Online Library of Liberty

A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.

Advanced Search

Berger & the 14th Amendement

Related Links:

Source: Raoul Berger's Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment, Foreword by Forrest McDonald (2nd ed.) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1997).

The Writings of Raoul Berger

Books

  • Congress v. The Supreme Court (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969).
  • Impeachment: Some Constitutional Problems (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973).
  • Executive Privilege: A Constitutional Myth (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1974).
  • Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund, 1997).
  • Death Penalties: The Supreme Court’s Obstacle Course (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1982).
  • Federalism: The Founders’ Design (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987).
  • Selected Writings on the Constitution. Foreword by Philip B. Kurland (Cumberland, Va., James River Press, 1987).
  • The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1988).

Articles

  • “Usury in Instalment Sales,” 2 Law & Contemporary Problems 148 (1935).
  • “Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies,” 48 Yale Law Journal 981 (1939).
  • “From Hostage to Contract,” 35 Illinois Law Review 154, 281 (1940).
  • “Intervention by Public Agencies in Private Litigation in the Federal Courts,” 50 Yale Law Journal 65 (1940).
  • “Constructive Contempt: A Post-Mortem,” 9 University of Chicago Law Review 602 (1942).
  • “Freezing Controls: The Effects of an Unlicensed Transaction” (with Boris Bittker), 47 Columbia Law Review 398 (1947).
  • “Meeting Competition Under the Robinson-Patman Act” (with Abraham S. Goldstein), 44 Illinois Law Review 315 (1949).
  • “Government Immunity From Discovery” (with Abe Krash), 50 Yale Law Journal 1451 (1950).
  • “The Status of Independent Producers Under the Natural Gas Act” (with Abe Krash), 30 Texas Law Review 29 (1951).
  • “Estoppel Against the Government,” 21 University of Chicago Law Review 680 (1954).
  • “‘Disregarding the Corporate Entity’ for Stockholders’ Benefit,” 55 Columbia Law Review 808 (1955).
  • “Removal of Judicial Functions From Federal Trade Commission to a Trade Court: A Reply to Mr. Kintner,” 59 Michigan Law Review 199 (1960).
  • “Administrative Arbitrariness and Judicial Review,” 65 Columbia Law Review 55 (1965).
  • “Executive Privilege v. Congressional Inquiry” (Parts 1 & 2), 12 UCLA Law Review 1044, 1288 (1965).
  • “Administrative Arbitrariness: A Rejoinder to Professor Davis’‘Final Word,’” 114 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 816 (1966).
  • “Administrative Arbitrariness: A Reply to Professor Davis,” 114 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 783 (1966).
  • “Administrative Arbitrariness: A Sequel,” 51 Minnesota Law Review 601 (1967).
  • “Do Regulations Really Bind Regulators?” 62 Northwestern University Law Review 137 (1967).
  • “Retroactive Administrative Decisions,” 115 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 371 (1967).
  • “Administrative Arbitrariness: A Synthesis,” 78 Yale Law Journal 965 (1969).
  • “Dr. Bonham’s Case: Statutory Construction of Constitutional Theory,” 117 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 521 (1969).
  • “Standing to Sue in Public Actions: Is It a Constitutional Requirement?” 78 Yale Law Journal 816 (1969).
  • “Impeachment of Judges and ‘Good Behavior’ Tenure,” 79 Yale Law Journal 1475 (1970).
  • “Impeachment for ‘High Crimes and Misdemeanors,’” 44 Southern California Law Review 395 (1971).
  • “The Presidential Monopoly of Foreign Relations,” 71 Michigan Law Review 1 (1972).
  • “War-Making by the President,” 121 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 29 (1972).
  • “Impeachment: A Counter Critique,” 49 Washington Law Review 845 (1974).
  • “The Incarnation of Executive Privilege,” 22 UCLA Law Review 4 (1974).
  • “Judicial Review: Countercriticism in Tranquility,” 69 Northwestern University Law Review 390 (1974).
  • “The President, Congress, and the Courts,” 83 Yale Law Journal 1111 (1974).
  • “Congressional Subpoenas to Executive Officials,” 75 Columbia Law Review 865 (1975).
  • “Executive Privilege: A Reply to Professor Sofaer,” 75 Columbia Law Review 603 (1975).
  • “Executive Privilege: Some Counter Criticism,” 44 University of Cincinnati Law Review 166 (1975).
  • “Executive Privilege, Professor Rosenblum, and Higher Criticism,” 1975 Duke Law Journal 921.
  • “Protection of Americans Abroad,” 44 University of Cincinnati Law Review 741 (1975).
  • “Bills of Attainder: A Study of Amendment by the Court,” 63 Cornell Law Review 355 (1978).
  • “The Constitution and the Rule of Law,” 1 Western New England Law Review 261 (1978).
  • “Dean Green: Some Personal Recollections,” 56 Texas Law Review 475 (1978).
  • “The Fourteenth Amendment: Facts v. Generalities,” 32 Arkansas Law Review 280 (1978).
  • “Government by Judiciary: Some Countercriticism,” 56 Texas Law Review 1125 (1978).
  • “War, Foreign Affairs, and Executive Secrecy,” 72 Northwestern University Law Review 309 (1978).
  • “‘Chilling Judicial Independence’: A Scarecrow,” 64 Cornell Law Review 822 (1979).
  • “The Fourteenth Amendment: The Framers’ Design,” 30 South Carolina Law Review 495 (1979).
  • “The Fourteenth Amendment: Light From the Fifteenth,” 74 Northwestern University Law Review 311 (1979).
  • “Government by Judiciary: John Hart Ely’s Invitation,” 54 Indiana Law Journal 277 (1979).
  • “‘Government by Judiciary’: Judge Gibbons’ Argument Ad Hominem,” 59 Boston University Law Review 783 (1979).
  • “‘Law of the Land’ Reconsidered,” 74 Northwestern University Law Review 1 (1979).
  • “Must the House Consent to Cession of the Panama Canal?” 64 Cornell Law Review 275 (1979).
  • “The Scope of Judicial Review: An Ongoing Debate,” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 527 (1979).
  • “The Scope of Judicial Review and Walter Murphy,” 1979 Wisconsin Law Review 341.
  • “‘The Supreme Court as a Legislature’: A Dissent,” 64 Cornell Law Review 988 (1979).
  • “A Comment on ‘Due Process of Law,’” 31 South Carolina Law Review 661 (1980).
  • “Congressional Contraction of Federal Jurisdiction,” 1980 Wisconsin Law Review 801.
  • “The Ninth Amendment,” 66 Cornell Law Review 1 (1980).
  • “A Political Scientist as Constitutional Lawyer: A Reply to Louis Fisher,” 41 Ohio State Law Journal 147 (1980).
  • “The President’s Unilateral Termination of the Taiwan Treaty,” 75 Northwestern University Law Review 577 (1980).
  • “The Scope of Judicial Review: A Continuing Dialogue,” 31 South Carolina Law Review 171 (1980).
  • “Ely’s ‘Theory of Judicial Review,’” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 87 (1981).
  • “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights in the Fourteenth Amendment: A Nine-Lived Cat,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 435 (1981).
  • “Paul Brest’s Brief for an Imperial Judiciary,” 40 Maryland Law Review 1 (1981).
  • “Residence Requirements for Welfare and Voting: A Post-Mortem,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 853 (1981).
  • “Soifer to the Rescue of History,” 32 South Carolina Law Review 427 (1981).
  • “Paul Dimond Fails to ‘Meet Raoul Berger on Interpretivist Grounds,’” 43 Ohio State Law Journal 285 (1982).
  • “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: A Reply to Michael Curtis’ Response,” 44 Ohio State Law Journal 1 (1983).
  • “Insulation of Judicial Usurpation: A Comment on Lawrence Sager’s Court-Stripping Polemic,” 44 Ohio State Law Journal 611 (1983).
  • “Mark Tushnet’s Critique of Interpretivism,” 51 George Washington Law Review 532 (1983).
  • “Michael Perry’s Functional Justification for Judicial Activism,” 8 University of Dayton Law Review 465 (1983).
  • “A Study of Youthful Omniscience: Gerald Lynch on Judicial Review,” 36 Arkansas Law Review 215 (1983).
  • “The Activist Legacy of the New Deal Court,” 59 Washington Law Review 751 (1984).
  • “Death Penalties and Hugo Bedau: A Crusading Philosopher Goes Overboard,” 45 Ohio State Law Journal 863 (1984).
  • “G. Edward White’s Apology for Judicial Activism,” 63 Texas Law Review 367 (1984).
  • “Lawyering v. Philosophizing: Facts or Fancies,” 9 University of Dayton Law Review 171 (1984).
  • “A Response to D. A. J. Richards’ Defense of Freewheeling Constitutional Adjudication,” 59 Indiana Law Journal 339 (1984).
  • “Constitutional Law and the Constitution,” 19 Suffolk University Law Review 1 (1985).
  • “Benno Schmidt v. Rehnquist and Scalia,” 47 Ohio State Law Journal 709 (1986).
  • “Cottrol’s Failed Rescue Mission,” 37 Boston College Law Review 481 (1986).
  • “McAffee v. Berger: A Youthful Debunker’s Rampage,” 22 Willamette Law Review 1 (1986).
  • “New Theories of ‘Interpretation’: The Activist Flight From the Constitution,” 47 Ohio State Law Journal 1 (1986).
  • “‘Original Intention’ in Historical Perspective,” 54 George Washington Law Review 296 (1986).
  • “Some Reflections on Interpretivism,” 55 George Washington Law Review 1 (1986).
  • “Death Penalties: A Response to Stephen Gillers,” 24 Willamette Law Review 1 (1988).
  • “Federalism: The Founders’ Design: A Response to Michael McConnell,” 57 George Washington Law Review 51 (1988).
  • “Justice Brennan v. The Constitution,” 29 Boston College Law Review 787 (1988).
  • “Originalist Theories of Constitutional Interpretation,” 73 Cornell Law Review 350 (1988).
  • “The Founders’ Views—According to Jefferson Powell,” 67 Texas Law Review 1033 (1989).
  • “History, Judicial Revisionism, and J. M. Balkin,” 1989 Brigham Young University Law Review 759.
  • “Original Intent and Leonard Levy,” 42 Rutgers Law Review 255 (1989).
  • “Fantasizing About the Fourteenth Amendment,” 1990 Wisconsin Law Review 1043.
  • “The Jury’s Role in Capital Cases Is Immune From Judicial Interference,” 1990 Brigham Young University Law Review 639.
  • “Justice Samuel Chase v. Thomas Jefferson: A Response to Stephen Presser,” 1990 Brigham Young University Law Review 873.
  • “The Ninth Amendment: The Beckoning Mirage,” 42 Rutgers Law Review 951 (1990).
  • “Robert Bork’s Contribution to Original Intention,” 84 Northwestern University Law Review 1167 (1990).
  • “Activist Censures of Robert Bork,” 85 Northwestern University Law Review 993 (1991).
  • “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: A Response to Michael Zuckert,” 26 Georgia Law Review 1 (1991).
  • “Lawrence Church on the Scope of Judicial Review and Original Intention,” 70 North Carolina Law Review 113 (1991).
  • “Original Intent: Bittker v. Berger,” 1991 Brigham Young University Law Review 1201.
  • “Original Intent and Boris Bittker,” 66 Indiana Law Journal 723 (1991).
  • “Bruce Ackerman on Interpretation: A Critique,” 1992 Brigham Young University Law Review 1035.
  • “Natural Law and Judicial Review: Reflections of an Earthbound Lawyer,” 61 University of Cincinnati Law Review 5 (1992).
  • “‘Original Intent’: A Response to Hans Baade,” 70 Texas Law Review 1535 (1992).
  • “The Transfiguration of Samuel Chase: A Rebuttal,” 1992 Brigham Young University Law Review 559.
  • “Activist Indifference to Facts,” 61 Tennessee Law Review 9 (1993).
  • “Constitutional Interpretation and Activist Fantasies,” 82 Kentucky Law Journal 1 (1993).
  • “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: Ahkil Amar’s Wishing Well,” 62 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1 (1993).
  • “Original Intent: The Rage of Hans Baade,” 71 North Carolina Law Review 1151 (1993).
  • “An Anatomy of False Analysis: Original Intent,” 1994 Brigham Young University Law Review 715.
  • “The Ninth Amendment, as Perceived by Randy Barnett,” 88 Northwestern University Law Review 1508 (1994).
  • “Suzannah and—The Ninth Amendment,” 1994 Brigham Young University Law Review 51.
  • “A Lawyer Lectures a Judge,” 18 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 851 (1995).
  • “Liberty and the Constitution,” 29 Georgia Law Review 585 (1995).
  • “Judicial Manipulation of the Commerce Clause,” 17 Texas Law Review 695 (1996).
  • “The ‘Original Intent’—As Perceived by Michael McConnell,” 91 Northwestern University Law Review 242 (1996).
  • “Jack Rakove’s Rendition of Original Meaning,” 72 Indiana Law Journal 619 (1997).
  • “Ronald Dworkin’s ‘Moral Reading of the Constitution,’” 72 Indiana Law Journal [no. 4] (1997).

Bibliography

i. Federal Documents

  • Act of April 9, 1866, Ch. 21, 14 Statutes 27.
  • Annals of the Congress of the United States, 1789–1824, 42 vols. (Washington, Gales & Seaton, 1834).
  • Avins, Alfred, ed. The Reconstruction Amendments’ Debates (Richmond, Va., Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government, 1967).
  • The Congressional Globe, 1833–1873, 46 vols. (Blair & Rives, 1834–1873).
  • Hearings on Executive Privilege Before the Subcommittee on the Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 92d Congress, 1st Session (July 1971).
  • Hearings on the Supreme Court Before the Subcommittee on the Separation of Powers of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 90th Congress, 2d Session (June 1968).
  • Richardson, James D., comp. The Messages and Papers of the Presidents (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1889–1905).

ii. Books

  • Acheson, Dean. Morning and Noon (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965).
  • Ackerman, Bruce. We the People: Foundations (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1991).
  • Adams, Henry. John Randolph (Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1882).
  • Adams, John Quincy. Life in a New England Town: 1787, 1788. Diary of John Quincy Adams (Boston, Little, Brown, 1903).
  • Adams, Samuel. The Writings of Samuel Adams, Harry A. Cushing, ed. 4 vols. (New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1904–1908).
  • Allen, Sir C. K. Law in the Making, 6th ed. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1958).
  • Bacon, Francis. Selected Writings of Francis Bacon (New York, Mod. Lib. ed., 1937).
  • Bacon, Matthew. A New Abridgment of the Laws of England, 8 vols., 3d ed. (London, 1768).
  • Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Constitution (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1967).
  • Baldwin, Henry. A General View of the Origin and Nature of the Constitution and Government of the United States (Philadelphia, J. C. Clark, 1837).
  • Barnett, Randy E., ed. The Rights Retained by the People, 2 vols. (Fairfax, Va., George Mason University Press, 1993).
  • Bemis, Samuel F. John Quincy Adams and the Foundation of American Foreign Policy (New York, Knopf, 1949).
  • ———. John Quincy Adams and the Union (New York, Knopf, 1956).
  • Benedict, Michael Les. A Compromise of Principle: Conservative Republicans and Reconstruction, 1863–1869 (New York, Norton, 1974).
  • Berenson, Bernard. Conversations With Berenson[by] Umberto Morra. Translated from the Italian by Florence Hammond (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965).
  • Berger, Raoul. Congress v. The Supreme Court (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969).
  • ———. Executive Privilege: A Constitutional Myth (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1974).
  • ———. Tbe Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1989).
  • ———. Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Indianapolis, Liberty Fund, 1997).
  • ———. Impeachment: The Constitutional Problems (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973).
  • ———. Selected Writings on the Constitution (Cumberland, Va., James River Press, 1987).
  • Biancolli, Louis. The Book of Great Conversations (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1948).
  • Bickel, Alexander M. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of Politics (Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1962).
  • ———. The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress (New York, Harper & Row, 1978).
  • Black, Charles L., Jr. The People and the Court: Judicial Review in a Democracy (New York, Macmillan, 1960).
  • Blackstone, William. Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. (London, 1765–1769).
  • Boorstin, Daniel J. The Discoverers (New York, Random House, 1983).
  • ———, ed. American Primer (New York, Dutton, 1968).
  • Bork, Robert H. The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law (New York, Free Press, 1990).
  • Boswell, James. The Life of Samuel Johnson, Everyman ed. (New York, Knopf, 1992).
  • Bowen, Catherine D. Francis Bacon: The Temper of a Man (Boston, Little, Brown, 1963).
  • Bracton, Henry de. Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England, Samuel Thorne, ed. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1968).
  • Brest, Paul. Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking: Cases and Materials (Boston, Little, Brown, 1975).
  • Brinton, Crane, John B. Christopher, and Robert L. Wolff. A History of Civilization (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1960).
  • Brock, W. R. An American Crisis: Congress and Reconstruction, 1865–1867 (London, Macmillan, 1963).
  • Brodie, Fawn M. Thaddeus Stevens: Scourge of the South (New York, Norton, 1959).
  • Brooks, Van Wyck. Days of the Phoenix (New York, Dutton, 1957).
  • Butterfield, Sir Herbert. George III and the Historians (New York, Macmillan, 1969).
  • Cahn, Edmond N., ed. Supreme Court and Supreme Law (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1954).
  • Cardozo, Benjamin N. The Growth of the Law (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1924).
  • ———. The Nature of the Judicial Process (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1921).
  • ———. The Paradoxes of Legal Science (New York, Columbia University Press, 1928).
  • ———. Selected Writings of Benjamin Cardozo, Margaret Hall, ed. (New York, Fallon, 1947).
  • Choper, Jesse H. Judicial Review and the National Political Process (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1980).
  • Chrimes, S. B. English Constitutional Ideas in the Fifteenth Century (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1936).
  • Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times (New York, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971).
  • Coke, Edward. Institutes of the Laws of England, 4 vols. (London, 1628–1644).
  • Commager, Henry Steele, ed. Documents of American History, 7th ed. (New York, Appleton-Century, 1963).
  • Cooley, Thomas. A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations, 8th ed. (Boston, Little, Brown, 1927).
  • Corwin, Edward S. American Constitutional History, A. T. Mason and G. Garvey, eds. (New York, Harper & Row, 1964).
  • ———. The Doctrine of Judicial Review: Its Legal and Historical Basis and Other Essays (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1914).
  • ———. The Twilight of the Supreme Court (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1934).
  • Cover, Robert. Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1975).
  • Cox, Archibald. The Role of the Supreme Court in American Government (New York, Oxford University Press, 1976).
  • Curtis, Michael B. No State Shall Abridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights (Durham, Duke University Press, 1986).
  • Donald, David. Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (New York, Knopf, 1960).
  • ———. Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (New York, Knopf, 1970).
  • ———. The Politics of Reconstruction (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1965).
  • Durant, Will. The Age of Faith (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1950).
  • Dwarris, Fortunatus. A General Treatise on Statutes (London, W. Benning, 1848).
  • Elkins, Stanley, and Eric L. McKitrick. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788–1800 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993).
  • Elliot, Jonathan, ed. Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, 4 vols., 2d ed. (Washington, D.C., J. Elliot, 1836).
  • Elliott, Ward E. Y. The Rise of a Guardian Democracy (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1974).
  • Ely, John H. Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1980).
  • Fairman, Charles. Mr. Justice Miller and the Supreme Court (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1939).
  • ———. Reconstruction and Reunion, 1864–1888, vol. 6, pt. 1, of History of the Supreme Court of the United States (New York, Macmillan, 1971).
  • Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, 4 vols. (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1911).
  • The Federalist (New York, Modern Library ed., 1937).
  • The Federalist Papers. Introduction and commentary by Garry Wills (New York, Bantam, 1982).
  • Flack, Horace. The Adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1908).
  • Frankfort, Henri A., et al. The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1977).
  • Frankfurter, Felix. The Commerce Clause Under Marshall, Taney, and Waite (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1937).
  • ———. Law and Politics, A. Macleish and E. F. Prichard, eds. (New York, Harcourt Brace, 1938).
  • ———. Mr. Justice Holmes and the Supreme Court (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1938).
  • ———. Of Law and Men, Philip Elman, ed. (New York, Harcourt Brace, 1956).
  • Freedman, M., ed. Roosevelt and Frankfurter: Their Correspondence, 1928–1945 (Boston, Little, Brown, 1967).
  • Gay, Peter, et al., eds. Historians at Work, 4 vols. (New York, Irvington Publishers, 1975).
  • Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (New York, Nottingham Society, undated).
  • Gillette, William. The Right to Vote: Politics and the Passage of the Fifteenth Amendment (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965).
  • Goebel, Julius. Antecedents and Beginnings to 1801, vol. 1 of History of the Supreme Court of the United States (New York, Macmillan, 1971).
  • Goebel, Julius, and T. R. Naughton. Law Enforcement in Colonial New York, 1664–1776 (Montclair, N.J., Patterson Smith, 1970).
  • Gough, John W. Fundamental Law in English Constitutional History (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1955).
  • Graglia, Lino A. Disaster by Decree (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1976).
  • Graham, Howard Jay. Everyman’s Constitution (New York, Norton, 1968).
  • The Great Debate: Interpreting Our Constitution (Washington, D.C., Federalist Society, 1986).
  • Griffith, Kathryn. Judge Learned Hand and the Role of the Federal Judiciary (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1973).
  • Gunther, Gerald, ed. John Marshall’s Defense of McCulloch v. Maryland (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1969).
  • Haines, Charles G. The Revival of Natural Law Concepts (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1930).
  • Hale, Sir Matthew. History of the Pleas of the Crown (London, 1736).
  • Hamilton, Alexander. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, H. C. Syrett and J. E. Cooke, eds., 27 vols. (New York, Columbia University Press, 1961–1981).
  • ———. Works of Alexander Hamilton, H. C. Lodge, ed., 12 vols. (New York, Knickerbocker Press, 1904).
  • Hand, Learned. The Bill of Rights (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1962).
  • ———. The Spirit of Liberty: Papers and Addresses of Learned Hand, Irving Dilliard, ed. (New York, Knopf, 1952).
  • Harris, Robert J. The Quest for Equality (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1960).
  • Hart, Henry M., and Albert Sacks. “The Legal Process: Basic Problems in the Making and Application of Law” (unpublished manuscript, 1958).
  • Hatton, Christopher. A Treatise Concerning Statutes and Acts of Parliament and the Exposition Thereof (London, 1677).
  • Hauser, Arnold. The Social History of Art, 4 vols. (New York, Vintage Books, undated).
  • Heller, Francis H. The Sixth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 1951).
  • Hickok, Eugene W., ed. The Bill of Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1991).
  • Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Victorian Minds (New York, Knopf, 1968).
  • Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • Hockett, H. C. The Constitutional History of the United States, 1826–1876 (New York, Macmillan, 1939).
  • Hofstadter, Richard. Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York, Knopf, 1963).
  • Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. Collected Legal Papers (New York, Harcourt Brace, 1920).
  • ———. The Common Law (Boston, Little, Brown, 1881).
  • Hook, Sidney. Philosophy and Public Policy (Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press, 1980).
  • Horwitz, Morton J. The Transformation of American Law (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1977).
  • Howe, Mark de W., ed. Holmes-Laski Letters: The Correspondence of Mr. Justice Holmes and Harold J. Laski (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1953).
  • Hughes, Charles Evans. The Autobiographical Notes of Charles Evans Hughes, D. J. Danielski and J. S. Tulchin, eds. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973).
  • ———. The Supreme Court of the United States: Its Foundation, Methods, and Achievements, an Interpretation (New York, Columbia University Press, 1928).
  • Hurst, James Willard. The Legitimacy of the Business Corporation in the Law of the United States (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1970).
  • Hyman, Harold M. A More Perfect Union (New York, Knopf, 1973).
  • ———, ed. New Frontiers of the American Reconstruction (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1966).
  • Jackson, Robert H. The Struggle for Judicial Supremacy: A Study of a Crisis in American Political Power (New York, Knopf, 1941).
  • James, Joseph B. The Framing of the Fourteenth Amendment (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1965).
  • Jefferson, Thomas. Writings, Paul Leicester Ford, ed., 10 vols. (New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1892–1899).
  • ———. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Andrew A. Lipscomb, ed., 20 vols. (Washington, D. C., 1903).
  • Keller, Morton. Affairs of State (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1977).
  • Kendrick, Benjamin. The Journal of the Joint Committee of Fifteen on Reconstruction (New York, Columbia University Press, 1914).
  • Kent, James. Commentaries on American Law, 9th ed., 4 vols. (Boston, Little, Brown, 1858).
  • Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice (New York, Knopf, 1976).
  • Kurland, Philip B. Politics, the Constitution, and the Warren Court (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1970).
  • Lacy, Dan. The White Use of Black in America (New York, Atheneum, 1972).
  • Lash, Joseph P. From the Diaries of Felix Frankfurter (New York, Norton, 1975).
  • Lerner, M., ed. The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes (Garden City, N.Y., Halcyon House, 1943).
  • Levy, Leonard. Against the Law: The Nixon Court and Criminal Justice (New York, Harper & Row, 1974).
  • ———, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, 4 vols. (New York, Macmillan, 1986).
  • ———. Judgments: Essays in American Constitutional History (Chicago, Quadrangle Books, 1972).
  • ———, ed. Judicial Review and the Supreme Court (New York, Harper & Row, 1967).
  • ———. Original Intent and the Framers’ Constitution (New York, Macmillan, 1988).
  • ———, ed. The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren (New York, Quadrangle Books, 1972).
  • Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Raymond Wilburn, ed. (New York, Dutton, 1947).
  • ———. Two Treatises of Government, Peter Laslett, ed. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1960).
  • London, Ephraim, ed. The World of Law: The Law as Literature (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1960).
  • Lusky, Louis. By What Right? (Charlottesville, Michie, 1975).
  • McClellan, James. Joseph Story and the American Constitution: A Study in Political and Legal Thought With Selected Writings (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971).
  • McCloskey, Robert G. The American Supreme Court (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1960).
  • McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History (Lawrence, University Press of Kansas, 1994).
  • ———. Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution (Lawrence, University Press of Kansas, 1985).
  • McDowell, Gary L. The Constitution and Contemporary Constitutional Theory (Cumberland, Va., Center for Judicial Studies, 1985).
  • McIlwain, Charles H. Constitutionalism: Ancient and Modern, rev. ed. (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1947).
  • ———. The High Court of Parliament and Its Supremacy (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1910).
  • McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1960).
  • McRee, G. J. Life and Correspondence of James Iredell, 2 vols. (New York, Appleton, 1857–1858).
  • Madison, James. Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, congressional edition, 4 vols. (Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, 1865).
  • ———. Writings, Gaillard Hunt, ed., 9 vols. (New York, Putnam, 1900–1910).
  • Marshall, Burke, ed. A Workable Government? The Constitution After 200 Years (New York, W. W. Norton, 1987).
  • Mason, Alpheus T. Brandeis: A Free Man’s Life (New York, Viking Press, 1946).
  • ———. Harlan Fiske Stone: Pillar of the Law (New York, Viking Press, 1956).
  • ———. Security Through Freedom: American Political Thought and Practice (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1955).
  • ———. The States Rights Debate: Antifederalism and the Constitution (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1964).
  • ———. The Supreme Court: Palladium of Freedom (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1962).
  • Mason, Alpheus T., and W. M. Beaney. American Constitutional Law (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1954).
  • Mencken, Henry T. Treatise of Right and Wrong (New York, Knopf, 1934).
  • Mendelson, Wallace. Justices Black and Frankfurter: Conflict in the Court (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1961).
  • ———. The Supreme Court: Law and Discretion (Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1967).
  • Meyer, Michael J., and William A. Parent, eds. The Constitution of Rights: Human Dignity and American Values (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1992).
  • Meyers, Marvin, ed. The Mind of the Founders: Sources of Political Thought of James Madison (Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1973).
  • Miller, Charles A. The Supreme Court and the Uses of History (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969).
  • Morgan, J. H. John, Viscount Morley; An Appreciation and Some Reminiscences (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1924).
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Oxford History of the American People (New York, Oxford University Press, 1965).
  • Muller, Herbert. Uses of the Past (New York, Oxford University Press, 1952).
  • Murphy, Paul. The Constitution in Crisis Times, 1918–1969 (New York, Harper & Row, 1972).
  • Nelson, William E. The Fourteenth Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1988).
  • Nevins, Allan. The Emergence of Lincoln (New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1950).
  • Nock, Albert J. Jefferson (New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1926).
  • Oakeshott, Michael. Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays (London, Methuen and Co., 1962).
  • Onuf, Peter, ed. Jeffersonian Legacies (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1993).
  • Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 3d ed. (New York, Oxford University Press, 1979).
  • Padover, Saul K. Jefferson, abridged ed. (New York, Penguin, 1970).
  • Paludan, Phillip S. A Covenant With Death (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1975).
  • Patterson, Caleb P. The Constitutional Principles of Thomas Jefferson (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1953).
  • Pendleton, Edmund. Letters and Papers, D. J. Mays, ed., 2 vols. (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1967).
  • Perry, Michael J. The Constitution, the Courts, and Human Rights (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982).
  • Pocock, J. G. A. The Ancient Constitution and Feudal Law: A Study of English Historical Thought in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987).
  • Poore, Benjamin Perley, ed. Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, 2 vols. (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1877).
  • Posner, Richard. The Federal Courts: Crisis and Reform (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1985).
  • Powell, J. Essay Upon the Law of Contracts and Agreements, 2 vo1s. (London, 1790).
  • Powell, Thomas Reed. Vagaries and Varieties in Constitutional Interpretation (New York, Columbia University Press, 1956).
  • Randall, J. R. The Making of the Modern Mind (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1940).
  • Ray, Gordon N. Thackeray: The Age of Wisdom, 1847–1863 (New York, McGraw Hill, 1958).
  • Roberts, C., ed. Has the Court Too Much Power (1974).
  • Roberts, Owen. The Court and the Constitution (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1951).
  • Rodell, Fred. Nine Men (New York, Random House, 1955).
  • Rossiter, Clinton. Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution (New York, Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964).
  • Rowse, A. L. A Cornishman at Oxford (London, J. Cape, 1965).
  • Rutherforth, Thomas. Institutes of Natural Law, 2 vols. (Cambridge, J. Bentham, 1754–1756).
  • Samuels, Ernest. Henry Adams: The Major Phase (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1964).
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Disuniting of America (New York, Norton, 1992).
  • Schwartz, Bernard, ed. The Fourteenth Amendment: Centennial Volume (New York, New York University Press, 1970).
  • Selden, John. Table Talk: Being the Discourses of John Selden, Esq. (London, 1696).
  • Shapiro, Martin. Law and Politics in the Supreme Court (New York, Free Press of Glencoe, 1964).
  • Skidelsky, Robert. John Maynard Keynes: Hopes Betrayed, 1883–1920 (New York, Viking Press, 1986).
  • Smith, Homer W. Man and His Gods (Boston, Little, Brown, 1953).
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, 2 vols. (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1962).
  • Speaight, Robert. The Life of Hilaire Belloc (London, Hollis & Carter, 1957).
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution (New York, Vintage Books, 1956).
  • Storing, Herbert J., ed. The Complete Antifederalist, 7 vols. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1981).
  • Story, Joseph. Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, 2 vols., 5th ed. (Boston, Little, Brown, 1905).
  • Strickland, S. P., ed. Hugo Black and the Supreme Court: A Symposium. Foreword by C. L. Black (Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1967).
  • Swift, Zephaniah. A System of the Laws of the State of Connecticut, 2 vols. (Windham, Conn., 1795–1796).
  • Swiggett, Howard. The Extraordinary Mr. Morris (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1952).
  • TenBroek, Jacobus. Equal Under Law (London, Collier Books, 1965).
  • Thorne, Samuel, ed. A Discourse Upon the Exposicion & Understandinge of Statutes (San Marino, Calif., Huntington Library, 1942).
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America, 2 vols. (New York, Colonial Press, 1900).
  • Trevelyan, G. M. An Autobiography and Other Essays (Salem, N.H., Ayer Company Publishers, 1949).
  • ———. Illustrated History of England (London, Longmans, Green, 1956).
  • Twiss, Benjamin R. Lawyers and the Constitution (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1942).
  • Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin (New York, Viking Press, 1968).
  • Washington, George. Writings, J. Fitzpatrick, ed., 39 vols. (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1940).
  • White, G. Edward. The American Judicial Tradition (New York, Oxford University Press, 1976).
  • ———. Earl Warren: A Public Life (New York, Oxford University Press, 1982).
  • Wilson, Edmund. Europe Without a Baedeker (New York, Farrar Strauss, 1966).
  • ———. Patriotic Gore (New York, Oxford University Press, 1962).
  • Wilson, James. The Works of James Wilson, R. G. McCloskey, ed., 2 vols. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1967).
  • Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1789 (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1969).
  • ———. The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York, Knopf, 1991).
  • Woodward, C. Vann. The Burden of Southern History (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1960).
  • Wright, Benjamin F. American Interpretations of Natural Law: A Study in the History of Political Thought (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1931).
  • ———. The Growth of American Constitutional Law (New York, Henry Holt, 1942).

iii. Articles

  • Abraham, Henry J. “‘Equal Justice Under Law’ or ‘Justice at Any Cost’”? The Judicial Role Revisited: Reflections on Government by Judiciary,” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 467 (1979).
  • Adler, Mortimer. “Robert Bork: The Lessons to Be Learned,” 84 Northwestern University Law Review 1121 (1990).
  • Alexander, Larry A. “Modern Equal Protection Theories: A Metatheoretical Taxonomy and Critique,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 3 (1981).
  • Alfange, Dean, Jr. “On Judicial Policymaking and Constitutional Change: Another Look at the ‘Original Intent’ Theory of Constitutional Interpretation,” 5 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 603 (1978).
  • Allen, Francis. “The Constitution: The Civil War Amendments: XIII-XV,” in Daniel J. Boorstin ed., American Primer 165 (1968).
  • Amar, Akhil R. “The Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment,” 101 Yale Law Journal 1193 (1992).
  • Annan, Noel. “Introduction,” in Isaiah Berlin, Personal Impressions (1981).
  • Arnold, Thurman. “Professor Hart’s Theology,” 73 Harvard Law Review 1298 (1960).
  • Aron, Raymond. “Pensées,” New York Times, October 23, 1981, at E19.
  • Auden, W. H. “Introduction,” in Sydney Smith, Selected Writings of Sydney Smith (W. H. Auden ed. 1956).
  • Auerbach, Carl. “The Reapportionment Cases: One Person, One Vote—One Vote, One Value,” 1964 Supreme Court Review 1.
  • Baade, Hans W. “‘Original Intention’: Raoul Berger’s Fake Antique,” 70 North Carolina Law Review 1523 (1992).
  • Balkin, J. M. “Constitutional Interpretation and the Problem of History,” 63 New York University Law Review 911 (1988).
  • Bell, Derrick. “Book Review,” 76 Columbia Law Review 350 (1976).
  • ———. “The Burden of Brown on Blacks: History Based on Observations of a Landmark Decision,” 7 North Carolina Central Law Journal 25 (1975).
  • Beloff, Max. “Arbiters of America’s Destiny,” The Times Higher Education Supplement (London), April 7, 1978, at 11.
  • Berger, Raoul. “Bruce Ackerman on Interpretation: A Critique,” 1992 Brigham Young University Law Review 1035.
  • ———. “Constitutional Interpretation and Activist Fantasies,” 82 Kentucky Law Journal 1 (1993).
  • ———. “Constructive Contempt: A Post-Mortem,” 9 University of Chicago Law Review 602 (1942).
  • ———. “Cottrol’s Failed Rescue Mission,” 37 Boston College Law Review 787 (1988).
  • ———. “The Founders’ Views—According to Jefferson Powell,” 67 Texas Law Review 1033 (1989).
  • ———. “The Fourteenth Amendment: Light from the Fifteenth,” 74 Northwestern University Law Review 311 (1979).
  • ———. “‘Government by Judiciary’: Judge Gibbons’ Argument Ad Hominem,” 59 Boston University Law Review 783 (1979).
  • ———. “History, Judicial Revisionism, and J. M. Balkin,” 1989 Brigham Young University Law Review 759.
  • ———. “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: A Nine-Lived Cat,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 435 (1981).
  • ———. “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: A Reply to Michael Curtis’ Response,” 44 Ohio State Law Journal 1 (1983).
  • ———. “Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: A Response to Michael Zuckert,” 26 Georgia Law Review 1 (1991).
  • ———. “Judicial Review: Counter Criticism in Tranquillity,” 69 Northwestern University Law Review 390 (1974).
  • ———. “Justice Brennan’s ‘Human Dignity’ and Constitutional Interpretation,” in Michael J. Meyer and William A. Parent, eds., The Constitution of Rights: Human Dignity and American Values (1992).
  • ———. “Justice Brennan vs. the Constitution,” 29 Boston College Law Review 787 (1988).
  • ———. “Natural Law and Judicial Review: Reflections of an Earthbound Lawyer,” 61 University of Cincinnati Law Review 5 (1992).
  • ———. “Original Intent: The Rage of Hans Baade,” 71 North Carolina Law Review 1523 (1993).
  • ———. “‘Original Intent’: A Response to Hans Baade,” 70 Texas Law Review 1535 (1992).
  • ———. “Original Intention in Historical Perspective,” 54 George Washington Law Review 296 (1986).
  • ———. “Paul Brest’s Brief for an Imperial Judiciary,” 40 Maryland Law Review 1 (1981).
  • ———. “Soifer to the Rescue of History,” 32 South Carolina Law Review 427 (1981).
  • ———. “Some Reflections on Interpretivism,” 55 George Washington Law Review 1 (1986).
  • ———. “War-Making by the President,” 121 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 29 (1972).
  • Bickel, Alexander M. “Is the Warren Court Too ‘Political’?”The New York Times Magazine, September 25, 1966, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 216 (1972).
  • ———. “The Original Understanding and the Segregation Decision,” 69 Harvard Law Review 1 (1955).
  • Bickel, Alexander M., and Harry Wellington. “Legislative Purpose and the Judicial Process: The Lincoln Mills Case,” 71 Harvard Law Review 1 (1957).
  • Bishop, Joseph W., Jr. “The Warren Court Is Not Likely to Be Overruled,”The New York Times Magazine, September 7, 1969, in L. Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 93 (1972).
  • ———. “What Is a Liberal—Who Is a Conservative?” 62 Commentary 47 (September 1976).
  • Black, Charles L., Jr. Address, “The Judicial Power as Guardian of Liberties, Before a Symposium on ‘The Supreme Court and Constitutional Liberties in Modern America,’” Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich., October 16, 1976.
  • Bork, Robert H. “Address,” in The Great Debate: Interpreting Our Written Constitution (1986).
  • ———. “Foreword,” in Gary L. McDowell, The Constitution and Contemporary Constitutional Theory (Cumberland, Va., Center for Judicial Studies, 1985).
  • ———. “Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems,” 47 Indiana Law Journal 1 (1971).
  • ———. “Styles in Constitutional Theory,” 26 South Texas Law Journal 383 (1985).
  • Braden, George D. “The Search for Objectivity in Constitutional Law,” 57 Yale Law Journal 571 (1948).
  • Brest, Paul. “Book Review,” New York Times, December 11, 1977, sec. 11 at 10.
  • ———. “The Fundamental Rights Controversy: The Essential Contradictions of Normative Constitutional Scholarship,” 90 Yale Law Journal 1063 (1981).
  • ———. “The Misconceived Quest for the Original Understanding,” 60 Boston University Law Review 204 (1980).
  • ———. “Who Decides?” 58 Southern California Law Review 661 (1985).
  • Bridwell, Randall. “Book Review,” 1978 Duke Law Journal 907.
  • ———. “The Scope of Judicial Review: A Dirge for the Theorists of Majority Rule?” 31 South Carolina Law Review 617 (1980).
  • Bronner, Ethan. “S-t-r-e-t-c-h-i-n-g the Constitution,” Boston Sunday Globe, May 8, 1988, at A27.
  • Burleigh, John. “The Supreme Court vs. The Constitution,” 50 Public Interest 151 (1978).
  • Burns, James McGregor. “Dictatorship—Could It Happen Here?” in C. Roberts, ed., Has the Court Too Much Power 234 (1974).
  • Cahn, Edmond. “Brief for the Supreme Court,”The New York Times Magazine, October 7, 1956, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 28 (1972).
  • ———. “Jurisprudence,” 30 New York University Law Review 150 (1955).
  • Calabresi, Guido. “What Clarence Thomas Knows,” New York Times, July 28, 1991, sec. 4, at 15.
  • Casper, Gerhard. “Constitutionalism,” in 2 Leonard W. Levy et al., eds., Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (1986).
  • Chayes, Abram. “The New Judiciary,” 28 Harvard Law School Bulletin 23 (1976).
  • Church, W. Lawrence. “History and the Constitutional Role of Courts,” 1990 Wisconsin Law Review 1071.
  • Claggett, Bruce M. “Book Review,” 27 Harvard Law School Bulletin 3 (1976).
  • Coles, William. “A Passionate Commitment to Experience,” New York Times, May 29, 1983 (Book Review Section).
  • Commager, Henry Steele. “Constitutional History and the Higher Law,” in Conyers Read, ed., The Constitution Reconsidered 225 (1938).
  • ———. “Judicial Review and Democracy,” 19 Virginia Quarterly Review 417 (1943).
  • Cooper, Tim. “Freund: 40 Years of Supreme Court History Recalled,” 64 Harvard Law School Record 1 (1977).
  • Corwin, Edward S. “The Decline of Due Process Before the Civil War,” 24 Harvard Law Review 460 (1911).
  • ———. “The ‘Higher Law’ Background of American Constitutional Law,” 42 Harvard Law Review 149 (1928).
  • Cover, Robert. “Book Review,”New Republic, January 14, 1978, at 26.
  • Cox, Archibald. “The New Dimensions of Constitutional Adjudication,” 51 Washington Law Review 791 (1976).
  • Curtis, Charles P. “A Better Theory of Legal Interpretation,” 3 Vanderbilt Law Review 407 (1950).
  • ———. “Judicial Review and Majority Rule,” in Edmond N. Cahn, ed., Supreme Court and Supreme Law 170 (1954).
  • ———. “The Role of the Constitutional Text,” id. 64.
  • Curtis, Michael K. “The Bill of Rights as a Limitation on State Authority: A Reply to Professor Berger,” 16 Wake Forest Law Review 45 (1980).
  • Dahl, Robert. “Decision-Making in a Democracy: The Supreme Court as a National Policy-Maker,” 6 Journal of Public Law 279 (1957).
  • Dershowitz, Alan M. “Book Review,”New York Times Book Review, September 21, 1975, at 1.
  • ———. “Inside the Sanctum Sanctorum,” New York Times, November 2, 1980.
  • Dimond, Paul. “Strict Construction and Judicial Review of Racial Discrimination Under the Equal Protection Clause: Meeting Raoul Berger on Interpretivist Grounds,” 80 Michigan Law Review 462 (1982).
  • Dixon, Robert. “Reapportionment in the Supreme Court and Congress: Constitutional Struggle for Fair Representation,” 63 Michigan Law Review 209 (1964).
  • Douglas, William O. “Stare Decisis,” 49 Columbia Law Review 735 (1949).
  • Downing, Rondel G. “Judicial Ethics and the Political Role of the Courts,” 35 Law and Contemporary Problems 94 (1970).
  • Dworkin, Ronald. “The Forum of Principle,” 56 New York University Law Review 469 (1981).
  • Easterbrook, Frank H. “The Influence of Judicial Review on Constitutional Theory,” in Burke Marshall, ed., A Workable Government? The Constitution After 200 Years (1987).
  • Ely, John Hart. “Constitutional Interpretivism: Its Allure and Impossibility,” 53 Indiana Law Journal 399 (1978).
  • ———. “Foreword: On Discovering Fundamental Values,” 92 Harvard Law Review 5 (1978).
  • ———. “The Wages of Crying Wolf: A Comment on Roe v. Wade,” 82 Yale Law Journal 920 (1973).
  • Erler, Edward J. “The Ninth Amendment and Contemporary Jurisprudence,” in Eugene W. Hickok, ed., The Bill of Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding 432 (1991).
  • Fairman, Charles. “Does the Fourteenth Amendment Incorporate the Bill of Rights?” 2 Stanford Law Review 5 (1949).
  • Farber, Daniel. “Book Review,” 6 Constitutional Commentary 564 (1989).
  • Finn, Chester E. “Book Review,”Commentary 78, April 1, 1976.
  • Fiss, Owen M. “The Supreme Court, 1978 Term—Foreword: The Forms of Justice,” 93 Harvard Law Review 1 (1979).
  • Foner, Eric. “The Supreme Court’s Legal History,” 23 Rutgers Law Journal 243 (1992).
  • Frank, John. “Review and Basic Liberties,” in Edmond Cahn, ed., Supreme Court and Supreme Law 109 (1954).
  • Frankfurter, Felix. “John Marshall and the Judicial Function,” 69 Harvard Law Review 217 (1955).
  • ———. “Memorandum on ‘Incorporation’ of the Bill of Rights Into the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment,” 78 Harvard Law Review 764 (1965).
  • ———. “The Supreme Court and the Public,” 83 Forum 329 (1930).
  • Frantz, Laurent B. “Congressional Power to Enforce the Fourteenth Amendment Against Private Acts,” 73 Yale Law Journal 1353 (1964).
  • ———. “Is the First Amendment Law?—A Reply to Professor Mendelson,” 51 California Law Review 729 (1963).
  • Fried, Charles. “Jurisprudential Responses to Legal Realism,” 73 Cornell Law Review 331 (1988).
  • Friendly, Henry J. “The Bill of Rights as a Code of Criminal Procedure,” 53 California Law Review 929 (1965).
  • Gangi, William. “Judicial Expansionism: An Evaluation of the Ongoing Debate,” 8 Ohio Northern University Law Review 1 (1981).
  • Garrison, William Lloyd. “The Liberator,” in Henry Steele Commager, ed., Documents of American History, 7th ed. (1963).
  • Gibbons, John. “Book Review,” 31 Rutgers Law Review 839 (1978).
  • Graglia, Lino A. “‘Interpreting’ the Constitution: Posner on Bork,” 44 Stanford Law Review 1019 (1992).
  • Grant, J. A. C. “The Natural Law Background of Due Process,” 31 Columbia Law Review 56 (1931).
  • Grey, Thomas C. “Do We Have an Unwritten Constitution?” 27 Stanford Law Review 703 (1975).
  • ———. “Origins of the Unwritten Constitution: Fundamental Law in American Revolutionary Thought,” 30 Stanford Law Review 843 (1978).
  • Griswold, Erwin N. “Due Process Problems Today in the United States,” in Bernard Schwartz, ed., The Fourteenth Amendment (1970).
  • Gunther, Gerald. “Some Reflections on the Judicial Role: Distinctions, Roots, and Prospects,” 1979 Washington University Law Quarterly 817.
  • ———. “Too Much a Battle with Strawmen,” Wall Street Journal, November 25, 1977, at 4.
  • Haines, Charles G. “The Law of Nature in State and Federal Judicial Decision,” 25 Yale Law Journal 617 (1916).
  • Hamilton, Walton H. “The Path of Due Process of Law,” in Conyers Read, ed., The Constitution Reconsidered 167 (1938).
  • Hand, Learned. “Chief Justice Stone’s Conception of the Judicial Function,” 46 Columbia Law Review 696 (1946).
  • Hawkins, Vaughan. “On the Principles of Legal Interpretation, With Reference Especially to the Interpretation of Wills,” 2 Juridical Society Papers 298 (1860).
  • Henkin, Louis. “Human Dignity and Constitutional Rights,” in Michael J. Meyer and William A. Parent, eds., The Constitution of Rights 210 (1992).
  • ———. “‘Selective Incorporation’ in the Fourteenth Amendment,” 73 Yale Law Journal 74 (1963).
  • ———. “Some Reflections on Current Constitutional Controversies,” 109 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 637 (1961).
  • Hooker, Roger W. “A ‘Quiet, Undramatic’ Leader,” New York Times, August 19, 1976.
  • Horn, Robert H. “Book Review,” 88 Harvard Law Review 1924 (1975).
  • Horwitz, Morton J. “The Conservative Tradition in the Writing of American Legal History,” 17 American Journal of Legal History 275 (1973).
  • ———. “The Emergence of an Instrumental Conception of American Law, 1780–1820,” in 5 Perspectives in American Legal History 287 (1971).
  • Hurst, James Willard. “The Process of Constitutional Construction,” in Edmond N. Cahn, ed., Supreme Court and Supreme Law 55 (1954).
  • ———. “The Role of History,” in Edmond N. Cahn, ed., Supreme Court and Supreme Law 60 (1954).
  • Hutcheson, Joseph C. “The Judgment Intuitive: The Function of the ‘Hunch’ in Judicial Decision,” 14 Cornell Law Quarterly 274 (1929).
  • Hutchinson, Allan C. “Alien Thoughts: A Comment on Constitutional Scholarship,” 58 Southern California Law Review 701 (1985).
  • Hutson, James. “The Creation of the Constitution: The Integrity of the Documentary Record,” 65 Texas Law Review 1 (1986).
  • Hyman, Harold. “Federalism: Legal Fiction or Historical Artifact?” 1987 Brigham Young University Law Review 905.
  • Jaffe, Louis. “The Supreme Court Debated—Another View,”The New York Times Magazine, June 5, 1960, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 199 (1972).
  • ———. “Was Brandeis an Activist? The Search for Intermediate Premises,” 80 Harvard Law Review 986 (1967).
  • Jurow, Keith. “Untimely Thoughts: A Reconsideration of the Origins of Due Process,” 19 American Journal of Legal History 265 (1975).
  • Kauper, Paul. “Penumbras, Peripheries, Emanations, Things Fundamental, and Things Forgotten: The Griswold Case,” 64 Michigan Law Review 235 (1965).
  • ———. “Some Comments on the Reapportionment Cases,” 63 Michigan Law Review 243 (1964).
  • Kay, Richard S. “Book Review,” 10 Connecticut Law Review 800 (1978).
  • Kelly, Alfred H. “Clio and the Court: An Illicit Love Affair,” 1965 Supreme Court Review 119.
  • ———. “Comment on Harold M. Hyman’s Paper,” in Harold M. Hyman, ed., New Frontiers of the American Reconstruction 41 (1966).
  • ———. “The Fourteenth Amendment Reconsidered: The Segregation Question,” 54 Michigan Law Review 1049 (1956).
  • Kommers, Donald. Book Review, “Role of the Supreme Court,” 40 Review of Politics 409 (1978).
  • Korman, Edward R. “Book Review,” 4 Hofstra Law Review 549 (1976).
  • Kurland, Philip. “Curia Regis: Some Comments on the Divine Right of Kings and Courts ‘To Say What the Law Is,’” 23 Arizona Law Review 581 (1981).
  • Kutler, Stanley I. “Raoul Berger’s Fourteenth Amendment: A History or Ahistorical,” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 511 (1979).
  • Levinson, Sanford. “‘The Constitution’ in American Civil Religion,” 1979 Supreme Court Review 123.
  • ———. “Fidelity to Law and the Assessment of Political Activity,” 27 Stanford Law Review 1185 (1975).
  • ———. “The Turn Toward Functionalism in Constitutional Theory,” 8 University of Dayton Law Review 567 (1983).
  • Levitan, David. “The Foreign Relations Power: An Analysis of Mr. Justice Sutherland’s Theory,” 55 Yale Law Journal 467 (1946).
  • Lewin, Nathan. “Avoiding the Supreme Court,”The New York Times Magazine, October 17, 1976, at 31.
  • Lewis, Anthony. “Historical Change in the Supreme Court,”The New York Times Magazine, June 2, 1962, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 77 (1972).
  • ———. “A Man Born to Act, Not to Muse,”The New York Times Magazine, June 30, 1968, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 151 (1972).
  • ———. “A Time to Celebrate,” New York Times, May 13, 1974, at 29.
  • ———. “What Qualities for the Court?”The New York Times Magazine, October 6, 1957, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 114 (1972).
  • ———. “Winners and Losers,” New York Times, October 18, 1989, at A17.
  • Linde, Hans. “Judges, Critics, and the Realist Tradition,” 82 Yale Law Journal 227 (1972).
  • Lofgren, Charles A. “United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation: An Historical Reassessment,” 83 Yale Law Review 51 (1973).
  • Lusky, Louis. “Government by Judiciary: What Price Legitimacy?” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 403 (1979).
  • Lynch, Gerald. “Book Review,” 63 Cornell Law Review 1091 (1978).
  • McArthur, John B. “Abandoning the Constitution: The New Wave in Constitutional Theory,” 59 Tulane Law Review 280 (1984).
  • McCloskey, Robert G. “Due Process and the Supreme Court: An Exhumation and Reburial,” 1962 Supreme Court Review 33.
  • McConnell, Michael W. “Review of Federalism: The Founders’ Design, by Raoul Berger,” 54 University of Chicago Law Review 1484 (1987).
  • McDonald, Forrest. “How the Fourteenth Amendment Repealed the Constitution,”Chronicles 29 (October 1989).
  • McDougal, Myres, and Asher Lans. “Treaties and Congressional-Executive or Presidential Agreements: Interchangeable Instruments of National Policy,” 54 Yale Law Journal 184 (1945).
  • McGovney, D. O. “Privileges and Immunities Clause, Fourteenth Amendment,” 4 Iowa Law Bulletin 219 (1918).
  • Macedo, Stephen. “Originalism and the Inescapability of Politics,” 84 Northwestern University Law Review 1203 (1990).
  • ———. “Reason, Rhetoric, and the Ninth Amendment: A Comment on Sanford Levinson,” 64 Chicago-Kent Law Review 163 (1988).
  • Maitland, Frederic W. “The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I,” in Peter Gay et al., eds., 3 Historians at Work 320 (1975).
  • Maltz, Earl M. “Federalism and the Fourteenth Amendment: A Comment on Democracy and Distrust,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 209 (1981).
  • ———. “Murder in the Cathedral: The Supreme Court as Moral Prophet,” 8 University of Dayton Law Review 623 (1983).
  • Martin, Douglas. “Yale Chief Opens Constitution Talks by Faulting Meese,” New York Times, February 22, 1987, sec. 1 at 46.
  • Mason, Alpheus T. “The Burger Court in Historical Perspective,” 47 New York State Bar Journal 87 (1975).
  • ———. “Myth and Reality in Supreme Court Drama,” 48 Virginia Law Review 1385 (1962).
  • Mendelson, Wallace. “Mr. Justice Black’s Fourteenth Amendment,” 53 Minnesota Law Review 711 (1969).
  • ———. “Mr. Justice Frankfurter: Law and Choice,” 10 Vanderbilt Law Review 333 (1957).
  • ———. “Raoul Berger’s Fourteenth Amendment: Abuse by Contraction vs. Abuse by Expansion,” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 437 (1979).
  • Miller, Arthur S. “The Elusive Search for Values in Constitutional Interpretation,” 6 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 487 (1979).
  • ———. “An Inquiry Into the Relevance of the Intention of the Founding Fathers, With Special Emphasis Upon the Doctrine of Separation of Powers,” 27 Arkansas Law Review 584 (1973).
  • Miller, Arthur S., and Ronald F. Howell. “The Myth of Neutrality in Constitutional Adjudication,” 27 University of Chicago Law Review 661 (1960).
  • Mommsen, Theodor. “History of Rome,” in Peter Gay et al., eds., 3 Historians at Work 288 (1975).
  • Monaghan, Henry P. “The Constitution Goes to Harvard,” 13 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 117 (1978).
  • ———. “Our Perfect Constitution,” 56 New York University Law Review 353 (1981).
  • Morrison, Stanley. “Does the Fourteenth Amendment Incorporate the Bill of Rights?” 2 Stanford Law Review 140 (1949).
  • Murphy, Walter. “Book Review,” 87 Yale Law Journal 1752 (1978).
  • Nathanson, Nathaniel. “Book Review,” 56 Texas Law Review 579 (1978).
  • Neal, Phil C. “Baker v. Carr: Politics in Search of Law,” 1962 Supreme Court Review 252.
  • Nelson, William E. “History and Neutrality in Constitutional Adjudication,” 72 Virginia Law Review 1237 (1986).
  • Newmeyer, Kent. “Book Review,” 19 American Journal of Legal History 66 (1975).
  • Nye, R. B. “Comment on C. V. Woodward’s Paper,” in Harold M. Hyman, ed., New Frontiers of the American Reconstruction 148 (1966).
  • “Opinions Considered: A Talk With Tom Wicker,” New York Times, January 5, 1992, sec. 4 at 4.
  • Packer, Herbert. “The Aim of Criminal Law Revisited: A Plea for a New Look at ‘Substantive Due Process,’” 44 Southern California Law Review 490 (1971).
  • Perry, Michael J. “The Authority of Text, Tradition, and Reason: A Theory of Constitutional Interpretation,” 58 Southern California Law Review 551 (1985).
  • ———. “Interpretivism, Freedom of Expression, and Equal Protection,” 42 Ohio State Law Journal 261 (1981).
  • ———. “Review of Government by Judiciary: The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment, by Raoul Berger,” 78 Columbia Law Review 685 (1978).
  • Pollak, Louis. “The Supreme Court Under Fire,” 6 Journal of Public Law 428 (1957).
  • Pollock, Frederick. “Judicial Caution and Valour,” in Jurisprudence in Action (The New York Bar Association, 1953).
  • Posner, Richard. “Address,” 35 Harvard Law Bulletin 34 (1987).
  • ———. “Bork and Beethoven,” 42 Stanford Law Review 1365 (1990).
  • Pound, Roscoe. “Common Law and Legislation,” 21 Harvard Law Review 383 (1908).
  • Powell, H. Jefferson. “How Does the Constitution Structure Government? The Founders’ Views,” in Burke Marshall, ed., A Workable Government? The Constitution After 200 Years (1987).
  • ———. “The Modern Misunderstanding of Original Intent,” 54 University of Chicago Law Review 1513 (1987).
  • ———. “The Original Understanding of Original Intent,” 98 Harvard Law Review 885 (1985).
  • Rapaczynski, Andrzej. “The Ninth Amendment and the Unwritten Constitution: The Problems of Constitutional Interpretation,” 64 Chicago-Kent Law Review 177 (1988).
  • Richards, David A. J. “Abolitionist Political and Constitutional Theory and the Reconstruction Amendments,” 25 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 1187 (1992).
  • Richardson, H. G., and G. O. Sayles. “Parliament and Great Councils in Medieval England,” 77 Law Quarterly Review 213 (1961).
  • Rodell, Fred. “The Crux of the Court Hullabaloo,”The New York Times Magazine, May 29, 1960, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 192 (1972).
  • ———. “It Is the Warren Court,”The New York Times Magazine, March 13, 1966, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 136 (1972).
  • ———. “The ‘Warren Court’ Stands Its Ground,”The New York Times Magazine, September 27, 1964, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 209 (1972).
  • Rostow, Eugene V. “The Democratic Character of Judicial Review,” 66 Harvard Law Review 193 (1952).
  • ———. “The Japanese-American Cases—A Disaster,” 54 Yale Law Journal 489 (1945).
  • Sandalow, Terrance. “Constitutional Interpretation,” 79 Michigan Law Review 1033 (1981).
  • ———. “The Distrust of Politics,” 56 New York University Law Review 446 (1981).
  • ———. “Judicial Protection of Minorities,” 75 Michigan Law Review 1162 (1977).
  • Saphire, Richard B. “Judicial Review in the Name of the Constitution,” 8 University of Dayton Law Review 45 (1983).
  • Scalia, Antonin, “Originalism: The Lesser Evil,” 57 University of Cincinnati Law Review 849 (1989).
  • Schauer, Frederick. “Easy Cases,” 58 Southern California Law Review 399 (1985).
  • Shattuck, Charles E. “The True Meaning of the Term ‘Liberty’ in Those Clauses in the Federal and State Constitutions Which Protect ‘Life, Liberty and Property,’” 4 Harvard Law Review 365 (1891).
  • Sherry, Suzanna. “The Ninth Amendment: Righting an Unwritten Constitution,” 64 Chicago-Kent Law Review 1010 (1989), reprinted in 2 Randy E. Barnett, ed., The Rights Retained by the People 283 (1993).
  • Simon, Larry. “The Authority of the Constitution and Its Meaning: A Preface to a Theory of Constitutional Interpretation,” 56 Southern California Law Review 603 (1985).
  • Sloan, Herbert. “The Earth Belongs in Usufruct to the Living,” in Peter Onuf, ed., Jeffersonian Legacies 281 (1993).
  • Soifer, Aviam. “Protecting Civil Rights: A Critique of Raoul Berger’s History,” 54 New York University Law Review 651 (1979).
  • Sowell, Thomas. “A Black ‘Conservative’ Dissents,”The New York Times Magazine, August 8, 1976, at 14.
  • Steel, Lewis M. “Nine Men in Black Who Think White,”The New York Times Magazine, October 13, 1968, in Leonard Levy, ed., The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren 82 (1972).
  • Stephenson, D. G. “Book Review,” 61 Virginia Law Review 1338 (1975).
  • Sutherland, Arthur E. “Privacy in Connecticut,” 64 Michigan Law Review 283 (1965).
  • TenBroek, Jacobus. “Use by the United States Supreme Court of Extrinsic Aids in Constitutional Construction,” 27 California Law Review 399 (1939).
  • Thayer, James Bradley. “The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law,” 7 Harvard Law Review 129 (1893).
  • Tushnet, Mark. “Civil Rights and Social Rights: The Future of the Reconstruction Amendments,” 25 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 1207 (1992).
  • ———. “Following the Rules Laid Down: A Critique of Interpretivism and Neutral Principles,” 96 Harvard Law Review 781 (1983).
  • ———. “Legal Realism, Structural Review, and Prophecy,” 8 University of Dayton Law Review 809 (1983).
  • ———. “A Note on the Revival of Textualism in Constitutional Theory,” 58 Southern California Law Review 683 (1985).
  • ———. “Truth, Justice, and the American Way: An Interpretation of the Public Law Scholarship in the Seventies,” 57 Texas Law Review 1307 (1979).
  • Van Alstyne, William W. “The Fourteenth Amendment, The ‘Right’ to Vote, and the Understanding of the Thirty-Ninth Congress,” 1965 Supreme Court Review 33.
  • Warren, Charles. “The New ‘Liberty’ Under the Fourteenth Amendment,” 39 Harvard Law Review 431 (1926).
  • White, G. Edward. “Judicial Activism and the Identity of the Legal Profession,” 67 Judicature 246 (1983).
  • ———. “Reflections on the Role of the Supreme Court: The Contemporary Debate and the ‘Lessons’ of History,” 63 Judicature 162 (1979).
  • Wiecek, William M. “The Constitutional Snipe Hunt,” 23 Rutgers Law Journal 253 (1992).
  • Wilkins, Roger. “Racial Outlook: Lack of Change Disturbs Blacks,” New York Times, March 3, 1978, sec. A at 26.
  • Wills, Garry. “Introduction,” in Garry Wills, ed., The Federalist Papers of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (1982).
  • Wofford, John. “The Blinding Light: The Uses of History in Constitutional Interpretation,” 31 University of Chicago Law Review 502 (1964).
  • Woodward, C. Vann. “Seeds of Failure in Radical Race Policy,” in Harold M. Hyman, ed., New Frontiers of the American Reconstruction 12 (1966).
  • Wright, J. Skelly. “Professor Bickel, the Scholarly Tradition, and the Supreme Court,” 84 Harvard Law Review 769 (1971).
  • Zuckert, Michael. “Book Review,” 8 Constitutional Commentary 149 (1991).

Last modified April 13, 2016