iii., 77;
method of, debated, 462, 463, iv., 13, 19, 20, 407, 409;
moved to postpone question, 19;
House to have power of, 140.
Militia to be commanded by, when in active service, iv., 309.
Native citizens only to be eligible, iv., 363.
Negative of, on national legislation,
debated, iii., 63, 82, 88, 461, iv., 210, 212, 438;
qualified, agreed to, iii., 89, iv., 31;
inclusion of judiciary in, proposed, iii., 89;
absolute, debated, iv., 15;
ten days allowed for, 213;
agreed to, 213;
moved to extend to resolutions, 213.
Oath of, prescribed, iv., 310.
Power of, debated, iii., 61, 62, 68, 108, 455, iv., 20, 21, 298, 308, 363;
to make appointments, iii., 455, iv., 298, 398, 399, 406, 465;
to revise legislation, 21, 31, 298;
to pardon criminals, 308, 463;
to make treaties, 397, 399;
to demand opinions of heads of departments, 401;
to convene either house of legislature, 410.
Removability of, on request of state legislatures, debated, iii., 73, 76;
question postponed, iv., 310;
debated, 363.
Single, proposed, iii., 60, 77, 81;
agreed to, 450, iv., 294;
debate on, 50.
Succession in, debated and postponed, iv., 310.
Term of,
debated, iii., 63, 162, 455, iv., 11, 52, 71, 72, 97;
seven years’, proposed, iii., 64, 455, 460, iv., 11, 384;
during good behavior, proposed, iii., 459;
six years’, proposed, iv., 11, 384;
six years in twelve, proposed, 68.
Expenditures of government, moved that an account of, be published, iv., 456, 457.
Expenses of convention, provision for, iv., 368, 372.
Exports, tax on,
debated, iv., 214, 258, 308;
state power to tax, debated, 322, 442.
Ex post facto laws. See Legislature, national, power of.
Expulsion from legislature. See Legislature, national, expulsion from.

F

Federal or national government, debate on, iii., 38.
Felonies. See Piracies and felonies.
Few, William, Ga.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
Pierce’s sketch of, 2, n.;
on committee of August 25, iv., 308.
Fitzsimmons, Thomas, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
favors restriction of suffrage to freeholders, iv., 116;
opposes power to tax exports, 262;
on committee of August 25, 308;
admits inconvenience to require vessels to enter and clear in their own state, 353;
seconds motion to include House of Representatives in treaty-making power, 397;
thinks old Congress need not sanction constitution, 416;
favors incidental state export duties, 444;
thinks publication expenditures impossible, 457.
Forts, arsenals, etc., provision for acquisition of, iv., 371.
Franklin, Benj., Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
Pierce’s sketch of, 57, n.;
moves that executive receive no salary, 67;
opposes negative in executive, 82;
favors executive council, 83;
opposes single executive, 87;
suggests method for choosing judges, 91;
appeals for harmony in convention, 138;
favors proportional representation, 138;
objects to liberal compensation for legislature, 151;
favors no salary for Senators, 292;
thinks voting in Senate not a separate question, 309;
proposes prayers in convention, 309;
favors compromise on representation, 335;
on committee on compromise on representation, 350;
thinks money bills should originate in House, 373;
favors power to increase judges’ salaries, 466;
favors impeachability of executive, iv., 14, 18;
thinks executive returning to private life no degradation, 71;
favors general suffrage, 121;
thinks compromise on representation should stand, 143;
opposes long residence in the states for Senators, 147;
thinks new citizens will not be elected to Senate, 151;
opposes property qualification for officers of government, 157;
thinks two witnesses necessary in treason cases, 249;
favors executive council, 402;
seconds motion for second convention, 421;
on committee on sumptuary legislation, 445;
moves legislature have power to cut canals, 452;
moves to lunit President’s emoluments, 463;
proposes plan for signing constitution, 472;
disclaims personal reflections on non-signatories, 479;
thinks members cannot pledge themselves, 481;
remarks on signing, 482.
Franklin, William Temple, nominated for secretary of convention, iii., 4.

G

General-welfare clause See Legislature, national, power of.
Georgia, increase in representation of, moved, iii., 389.
Gerry, Elbridge,
Mass attends convention, iii., 13;
doubts if convention can form national government, 39;
Pierce’s sketch of, 39, n.;
opposes election of Representatives by the people, 46, 49, 99;
favors an executive council, 59;
opposes election of executive by national legislature, 66;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in council of revision, 81, 110;
favors single executive, 81;
favors qualified negative on legislation by executive, 82;
favors provision for amendments, 94;
opposes ratification of constitution by the people, 95;
favors election of Senators by state legislatures, 115, 118;
moves reconsideration of question of choosing executive, 120;
moves indefinite negative on state laws by national legislature, 122;
moves election of executive by state executives, 128, iv., 59;
favors representation based on free population, iii., 143;
opposes requiring oath to national government from state officers, 146;
favors one-year term for Representatives, 148;
proposes that Senate shall not originate money bills, 158;
thinks maximum and minimum for quorum should be fixed, 163;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 263, 267;
opposed to monarchy, 290;
favors four or five years’ term for Senators, 290;
opposes equal state representation, 320;
favors committee to compromise representation, 350;
on committee to arrange compromise on representation, 350;
offers report of committee of compromise on representation, 352;
favors compromise on representation, 362;
favors representation on basis of population and wealth, 366;
thinks originating money bills in House a concession, 372;
moves to postpone question of voting in Senate, 375;
favors increase in representation, 391;
thinks three-fifths of blacks sufficient proportion as basis of representation, 397;
thinks taxation and representation cannot be arranged, 416;
favors direct taxation according to representation, 417, 420;
favors originating money bills in House, 427;
favors compromise on representation in Senate, 429;
opposes adjournment on question of representation, 442;
opposes re-eligibility of executive, iv., 8, 51, 52;
favors election of executive by electors appointed by state legislatures, 9;
moves ratio for electors for executive, 12;
favors impeachability of executive, 16;
moves that electors for executive be not officials, 20;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 24, 29;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 34;
moves that officers take oath of allegiance, 36, 37;
thinks constitution should be ratified by legislatures, 39;
moves appointment of committee to report constitution, 48;
moves election of executive by legislatures, 51;
suggests fifteen years’ term for executive, 52;
proposes referring term of executive to committee, 53, 68;
opposes election of executive by electors chosen by lot from national legislatures, 57;
favors election of executive for not more than six years in twelve, 64;
opposes popular election of executive, 66;
favors exclusion from office of those indebted to government, 74, 78;
favors exclusion from legislature of pensioners, 79;
favors prohibiting state and national capital at same place, 81;
thinks quorum should be fixed, 162;
moves to permit Senate to publish journal, 165, 166;
thinks executive should not influence place of meeting of legislature, 169;
thinks none but natives should be Representatives, 172;
declares his state opposes members of legislature holding any other offices, 194;
points out objections to both national and state legislatures, 203;
thinks exports should not be taxed, 217;
moves to include post roads in power of legislature, 219;
thinks rebellion should be suppressed on state application, 226;
moves legislature have power to declare war, 227;
favors giving legislature power to make peace, 228;
thinks letters of marque should be considered, 231;
thinks executive should not interfere in legislation, 235;
favors provision against large army in time of peace, 235, 236, 239;
moves committee be instructed to report on qualifications for executive and impeachment of judges, 244;
opposes power to make sumptuary laws, 245;
moves that taxation be by congressional representation, 252, 256;
thinks states should pay their debts, 254;
opposes power to tax exports, 261;
thinks slave trade should not be sanctioned, 269;
moves prohibition of ex post facto laws and bills of attainder, 275;
thinks government should have power to fulfil engagements of old government, 278;
thinks national government should not control militia, 279;
thinks liberty will not be as safe in national as state government, 281;
warns convention against depriving states of their powers, 283;
thinks actual debts should be paid, 301;
seconds motion to remove judges on application of legislature, 311;
moves to postpone question of ratification, 350, 351;
thinks members of legislature should not hold other offices, 358;
objects to appropriations for army for more than one year, 370;
objects to power to buy forts, etc., 370;
moves to reconsider four articles, 372;
objects to powers given President, 373;
objects to less than majority electing President, 377;
suggests eventual election of President by six Senators and seven Representatives, 377;
seconds motion to permit Senate to choose President from three candidates, 378;
moves that electors be not office-holders, 379;
moves change of clause for re-electing President, 379;
moves that states vote for President in legislature with at least three members, 394;
withdraws motion, 395;
objects to Vice-President being President of Senate, 395;
thinks President will not be responsible for his appointments, 398;
thinks treaties of peace must be carefully guarded, 401;
thinks it dangerous to put too much power in Senate, 405;
moves two-thirds vote of Senate for treaties, 405;
seconds motion for majority for treaties of whole number of Senators, 406;
proposes that notice of treaties to Senators be required, 406;
moves no appointments be allowed except as authorized by law, 406;
thinks impeachability of President should be extended, 407;
moves legislature have sole right to create offices, 410;
moves reconsideration of provision for amendments, 412;
seconds motion for states’ consent to amendments, 414;
moves sanction of old Congress to constitution be asked, 415;
thinks ratification should be made difficult, 417, 420;
seconds a plan of ratification, 418;
favors two-thirds vote to override President’s negative, 439;
urges clause requiring jury trials, 441;
moves bill of rights be prepared, 442;
moves that all proceedings of House be published, 450;
approves prohibition of ex post facto laws, 455;
moves liberty of press be guaranteed, 455;
seconds motion for annual publication accounts, 456;
moves prohibition of violation of contracts, 458;
moves jury trial be preserved in civil cases, 466;
moves verbal amendment relative to admission of states, 466;
moves convention be required to make amendments, 468;
favors a second constitutional convention, 471;
defends action in not signing constitution, 480;
refuses to sign, 483.
Gilman, Nicholas, N. H.,
attends convention, iv., 36;
Pierce’s sketch of, 36, n.
Gorham, Nathaniel, Mass.,
attend sconvention, iii., 5;
elected chairman committee of the whole, 37;
favors national payment of Representatives, 251;
Pierce’s sketch of, 251, n.;
opposed to ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 256;
favors compromise on representation, 277;
opposes readjustment of land cession, 278;
favors four years’ term for Senators, 282;
moves six years’ term and rotation for Senators, 284;
thinks small states equally interested with large states in union, 313;
favors representation by population, 365;
on committee to arrange representation, 368;
defends report on representation, 382;
thinks standard of representation should be fixed, 401;
favors population as basis of representation, 407;
opposes defining legislature’s powers, 440;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 461;
favors appointment of judges by the people, 462;
favors appointment of judges by executive, 464;
moves appointment of judges by executive with consent of Senate, 465;
favors institution of inferior judicial tribunals, 467;
favors power to suppress insurrections, 470;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, iv., 22, 30;
thinks oath of allegiance no bar to amendments to constitution, 37;
opposed to ratification of constitution by legislatures, 40;
favors two Senators from each state, 46;
on committee to report constitution, 58;
favors prohibition of national capital at state capital, 81;
thinks constitution should fix time of meeting of legislature, 112;
favors voting by non-freeholders, 128;
thinks the new government will not last, 135;
thinks Senate should not originate money bills, 138;
thinks mode of electing Representatives should not be left to state legislatures, 152;
thinks less than a majority may be a quorum of legislature, 160;
thinks yeas and nays need not be required, 165;
thinks provision concerning citizenship need not be retroactive, 176;
thinks Senate should be paid more than House, 205;
insists that money bills originate in House, 206;
urges necessity for action, 211;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 219, 220;
moves appointment of treasurer by joint ballot of legislature, 222;
favors national support of army, 235;
thinks adjustment of debts may be left to national legislature, 255;
thinks union only of commercial advantage, 272;
suggests difficulties of ratifying treaties by legislature, 289;
thinks treaties should be negotiated in this country, 292;
doubts if judiciary can impartially decide controversies between states, 293;
favors election of executive by joint ballot of legislature, 294;
seconds motion to extend period of slave trade, 303;
thinks duty on slaves may discourage importation, 305;
thinks precaution against discrimination in ports of entry unnecessary, 307;
on committee of August 25, 308;
thinks prohibition of paper money dangerous, 318;
favors article providing for validity of state acts, 324;
on committee on interstate acts, 325;
thinks New England’s motive for union dependent on commercial arrangements, 331;
favors convention for ratification, 348;
thinks vessels should not be obliged to enter and clear in their own states, 353;
thinks members of legislature may be eligible to other offices, 358;
thinks majority of Senate may elect President, 386;
thinks separate provision for treaties of peace unnecessary, 400;
thinks treaties need not require two-thirds of Senate, 405;
opposes conditional ratification, 416;
thinks jury question need not be included, 441;
objects to state export duties, 443;
thinks legislature should choose treasurer, 450;
thinks provision as to jury trials unnecessary, 466;
urges additional representation, 476.
Grand committee. See Committee, grand.
Grayson, William,
to Madison, iii., 5, n.;
to Monroe, 36, n.

H

Habcas corpus, necessity for preserving right of, debated, iv., 317.
Hall, Levi, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Halsey, Thomas Lloyd, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Hamilton, Alexander N. Y.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
nominates William Jackson for secretary of the convention, 4;
Pierce’s sketch of, 4, n.;
on committee on rules, 5;
moves representation by free inhabitants, 42;
favors absolute negative of executive on legislation, 82;
moves proportional voting in Senate, 144;
presents his plan of government, 182;
explains views on powers of the states, 221, 225;
opposes election of Representatives by state legislatures, 244;
favors three years’ term for Representatives, 249;
opposes fixing compensation for Representatives, 253;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 257, 267;
favors centralized government, 288;
opposes prayers in convention, 311;
writes to Washington about public sentiment, 351, n.;
thinks citizenship and inhabitancy alone necessary for Representatives, iv., 173;
thinks President may be elected by a plurality of electors, 383;
appointed on committee on style and arrangement, 411;
favors increase in representation, 411;
favors easily made amendments, 412, 414;
thinks old Congress should sanction constitution, 415;
thinks constitution will be effective if ratified by nine states, 416;
moves a plan for ratification, 418;
withdraws it, 420;
favors two-thirds vote to override President’s negative, 439;
urges members to sign constitution, 478.
Hamilton plan,
presented, iii., 182;
provisions of, 194;
text of, 197, n.
House of Representatives. See Legislature, national, House of Representatives.
Houstoun, William Churchill, N. J., attends convention, iv., 1.
Houstoun, William, Ga.,
attends convention, iii., 56;
moves increase in representation of Georgia, 389;
opposes continuance of existing state constitutions, 470;
favors additional representation of electors for New Hampshire and Georgia, iv., 13;
moves consideration of appointment of executive by electors, 47;
Pierce’s sketch of, 47, n.;
moves election of executive by national legislature, 49.

I

Impeachment, of executive. See Executive, national, impeachability of, Legislature, national, Senate.
Of judiciary. See Judiciary, national, impeachment of.
Of national officers, provision for,
struck out, iii., 468;
to be suspended during trial, iv., 449.
Trials of, debated, iii., 462, 463, iv., 314, 315, 361, 410.
Imports, power of states to tax,
debated, iv., 320, 401;
duties on, uniformity of, agreed to, 354, 451.
Indians, power to legislate for, proposed, iv., 274.
Ingersoll, Jared, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
considers signing to be recommending constitution, iv., 481;
Pierce’s sketch of, 481, n.
Insurrections, power to suppress. See Republican government, guaranty of.

J

Jackson, William,
nominated for secretary of convention, iii., 4;
elected, 5.
Jay, John, writes, Washington against foreigners, iv., 59, n.
Jefferson, Thomas,
Monroe to, iv., 69, n.;
Madison to, 152, n.; 389, n.
Jenckes, John, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 2, n.
Jenifer, Daniel, of St. Thomas, Md.,
attends convention, iii., 65;
favors three years’ term for Representatives, 148;
Pierce’s sketch of, 148, n.;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 266;
moves postponement of question of voting in Senate, 269;
favors requirement that vessels must enter and clear in their own states, 353.
Jersey plan, the,
submitted, iii., 165;
text of, 166;
vote on, 220.
Jews, letter of, iv., 391, n.
Johnson, William Samuel,
Conn., attends convention, iii., 65;
suggests compromise between Virginia and Jersey plans, 239;
Pierce’s sketch of, 239, n.;
favors elections to Senate by state legislatures, 280;
favors representation by states in Senate, 312;
favors inclusion of blacks in basis of representation, 411;
thinks treason should be defined, iv., 247;
thinks there can be no treason against a state, 248;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 277;
thinks double control of treaties difficult, 290;
thinks judiciary will decide controversies between states, 292;
thinks obligations of old government binding on new, 302;
suggests judiciary have power over equity cases, 311;
moves extension of judicial power to cases arising under the constitution, 314;
thinks acts of one state valid in courts of another state, 324;
on committee on interstate acts, 325;
thinks states cannot be dismembered, 335;
moves admission of states hereafter formed, 338;
thinks legislature may declare effect of state acts in states, 356;
appointed on committee on style and arrangement, 411;
submits report, 421;
favors provision for sumptuary legislation, 445;
on committee on sumptuary legislation, 445;
offers further report of committee on style and arrangement, 447.
Jones, Joseph, writes to Madison, iv., 444, n.
Journal of legislature’s proceedings. See Legislature, national, journal of, House of Representatives, Senate.
Journals of convention, disposition of, iv., 481, 482.
Judiciary, national, supreme,
agreed to, iii., 90;
consideration of postponed, 156;
debated, 461.
Appointment to,
debated, iii., 90, 157, 163, 461, iv., 31;
by legislature, vote on, iii., 92;
by Senate, agreed to, 158;
by executive, vote on, 464, iv., 35;
by executive with consent of Senate, debate on, iii., 465;
exclusion from, of those indebted to government, iv., 74, 285.
Compensation of, fixed,
agreed to, iii., 465;
power to increase, vote on, 467;
debated, iv., 313.
Impeachment of, trial by Senate proposed, iv., 275.
Impeachment power of,
struck out, iii., 468;
debated, iv., 315.
Inferior tribunals,
debate on instituting, iii., 96, 98, 99, 467, 468, iv., 223;
power of legislature to refer cases to, struck out, 315.
Jurisdiction of,
debated, iii., 155, 156, 163, 468, iv., 275;
over controversies between states, debated, 292;
to cases in equity proposed, 311;
over controversies in which United States is a party, debated, 314;
to cases arising under the constitution, debated, 314;
appellate, debated, 315, 316;
to be directed by legislature, proposed, 315;
extension of to land grants proposed, 316;
to land claims, 341, 342;
to impeachment trials proposed, 407, 408.
Negative of,
inclusion with executive proposed, iii., 81, 89, 108, 111;
over state laws, debated, 449;
debated, iv., 210, 311.
Revisionary power of, debated, iii., 81, iv., 21, 208.
State, power of, over national laws,
debate on, iii., 447;
will be bound by national laws, 449.
Tenure of, iii., 92, 465, iv., 311.
Jury trial, right of,
provided for, iv., 317;
in civil cases debated, 441;
motion to preserve, 446.

K

King, Rufus, Mass.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
objects to report of committee on rules, 6;
Pierce’s sketch of, 6, n.;
opposes representation by quotas of contributions, 42, 137;
notes of proceedings of convention, 45, n.;
opposes election of Senators by state legislatures, 51;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in council of revision, 81;
favors ratification of constitution by conventions, 95;
moves question of proportional representation, 137;
thinks Senate should have power to originate money bills, 159;
opposes sovereignty of the states, 221, 341;
insists upon election of Representatives by the people, 246;
favors national compensation for Representatives, 252;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 256, 262;
thinks New Hampshire deputies will attend, 326;
favors proportional representation in Senate, 337, 429;
thinks representation cannot be permanently fixed, 366;
on committee on question of representation, 368;
thinks slaves should count in representation, 386;
brings in report of committee on representation, 386;
thinks representation of the south too large, 387;
defends report on representation, 387;
opposes inclusion of three-fifths of blacks in representation, 406;
opposes representation by population, 414;
opposes ineligibility of executive to re-election, iv., 6, 52;
opposes short term for executive, 11;
opposes impeachability of executive, 16, 18;
favors ratification of constitution by legislatures, 43;
moves voting in Senate per capita, 45;
favors election of executive by state legislatures, 51;
proposes term of twenty years for executive, 52;
opposes election of executive by electors chosen by lot from legislature, 57;
opposes freehold qualification for electors, 74;
thinks legislature need not meet annually, 113;
thinks representation should exclude slaves, 133;
opposes leaving time and mode of election of Representatives to state legislatures, 154;
thinks less than a majority should be a quorum of legislature, 161;
thinks lowest number for a quorum may be fixed, 162, 163;
thinks legislature should not have power to change place of meeting, 167;
thinks state debts should be assumed by nation, 232, 233;
thinks state lands ought to be given up, 233;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks states may punish treason under a different name, 248;
thinks national government should punish for treason, 250;
thinks treason against a state same as against nation, 251;
thinks slaves should be taxed, 270;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
explains provisions as to militia, 280;
admits duty on slaves part of compromise agreement, 305;
moves to prohibit states from violating private contracts, 319;
moves to prohibit states from taxing exports, 322;
thinks states should regulate their own manufactures, 321;
thinks all the states must ratify constitution, 346;
moves that only states ratifying be operated on by constitution, 346;
thinks constitution must be ratified by conventions, 347;
thinks state constitution no bar to ratification, 348;
on committee of August 31, 354;
moves ineligibility of members of legislature to offices created during their term, 357, 360;
moves to obtain consent of state legislatures to purchases of lands for national purposes, 372;
thinks eventual election of President will be with Senate, 377;
moves that electors be not office-holders, 379;
favors change of clause relative to re-election of President, 380;
moves increase of number necessary to elect President, 387;
thinks Senate may share in appointments, 398;
objects to participation of two-thirds of Senate in treaties, 400;
opposes special provision for treaties of peace, 403;
moves special provision for treaties affecting national rights, 403;
thinks old Congress should consider constitution, 407;
on committee of style and arrangement, 411;
thinks old Congress need not sanction constitution, 419;
thinks President ought not to be suspended if impeached, 449;
thinks legislature should choose treasurer, 450;
thinks power to grant charters unnecessary, 453;
thinks publication of public expenditures impossible, 456;
opposes change in representation, 459;
thinks executive may pardon for treason, 464;
thinks guaranty of jury trials not necessary, 466;
urges additional representation, 476;
proposes journals of convention be disposed of, 481.
Knox, General Henry, writes to Washington on prospects of convention, iv., 191, n.

L

Land cession, question of, iii., 278.
Lands, public. See Legislature, national, power of.
Langdon, John, N. H.,
attends convention, iv., 36;
opposes disqualification from legislature of persons having unsettled accounts, 78;
Pierce’s sketch of, 78, n.;
opposes prohibition against placing national capital at state capital, 81;
favors national compensation of legislature, 202;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 221;
favors suppression of rebellion without state’s consent, 226;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks representatives must be trusted, 236;
thinks national control of militia necessary, 238;
opposes taxation by congressional representation, 253;
asks only fair representation for New Hampshire, 257;
objects to state power to tax exports, 258, 260;
opposes leaving slave trade to states, 271;
moves to commit question of navigation acts, 272;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
thinks state and national governments need not be jealous, 281;
favors national power of negative on state laws, 288;
thinks executive should be elected by joint ballot of legislature, 295;
thinks creditors of government should not be disturbed, 301;
admits duty on slaves is part of compromise agreement, 305;
on committee of August 25, 309;
doubts if new states should be admitted on an equality with old, 333;
thinks new states may be created, 335;
thinks Vermont should be brought into the Union, 335;
thinks vessels should not be made to enter and clear in their state, 353;
objects to export duties by states, 443;
moves increase in representation of North Carolina and Rhode Island, 459;
thinks commercial regulations should be national, 462.
Lansing, John, N. Y.,
attends convention, iii., 65;
Pierce’s sketch of, 165, n.;
supports Jersey plan, 171;
opposes Virginia plan, 227;
opposes legislature of two branches, 227;
favors voting in House by states, 302;
leaves convention, 356, n.
Legislature, national, acts of,
may originate in both houses, iii., 296, iv., 206;
enacting style, 206.
Compensation of members, considered, iii., 150, 250, 292, 293;
to be fixed, 151;
and eligibility to reelection, debated, 155;
to be ascertained by members, 253;
by state legislatures, 254;
vote on, 259;
agreed to, 282;
debated, iv., 201, 205.
Constitution of,
considered, iv., 10;
agreed to, 116.
Disqualification of debtors from,
debated, iv., 77, 79, 80;
of pensioners from, 79;
of persons having unsettled accounts with, 79;
of members from other offices, 191, 357, 360, 450.
Elections to by popular vote,
debated, iii., 62;
mode of, debated, 96, 161;
eligibility to re-election, debated, 152;
eligibility of state officers to, 152.
Expulsion from, debated, iv., 163, 164.
Journal of proceedings, debate on, iv., 164, 166, 449.
Money bills in, originating of, debated, iii., 370, 374, iv., 180, 185, 190, 255, 257.
Negative of, on state laws,
considered, iii., 55, 120, 127, 447, 449;
on acts of executive, vote on, iv., 115;
debated, 438;
verbal amendment offered, 446.
Place of meeting, debated, iv., 168.
Power of,
debated, iii., 53, 162, 440, iv., 214;
coercion on delinquent states, iii., 55;
to legislate where states not competent, 55, 446, 447;
over state police, 445, 446;
over state judiciary, 449, 450;
members of, in debate, iv., 163;
expulsion of members of, 163;
to compel attendance of members, 163;
to judge of elections of members, 163;
to adjourn, 167;
limits of, debated, 208, 209;
to regulate captures, debated, 223;
over Indians, debated, 274;
over general welfare, proposed, 274;
to pass ex post facto laws and bills of attainder, prohibited, 275, 455;
to fulfil engagements of old Congress, debated, 277, 288;
over militia, debated, 278, 285;
to enforce treaties, debated, 285;
negative on state laws, debated, 286;
to pass tax laws, debated, 292, 451;
to pay public debts, debated, 300, 361;
to regulate ports of entry, 306;
to refer appointments to state legislatures, 308;
to pay debts with anything but coin, debated, 318;
report of committee of eleven taken up, 326;
over public lands, proposed, 340, 342;
to make national bankruptcy law, debated, 356;
to judge privileges of members, 369;
to grant letters of marque and reprisal, 369;
to govern seat of government, 370;
to grant copyrights, 370;
to create offices, proposed, 410;
to appoint treasurer, debated, 450;
to punish piracies, etc., debated, 451;
to make canals, proposed, 452;
to grant charters, proposed, 452;
to establish a university, proposed, 453;
to be limited in providing for standing army, 454.
Property qualifications for members of, debated, iv., 72, 77, 155, 159, 177.
Qualifications for members of, debated, iii., 49, iv., 159.
Quorum in, debated, iv., 160, 163, 214.
Representation in,
debated, iii., 41, 130, 136, 143, 162, 277, 362, 392, 396, 406, 409, 411, iv., 133, 138;
compromise proposed, iii., 136;
enumeration of blacks and whites, debated, 309, 406, 408, 413, 415, 416, 420;
question postponed, 381;
referred to committee, 386;
report of committee, 386;
motion to increase, debated, 390;
census for, debated, 393, 406, 408, 409;
taxation as basis of, debated, 411, 416, 417, 446;
moved that, of large states be limited, 454;
increase of, debated, iv., 386, 392, 459, 476.
Rules to be regulated by each house, iv., 206.
Term of members of, debated, iii., 150.
Time of meeting, debated, iv., 112, 114, 115.
Two branches of,
agreed to, iii., 45, 161;
debate on, 227, 238, 244.
House of Representatives, mode of election to,
debated, iii., 46, 47, 49, 99, 108, 244, 267;
classification of states to determine representation in, proposed, 127;
term of members, debated, 148, 151;
age for members, debated, 150, 255, 256;
elections to, by state legislatures, proposed, 246, 247;
three years’ term in, proposed, 247, 250;
eligibility of members to other offices debated, 256, 259, 260, 266, 267, iv., 354;
committee report on representation in, iii., 381, 383;
constitution of, debated, iv., 116, 365;
who may vote for members of, debated, 128;
seven years’ citizenship for members of, proposed, 129, 159, 160;
qualifications for members of, debated, 129;
clause relative to, agreed to, 133;
money bills to originate in, debate on, 138, 370, 409;
power of impeachment of, agreed to, 140;
time and mode of election to, debate on, 152, 154;
power of, over elections in states, debated, 155;
citizenship and residence for members, debated, 173, 175;
four years’ citizenship for members of, proposed, 175;
nine years’ citizenship for members of, proposed, 175;
citizenship requirements not to apply to those already citizens, 175, 179;
five years’ citizenship for members of, proposed, 179;
clause for citizenship and age of members agreed to, 179;
representation by direct taxation, debate on, 183;
power to make bankruptcy laws, proposed, 355;
power of, to make treaties, proposed, 397;
increase in representation in, proposed, 411;
moved to strike out apportionment by direct taxes,” 446;
proposed that all journals of, be printed, 450.
Senate, mode of election to,
debated, iii., 50, 278, iv., 140;
to be a check on democracy, iii., 51;
election to, by state legislatures, debated, 52, 112, 120, 282;
elections to, by the people, debated, 119;
mode of voting in, debated, 144, 280, 297, 369, 370, 375, 417;
age for members of debated, 152, 282;
term of members of, debated, 153, 155, 283, 284, 291;
compensation of members of, debated, 155, 292, 294, 295;
originating money bills in, debated, 158, 160, 426;
representation in, debated, 281, 282, 428, 437, 438, 441, 442, 443, iv., 45, 369;
property qualification for members of, debated, iii., 294;
eligibility of members of, to state offices, considered, 295;
eligibility of members of, to any offices, considered, 296;
voting in, by states, debated, 376;
citizenship for members of, debated, iv., 150, 151;
age and citizenship for members of, debated, 152, 179;
moved that members of, be permitted to enter dissent to measures, 165;
moved that journal of, be published, 165, 166;
choosing officers of, agreed to, 218;
power of appointment by, 285, 289;
treaty-making power of, debated, 289, 291;
power of, to appoint ambassadors, etc., considered, 291;
power of, in controversies between states, considered, 292;
power to try impeachments, proposed, 361;
power of, objected to, 382;
to vote on President, 386;
power of, in treaty making, debated, 397, 399;
in appointments, 398;
quorum of debated, 406;
power of, in impeachment of President, debated, 407, 408;
power of, to amend money bills, 409;
to be under oath in impeachment trials, 410.
Letters of marque, power to issue, debated, iv., 231.
Liberty of the press, guaranty of, proposed, iv., 455.
Livingston, William N. J.,
attends convention, iii., 90;
appointed on grand committee, iv., 233;
Pierce’s sketch of, 253, n.;
delivers report on state debts and militia, 253;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
submits report on slave importation and navigation acts, 292;
on committee on sumptuary legislation, 445.

M

Madison, James, Va.,
chronology of, 1787, iii., xix; iv., ix;
attends convention, iii., 2;
moves question of representation in legislature, 41;
Pierce’s sketch of, 41, n.;
favors proportional representation, 41, 44, 303;
favors election to House by popular vote, 48, 102;
opposes district elections to Senate, 51;
opposes defining powers of national legislature, 55;
opposes use of force against recalcitrant states, 56;
moves consideration of powers of executive, 61;
opposes removability of executive on motion of state legislatures, 74;
favors qualified negative of executive on legislation, 84;
favors inclusion of judiciary with executive in negative on legislation, 89, 108;
opposes appointment of judges by legislature, 91, 157;
favors ratification of constitution by popular vote, 94, iv., 44;
favors creation of inferior judicial tribunals, iii., 98;
opposes elections to Senate by state legislatures, 111, 117;
favors a small Senate elected by the people, 114;
favors negative by national legislature of state laws, 121, 126, 448;
favors three years’ term for Representatives, 148;
favors national compensation of members of national legislature, 150, 253;
favors seven years’ term for Senators, 153;
moves to define jurisdiction of judiciary, 156;
thinks Senate should have power to originate money bills, 159;
opposes Jersey plan, 200;
thinks national government in danger from state governments, 241;
opposes annual elections of Representatives, 248;
favors compensation of Representatives by fixed standard, 252;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 260;
favors partial ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 264;
moves debate on mode of voting in Senate, 280;
sets forth objects of Senate, 285;
opposes compensation of Senators by state legislatures, 293;
opposes equal state representation, 316, 331, 428, 437;
would preserve state rights, 338;
opposes compromise committee on representation in Senate, 349, 354;
thinks question of representation vital, 377;
suggests representation by free population in House and by free and slaves in Senate, 385;
moves increase in representation of all states, 390;
thinks basis of representation should be fixed, 402;
favors census at least every fifteen years, 409;
favors adjustment of taxation to representation, 418;
favors independence of executive, 456;
thinks tendency is to give executive too little power, 458;
favors appointment of judges by executive and one-third of Senate, 463;
moves appointment of judges by executive and two-thirds of Senate, 465;
objects to power to increase judges’ salaries, 466;
favors continuance of old Congress to prevent interregnum, 468;
favors national guaranty against domestic violence, 470;
favors election of executive by the people, iv., 7;
favors varying ratio for electors to choose executive, 12;
favors impeachability of executive, 15;
seconds motion to include judiciary in revisionary power, 22, 23, 27;
moves appointment of judges by executive and Senate, 31;
is willing to allow a majority of Senate to reject appointment of judges, 34;
speaks on mode of election of executive, 59;
thinks each voter may vote for two persons for executive, 66;
thinks persons indebted to government should be excluded from legislature, 73;
moves that property qualification be not confined to landed property, 75;
opposes mutual negative of each branch of legislature over acts of the other, 111;
suggests that time of meeting of legislature be not fixed in constitution, 112, 113;
favors fixing time of meeting of legislature provisionally, 114;
favors changing time of meeting of legislature from December to May, 114;
favors power of suffrage by freeholders, 120;
views on suffrage, 121, n.;
favors requiring Representatives to be inhabitants of their states, 129;
opposes proposition that Representatives be required to reside seven years in their states, 130;
objects to fixed ratio of Representatives to inhabitants, 134;
moves representation of not more than 1 to 40,000 inhabitants, 135;
opposed to originating money bills in House, 139;
moves that vacancies in Senate must happen by refusals, resignations, etc., 142;
thinks provision as to money bills valueless to large states, 143;
opposes fourteen years’ citizenship as necessary for Senators, 146;
opposes leaving time and mode of electing Representatives wholly to state legislatures, 152;
writes to Jefferson on progress of the convention, 152, n.;
thinks property qualification for members of government should be fixed in constitution, 158, 159;
moves that expulsion from legislature be by two-thirds vote, 163;
moves legislature have power to compel attendance, 163;
moves that Senate shall publish its legislative journal, 166;
insists upon central location for capital, 168;
thinks legislature should not have power to change place of meeting, 168;
writes to his father, 171, n.;
thinks citizenship and inhabitancy alone necessary for Representatives, 174;
thinks government responsible for what states have done, 176;
thinks Senate may decrease money bills, 184;
thinks constitution should regulate compensation of legislature, 202;
moves that laws be revised by executive and judiciary, 208;
thinks power to tax exports desirable, 216;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 210;
thinks punishment of piracies, etc., ought not to be fixed by legislature, 223;
moves that legislature define piracies, etc., 224;
moves that rebellion to be suppressed be against government, 226;
moves to give legislature power to declare war, 227;
submits power over public lands, Indians, seat of government, charters, copyrights, university, forts, 229;
favors national control of militia, 238;
moves power to create offices in legislature, 245;
thinks treason should be broadly defined, 246, 247;
thinks treason may be against nation and a state, 248;
thinks treason should not be twice punishable, 251;
thinks present representation temporary, 256;
favors power to tax exports, 260;
favors taxation of exports by two-thirds legislature, 263;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
thinks new government should have power to fulfil engagements of old government, 278;
explains provisions as to militia, 279;
favors national control of militia, 281;
proposes states appoint militia officers under rank of general, 283;
thinks disunion the greatest danger, 283;
moves to commit question of negative of state laws, 286;
moves to include President in treaty-making power, 289;
suggests inconvenience of legal ratification of treaties, 289;
suggests varying participation of legislature in different treaties, 291;
thinks larger states should have larger vote in election of executive, 295;
moves extension of appointing power of executive, 298;
opposes slave-trade extension, 303;
opposes admitting property in men in constitution, 305;
moves that treaties be supreme law, 306;
thinks president of Senate should not be in executive succession, 310;
moves amendment to oath of executive, 310;
favors fixed salaries for judges, 313;
proposes salaries of judges be not changed for three years, 314;
moves judiciary have jurisdiction over cases in which U. S. is a party, 314;
thinks judicial power should not extend to all cases under constitution, 314;
moves verbal change in judiciary clause, 315;
thinks states should not have power to interfere in private contracts, 319;
thinks retrospective laws are prohibited, 319;
moves states be forbidden to pass embargoes, 320;
moves to forbid states to lay imposts, 320, 321;
objects to imposts by states, 322;
favors committing clause on state acts, 324;
thinks commercial regulations not injurious to south, 329;
thinks western states entitled to an equality with others, 333;
opposes guaranty of public lands, 341;
thinks constitution may go into operation without a majority in favor, 345;
moves ratification by seven states and thirty-three Representatives, 346;
thinks ratification conventions necessary, 347;
thinks it inconvenient if vessels must enter and clear at their own ports, 353;
on committee of August, 31, 354;
offers amendment strengthening interstate validity of state acts, 356;
fears election of President will be thrown on Senate, 365;
doubts if legislature should judge of privileges of its members, 369;
thinks legislature should not participate in electing President, 375;
proposes that election of President may be by one-third of whole number of electors, 376;
moves that electors not voting be not counted, 378;
moves that two-thirds Senate be present when voting for President, 386;
shows President may be elected by two states, 387;
moves that election of President by legislature when Vice-President also dies be temporary, 392;
seconds motion that no state vote for President in legislature by less than three Representatives, 394;
thinks some cure required to prevent minority in legislature electing President, 395;
proposes treaties of peace be by majority of Senate, 400;
proposes two-thirds Senate make treaties of peace without President, 400;
favors executive council, 403;
thinks treaties have been too easily made in past, 405;
moves quorum of Senate be two-thirds, 406;
thinks impeachment of President should not be on vague grounds, 407;
moves supreme court try President, 407;
seconds motion to increase representation, 411;
thinks clause relative to amendments should be reconsidered, 413, 414;
favors three-quarter vote to override President’s negative, 441;
favors state export duties, 443;
thinks supreme court can negative state laws, 443;
moves verbal amendment to clause relative to negative of bills, 446;
moves words “by lot” be struck out for classifying Senators, 448;
thinks President ought not to be suspended when impeached, 449;
favors national charters where states are incompetent, 452;
moves power to establish university, 453;
favors limiting standing army, 454;
moves public accounts be published from time to time, 456;
writes to J. Q. Adams, 459, n.;
favors national control of commercial regulations, 462;
thinks Senate may participate in pardons for treason, 464;
thinks superior officers may make appointments, 465;
thinks legislature may propose amendments, 468;
opposes special provisos in constitution, 469.
Madison, Rev. James, of William and Mary, writes to James Madison on prospects of convention, iv., 91, n.
Manufactures, encouragement of, by imposts,
debate on, iv., 321;
regulation of, debated, 322.
Marque and reprisal, letters of, power to grant, proposed, iv., 366.
Martin, Alexander, N. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
insists upon equal power of states, 224;
favors elections of Representatives regulated by state legislatures, 244;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 260;
Pierce’s sketch of, 260, n.;
moves to postpone question of voting in Senate, 309;
on compromise committee on representation, 350;
moves increase in representation of North Carolina, 389;
opposes fixing national capital at same place with a state capital, iv., 81;
seconds motion for commercial regulations, 326.
Martin, Luther, Md.,
attends convention, iii., 128;
opposes oath from state officers to national government, 147;
Pierce’s sketch of, 224;
opposes legislature of two branches, 233;
wishes to preserve state governments, 207, 299;
insists on state sovereignty, 321, 344;
favors two confederacies if states cannot have equal vote in Senate, 427;
opposes national negative on state laws, 447;
moves that national laws be binding on state judiciary, 449;
favors election of executive by electors chosen by state legislatures, 454;
moves to consider question of re-eligibility of executive, 460;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 461;
opposes creation of inferior judicial tribunals, 467;
opposes power in national government to suppress rebellion in states, 470;
moves ineligibility of executive to re-election, iv., 10, 51;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 26;
opposes voting in Senate per capita, 47;
favors disqualification from legislature of debtors to government, 78;
moves eleven years’ term for executive, 52;
favors state compensation of Senate, 204;
asks definition of “duties” and “imposts,” 214;
opposes power to subdue rebellion in a state without its consent, 225;
favors provision against large army in time of peace, 236;
moves treason be punishable on confession, 252;
proposes direct taxation by quotas from states, 257;
moves that states be permitted to tax migration of slaves, 264;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
favors state control of militia, 282;
moves clause to prevent discrimination in ports of entry, 306;
moves to restrict executive power of pardoning, 309;
withdraws motion, 309;
opposes requiring large states to consent to forming new states, 334;
opposes admission of new states by two-thirds vote, 334;
favors committing motion to require consent of states to dismemberment, 337;
thinks new states should be formed without consent of old states, 338;
moves that land claims be examined by supreme court, 342;
moves guaranty of domestic tranquillity on state executive’s application, 343;
insists upon ratification by state legislatures, 348;
thinks the people will not vote for constitution, 350.
Mason, George, Va.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
objects to report of committee on rules, 7;
Pierce’s sketch of, 7, n.;
thinks government should operate on individuals, 39;
favors seven years’ term for executive, 63;
favors election of executive by the people, 64;
opposes subordinating executive to legislature, 74;
opposes single executive, 84;
favors election of Representatives by the people, 101, 147, 245;
favors separation of purse from sword, 110;
favors election of Senators by state legislatures, 119;
favors provision for amendments to constitution, 145;
favors national compensation of Representatives, 150;
favors two branches of legislature, 229;
favors biennial elections of Representatives, 249;
moves that Representatives be at least twenty-five years of age, 255;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 257, 266;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 261;
favors representation in Senate by states, 281;
favors property qualification for Senate, 294;
on compromise committee on representation, 350;
supports report of compromise committee on representation, 362;
moves to refer question of voting in Senate to committee, 369;
thinks money bills should originate in House, 371, iv., 139, 143;
favors an increase in representation, iii., 391;
favors representation based on population, 394;
thinks slaves should have proportion in representation, 398;
thinks legislature ought not to fix representation, 401;
thinks constitution ought to fix representation, 405;
thinks taxation should be according to representation, 409;
opposed to direct taxation proportioned to number of Representatives, 419;
opposes election of executive by the people, 454;
opposes election of executive to serve during good behavior, 458;
opposes appointment of judges by executive, 462, iv., 35;
favors institution of inferior judicial tribunals, iii., 468;
favors guaranty of republican government to the states, 469;
favors impeachability of executive, iv., 15;
favors inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 23, 28;
thinks constitution should be ratified by the people, 37;
opposes three Senators from each State, 46;
favors election by legislature of executive for not more than six years in twelve, 63;
moves seven years’ term and ineligibility for executive, 71;
proposes property qualification for legislature, 72;
moves to exclude from legislature debtors to United States, 72;
moves that national capital be not at a state capital, 80;
withdraws the motion, 81;
doubts propriety of mutual negative of each branch of legisture on the other, 110, 111;
thinks time of meeting of legislature should not be fixed by constitution, 113;
thinks suffrage question should be left to the states, 117;
favors free general suffrage, 119;
thinks seven years’ citizenship should be required of Representatives, 129;
moves that Representatives be required to be inhabitants of their states for one year, 132;
favors postponing question of voting in Senate, 143;
favors postponing question of originating money bills, 145;
thinks aliens should not be in legislature, 146;
thinks quorum in legislature should be a majority, 160;
approves expulsion from legislature by two-thirds vote, 164;
thinks yeas and nays should be required, 165;
thinks publication of journal of legislature necessary, 167;
thinks government not bound by state laws on naturalization, 178;
thinks first money bills should originate in House, 180;
moves to allow members of legislature to hold any office, 192;
thinks Representatives should be independent of state legislatures, 203;
thinks revenue bills should originate in House, 206;
thinks Senate may alienate territory, 207;
moves that no tax be laid on exports, 215;
favors power to emit bills of credit, 220, 221;
favors appointment of treasurer by legislature, 222;
thinks punishment may be fixed in cases of piracy, etc., 223;
opposes giving power of war to executive, 228;
thinks general government should regulate militia, 231;
thinks funds may be diverted in time of war, 231;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
favors partial national control of militia, 236, 237, 239;
favors power to make sumptuary laws, 244;
thinks treason may be against a state, 248;
thinks treason should be defined, 251;
calls up amendment as to money bills, 255;
thinks states should retain power over exports, 262;
denounces slavery and slave trade, 265;
asks how legislature can negative state laws, 287;
objects to compelling settlement of old debts, 300;
opposes naming slave-inporting states, 304;
thinks tax on importation of men necessary, 306;
on committee of August 25, 308;
moves amendment to executive’s oath, 310;
thinks judges’ salaries should be fixed, 313;
thinks states may interfere in private contracts, 319;
thinks states may lay embargoes, 320;
thinks states may wish to encourage industries by imposts, 321;
thinks two-thirds vote necessary for commercial regulations, 329;
thinks western people should be treated with equality, 333;
thinks nine states may ratify constitution, 349;
declares he will not sign constitution, 351;
approves amendment relative to interstate validity of state acts, 355;
thinks members of legislature should not hold other offices, 359;
thinks President will usually be chosen by Senate, 366;
thinks election of President by electors objectionable, 374;
thinks President may be elected by minority, 375;
moves that Senate choose President from three highest candidates, 377;
thinks system of electors autocratic, 378;
prefers eventual election of President by House of Representatives, 386;
approves increasing number for quorum to elect President, 387;
thinks Vice-President will encroach on Senate’s rights, 396;
favors an executive council, 401;
moves to extend reasons for impeaching President, 407;
moves to postpone motion for second convention, 421;
thinks two-thirds vote may override President’s negative, 440;
thinks bill of rights necessary, 441;
moves states may levy export duties, 442;
moves clause for sumptuary laws, 444;
on committee on sumptuary legislation, 445;
favors state tax on exports, 445;
moves publication of all proceedings of House, 449;
favors power to cut canals, 453;
opposed to standing armies, 454;
moves to strike out prohibition of ex post facto laws, 455;
moves verbal amendment to capitation tax clause, 456;
moves annual publication of expenditures, 456;
thinks states may lay tonnage dues, 462;
thinks President should not have power to pardon for treason, 463;
thinks legislature should have pardoning power for treason, 464;
disapproves provision for amendments, 467;
objects to navigation acts by majority, 469;
announces he cannot sign constitution, 470;
refuses to sign, 483.
McClurg, James, Va.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
moves that term of executive be for good behavior, 456;
insists upon necessity for independence of executive, 459;
Pierce’s sketch of, iv., 20, n.;
suggests ascertaining how executive is to act, 20;
writes to Madison, 91, n.; 96, n.; 286, n.; 412, n.
McHenry, James, Md.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
Pierce’s sketch of, iv., 190, n.;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks direct taxation should be by quotas from states, 258;
thinks embargo power embraced in war power, 261;
moves prohibition of ex post facto laws or bills of attainder, 275;
proposes plan for choosing ports of entry, 307;
moves judges receive fixed salaries, 313;
thinks Maryland must ratify according to her law, 348;
thinks vessels will take officers as security of entry dues, 353;
moves President have power to convene either house of legislature, 410;
moves states may lay tonnage dues, 461.
Mercer, John Francis, Md.,
attends convention, iv., 91;
opposes election of Representatives by the people, 127;
opposes whole plan of constitution, 128;
thinks the people ought to be guided in their voting, 129;
suggests that candidates for Representatives be nominated by state legislatures, 129;
opposes requirement of seven years’ residence of Representatives in their states, 130, 131;
thinks Senate should have power to originate money bills, 139;
thinks less than a majority should be quorum of legislature, 160;
seconds motion to fix quorum at few, 162;
thinks Senate should have only legislative power, 166;
thinks two houses will not agree on place of meeting, 169;
thinks provisions as to citizenship should not apply to those now citizens, 175;
thinks government bound by state laws on naturalization, 179;
thinks aristocracies will arise, 193;
fears good men will not serve in legislature, 199;
thinks Senate ought not to make treaties, 207;
thinks judiciary should not be included in revisionary power, 208;
opposes taxing exports, 217;
declares himself friendly to paper money, 220;
favors appointment of treasurer by executive, 222;
favors defining of piracies, felonies, etc., 224;
opposes power to subdue rebellion without request of state legislature, 225.
Mifflin, Thomas, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 5;
seconds motion that acceptance of other office shall vacate seat in legislature, iv., 192;
Pierce’s sketch of, 192, n.
Militia, power of regulating,
debated, iv., 231, 236;
report on, 253, 278, 283, 285;
command of, debated, 309 See Legislature, national, power of.
Money bills, originating of See Legislature, national, money bills, House of Representatives, Senate.
Monroe, James, to Jefferson, on prospects of the convention, iv., 69, n.
Morris, Gouverneur, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
offers address from citizens of Rhode Island, 10;
Pierce’s sketch of, 10, n.;
objects to committee on minutes, 14;
moves question of federal or national government, 37;
explains difference between federal and national government, 39;
favors compromise committee on question of representation, 344;
favors election of Senators for life, 345;
opposes report of compromise committee on representation, 357;
thinks representation should be according to wealth, 362, 383;
thinks representation should not be definitely fixed, 365, 401;
on committee on representation question, 368;
favors originating money bills in both houses, 370, 372;
opposes equal representation of small states, 378;
submits report on representation in House, 381;
favors referring question of representation to committee, 383;
moves consideration of question of fixing representation, 383;
favors property and population as basis, of representation, 388;
thinks southern states sufficiently represented, 389;
objects to requiring legislature to take census, 393;
fears preponderance of western states, 393;
opposes inclusion of slaves in basis of representation, 399, 408, 421;
moves that taxation be according to representation, 409, 410, 418;
thinks legislature should adjust basis of representation, 411;
moves reconsideration of question of representation in Senate, 444;
opposes taxation by quotas, 446;
opposes forbidding national government to interfere with state police, 446;
favors power in legislature where harmony would be disturbed by state legislation, 447;
opposes negative of state laws by legislature, 447, 449;
thinks judiciary will have power to set aside laws, 449;
favors election of executive by the people, 450, 452;
opposes ineligibility of executive, 455;
favors election of executive during good behavior, 456;
disclaims friendliness to monarchy, 459;
favors appointment of judges by executive, 461;
thinks impeachment trials should not be before the judges, 463;
favors appointment of judges by executive with consent of Senate, 465;
favors power to increase judges’ salaries, 465, 467;
favors institution of inferior judicial tribunals, 467;
opposes continuance of old Congress, 468;
opposes guaranteeing existing laws to the states, 469;
favors a vigorous executive, iv., 1;
favors re-eligibility of executive, 3, 71;
favors short term for executive, 11;
thinks executive ought not to be impeachable, 13;
admits executive ought to be impeachable in some cases, 15, 19;
moves that electors for executive be not officials, 20;
thinks revisionary power requires more than the executive, 24;
thinks judiciary and executive may exercise revisionary power jointly, 29;
favors appointment of judges by executive, 34;
favors ratification of constitution by the people, 43;
moves that voting in Senate be per capita, 45;
moves ratification of constitution by a general convention, 45;
moves that there be three Senators from each state, 46;
opposes election of executive by members of national legislature chosen by lot, 54;
opposes election of executive by national legislature, 55;
opposes apportionment of direct taxation by representation, 58;
favors election of executive by the people, 64;
thinks each voter for executive may vote for two persons, 66;
opposes property qualification for members of legislature, 73;
thinks debtors of government need not be excluded from legislature, 74, 79;
seconds motion to strike out “landed” property as requirement in executive, 77;
opposes prohibiting national capital at state capital, 81;
moves to restrict mutual negative of each branch of legislature on the other to legislative acts, 110;
thinks treaties are not laws, 111;
moves to strike out provision for time of meeting of legislature, 112;
moves to change time of meeting of legislature from December to May, 114;
favors absolute negative in executive on legislature, 115;
moves restriction of suffrage to freeholders, 116;
thinks suffrage should be fixed by legislature, 117;
thinks general suffrage will produce aristocracy, 118;
favors seven years’ citizenship for representatives, 129;
opposes requirement that Representatives be residents of their states, 130;
moves that representation be by free population, 135;
opposes slavery and the slave trade, 135;
thinks Senate should have right to originate money bills, 138, 184;
agrees that vacancies in Senate must be by refusals, resignations, etc., 142;
favors equal vote in Senate, 144;
moves fourteen years’ citizenship for Senators, 145;
opposes admission of aliens into government, 149;
moves that state legislatures fix time and mode of electing Representatives, 152;
opposes leaving time and mode of electing Representatives exclusively to state legislatures, 154;
moves to strike out property qualification, 158;
moves to fix quorum at few, 161;
thinks any member may call for yeas and nays, 164;
thinks majority may expel from legislature, 164;
thinks citizenship requirements ought not to apply to those already citizens, 175, 177;
thinks members of legislature may hold some other offices, 195, 200;
thinks members of legislature may serve in army and navy, 201;
favors national compensation of legislature, 201;
thinks revenue bills need not be confined to House, 206;
thinks some check on legislative acts necessary, 209;
moves that executive power of negative extend to resolutions, 213;
thinks exports may be taxed, 215, 217;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 219;
thinks legislature should punish counterfeiting, 223;
moves that legislature punish piracies, etc., 224;
thinks legislature should designate piracies, etc., 225;
thinks legislature should have power to subdue rebellions, 225;
opposes inclusion of executive in power to subdue rebellions in states, 225;
thinks power to subdue rebellions necessary, 226;
submits propositions for committee of the whole, 242;
opposes power to make sumptuary laws, 244;
thinks treason should be defined, 246, 247;
moves British statute for treason, 249;
thinks treason should not be twice punishable, 251;
thinks debts should be adjusted with taxation, 255;
favors power to tax exports, 259;
moves slave-trade question be committed, 271;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 276;
favors prohibiting bills of attainder, 276;
moves new government discharge engagements of old government, 278;
moves that Senate shall not have power of appointment, 285;
moves that power to enforce treaties be not specified, 285;
moves clause giving power over militia, 285;
thinks national appointment of state executives should be committed, 288;
doubts if treaties should be referred to Senate, 289;
suggests that treaties will be negotiated in this country, 200;
opposes election of executive by legislature, 296;
moves election of executive by electors, 297;
moves executive be required to make recommendations to legislature, 298;
objects to state power to appoint federal officers, 300;
thinks debts of old government should be paid by new government, 302;
moves that slave-importing states be named, 303;
withdraws motion, 304;
thinks freemen may be taxed, 305;
seconds motion to make treaties supreme law, 306;
moves that executive have power to correspond with states, 308;
moves chief justice succeed as executive, 310;
objects to removability of judges upon legislature’s application, 312;
moves judicial power extend to cases in which U. S. is party, 314;
asks what is appellate power of judiciary, 315;
moves verbal change in judiciary clause, 315;
opposes power to suspend habeas corpus except in emergency, 317;
opposed to forbidding states to interfere in private contracts, 319;
thinks prohibiting embargoes by states unnecessary, 320;
thinks states should not tax exports, 322;
favors commercial regulations, 328;
moves interstate validity of acts of states, 325;
opposes admission of western states on an equality, 333;
does not wish power to pass to western states, 333;
proposes method of admitting new states, 334;
opposes admission of new states by two-thirds vote, 334;
thinks states must consent to division, 336;
thinks question of new states is one of jurisdiction rather than limits, 338;
moves that legislature control public lands, 342;
thinks supreme court has jurisdiction in land cases, 342;
thinks legislatures may call convention to amend constitution, 344;
approves motion prohibiting religious test for office, 344;
thinks contiguous states must ratify, 344;
thinks states may choose method of ratification, 347;
moves Congress be not required to approve constitution, 350;
favors a second convention, 351;
on committee of August 31, 354;
moves amendment on the subject of interstate validity of state acts, 355;
favors national bankruptcy laws, 357;
thinks members of legislature may hold other offices, 358;
fears election of President will devolve on Senate, 365;
defends system of electors, 365, 381;
thinks election of President should be free from cabal, 367;
prefers eventual election of President by Senate to whole legislature, 368;
thinks each House should be judge of privileges of its own members, 369;
moves post-ponement of clause relative to revenue bills, 371;
seconds motion to require state legislature’s consent to national purchase of forts, etc., 372;
does not think Senate will elect President, 375;
favors separate provision for re-election of President, 380, 387;
thinks Vice-President will not be in accord with President, 395;
thinks President must concur in treaties of peace, 400;
thinks executive council unnecessary, 402;
opposes special provision for treaties of peace, 404;
thinks whole legislature should participate in treaties of peace, 405;
objects to two-thirds of Senate being a quorum, 406;
favors impeachment for maladministration, 407;
thinks Senate should try impeachments, 408, 410;
on committee on style and arrangement, 411;
favors three-quarter vote to override President’s negative, 439;
points out danger from unstable laws, 440;
favors state power to collect export duties, 443;
explains words “direct taxes” in report, 446;
approves verbal amendment on negative of bills, 446;
moves suspension from office of persons impeached, 449;
thinks legislature may appoint treasurer, 451;
moves offences against law of nations be definable, 451, 452;
thinks government can establish university, 454;
opposes provision against standing army, 454;
thinks publication of expenditures impossible, 456;
thinks states may lay tonnage dues, 462;
opposes power of legislature to pardon for treason, 463;
moves executive and others have power of appointment, 465;
moves amendments by general convention, 468;
moves states have equal suffrage in Senate, 469;
announces he will sign constitution, 477.
Morris, Robert, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
Pierce’s sketch of, 2, n.;
moves Washington’s election as president of convention, 3;
thinks Senate should be chosen by the people, 113;
favors life term for Senators, 283.

N

National government of three branches agreed to, iii., 41.
“National” in Virginia plan, word struck out, iii., 226.
Naturalized citizens, rights of debated, iv., 175.
Navigation acts, question of,
committed, iv., 272;
postponed, 306;
agreed to, 332;
considered, 353;
debated, 461, 469.
Navy, provision for, debated, iv., 235.
Negative on legislative acts. See Executive, national, negative of; Judiciary, national, supreme, negative of.
Negative on state laws. See Legislature, national, negative of.
New Hampshire,
moved that governor of, be requested to send delegates, iii., 325;
representation of, 386, 389;
delegates from, attend convention, iv., 36.
New Jersey plan. See Jersey plan.
Nightingale, Jos., signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
North Carolina, representation of, iii., 389, iv., 459.

O

Oath to support national government from state officers,
debated, iii., 94, 146, 147, 164, iv., 36;
to support constitution, affirmation permitted, 344;
Olney, Jeremiah, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.

P

Pardons and reprieves. See Executive, national, power of.
Patents and copyrights. See Legislature, national, power of.
Patterson plan. See Jersey plan.
Patterson, William, N. J.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
Pierce’s sketch of, 93, n.;
moves to consider mode of voting in legislature, 130;
favors equal vote by states in legislature, 131, 378;
offers plan of government, 165;
on committee on representation, 350;
defends small states, 361;
opposes inclusion of blacks in representation, 384;
favors adjournment to consider representation in Senate, 441;
opposes ineligibility of executive, iv., 7.
Peace, power to declare, debated, iv., 228.
Pensioners, disqualification of, from legislature, proposed, iv., 79.
Phillips, Jonas, letter of, iv., 391, n.
Pierce, William, Ga.,
notes of convention, iii., 1, n.;
sketch of Yates, 1, n.;
sketch of Robert Morris, 2, n.;
sketch of Few, 2, n.;
sketch of Blair, 2, n.;
sketch of Bassett, 2, n.;
sketch of Washington, 3, n.;
sketch of Wilson, 4, n.;
sketch of Hamilton, 4, n.;
sketch of Wythe, 6, n.;
sketch of King, 6, n.;
sketch of Mason, 7, n.;
sketch of Gouverneur Morris, 10, n.;
sketch of Butler, 12, n.;
sketch of Spaight, 13, n.;
sketch of Charles Pinckney, 14, n.;
sketch of Randolph, 15, n.;
sketch of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 38, n.;
sketch of Gerry, 39, n.;
sketch of Sherman, 40, n.;
sketch of Read, 40, n.;
sketch of Madison, 41, n.;
attends convention, 45;
sketch of Rutledge, 53, n.;
sketch of Franklin, 57, n.;
sketch of Bedford, 63, n.;
sketch of Williamson, 67, n.;
sketch of Dickinson, 73, n.;
sketch of Davey, 77, n.;
sketch of Patterson, 93, n.;
favors election of Representatives by people and to Senate by legislatures, 106;
sketch of Pierce, 106, n.;
sketch of Brearley, 130, n.;
sketch of Ellsworth, 144, n.;
proposes three years’ term for Senators, 153;
sketch of Lansing, 165, n.;
sketch of Johnson, 239, n.;
sketch of Strong, 248, n.;
sketch of Gorham, 251, n.;
sketch of Alexander Martin, 260, n.;
sketch of Dayton, 294, n.;
opposes equal state representation, 320;
sketch of Baldwin, 324, n.;
sketch of Broome, iv., 9, n.;
sketch of McClurg, 20, n.;
sketch of Gilman, 36, n.;
sketch of Houston, 47, n.;
sketch of Carroll, 47, n.;
sketch of Langdon, 79, n.;
sketch of Jenifer, 148, n.;
sketch of McHenry, 190, n.;
sketch of Mifflin, 192, n.;
sketch of Livingston, 253, n.;
sketch of Blount, 478, n.;
sketch of Ingersoll, 481.
Pinckney, Charles, S. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
appointed on committee on rules, 5;
moves a committee on minutes, 14;
Pierce’s sketch of, 14, n.;
submits plan of constitution, 21;
letters of concerning draft, 22, n.;
asks if state governments are to be abolished, 38;
favors enumerating powers of national legislature, 53;
favors vigorous executive, 57;
favors seven years’ term for national executive, 63;
favors single executive, 77;
favors appointment of judiciary by executive, 92;
opposes provision for amendments of constitution, 94;
favors ratification by nine states, 96;
moves election of Representatives by state legislatures, 99;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 110;
moves consideration of negative on state laws, 111;
favors election of Senators by state legislatures, 119;
favors negative by legislature on all laws, 121;
moves classification of states to determine representation, 127;
favors representation by free population, 143;
proposes selection of judges by legislature, 157;
favors election of representatives by the people, 267;
opposes equal state representation in Senate, 343;
favors representation by population, 361;
thinks originating money bills in House no concession, 372;
favors representation of blacks equal with whites, 415;
proposes proportional representation in Senate, 428;
favors negative by legislature of state laws, 449;
favors election of executive by the people, 452;
opposes impeachability of executive, iv., 13, 16;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 32;
moves that executive be elected by legislature for not more than six years in twelve, 63;
moves exclusion from executive and judiciary of debtors of government, 74;
opposes disqualification of debtors from legislature, 80;
thinks national capital ought not to be at state capital, 81;
moves reference to committee of whole of report of committee of detail, 109;
thinks time of meeting of legislature need not be fixed in constitution, 112;
moves increase in representation of South Carolina, 132;
thinks fisheries and western frontier more burdensome than slavery, 138;
moves to strike out requirement as to money bills, 138;
favors fourteen years’ citizenship for Senators, 145;
thinks no strangers should be in legislature, 146;
moves that time and mode of election of Representatives be fixed by state legislatures, 152;
insists on property qualification for officers of government, 155;
opposes considering question of money bills, 171;
thinks government not bound to respect state laws on naturalization, 178;
opposes ineligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 191, 198;
moves that acceptance of other office shall vacate seat in legislature, 192;
favors postponement of clause relating to eligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 201;
thinks judiciary should not be included in revisionary power, 208;
favors appointment of treasurer by joint ballot, 222;
moves legislature subdue rebellions without application to state legislatures, 225;
thinks Senate should have power to declare war, 227;
thinks state debts may be assumed by government, 232;
opposes executive council, 234;
favors national control of militia, 239;
submits propositions for committee of detail, 240;
seconds Morris’s propositions for committee of detail, 242;
moves power to create necessary offices, 245;
declares constitution will fail if slave trade is prohibited, 265;
defends slavery, 267;
moves to commit question of navigation acts, 272;
moves officers be forbidden to accept presents from foreign states, 284;
moves national power to negative state laws, 286;
thinks state executives should be appointed by national government, 288;
moves election of executive by majority of legislature, 296;
thinks rights of habeas corpus should be assured, 317;
proposes that fugitive slaves be surrendered, 323;
moves to recommit question of interstate validity of state acts, 324;
favors commercial regulations, 326, 327;
moves that no religious test be required for office, 344;
moves that Congress be not required to approve constitution, 350;
moves ineligibility of members of legislature to other offices with emoluments, 357;
thinks they should be eligible to other offices, 359;
asks why mode of electing President is to be changed, 365;
thinks electors objectionable, 366, 373;
moves each house of legislature judge privileges of its own members, 369;
agrees to postponement of clause relative to revenue bills, 371;
seconds motion that two-thirds of Senate be present when electing President, 386;
thinks Senate should not share in appointments, except of ambassadors, 398;
opposes power of impeaching President, 408;
moves an address to accompany constitution, 421;
opposes three-quarter vote to override President’s negative, 440;
moves power to establish a university, 453;
thinks legislature should not name treasurer, 451;
opposes provision against standing armies, 455;
moves guaranty of liberty of the press, 455;
favors publication of accounts from time to time, 457;
favors increase of North Carolina representation, 460;
moves preservation of jury trials in civil cases, 466;
announces he will sign constitution, 471;
urges unequivocal signing, 480.
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, S. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
Pierce’s sketch of, 38, n.;
opposes election of Representatives by the people, 107;
thinks Senate should have power to originate money bills, 160;
favors election of Representatives by state legislatures, 244, 246;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to state offices, 259;
favors four years’ term for Senators, 283, 284;
favors no salary for Senators, 292;
thinks Senate should be dependent on states, 295;
favors compromise on representation, 344;
thinks originating money bills in House no concession, 374;
favors equality of representation for southern states, 387;
favors greater representation for southern states, 388;
moves increase of representation for North and South Carolina, and Georgia, 389;
insists upon inclusion of blacks in basis of representation, 397;
opposes tax on exports, 410;
thinks slave property should be protected, 412;
favors first census as basis of representation, 415;
opposes adjournment on representation question, 441;
insists constitution must provide against emancipation, iv., 48;
moves exclusion from judiciary and executive of public debtors, 74;
seconds motion to strike out provision for mutual negative of one branch of government over another, 111;
moves that representation of South Carolina be increased, 132;
moves ten years’ citizenship for Senators, 151;
asks whether there is to be no army, 236;
favors national control of militia, 236, 238;
declares constitution will fail if it interferes with slavery, 268;
declares South Carolina will not soon stop slave trade, 271;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
favors effective control of militia, 281;
seconds motion to reconsider question of discharge of debts, 292;
favors extension of slave trade, 303;
proposes plan for selecting ports of entry, 307;
thinks judges’ salaries may be raised, 313;
favors compromise on commercial regulations, 326;
praises New England men, 327;
approves motion that no religious test be required for office, 344;
opposes clause as to juries in civil cases, 466;
dislikes form of signing, 481, n.
Pinckney plan,
real date of, iii., xvi.,
letters concerning, 22, n.;
submitted, 23;
facsimile of, 24;
referred to committee of detail, iv., 58, 90.
Piracies and felonies, power to declare, debated, iv., 223.
Ports of entry, method of choosing, debate on, iv., 307.
Post-offices, power to establish. See Legislature, national, power of.
Prayers in convention proposed by Franklin, iii., 311.
Presents, acceptance of, from foreign states, by officers, forbidden, iv., 284.
President, the See Executive, national.
President of the convention, Washington elected, iii., 3.
Property qualification. See Executive, national, compensation of, Judiciary, national, compensation of, Legislature, national, property qualification for, Senate.
Proportional representation. See Legislature, national, representation in.

Q

Quorum. See Legislature, national, quorum in.

R

Randolph, Edmund, Va., attends convention, iii., 2;
offers Virginia plan, 15;
Pierce’s sketch of, 15, n.;
explains design of Senate, 51;
opposes indefinite power of legislature, 54;
opposes single executive, 59, 77;
opposes election of executive by state executives, 129;
favors provision for amendment of constitution, 146;
favors oath of allegiance to national government from state officers, 146;
favors seven years’ term for Senators, 153;
moves extent of supreme court’s jurisdiction, 156;
opposes Jersey plan, 179;
favors two years’ term for representatives, 247;
favors national compensation for Representatives, 251;
favors rotation in personnel of Senate, 282;
moves that sermon be preached to convention, 312;
favors committee of compromise on representation, 348;
on committee of compromise on representation, 368;
objects to submitting question of voting in Senate to committee of small states, 369;
opposes reduction of representation of New Hampshire, 389;
moves that census be required, 393, 396, 413;
moves representation by free inhabitants and three-fifths slaves, 413, 420;
favors adjournment on representation in Senate, 441, 442;
opposes power to legislate where state legislation would interrupt harmony, 447;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 463;
favors guaranty of republican government to states, 470;
favors ineligibility to re-election of executive, iv., 5;
favors impeachability of executive, 17;
favors appointment of judges by executive, 32;
thinks constitution should be ratified by the people, 38;
favors fixing time of meeting of legislature provisionally, 114;
thinks it unimportant when legislature meets, 115;
revives question of money bills originating, 140;
thinks state executives may safely fill vacancies in Senate, 141;
moves to postpone question of voting in Senate, 142, 144;
favors postponement of question of originating money bills, 145;
opposes fourteen years’ residence for Senators, 148;
favors nine years’ citizenship for Senators, 151;
moves legislature have power to compel attendance of members, 163;
approves expulsion from legislature by two-thirds vote, 164;
thinks yeas and nays may be ordered by any member of legislature, 164;
moves Senators may dissent from any measure, 165;
thinks originating money bills ought to be reconsidered, 170;
moves four years’ citizenship for Representatives, 172;
moves bills to raise revenue shall originate in House without power of amendment in Senate, 180;
thinks provision as to money bills should stand, 188;
favors disqualification of members of legislature from other offices, 201, 359;
moves that power of negative extend to resolutions, 213;
favors power to emit bills of credit, 221;
doubts whether legislature may declare law of piracies, 223;
moves that legislature define piracies, etc., 224;
opposes suppression of rebellion without request of state, 226;
favors extended definition of treason, 246;
moves British statute on treason, 249;
favors commitment of question of slave trade, 272;
thinks power to fulfil engagements of old government unnecessary, 277;
favors national control of militia, 282;
moves postponement of question of treaty-making, 291;
favors reconsideration of question of discharge of debts, 292;
suggests states appoint some federal officers, 299;
moves obligations of old government be binding on new, 302;
opposed to removability of judges on application of legislature, 312;
moves judges’ salaries be fixed for three years, 314;
on committee on interstate validity of state acts, 325;
favors interstate validity of state acts, 325;
announces objection to features of constitution, 331;
moves that ratification from nine states be required, 345;
favors second convention to consider amendments, 351;
thinks declaration as to state acts defective, 356;
asks why the mode of electing President is to be changed, 365;
thinks eventual election of executive should be by whole legislature, 368;
doubts whether each House should judge of the privileges of its members, 369;
thinks mode of choosing President aristocratic, 376;
moves that legislature name President when both President and Vice-President die, 391;
thinks Vice-President should not be President of Senate, 396;
thinks state conventions may offer amendments to constitution, 417;
states his objections to the constitution, 420;
proposes second convention, 421;
moves pardons in treason cases be considered, 422;
moves use of word “service” for “servitude,” 445;
seconds verbal amendment to clause on negative of bills, 446;
moves suspension of officers impeached, 449;
favors power to grant charters, 452;
seconds motion against standing armies, 454;
moves to except treason from President’s power to pardon, 463;
thinks President and Senate should not combine, 464;
announces he cannot sign constitution, 470, 477;
proposes second federal convention, 470;
thinks second convention feasible, 479;
does not sign, 483.
Ratification of constitution, method of,
debated, iii., 94, iv., 39, 344, 415, 418;
by conventions, proposed, iii., 96;
by people of states, 147, 164, 226;
by assemblies chosen by the people, debated, iv., 45;
resolutions concerning, offered, 447.
Read George, Del.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
moves debate on three branches of government, 40;
Pierce’s sketch of, 40, n.;
moves to postpone question of representation, 43;
favors national government, 106;
moves Senate be named by executive, 113;
opposes guaranty of territory to the states, 145;
favors forbidding Senate from originating money bills, 159;
thinks injustice was done small states in land cession, 278;
supports small states on question of representation, 278;
favors life term for Senators, 283;
moves nine years’ term for Senators, 284;
thinks the United States ought to be one people, 288;
favors abolishing states, 315;
favors increase in representation, 391;
thinks representation ought to be fixed by legislature, 400;
thinks taxation and representation may be adjusted, 418;
moves absolute negative by executive on legislature, iv., 115;
opposes requirement that Representatives live in the states they represent, 130;
opposes provision as to money bills, 142;
moves that national legislature have power over elections if states make no provision, 155;
opposes power to emit bills of credit, 221;
moves that treasurer be appointed by executive, 222;
doubts national control of militia, 240;
thinks requisitions were accommodated to poverty of states, 256;
favors commitment of question of taxing exports, 272;
moves President of Senate have additional casting vote for executive, 296;
on committee of August, 25, 308;
objects to same court having equity and law jurisdiction, 311;
opposed to separate provision for re-election of President, 380;
thinks small states should have vote for President in legislature, 394;
moves prohibition of direct tax, 455.
Rebellion in states, power to subdue, debated, iv., 225.
Representation in legislature. See Legislature, national, representation in, House of Representatives, Senate.
Republican government, guaranty of, to states, debate on, iii., 93, 144, 164, 469, iv., 342;
amendment adopted, 467.
Rhode Island,
address from citizens of, iii., 10, n.;
moved representation of, be increased, iv., 459.
Rules, of convention, committee on,
appointed, iii., 5;
reported, 6;
adopted, 7;
additional, adopted, 13.
Of legislature. See Legislature, national, rules of.
Russell, William, signs address from Rhode Island, iii., 12, n.
Rutledge, John, S. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
seconds motion for Washington’s election as President, 3;
wants enumeration of powers of legislature, 53;
Pierce’s sketch of, 53, n.;
favors single executive, 77;
opposes appointment of judges by executive, 91;
opposes inferior judicial tribunals, 96;
moves classification of states to determine representation, 127;
favors representation according to wealth, 137, 143, 364;
favors two years’ term for Representatives, 148;
thinks Senators should receive no compensation, 155;
favors election of Representatives by state legislatures, 245;
favors ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 260, 267;
opposes sending for New Hampshire delegates, 326;
on committee on compromise on representation, 350, 368;
moves fixing representation, 383;
opposes increase in representation, 302;
moves that representation be by wealth and population, 400;
proposes to reconsider originating of money bills, 420;
thinks powers of legislature loosely defined, 440;
opposes adjournment to consider representation, 442;
opposes guaranteeing republican government to states, 471;
favors election of executive by state legislatures, iv., 9;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 31;
on committee to report constitution according to resolutions, 58;
submits report of committee, 91;
moves annual meeting of legislature, 115;
opposes confining suffrage to freeholders, 127;
favors seven years’ residence in their states of Representatives, 130;
favors three years’ residence in their states of Representatives, 132;
insists on longer than seven years’ citizenship for Senators, 151;
moves mode of election of Representatives be left to state legislatures, 152;
insists on property qualification for officers of government, 156, 159;
moves publication of Senate journals, 166;
thinks provision as to citizenship should apply to those already citizens, 176;
opposes provision as to money bills, 189;
seconds motion to postpone provision as to money bills, 207;
urges progress, 212;
opposes tax on exports, 215;
moves that funds for public creditors be not diverted, 231;
moves that state debts be assumed by government, 232;
urges expedition, 233;
defends slavery, 264;
declares South Carolina and Georgia will not accept constitution if it prohibits slave trade, 271;
submits report on Madison and Pinckney propositions, 273;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 277;
reports constitution according to resolutions, 277;
moves constitution be the supreme law, 285;
opposes power of negative of state laws, 287;
thinks judiciary will decide controversies between states, 292;
moves election of executive by joint ballot of legislature, 294;
opposed to removability of judges on legislature’s application, 312;
moves judiciary have power over treaties, 314;
thinks rights of habeas corpus should be inviolable, 317;
moves to prohibit bills of attainder and retrospective laws, 320;
on committee on interstate validity of state acts, 325;
favors commercial regulations, 330;
thinks there is no danger of dismemberment of states, 337;
thinks it unnecessary to guarantee public lands, 341;
presents committee report, 355;
opposes plan for executive, 373;
moves Senate choose President from thirteen candidates, 378;
moves two-thirds of whole Senate concur in treaties, 405;
objects to general power against slavery, 414;
opposes legislature appointing treasurer, 450;
opposes address to people, 458;
moves to limit President’s emoluments, 463.

S

Seat of government,
not to be at same place with state capital, iv., 80;
at central point proposed, 81;
provisions for, 169.
Second branch of legislature See Legislature, national, Senate.
Senate. See Legislature, national, Senate.
Sermon for members of convention agreed to, iii., 312.
Sherman, Roger, Conn.,
attends convention, iii., 37;
favors conservative course toward states, 40;
Pierce’s sketch of, 40, n.;
opposes election of Representatives by the people, 46;
favors election of one Senator from each state, 52;
favors election of executive by state legislatures, 58, 63, 450;
favors three years’ term for executive, 63;
thinks legislature should have power to remove executive, 74;
favors an executive council, 80;
opposes negative by executive, 84;
opposes ratification of constitution by conventions, 94;
opposes creation of inferior judiciary tribunals, 98;
favors election of Representatives by state legislatures, 101;
favors elections to Senate by state legislatures, 112, 118;
favors limiting power of negative on state laws, 123;
proposes proportional representation in House and by states in Senate, 136;
proposes each state have one vote in Senate, 144;
opposes oath to national government by state officers, 146;
proposes one-year term for Representatives, 148;
proposes five years’ term for Senators, 153;
opposes leaving time and mode of electing Representatives to state legislatures, 154;
proposes election of judges by national legislature, 157;
thinks money bills may originate in Senate, 159;
opposes two branches of legislature, 234;
favors election of Representatives by state legislatures, 245;
consents to two years’ term for Representatives, 249;
favors compensation of Representatives by states, 252;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to state offices, 260, 263, 266;
favors six years’ term for Senators, 283;
favors six or four years’ term for Senators, 287;
favors rights of small states, 308;
proposes committee on representation, 344, 383;
favors vote by states in Senate, 376;
moves to postpone question of representation, 381;
opposes increase in representation, 389, 390;
opposes periodical census, 394;
thinks representation should be fixed by census, 400;
thinks representation fairly apportioned, 406;
favors leaving question of taxation to state legislatures, 419;
thinks Senators may vote per capita, 428;
thinks government should have coercive power over states, 436;
thinks government will act on states in requiring tax quotas, 436;
moves that government should not interfere with internal policy of states, 445;
opposes direct taxation by national government, 446;
thinks state courts will consider state laws contravening national authority invalid, 447;
opposes negative by legislature of state laws, 447;
opposes ineligibility of executive to second term, 455;
opposes tenure of executive for good behavior, 456;
favors appointment of judges by Senate, 462;
favors appointment of judges by executive with consent of Senate, 465;
opposes creation of inferior judicial tribunals, 467;
favors negative of each branch of legislature on the other, iv., 110;
thinks time of meeting of legislature should be specified, 114;
moves Representatives be inhabitants of their states, 129;
thinks representation should stand, 134;
moves that representation not exceed 1 to 40,000, 135;
thinks slaves should be included in representation, 137;
thinks yeas and nays may not be required, 164;
moves publication of journal of legislature, 166;
thinks general government can make any regulations as to citizenship, 176;
thinks those in power should be free from temptation, 197;
favors payment of legislature partly by states and partly by nation, 203;
thinks power of negative should not be extended, 211;
thinks revision of acts by President unnecessary, 214;
favors no tax on exports, 215, 218;
opposes appointment of treasurer by joint ballot, 222;
thinks executive should not have power to commence war, 227;
thinks state debts may be assumed by government, 232;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
thinks states should partially control militia, 237, 239;
thinks resistance to national laws treason, 251;
thinks report on state debts meaningless, 254;
favors limiting representation of large states, 254;
moves settlement of debts on basis of taxation, 255;
thinks provision as to slave trade may stand, 265, 271;
thinks question of taxing exports settled, 272;
moves that states have power to train militia, 279;
withdraws motion, 279;
proposes mixed control of militia, 280;
thinks states should appoint militia officers, 283;
thinks negative of state laws by general government unnecessary, 286;
thinks judiciary will decide controversies between states, 293;
opposes election of executive by joint ballot of legislature, 294;
objects to executive appointing all officers, 298;
objects to legislatures of states appointing federal officers, 299;
moves express provision for paying debts, 303;
opposed to taxing men as property, 305;
thinks revenue the object of import tax on slaves, 305;
on committee of August 25, 308;
moves amendment to pardoning power, 308;
moves militia be under executive when in active service, 309;
favors removability of judges on application of legislature, 312;
moves judicial power extend to land grants, 316;
reports amendments on commercial regulations and judicial power, 316;
moves to prohibit bills of credit or payments in anything but coin, 318;
wishes to crush paper money, 318, 319;
thinks states should have power to lay embargoes, 320;
thinks state legislatures may deal with impost question, 321;
moves that states may tax exports for national treasury, 322;
opposes surrender of fugitive slaves and servants, 323;
desires commercial regulations by majority vote, 327;
declares all should have equal privileges, 333;
thinks Union cannot dismember a state, 334;
moves admission of new states by consent of state legislatures, 337;
thinks constitution may guarantee public lands, 341;
thinks no religious test will be applied for office, 344;
thinks ratification should be from ten states, 345, 349;
thinks ratification should be by all states, 340;
moves to postpone ratification question, 348;
moves to take up report of committee of eleven, 352;
moves to refer draft of constitution to committee, 354;
on committee, 354;
opposes national bankruptcy law, 356;
favors ineligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 358;
does not object to election of Vice-President by majority, 364;
thinks army in time of peace should be restricted, 371;
willing to defer to those who think revenue bills vital, 371;
thinks large states will have advantage in nominating candidates for President, 375;
thinks President should not be chosen from three candidates, 378;
thinks when legislature votes for President it should vote by states, 380;
moves eventual election of President by House of Representatives, 386;
approves of Vice-President being President of Senate, 395;
favors inclusion of Senate in treaty-making, 397;
thinks whole legislature should participate in treaties of peace, 405;
moves that majority of whole Senate vote for treaties, 406;
thinks supreme court should not try President, 408;
thinks representation large enough, 411;
moves states be required to consent to amendments, 413;
favors submitting constitution to Congress, 417;
favors two-thirds vote to override President’s negative, 438;
thinks state bills of rights sufficient, 442;
thinks legislature should appoint treasurer, 451;
objects to power to cut canals, 452;
thinks provision for liberty of press unnecessary, 455;
thinks accounts may be published from time to time, 457;
opposes address to states, 458;
favors additional representation for North Carolina, 459;
thinks states and nation may have concurrent commercial jurisdiction, 462;
seconds motion to vest appointments in President and others, 465;
thinks three-quarter states may oppress others by amendments, 467;
thinks conventions may act on amendments, 468;
moves that states be preserved, 469;
moves to strike out clause concerning amendments, 469.
Signing constitution,
mode proposed, iv., 475;
takes place, 478.
Slavery and slave trade,
debate on, iv., 264, 303;
compromise on, brought in, 327;
power to prohibit, objected to, 414.
Slaves, import tax on,
agreed to, iv., 306;
delivery up of fugitive, proposed, 323;
agreed to, 332;
verbal amendment made, 466.
South Carolina, motion that representation of, be increased, iv., 132.
Spaight, Richard Dobbs, N. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
moves rule for revision of questions, 13;
Pierce’s sketch of, 13, n.;
seconds motion for representation by free inhabitants, 42;
favors election to Senate by free population, 50;
withdraws motion for elections to Senate by state legislatures, 51;
moves reconsideration of appointment of executive by electors, iv., 47;
seconds motion to elect executive by national legislature, 49;
fears capital will be located at New York, 168;
favors commercial regulations by majority vote, 328;
moves Senate choose President from thirteen candidates, 378;
moves seven years’ term for executive, 384;
moves six years’ term, 384;
moves electors meet at seat of government, 385;
proposes President make appointments during recess of Senate, 399;
moves special provision respecting territorial rights, 403.
State acts, validity of,
debated, iv., 324, 355, 356;
certain, prohibited, 457.
State debts, debate on assumption of, iv., 232.
State laws, negative of. See Legislature, national, negative of.
State police, non-interference in, by national government, debated, iii., 446.
State representation, equal in House,
debated, iii., 321;
in Senate, 326, 343;
committee to arrange, debated, 344, 350;
report of committee, 352. See Legislature, national, representation in.
States, admission of new, provision for,
agreed to, iii., 93, 164, 468;
debated, iv., 332, 334, 336, 338, 339, 340, 466.
Strong, Caleb, Mass.,
attends convention, iii., 51;
favors one-year term for Representatives, 248;
Pierce’s sketch of, 248, n.;
favors committee on representation, 349;
favors equal representation by states in Senate, 432;
opposes inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, iv., 24;
thinks executive will not be re-elected, 49;
thinks question of voting in Senate should be postponed, 142;
favors $4 per day as payment for legislature, 205;
moves revenue bills originate in House, 207.
Style and arrangement, committee on. See Committee on style and arrangement.
Sumptuary laws,
debate on, iv., 244, 444;
committee on, See Committee on sumptuary laws.
Supreme Court. See Judiciary, national supreme.

T

Taxation, by representation,
debated, iii., 411, 419, iv., 57;
basis of, by free and slave population, debated, iii., 412;
direct on states in proportion to representation, debated, 420;
direct by national government, opposed, 446;
proposed that it be by quotas, iv., 251;
according to congressional representation, debated, 252, 256;
definition of direct, asked, 252;
by population, proportion agreed to, 254;
power of, on exports, debated, 263, 264, 456;
on migration of slaves, debated, 264;
on slaves, debated, 265, 292;
capitation and direct, debated, 455. See Legislature, national, representation in.
Term of members of legislature. See Legislature, national, term of.
Territory, guaranty of, to each state, debated, iii., 145.
Tonnage dues. See Navigation acts.
Treason, debate on, iv., 246.
Treasurer, appointment of. See Legislature, national, power of.
Treaties, power to make,
debated, iii., 289, 291, iv., 289, 397;
force of, debated, 306;
power to interpret, by judiciary, debated, 315;
of peace, how to be made, 400, 403, 404;
provision for, reconsidered, 404;
proposed that they require two-thirds Senate, 405, 406;
proposed that they require majority, 406;
notice of, to Senators, proposed, 406. See Legislature, national, Senate.

U

University, national. See Legislature, national, power of.

V

Varnum, J. M., letter from, with address from Rhode Island, iii., 10, n.
Vermont, admission of, to Union, debated, iv., 335.
Veto power. See Executive, national, negative of.
Vice-President, duties of, defined, iv., 363, 364, 395.
Virginia plan, the,
presented to convention, iii., 15;
debated in committee of the whole, 37;
debated, 45;
reported on from committee of the whole, 160, 220;
vote on, 220.
Voting, restriction of, to free-holders, debated, iv., 116.

W

War, power to declare, debated, iv., 227.
Washington, George, Va.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
elected president of convention, 3;
thanks convention for election, 3;
Pierce’s sketch of, 3, n.;
rebukes member for losing his notes, 56, n.;
John Jay’s letter to, 59, n.;
Knox’s letter to, 191, n.;
urges increase in representation, iv., 476;
asks instructions concerning journals, 482.
Williamson, Hugh, N. C.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
objects to election of executive by districts, 66;
Pierce’s sketch of, 67, n.;
moves impeachability of executive, 77;
favors limiting Senate to twenty-five members, 113;
opposes indefinite power of negative on state laws, 122;
favors proportional representation, 136;
favors states paying representatives, 250;
moves that number in Senate be fixed, 280;
favors six years’ term for Senators, 282;
thinks rights of small states not menaced, 302;
favors committee on representation in Senate, 349;
opposes compromise proposed, 361;
thinks Senate better able to consider money bills than House, 371;
thinks proposed representation unfair to southern states, 388;
favors reducing representation of northern states, 388;
amends motion fixing periodical census, 396;
thinks New Hampshire representation too large, 417;
opposes election of executive by people, 454;
opposes eligibility of executive to re-election, iv., 10, 50;
opposes election of executive by electors, 10;
favors six years’ term for executive, 11;
moves number of electors be based on Representatives, 13;
moves electors be paid out of national treasury, 21;
suggests national officers take oath to support state governments, 36;
favors ratification of constitution by conventions, 42;
favors voting per capita in Senate, 46;
dislikes single executive, 50;
suggests voting for three persons for executive, 65;
favors forbidding national capital at state capital, 81;
seconds motion to limit negative of each branch of legislature on the other 110 moves representation in House based on taxation, 133;
favors reconsidering question of money bills, 140;
thinks provision for filling vacancies in Senate necessary, 141;
insists upon guarding qualifications of Senators, 151, 158;
thinks provision on money bills should be retained, 171;
moves nine years’ citizenship for Representatives, 173;
opposes eligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 197;
moves post-ponement of question of money bills, 206;
moves to make three-quarters of legislature necessary to overcome executive negative, 212;
thinks exports should not be taxed, 216;
thinks state lands ought to be given up, 233;
appointed on grand committee, 233;
favors restrictions on army, 236;
moves quotas of states be determined, 255;
opposes apportionment of taxation by representation, 256;
thinks states should not have power to tax exports, 259;
thinks slave trade should be left to states, 270;
on committee on navigation acts, 273;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 277;
thinks discussion of negative of state laws unnecessary, 287;
doubts if judiciary can impartially decide controversies between states, 293;
opposes slavery, but wishes union, 304;
on committee of August 25, 308;
moves to postpone question of executive succession, 310;
seconds motion to make it impossible for states to levy imposts, 321;
mooves clause of articles of confederation as to state acts, 324;
favors commercial regulations by two-thirds vote, 328;
thinks question of new states should be left to legislature, 333, 337;
on committee of August 31, 354;
thinks ineligibility of members of legislature should extend to offices created during their term, 358, 360;
objects to President’s dependence on Senate in appointments, 366;
moves to reconsider representation, 372;
objects to Senate electing President, 374, 377, 382;
moves election of President by one-third of all electors, 376;
moves electors voting be the only ones counted, 378;
favors separate provision for re-electing President, 380;
moves seven years’ term for President, 384;
moves six years’ term for President, 384;
thinks electors should meet at seat of government, 385;
suggests eventual election of President by whole legislature, voting by states, 386;
thinks Vice – President unnecessary, 396;
thinks treaties of peace important, 401, 403;
thinks treaties may be made without majority of people, 404;
opposes requirement that treaties be ratified by majority of whole Senate, 406;
proposes that notice of treaties to Senators be required, 406;
thinks Senate will lean towards President, 408;
moves increase in representation in House of Representatives, 411;
moves that old Congress sanction constitution, 420;
favors two-thirds vote to override President’s negative, 438;
fears too many laws, 439;
moves provision for juries in civil suits, 441;
moves increase of representation, 448;
seconds motion against direct tax, 456;
suggests signing letter only, 478.
Wilson, James, Pa.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
nominates William Temple Franklin for secretary of convention, 4;
Pierce’s sketch of, 4, n.;
favors election of Representatives by the people, 47, 245;
favors election of Senators by the people, 51, 113;
favors a single executive, 57, 59, 79;
favors election of executive by the people, 62, 64, iv., 7, 57;
favors three years’ term for executive, iii., 63;
moves election of executive by district electors, 65;
opposes an executive council, 81;
favors negative by executive on legislature, 82, 84;
favors creation of inferior judiciary, 87, 98;
favors inclusion of judiciary in power of negative, 89;
opposes appointment of judges by legislature, 90;
favors ratification by plurality of States, 96;
favors election of Representatives by the people, 100;
favors preservation of state governments for local purposes, 107;
favors inclusion of judiciary in revisionary power, 108, iv., 21, 30;
favors election to Senate by districts, iii., 117;
favors absolute negative in legislature, 124;
favors proportional representation, 134, 137, 308;
favors representation by free inhabitants, 143;
thinks voting in Senate should be on same plan as in House, 144;
opposes Jersey plan, 175;
opposes Hamilton plan, 220;
insists that states are dependent on each other, 224;
favors two branches of legislature, 237;
thinks state governments may incroach on national government, 240;
favors one-year term for Representatives, 248;
favors national compensation of Representatives, 252;
moves that compensation be fixed by legislature, 253;
opposes age limit for Representatives, 255;
opposes ineligibility of Representatives to other offices, 256, 262;
opposes elections to Senate by state legislatures, 278;
favors six years’ term for Senators, 284;
favors nine years’ term for Senators, 291;
opposes eligibility of Senators to state offices, 295;
opposes sending for New Hampshire delegates, 326;
opposes representation by states in Senate, 326;
admits question of number of Senators is embarrassing, 335;
opposes committee on representation in Senate, 349;
moves question of voting in Senate, 369;
opposes originating money bills in House, 370, 374;
opposes yielding equal vote in Senate to small states, 376;
thinks representation of western states should be based on property, 383;
thinks wealth an impracticable rule of representation, 401;
opposes inclusion of three-fifths of blacks as basis of representation, 407;
favors guaranty of republican government to the states, 409;
moves that representation be according to direct taxation, 414;
favors representation based on free inhabitants and three-fifths of slaves, 414;
favors adjusting taxation to representation, 419;
thinks equal vote in Senate favored by minority, 426;
insists that numbers are correct basis for representation, 426;
thinks small states would abandon plea of equality in taxes and troops, 427;
thinks originating money bills in House of little consequence, 427;
insists on proportional representation in Senate, 434;
favors non-interference of national government with state police, 446;
opposes election of executive by the people, 451;
opposes election of executive by legislature, 453;
favors appointment of judges by executive, 461;
favors continuance of old Congress till new government starts, 469;
favors guaranty to states of republican government and against violence, 471;
favors impeachability of executive, iv., 13;
thinks departments should act separately, 29;
thinks oath of allegiance unnecessary, 36;
opposes election of executive by legislature, 52;
suggests election of executive by members of national legislature selected by lot, 54, 57;
on committee to report constitution according to resolutions, 58;
favors specifying general principles for executive, 68;
opposes disqualification from legislature of persons having unsettled accounts, 78;
thinks time of meeting of legislature should be fixed, 113;
favors winter as time for meeting of legislature, 115;
thinks suffrage in the States should not be prescribed by legislature, 116;
favors requiring Representatives to be inhabitants, 130;
opposes requirement of seven years’ inhabitancy for Representatives, 130, 131;
thinks question of representation by free inhabitants premature, 138;
opposed to originating money bills in House, 139;
reviews question of citizenship of Representatives, 140;
objects to vacancies in Senate being filled by state executives, 140;
thinks provision as to money bills of no value to large states, 143, 145;
opposes fourteen years’ residence as necessary for Senators, 148;
moves to reconsider requirement of seven years for Representatives, 159;
thinks number for quorum should not be small, 162;
thinks publication of legislative journal necessary, 167;
moves four years’ citizenship for Representatives, 172;
insists Representatives need not be natives, 175;
thinks new government bound by Pennsylvania’s promises to foreigners, 178;
moves seven years’ citizenship for Senators, 179;
thinks people will disapprove members of legislature holding other offices, 198;
thinks good men will refuse legislature if debarred from other offices, 200;
seconds motion to have acts revised by executive and judiciary, 208;
thinks legislature will swallow up powers of government, 212;
favors making three-fourths of legislature necessary to overcome executive negative, 213;
explains difference between “duties” and “imposts,” 214;
thinks exports may be taxed, 217;
opposed to power to emit bills of credit, 221;
thinks it unnecessary to define felonies, etc., 224;
thinks law of felonies, etc., ought to be declared, 234;
moves that treason be against United States, 248;
thinks treason may be against a state, 250;
thinks proof of treason may be difficult, 250;
favors power to tax exports, 261;
seconds motion to tax exports by two-thirds of legislature, 263;
thinks slaves should be taxed, 269;
favors commitment of question of navigation acts, 273;
thinks prohibition of ex post facto laws unnecessary, 276;
thinks Senate should not make appointments, 285;
thinks negative of state laws unnecessary, 287;
objects to Senate’s power to make treaties, 290;
thinks judiciary may decide controversies between states, 293;
seconds motion for election of executive by the people, 294;
thinks larger states should have larger share in election of executive, 295;
thinks Senate should not have separate voice in election of executive, 298;
thinks state legislatures will order federal offices filled by state appointment if permitted, 299;
thinks pardon before conviction may be necessary, 309;
opposes removability of judges on application of legislature, 312;
explains appellate power of judiciary, 315;
doubts if suspension of right of habeas corpus is ever necessary, 317;
moves legislature be prohibited from paying debts in anything but coin, 318;
thinks states should not interfere with contracts, 319;
objects to treating fugitive slaves as criminals, 323;
favors interstate validity of state acts, 324;
on committee to consider subject, 325;
favors commercial regulations by majority vote, 329;
thinks majority may regulate formation of new states, 335;
thinks new states may be formed without consent of old, 337;
opposes motion to guarantee public lands, 340;
proposes ratification by seven states, 344;
prefers ratification by eight states to nine, 345;
thinks constitution binding only on ratifying states, 345;
moves that ratification be by majority of people and states, 349;
thinks state power over other states’ acts not unusual, 356;
opposes ineligibility of members of legislature to other offices, 359;
approves plan of electing executive, 367;
thinks it unnecessary to give each House power over privileges of its members, 369;
moves eventual election of President by whole legislature, 375;
thinks eventual election of President by Senate dangerous, 380;
moves to include House of Representatives in treaty-making power, 397;
objects to Senate’s participation in appointments, 398;
objects to participation of two-thirds Senate on treaties, 400, 405;
favors executive council, 402;
favors ratification of treaties with majority of Senate, 404;
thinks less than two-thirds Senate may ratify treaties of peace, 404;
opposed to President convening either house of legislature, 410;
moves amendments be with consent of two-thirds of states, 414;
substitutes three-fourths, 414;
opposes reconsideration of ratification clause, 417;
thinks old Congress need not sanction constitution, 418;
moves to strike out “direct taxes,” 446;
thinks legislature should not define offences against law of nations, 451;
seconds motion in favor of canals, 452, 453;
favors national university, 454;
thinks accounts should be published from time to time, 457;
thinks executive may pardon for treason, 464;
favors depositing convention journal with president, 482.
Wythe, George, Va.,
attends convention, iii., 2;
appointed on committee on rules, 5;
submits report of committee on rules, 6;
Pierce’s sketch of, 6, n.;
offers additional rules, 10, 13.

Y

Yates, Robert, N. Y.,
attends convention, iii., 1;
Pierce’s sketch of, 1, n.;
on committee on compromise on representation, 350;
leaves convention, 356, n.
Yeas and nays. See Legislature, national.

Last modified April 10, 2014