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Hutcheson’s Annotated Table of Contents to Philosophiae Moralis

Source: Francis Hutcheson, Philosophiae moralis institutio compendiaria with a Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy, edited and with an Introduction by Luigi Turco (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). Annotated table of contents. [This table of contents is not available in the HTML version of text but can be found in the text-based PDF prepared by the typesetters of the LF book, the "LF printer PDF" version (2.83 MB)].

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THE CONTENTS OF THE SEVERAL BOOKS AND CHAPTERS. vii

In the 1747 English translation, the titles of chapters, sections, and contents differ considerably from the original Latin titles. Within the brackets in the Latin table of contents are stricter, more correct translations of these titles.

In the Preface. The division of philosophy into 3 parts. The several branches of moral philosophy. 1. The Author’s intention in this compend. 2. The design of Cicero’s books de officiis. ib. An account of this 2d edition. 3. And an exhortation to philosophy. 4.

BOOK I. The Elements of Ethicks.

Chapt. I. Of human nature and its various parts or powers. p. 1.

  • 1. How moral philosophy an art superior to others. 1. derived from the structure of our nature. 2. the method of treating it. ib.
  • 2. The human body its dignity. 3.
  • 3. The powers of the soul, understanding and will. 4. the senses external and internal, whence our notions of good and evil. 4, 5. Sensations of a middle kind, their use. sensations direct and reflex. 6.
  • 4. Internal sense, consciousness, or reflection. 6. Reason. ib. the knowledge of God and his will. 7.
  • 5. The sublimer senses. ib. The will and its calm motions. 7, 8.
  • 6. The passions distinct from them. 8. their divisions. 9.
  • 7. Affections selfish or disinterested. 10. disinterested, calm or passionate. 11. ends ultimate or subordinate. 12. two general determinations of mind. ib.
  • 8. The reflex senses. 12. The pleasures of imagination in beauty, musick, painting, and all imitation. 13. in grandeur, novelty, knowledge. ib. 14.
  • 9. Sympathy with others. 14.
  • 10. Man fitted for action. 15. Reflex senses to regulate our actions. ib. the sense of moral good and evil, or conscience. 16. the objects of approbation and condemnation. 17. this sense natural without views of interest. 17. objections answered. 19, 20.
  • 11. Degrees of virtue. 21. degrees of vice also various. 21, 22, 23. viii
  • 12. The Conscience or moral sense the guide of life. 23. its supremacy. 24, 25.
  • 13. The sense of honour and shame. 26. the uniformity of these senses. 27.
  • 14. The sense of what’s ridiculous, laughter. 28.
  • 15. Several sorts of good, and passions toward them. 28, 29. The species of selfish desires and aversions. 29. and of disinterested. 30. species of selfish joy and sorrow. ib. of disinterested joy and sorrow. 31.
  • 16. All these how natural. 31.
  • 17. Associations of ideas and habits. 32. their influence. ib. subordinate desires. 33. The power of speech. 34. Diversities of temper. 35. and present depravation of mankind. ib.
  • 18. ’Tis the business of philosophy to shew the natural order of the several parts, and how they may conspire to one end. 36.

Chapt. II. Of the Supreme Good. 39.

  • 1. The influence of the understanding over the will. ib. the mutual power of the will. 40.
  • 2. The nature of good and final causes. 40. How goods are estimated, and what the characters of the Supreme Good. 41, 42.
  • 3. The instability and inconsistency of several sorts. 42.
  • 4. Absence of uneasiness not the chief good. 43. Sensual pleasures the meanest sort. 44. they are recommended by false colours. 45. condemned even by the voluptuous. 46. virtue admits the best enjoyment of them. ib.
  • 5. The pleasures of grandeur and elegance and the ingenious arts not sufficient alone. 47, 48.
  • 6. Our sympathy of great importance. 49. and very lasting, but wholly depending on Providence. 50.
  • 7. Pleasures of a moral kind the highest. 51. joined with those of piety the most durable also. 52.
  • 8. The importance of the sense of honour. 53.
  • 9. The pleasures of mirth conspire with the moral. 54.
  • 10. As do also the pursuits of wealth and power, and desires of life. ib. 55. our happiness therefor depends on virtue. 56.
  • 11. The opposite evils compared. 56. No pain opposite to some internal pleasures. 57. Virtue no natural occasion of evil. ib. The sole cure of sympathetick pains from piety. 58. Moral evil the greatest, conjoined with infamy. 58, 59. The sum of virtue and happiness. ib.
  • 12. all dependent on the Deity. ib. ix

Chapt. III. Of the Divisions of Virtue. 61.

  • 1. The general notion of virtue and its higher kinds. ib. lower degrees. ib. virtuous powers and habits. 62. manly dispositions approved. ib.
  • 2. Virtues intellectual and moral, first intellectual. 63. moral how placed in mediocrity. 64. cardinal virtues four. 65.
  • 3. Prudence its parts. ib. Fortitude. ib. 66. Temperance and its branches. 67. Justice the chief virtue. ib.
  • 4. The true spring of virtue. 68, 69. mediocrity not its primary notion. 70.
  • 5. Another obvious division. ib.

Chapt. IV. Our Duties toward God. 72.

  • 1. Just opinions and affections suited to them contain all piety. ib. affections due to the natural attributes. ib.
  • 2. Affections suited to the moral attributes. 73. Grounds of a general hope to sinners. 74, 75. the divine goodness the sole ground of stable tranquillity. ib. Piety natural. 76. the acts of worship their intention and use. ib.
  • 3. Publick worship due. 77, 78.

Chapt. V. Our Duties toward mankind. 79.

  • 1. Natural affections shew our duties. ib.
  • 2. and are great sources of happiness. 80. the sum of social virtues. 81.
  • 3. Our ordinary duties spring from less extensive affections: which all should cherish. ib. other obvious indications of duty. 82, 83.
  • 4. The nature and rules of friendship. 83, 84.
  • 5. A due proportion of affections. 85, 86.

Chapt. VI. Duties toward ourselves. 87.

  • 1. Obtaining knowledge and just opinions chiefly about the Deity. ib. and our own nature. ib. 88.
  • 2. The belief of a providence. 89. and contempt of external things. ib. knowledge insufficient without practice. 90, 91.
  • 3. The several branches of virtue. 91. no natural passion useless. ib. moderate ones often lovely and useful. 92, 93. Love of life. 93. desire of pleasures. ib. Liberality and frugality. 94. Magnificence. ib. Magnanimity. ib. Ambition. 95. Love of fame. ib. wise resentment. ib. just indignation. 96. Veracity, candour. ib. Courtesy. ib. Modesty. 97.
  • 4. Care of the body. 98. some occupation or business. ib. the dignity of several professions. ib.

Chapt. VII. Practical Considerations &c. 100. x

  • 1. Our higher powers lead to virtue, ib. a sense of duty and a moral providence universal. 101.
  • 2. Motives to virtue. 102. ’tis generally both pleasant and advantageous. ib. this shewn of Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude. 103, 104.
  • 3. All our virtues the gifts of God. 105. we should have a full persuasion of the excellency of virtue. 106, 107.
  • 4. and know the particular laws of nature. 107.

BOOK II. Elements of the Law of Nature.

Chapt. I. Of the Law of Nature. 109.

  • 1. The general doctrine of morals. ib. The notions of right and wrong. ib. Law of nature what. ib. 110. The notion of a law. 111.
  • 2. The Deity’s right of governing founded on his moral perfections. ib. Human power how founded. 112.
  • 3. God the author of the law of nature. ib. Two parts in a law, the precept and sanction. 113.
  • 4. Laws natural and positive in a double sense. ib.
  • 5. Privilegia. 114. Equity. ib. 115.
  • 6. Dispensations twofold. 115. what is a dispensation properly. ib. 116.
  • 7. Laws primary and secondary. 116. two general laws. 117.

Chapt. II. Of Rights and their divisions. 118.

  • 1. A social life necessary. ib. 119.
  • 2. Rights of men how notified, and what. 119. no right valid against the general good. 120. the notion of obligation twofold. 121.
  • 3. Rights perfect and imperfect. 122. various degrees of them. ib. 123. External rights. 123. no opposition among just rights. ib.
  • 4. What rights alienable, and what not. 124. two general social laws. ib.

Chapt. III. Degrees of virtue and vice and the circumstances on which they depend. 125.

  • 1. Conscience what. ib. its different divisions. Actions good materially or formally. ib. 126.
  • 2. Circumstance affecting the morality of actions threefold. 126. Liberty necessary. ib. Actions of three sorts called involuntary. 127.
  • 3. Ignorance and error voluntary or not. ib. of law or fact. 128.
  • 4. Questions about an erroneous conscience. 129.
  • 5. Circumstances affecting morality which relate to the will. 130. Kind affections of different moral beauty. ib. 131, 132, 133. xii
  • 6. General rules of estimation. 133. Private interests abate the virtue of actions. 134.
  • 7. The importance of actions affects their morality. 135. how the events of them are imputed. 136, 137.
  • 8. The effects of custom and habit. 137. when actions of others are imputed. 138.

Chapt. IV. Of the nature of rights of individuals. 139.

  • 1. The several states of men. ib. State of natural liberty. ib. society absolutely necessary. 140.
  • 2. Rights private, publick, or common to all. 141. Right natural or acquired. ib.
  • 3. Private natural rights. 141, 142. that of private judgment, &c. 142.
  • 4. The natural equality of men. 143. no natural right to power. 144.
  • 5. The imperfect natural rights. ib. 145.
  • 6. The rules of beneficence. 145, 146.

Chapt. V. Real adventitious rights and property. 147.

  • 1. Real right, property. ib.
  • 2. Right of dominion over animals. ib. 148.
  • 3. The eating of flesh. 148, 149.
  • 4. Foundations of property. 149. Community of goods pernicious. 150, 151.

Chapt. VI. Methods of acquiring property. 152.

  • 1. Original property from occupation. ib.
  • 2. What sort of occupation preferable. 153, &c.
  • 3. Perpetual property. 156. when property begins. ib. how far it extends. 157.
  • 4. Things destined to be common. 158. Community negative and positive. 159.
  • 5. Goods of communities or societies. ib. Prescription. 160. Appendages how occupied. ib Accessions, rules about them. ib. 161. Several rights included in full property. 162.

Chapt. VII. Of derived property. 163.

  • 1. Rights real and personal, how they arise. ib. 164.
  • 2. Parts of property subsisting separately. 165. Possession. ib. Presumptive property, and rules about it. 165, &c.
  • 3. Rights of entail. 168.
  • 4. Pledges and mortgages. ib. 169.
  • 5. Servitudes. 169, 170.

Chapt. VIII. The transferring of property, successions, testaments, &c. 171.

  • 1. Property transferred by the deed of the proprietor, &c. ib.
  • 2. Transferring on the event of death, wills. ib. Just debts preferable. 172. xiii
  • 3. Property transferred by law during life. 173. and on the event of death. ib. The natural order of succession. 174, 175.
  • 4. lineal succession not natural. 175, 176.

Chapt. IX. Of Contracts in general. 177.

  • 1. The necessity of contracts. ib. 178. they found perfect rights. ib.
  • 2. They oblige tho’ made imprudently. 179. Matters of Commerce. ib.
  • 3. Three forms of speaking to be distinguished. ib. 180.
  • 4. Understanding necessary. 180. The case of minors and madmen. 181, 182.
  • 5. Mistakes and errors in contracts. 182, 183.
  • 6. Voluntary consent necessary. 184, 185. Tacit conventions. ib. conditions. ib. mutual consent. ib.
  • 7. What conditions to be regarded. 186.
  • 8. The exception of force and fear. 187, 188. Faith due to bad men. 188.
  • 9. Force used by one of the parties, twofold. 189, 190.
  • 10. The matter of contracts must be possible. 191. and lawful. ib. Contracts about the rights of others. 192, 193.
  • 11. What prior contracts make void the subsequent. 193.
  • 12. Obligations contracted by others in our name. 194.

Chapt. X. Our obligations in speech. 195.

  • 1. An immediate sense recommending veracity. ib.
  • 2. An important division of signs. 196, 197. two rules. 198.
  • 3. Several necessary observations. 198, 199, 200.
  • 4. General duties in conversation. 201. what speech obscene. 202.

Chapt. XI. Of Oaths and Vows. 203.

  • 1. The use of oaths and their nature. ib. 204.
  • 2. The manner of demanding them and what obligation produced. 204, 205.
  • 3. The various kinds of oaths. 206, 207.
  • 4. Vows their nature and use. 207, 208.

Chapt. XII. Of the Values of Goods and of Coin. 209.

  • 1. In commerce all things must be valued; the grounds of value. ib. 210.
  • 2. Necessity for some standard. 211.
  • 3. The design of coinage. ib.
  • 4. Value of money not arbitrary. 212, 213.

Chapt. XIII. Of the several sorts of Contracts. 214.

  • 1. Contracts beneficent or onerous. Mandatum. ib.
  • 2. Loan for use or consumption. 215.
  • 3. Depositing. 216.
  • 4. The nature of onerous contracts. ib. Ground of merchants profit. 217. xiv
  • 5. Barter, buying and selling, contracts of hazard. 217.
  • 6. Hiring and setting to hire. 218.
  • 7. Loans for consumption at interest. Interest how just. 219.
  • 8. Contracts of insurance. Gaming and wagering how far lawful. 220, 221.
  • 9. Bail, pledges and mortgages. 221, 222.

Chapt. XIV. Obligations like those from Contracts. 223.

  • 1. Obligationes quasi ex contractu, of what nature; two classes of them: one from intermeddling with the goods of others. ib. 224.
  • 2. Obligations to indemnify administrators, or such as sustain loss for our advantage. 224, 225.
  • 3. The case of orphans maintained, and the children of slaves with other obligations of the second class. 225, &c.

Chapt. XV. Rights arising from damage done, and the Laws of War. 228.

  • 1. Every one obliged to repair what damage he does. ib. Punishments for injuries necessary. ib. 229.
  • 2. Damage what, and who are bound to repair it. 229, 230.
  • 3. Damages by accident, by slaves, or by cattle. 230, 231. The obligation to forgive injuries. 231.
  • 4. When force may be justly used. Different kinds of war. 231, 232. publick and private, solemn and not solemn. 232.
  • 5. War may be lawful. 233. three points to be settled. ib.
  • 6. Just causes in natural liberty. 234. and in civil society. 235.
  • 7. The just time of commencing in liberty. ib. 236. and in civil life. 236.
  • 8. The bounds of our claims in liberty. ib. and under government. 237. A right of punishing in natural liberty. 236. violent prosecution. 237.
  • 9. Duels unlawful. 237, 238. The use of courts of honour. 239. One sort of duels just on one side. 239, 240.

Chapt. XVI. Extraordinary rights in cases of necessity. The common rights of mankind. 241.

  • 1. Exceptions in cases of necessity. ib.
  • 2. Such necessity must be manifest and very great. 242. Objections answered. 243.
  • 3. Necessary cautions in applying this doctrine. 244, 245.
  • 4. The common rights of mankind as a system. 246, 247.

Chapt. XVII. How rights and obligations cease. How controversies are decided in natural liberty, &c. 248.

  • 1. Obligations are taken away three ways, by payment, remission, or defect of conditions, ib. 249. xv
  • 2. The several ways of ending controversies. 249. who proper arbiters. 250. how they should proceed. ib.
  • 3. General rules of interpretation. 251, 252.
  • 4. The last result in controversies is force, hence the necessity of civil government. 253.

BOOK III. The Principles of Oeconomicks and Politicks.

Chapt. I. Concerning Marriage. 255

  • 1. Reason for marriage among those of the human species. ib. 256, &c.
  • 2. Chiefly from the duty of educating offspring. 256.
  • 3. Plato’s scheme censurable. 257, 258.
  • 4. Grounds of marriage-laws. Who bound to marry. 259.
  • 5. Four chief articles. 1. Fidelity in women. 2. The like obligation on men. Polygamy unjust. 3. Joint aid in educating and providing for children. 4. The bond perpetual. 259, 260, 261.
  • 6. Impediments, either nullities, or causes of divorce. some natural, some moral. 262. prior contracts. 263. and consanguinity. ib. 264.
  • 7. The causes of divorce, various. 265, 266. the duties in marriage. 266.

Chapt. II. The Duties of Parents and Children. 267.

  • 1. The grounds of parental power, and the extent of it. ib. 268.
  • 2. ’Tis common to both parents. 268. Rights and obligations of parents. 269.
  • 3. Parental power enlarged by civil laws. ib. 270.
  • 4. Duties of adult children. 270, 271.

Chapt. III. Of Masters and Servants. 272.

  • 1. The original of servitude, with necessary remarks. ib. 273.
  • 2. The sole just causes of slavery. 273, 274. the Roman unjust. 274. captives should not be made slaves. ib. objections answered. 274, 275, &c.
  • 3. Mutual duties. 278.

Chapt. IV. The Origin of Civil Government. 279.

  • 1. The two motives to civil society under government, the fears of injuries and the natural approbations of virtue. 279, 280.
  • 2. The stronger motive the fear of injuries. 280, 281. No other preservative sufficient. 281.
  • 3. The first polities not from force. 282.
  • 4. Polity better than any anarchy. 282, 283. the ends of polity. 283, 284. xvi

Chapt. V. The internal structure of States; and the parts of supreme Power. 285.

  • 1. Civil power from consent and contract. ib.
  • 2. How power and polity is constituted. 286. How posterity bound. ib. 287.
  • 3. The nature of publick law. 288.
  • 4. The several parts of supreme power; the legislative. ib. 289. the raising of tributes. 289. the executive. ib. the smaller rights. 290.
  • 5. Who has the supreme power. ib. a system of states. ib. 291.

Chapt. VI. Of the various plans of Polity. 292.

  • 1. The simple kinds. ib. The acts of a council what. ib.
  • 2. Different kinds of monarchy. 293. of aristocracies and democracies. ib.
  • 3. Four main advantages to be pursued. 294, &c. some civil bond of union among the subjects in which power is lodged. 295. Power rests on property. ib. No unequal privileges. 296. nor impunity in abuse of power. ib. The best number for a state. ib. 297.
  • 4. The advantages and disadvantages of monarchy. 297, 298. and of aristocracies. 298. and democracies. ib. The use of the ballot. ib. 299.
  • 5. The advantages of the mixed forms, and how they should be constituted for the general safety. 299, &c. a censorial power. 301.

Chapt. VII. The Rights of supreme Power, and the Ways of acquiring it. 302.

  • 1. Civil power is determined by the constitution, and fundamental laws. ib. may sometimes be justly revoked or abrogated. ib. No other divinity or sacredness in the rights of princes than in private rights. 303.
  • 2. In every plan of polity the people may have a right of defence and resistance. 304, 305. who should judge in such questions. ib.
  • 3. The nature of an inter-regnum. 306.
  • 4. What is due to good princes. ib. what to such conquered. 307.
  • 5. Liberty natural and civil. ib.
  • 6. The rights of governors derived from some deed of the people. ib. 308.
  • 7. No form more divine than another. 308.
  • 8. A full inquiry into the rights of conquest. 309, 310.
  • 9. The right of punishing can never subject a whole people. 311, 312. xvii
  • 10. No patrimonial kingdoms. 313. The conqueror may afterwards acquire a right. 314.
  • 11. Sovereignty how forfeited, and heirs justly excluded. 315, 316. several forfeitures of civil power. 316, 317.

Chapt. VIII. Of Civil Laws and their Execution. 318.

  • 1. The nature and end of civil laws. ib. Liberty of conscience, with a publick leading by the magistrate. ib. 319. Persecution unjust. 319, 320.
  • 2. The example of governors most effectual. 320. virtues to be chiefly encouraged; Temperance. 321. Luxury destructive. ib. Temperance promotes industry. 322.
  • 3. Industry the main foundation of wealth. ib. 323.
  • 4. Justice highly necessary. 323.
  • 5. Fortitude and military arts universal. 324.
  • 6. No subjects should depend on any foreign state or power. ib. 325.
  • 7. Civil laws should confirm the laws of nature. 325.
  • 8. Sanctions of laws various. Honours. 326.
  • 9. The nature of punishments. 327. Intentions how punishable. 328. What respect of persons lawful, what unlawful. ib.
  • 10. Punishments of corporations. 329.
  • 11. Obligation to pay tribute. ib. 330.
  • 12. The duties of subjects toward governors, and others. 330.

Chapt. IX. The Laws of War. 332.

  • 1. What requisite to an open, solemn war. ib. Civil wars favourable. 333.
  • 2. Publick law, necessary or voluntary. ib. Laws of war. ib. 334.
  • 3. Voluntary laws of war. 335.
  • 4. Rights of reprisals. ib.
  • 5. Laws relating to neutral states. 337, &c.

Chapt. X. Of Treaties, Ambassadors, and the dissolution of Civil Societies. 341.

  • 1. The nature of publick Treaties. ib. Hostages. 342.
  • 2. The natural rights of ambassadors. ib. their customary rights. ib. subject to no foreign court. ib. 343. their houses sanctuaries. 343. their powers over their own retinues. ib. just defence against them. 344. Precedency. ib.
  • 3. How states are dissolved. ib.
  • 4. Rights of alienating provinces. 345. of giving up citizens. 346.
  • 5. What rights when a state is dissolved. ib. and revives again. ib. 347.
  • Our duty to our Country. 347.

Last modified April 10, 2014