Front Page Titles (by Subject) TROILUS AND CRISEYDE. - The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, vol. 2 (Boethius, Troilus)
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TROILUS AND CRISEYDE. - Geoffrey Chaucer, The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, vol. 2 (Boethius, Troilus) 
The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, edited from numerous manuscripts by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat (2nd ed.) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899). 7 vols.
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TROILUS AND CRISEYDE.
The MSS. are:—Cl. (= Campsall MS.), and Cp. (= Corp. Chr. Camb. 61), taken as the basis of the text; H. (= Harl. 2280); H2. (= Harl. 3943); Cm. (= Cambridge MS. Gg. 4. 27); Ed. (= printed edition, 1532).
1-70. Lost in Cm. and H2. (where it is supplied in late hand).
Explicit Liber Primus.
Rubric.So Cp. H. 1-84. Lost in Cm.
Incipit prohemium Secundi Libri.
Explicit prohemium Secundi Libri.
Incipit Liber Secundus.
Explicit Secundus Liber.
1-56. Lost in Cm.
Incipit Prohemium Tercii Libri.
Explicit prohemium Tercii Libri.
Incipit Liber Tercius.
Explicit Liber Tercius.
Title.Not in the MSS.
C.has lost ll. 1-112.
Explicit Liber Quartus.
1-35. Cm. omits.
Explicit Liber Troili et Criseydis.
NOTES TO BOETHIUS.
[P. 159, Book I, 204.]For cast read caste.
[P. 160, Book I, 217.]The alternative reading is better; see note, p. 463.
[P. 160, Book I, 239.]For yet read yit (for the rhyme).
[P. 162, Book I, 284.]For neuer read never.
[P. 163, Book, I, 309.]For Troylus read Troilus.
[P. 163, Book I, 310.]For thyng read thing.
[P. 165, Book I, 401.]Alter! to?
[P. 166, Book I, 406.]For thurst read thurste.
[P. 166, Book I, 420.]For deye read dye (for the rhyme).
[P. 171, Book I, 570.]For euery read every.
[P. 172, Book I, 621.]For Troylus read Troilus (as elsewhere).
[P. 173, Book I, 626.]Delete the comma after ‘fare.’
[P. 174, Book I, 656.]For y read I.
[P. 174, Book I, 657.]Insert ‘ at the beginning.
[P. 192, Book II, 113.]Delete ’ at the end.
[P. 194, Book II, 170.]Insert ‘ at the beginning.
[P. 205, Book II, 529.]For penaunc read penaunce.
[P. 260, Book III, 522.]Delete the comma after laft.
[P. 260, Book III, 535.]For made read mad or maad.
[P. 261, Book III, 558.]For lengere read lenger.
[P. 312, Book IV, 318.]For to the peyne read to my peyne.
[5. ]Cl. Cp. froye; H. fro ye.
[6. ]Cl. helpe; Cp. H. help.
[7. ]Cp. thise; Cl. H. this.
[15. ]Cl. seruauntz.
[18. ]Cl. om. I; H. I am; Cp. Ed. am I.
[20. ]Cl. H. Vn-to; Cp. Ed. To.
[21. ]Cl. be his; Cp. be this; H. by this.
[23. ]Cl. ony; Cp. Hl. any (often).
[24. ]Cp. Hl. Remembreth; Cl. Remembre.
[26. ]Cl. other fok; Cp. othere folk.
[27. ]Cl. dorst; Cp. H. dorste.
[31. ]Cp. H. Ed. hem; Cl. him.
[36, 42. ]Cl. Cp. desespeyred; H. despeyred; Ed. dispeyred.
[41. ]Cp. To; Cl. H. So.
[44. ]Cl. H. goode; Cp. Ed. good.
[45. ]Cp. ladies so; Cl. loues for; H. loueres for.
[48. ]Cl. seruauntz.
[58. ]Cl. went; Cp. H. wente.
[62. ]Cl. raueshyng; Cp. rauysshynge.
[69. ]Cl. high (!); Cp. highte; H. hyghte.
[70. ]Cl. Delphebus; Cp. H. Ed. Delphicus.
[71. ]Cl. whanne; Cp. whan.
[76. ]Cl. wyst; H. west; Cm. woste; Cp. wiste.
[79. ]Cl. forknowyng; Cp. H. Cm. for-knowynge.
[80. ]Cl. pryely (!); Cp. H. prynely; Cm. preuili.
[82. ]Cl. H. bothen; Cp. Cm. bothe.
[87. ]Cl. Cp. H. ins. fals bef. fled; H2. Ed. om.
[90. ]Cl. onys.
[96. ]Cl. H. nyst; Cm. nyste.
[98. ]Cl. dorst make; Cp. dorste; H. dorst; Cm. durste.
[99. ]Cp. a-; rest al.
[101. ]Cl. H. faire; Cp. Cm. fair.
[102. ]Cl. angelyk; Cp. aungelik.
[112. ]Cl. Cm. selue; Cp. H. seluen.
[126. ]Cl. om. 2nd and. H. hoom; Cm. hom; Cl. home.
[128. ]to] Cp. H. til.
[129. ]Cl. dwelled; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. was dwellynge.
[130. ]Cl. Kept; Cp. Kepte. Cl. yong; H. Cp. yonge.
[132. ]Cl. hadde children; rest children hadde.
[133. ]Cm. lete; Cl. late; H. latt.
[137. ]Cp. H. Cm. eft; Ed. efte; Cl. ofte.
[139. ]H. Ed. vnder; H2. vndur; Cl. wonder (wrongly). H. H2. eft; Ed. efte; Cl. ofte. H. whielen (better wheelen); Cp. whilen; H2. whilyn; Ed. whelmen; Cl. weylen; Cm. weyle.
[143. ]Cm. here; rest om.
[144. ]Cm. dwelle; rest to dwelle (badly). Cl. Troiane; H2. troianys; rest troyan.
[146. ]H2. homere; rest Omer. Cl. of (for 1st or).
[155. ]Cl. come; rest comen (comyn).
[158. ]Cl. swoot; Cp. H. swote; Cm. swete.
[161. ]Cl. H. H2. Palladions; Cm. Palasdionis (for Palladionis).
[162. ]Cl. H. wrongly ins. goodly before beste. Cp. Cm. beste; rest best.
[163. ]H. Cm. wente; rest went.
[164. ]Cl. Cm. herkenen; Cp. herknen.
[167. ]Cl. bothe meene meste; H. Cp. bothe most meyne; Cm. bothe meste; Ed. bothe most.
[168. ]Cl. and for the; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. om. for.
[171. ]H. furste; Cl. Cm. first.
[172. ]Cl. stode; Cp. stood.
[174. ]Cl. yet thing seyn; H. þat seyn thing; Cm. yit seyen þyng; H2. seyn thing (best). Cl. presed; H. Cp. preysed.
[175. ]H. Cm. Cp. cloude; Cl. cloud.
[176, 178. ]Cl. euerichone, allone.
[192. ]Cp. baiten; Cl. beyten.
[196. ]H. Cm. Cp. ful; Cl. om.
[198. ]Cm. lewede; H2. lewde; Ed. leude; Cl. H. om.
[199. ]H. Cm. Cp. Ed. which a labour; Cl. swych labour as.
[202. ]Cl. loues; rest fooles(folis).
[206. ]Cl. to loken; rest om. to.
[208. ]Cp. He kidde; Cl. And kyd.
[209. ]Cp. Ful; rest For.
[211. ]Cl. blynd; Cp. blynde (twice).
[213. ]Cl. Suriquidrie.
[216. ]Cm. mot; Ed. mote; Cp. moot; Cl. moste; H. schall.
[217. ]So Cl.; rest But alday fayleth thing that fooles wenden.
[220. ]Cl. long; H. Cp. longe.
[224. ]Cl. felawes; rest feres.
[225. ]Cl. proud; H. Cm. Cp. proude.
[227. ]Cp. swiche; Cl. swich.
[228. ]Cl. dere; rest stere.
[229. ]Cl. hert (see l. 228). Cl. H. wax; Cp. Cm. wex.
[231. ]Cl. H. Wax; Cm. Wex.
[234. ]scornen] Cp. seruen.
[240. ]Cl. H. Cp. Cm. or; H2. Ed. and.
[244. ]Cl. of; rest in.
[246. ]Cp. Cm. wel; Cl. H. wele.
[248. ]Cl. addermost (!).
[252. ]Cp. H. H2. causeth; Cl. causen.
[261. ]Cl. H. Cm. om. As (H2. Ed. have it).
[262. ]Cl. letten; Cp. H. Cm. leten; H2. Ed. leuen.
[264. ]Cl. Cm. Ioyes; rest Ioye.
[266. ]H. refeere.
[267. ]Cl. went; Cp. H. Cm. wente. Cl. pleynge.
[268. ]H. Cm. Cp. Ed. of; Cl. and.
[272. ]H. percede; Ed. perced; Cl. Cp. procede (!).
[274. ]Cl. wax; H. Cm. wex.
[275. ]Cl. om. gan.
[278. ]Cp. herte; Cl. hert.
[280. ]Cl. pleynge.
[286. ]Cm. Schewede; Cl. H. Shewed.
[294. ]H. Cp. Cm. thoughte; Cl. thought.
[294. ]Cl. fair; rest good.
[301. ]Cp. H. wiste; Cl. wyst.
[305. ]All eyen (eyȝen).
[306. ]Cp. Ed. he felte; H. he felt; Cl. that he sholde; Cm. for to.
[307. ]Cl. om. his.
[308. ]Cl. Blyssyd; Cp. H. Blissed; Cm. Ed. Blessed; see 436. Cl. Cp. kan thus; H. Ed. thus kan.
[310. ]Cl. al; H. Cm. alle. Cl. om. for.
[312. ]Cl. ne made. Cp. H. worde; Cl. word.
[315. ]Cl. Ed. the seruise; rest om. the.
[321. ]Cp. H. Cm. Lest; Cl. Lyst.
[324. ]Cp. H. torneth; Cl. Cm. turneth.
[327. ]Cl. H2. speche and cher; rest chere and speche.
[329. ]H. Ed. wrie; Cl. wre; Cp. wrey.
[330. ]Cl. lyst; Cp. lest; H. leste.
[337. ]Cl. I; rest In. Cl. noun-; H. non-; H2. Ed. no; Cp. Cm. veyn (for noun).
[341. ]Cp. H. mote; Cl. Cm. mot.
[351. ]Cl. H. om. that.
[354. ]Cp. vn-til.
[356. ]Cp. doon; H. don; Cl. Cm. done.
[357. ]Cl. hym; rest hem.
[360. ]Cl. om. eft.
[361. ]Cl. only lette; rest om. ony.
[363. ]Cl. a; H2. in the; rest and.
[369. ]H. dydde; Ed. dyd; rest dede.
[371. ]Cl. seruauntz.
[374. ]Cp. Cm. ne (2nd); Cl. H. no.
[379. ]Cl. H. toke; Cp. took.
[381. ]H. Cp. hiden; Cl. hide.
[385. ]Cp. ȝeldeth. Cl. om. seed.
[386. ]Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche.
[387. ]Cl. For what (for What for). Cl. speken; rest speke (spek).
[394. ]Cp. H. Cm. myn; Cl. my.
[395. ]Cp. H. tonges; Cm. tungis; Cl. tonge. Cl. deference (!).
[398. ]Cl. om. so. Cl. it to; rest om. to. Cl. hire; rest here.
[399. ]Heading;so Cp. H.; Cm. Cantus; Ed. The song of Troylus.
[400. ]Cl. om. no.
[401. ]whiche] Cl. what.
[402. ]H. Cp. whennes comth; Cm. whennys comyt; Cl. whens cometh.
[403. ]Cl. thenketh.
[405. ]Cl. me so goodly; rest to me sauory.
[406. ]Cm. H2. om. it.
[408. ]Cl. walyng.
[409. ]Cl. thanne.
[411. ]Cp. Cm. harm; Cl. H. harme.
[412. ]Cl. om. thee. Cp. swich; Cl. H. swiche.
[413. ]Cp. H. Cm. be; rest so be.
[416. ]Cm. stereles; H. stierlees; Cl. sterles; Cp. sterlees.
[417. ]Cp. bitwixen; H. betwexen; Cm. be-twexe; Cl. by-twen.
[423. ]Cp. oughte; Cm. auȝte; Cl. aught. H. yours; Cp. youres; Cl. youre; see l. 422.
[427. ]Cl. leue; Cp. H. Cm. lyue.
[430. ]Cl. my lord; rest om. my.
[432. ]estat] Cl. estal.
[435. ]Cl. deynede; Cp. H. Cm. deyned.
[436. ]After love, Cl. ins. þe, and H. ins. ye. H2. blesse; Cl. blysse; Cp. H. blisse; Cm. blys.
[439. ]held] Cl. hold.
[440. ]Cm. brende; Cl. brend.
[444. ]Cp. Cm. sette; Cl. H. sett.
[446. ]H. preesse.
[453. ]Cp. H. Cm. herte; Cl. hert. All eye (eyȝe).
[454. ]Cl. fairest; rest fairer.
[457. ]Cl. tymes; see 531.
[460. ]H2. deyd; Cp. Ed. deyde; Cl. Cm. deyede; H. dyede.
[462. ]rewe] Cl. rew.
[463. ]dredes] Cl. dredres. Cp. H. Ed. fledde; rest fled.
[464. ]Cp. thassege. savacioun] Cl. saluacioun.
[465. ]Ne in] Cm. Cp. Nyn. Cl. doon; rest non (none). Cl. H. Ed. fownes; Cm. founys.
[470. ]Cl. shoures sharpe. Cm. felle; Ed. fel; Cl. H. fille.
[471. ]Cl. and; rest or.
[475. ]Cl. trauayl.
[483. ]H2. al; rest om.; read alle.
[486. ]H. toke; Cl. took.
[487. ]Cp. H. eue; Cl. euen.
[491. ]H. Cm. ferde; Cl. ferd.
[496. ]H2. as; rest that; read as that.
[498. ]H. than; Cl. Cm. thanne. Cm. fel to; Cl. Cp. felt.
[500. ]Cl. H. hadde; Cm. hade; Ed. om.
[502. ]Cp. H. Ed. whiche; Cl. such. Cl. thought; felt.
[503. ]Cl. dorst; Cp. dorste.
[511. ]Cp. H. nat; Cm. not; Cl. nought.
[516. ]H. leest; Cl. lest.
[517. ]Cp. H. om. be.
[518. ]Cm. febly; Cl. febely; H. fiebly.
[520. ]H. Cp. Ed. louen; Cm. loue; Cl. leue.
[528. ]Cl. om. a.
[530. ]Cp. H. hidde; Ed. hyd; Cl. Cm. hed.
[534. ]Cl. yet; rest ye.
[536. ]Cp. H. Cm. may; Cl. wole.
[544. ]Cl. H. herd; Cm. Cp. herde.
[545. ]Cm. thoughte; Cl. H. bithought.
[546. ]Cl. multeplie.
[549. ]Cl. onys. H. herde; Cl. herd.
[554. ]Cl. om. som.
[555. ]H. Cm. Cp. falle; Cl. fallen.
[557. ]H. ferde; Cl. Cm. ferd.
[563. ]Cm. H2. sorwe; Ed. sorowe; Cp. H. wo to; Cl. wo.
[567. ]Cl. Cm. desirede.
[569. ]Cp. H. Ed. sen me.
[572. ]H. henue; Cm. hene; Cl. hens; Cp. hennes.
[573. ]Cl. dishese.
[578. ]Cl. Cm. wrought; H. y-wrogth; Cp. H2. Ed. yet wrought.
[580. ]Cp. H. Ed. leste; Cl. Cm. lest.
[581. ]Cl. Ne be; rest om. Ne.
[582. ]Cl. sorwe; rest wo.
[586. ]H. swiche; Cp. Cm. swich; Cl. such.
[589. ]Cl. Cm. þyn; H. Cp. þi.
[596. ]Cp. H. Cm. sorwful Troilus; Cl. Troilus sorwfully.
[600. ]Cl. don.
[601. ]Cp. Cm. truste; H. tryste; Cl. trust.
[602. ]Cm. herkene; Cl. H. herke. Cm. frend; Cl. H. frende.
[606. ]Cp. H. sailleth; Cm. saylyth; Ed. sayleth; Cl. ffayleth.
[607. ]Cl. brennynly.
[612. ]Cm. colde; Cl. H. cold.
[613. ]Cl. telle; rest tolde.
[622. ]Cl. Cm. thyn; Cp. H. thi.
[626. ]Cm. exces; Cl. Cm. excesse; Ed. axes.
[630. ]Cl. ofte a wys man; Ed. H. Cp. a wys man ofte.
[631. ]Ed. whetston; Cl. Cp. H. wheston; Cm. weston.
[633. ]Cl. out; Cm. ouȝt; H. Cp. aught.
[637. ]Cl. eche; rest his.
[643. ]Cp. H. Ech; Cl. Cm. Eche.
[647. ]Cl. ought; but see l. 649.
[650. ]Cp. Though; H. Thoughe; Cl. Cm. Thow. Cl. desir; H. Ed. desire; Cp. desyre.
[653. ]Cp. herdesse; Cl. H. Cm. hierdesse.
[654. ]H. Oonone.
[658. ]Cl. No (for Now). Cl. herkene; Cp. herkne; H. herken; Cm. herkenyt; Ed. herkeneth.
[659. ]Cl. medecyne.
[661. ]Cp. H. Ed. herbes; Cl. erbess. Cl. Cp. H. she; rest he.
[663. ]Cp. H. bounden; Cm. boundyn; Cl. bounde.
[664. ]Ed. Admete; rest Amete.
[665. ]Cl. koude al; rest om. al.
[667. ]Cl. H. oone; Cm. on.
[674. ]Cm. deyen; Cl. deye; Cp. H. dyen.
[675. ]Cp. H. Ed. mo; Cl. Cm. more.
[677. ]H2. thogh; Cm. þow; Cl. they; Cp. H. theigh. thogh that] Ed. although.
[680. ]Cl. as a; rest om. a.
[681. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. telle; rest tel.
[682. ]H2. Ed. final; Cl. finally; Cp. finaly; H. fynali; Cm. finially (!).
[683. ]Cl. þyn (for þyng).
[685. ]Cl. wygh (!).
[687. ]H. witeth; Cl. Cm. weteth.
[689. ]Cl. wot I.
[690. ]H. Cm. For for; Ed. As for; Cl. For.
[693. ]H. Cm. Cp. Ed. tel me; Cl. telle me. Cl. Cm. thou; Cp. H. the.
[694. ]Cl. Thise; rest The.
[697. ]Cl. yn certeyn; rest om yn. Cl. next.
[700. ]Cl. terys.
[703. ]Cl. this; Cp. H. thy.
[704. ]Cl. forto; rest to.
[707. ]Cl. sechen; rest seche hem.
[710. ]Cp. owghte; Cm. auȝte; Cl. H. ought.
[716 ]Cp. Cm. wolde; Cl. wold; H. wol.
[720. ]Cl. sithen; Cp. H. sith; Ed. sythe; H2. seyst. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. that; Cl. yn whom.
[723. ]H. Cp. Cm. lay as; Cl. om. as.
[730. ]All lytargye (litargye).
[734. ]H. Cp. synken; Cm. synkyn; Cl. synk yn.
[737. ]H. Cp. answerde; Cl. answerede.
[738. ]Cp. H. nas; Cl. nat (!); rest was.
[739. ]Cl. om. no.
[741. ]Cp. H. ybeten; Cm. I-bete; Cl. beten.
[742. ]Cm. maner; Cp. H. manere; Cl. maneres. H. Cp. þise; Cl. þis.
[743. ]H. tellynge; Cl. Cm. tellyng.
[744. ]Cl. ought; H. ougthte (sic).
[745 ]Cp. Ed. ynough outsprynge; Cm. Inow outsprynge; Cl. not ought sprynge.
[764. ]Cp. H. Cm. ther; rest om.
[765. ]H. tel; Cl. Cm. telle. Cl. wyst; Cp. H.Cm. Ed. wiste.
[767. ]Cm. told hyre; Ed. H2. tolde it; Cp. H. tolde; Cl. telle.
[769. ]Cp. by-soughte; Cl. H. bysought.
[777. ]Cl. nyl not; rest om. not. Cp. H. noon; Cm. non; Cl. no. Cl. om. as I.
[779. ]Cl. desespered; Cm. dispeyred; Cp. dispeired; H. despired.
[780. ]Cp. bendiste; H. bendistee.
[786. ]Cm. Cp. Ed. he; Cl. H2. the; H. om. Ticius] Cm. which is; Ed. Tesiphus; H2. Siciphus.
[787. ]Cl. foughles.
[788. ]Cl. H. volturis; H2. vulturus; Ed. vultures; Cm. wulturnus (!).
[793. ]Cl. folessh.
[796. ]Cp. H. muche; Cl. Cm. meche. Cl. lasse.
[797. ]Ed. H2. lyest; Cp. list; H. liste; Cl. lyk. H2. lyst; Cl. H. lest; Cm. leste.
[798. ]Cl. wolde (for coude).
[799. ]Cp. H. demen; Cm. demyn; Cl. deme.
[803. ]H. Cm. thank; Cl. thonk. Cl. then; Cp. than.
[812. ]he] Cl. yet.
[814. ]Cp. recreant; Cl. H. recreaunte. Cl. H2. of; rest for.
[815. ]Cl. feyr.
[817. ]H. Cp. Ed. serue; Cl. seruen.
[818. ]Cl. thenk.
[819. ]Cp. Cm. fold; Cl. H. folde.
[820. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. And.
[821. ]Cl. þought.
[822. ]Cl. hym soth.
[824. ]Cl. Cp. H2. om. a.
[826. ]woot she knew] Cl. knoweth (!).
[830. ]Cl. Cp. H. ins. al bef. thy.
[833. ]Cl. Cp. H. pieces.
[837. ]Cm. wel; Cl. H. wele.
[839. ]Cm. whel; Cl. H. whiel.
[842. ]Cp. H. ȝe; Cm. ȝa; Cl. om.
[846, 7. ]Cm. -gon, -on; Cl. H. -gone, -one.
[848, 850. ]Cl. H. whiel; Cm. whelys (whel).
[851. ]if] Cl. of (!).
[855. ]what] Cl. whan.
[858. ]Cm. onwrye; Ed. vnwrie; Cl. H. vnwre.
[4. ]Ed. connyng; H. coniynge (!); Cl. H2. comynge; Cp. cōmyng.
[6. ]Cp. desespeir; H. desespeyre; Cl. desper.
[8. ]H2. Clyo; rest Cleo.
[11. ]Cl. H2. om. other.
[15. ]Cl. nel.
[17. ]H. Desblameth.
[21. ]can nat] Cl. ne kan.
[25. ]H. Ed. thynketh; Cl. Cp. thenketh.
[37. ]Cl. al o; rest om. al.
[38. ]H. Ed. gamen; rest game.
[39. ]Cl. om. that.
[40. ]Ed. open; rest opyn.
[41. ]H2. seying; rest seyde.
[42. ]Cl. seyth.
[46. ]H2. to me; rest thee.
[49. ]H. Cp. folwen; Cl. folwe.
[55. ]Cl. so it.
[58. ]H2. shottis; Ed. shottes; Cl. H. shotes.
[59. ]Cl. om. of loving.
[61. ]fil] Cl. felt (!).
[64. ]H. Proignee.
[68. ]Cl. hym so neigh. Cl. Cp. cheterynge; H. H2. chiteringe.
[69. ]H2. Ed. Thereus (for Tereus); Cl. Cp. Tireux; H. Tryeux.
[73. ]his] Cl. þe.
[75. ]Cl. tok weye soone.
[79. ]Cl. vn-to.
[80. ]Cl. in forth.
[81. ]Cl. sette; Cp. H. sete; H2. sate.
[86. ]Cl. Cp. H. faire book; rest om. faire.
[90. ]H. Cm. goode; Cl. good. H. Cm. mote; Cl. mot.
[94. ]Cl. om. that.
[95. ]H. herknen; rest herken (herkyn).
[97. ]Cp. H. o; Cm. Ed. or; Cl. om. H2. Is it of love, some good ye may me lere.
[99. ]Cl. om. tho.
[101. ]Cl. that the; rest om. the.
[102. ]All Edippus.
[107. ]Cp. H. Ed. thassege. Cl. al the care; rest om. al.
[110. ]barbe] Cm. wimpil.
[113. ]Cl. A; Ed. Eighe; rest I.
[115. ]So Cp. Cl. H. Ed.; Cm. H2. Ye makyn me be iouys sore adradde (a-drad).
[116. ]as] Cl. that.
[117. ]H. H2. sate; Cp. satte; rest sat; read sete. Cl. H. om. a.
[120. ]Cl. I thriue; om. this.
[123. ]Cp. H. Ed. thassege; Cm. H2 the sege.
[124. ]Cp. fered.
[126. ]So Cp. H. H2. Ed.; Cm. better (for wol bet); Cl. corrupt; see l. 128.
[128. ]Ed. eighe (better ey); Cl. Cp. H. Cm. I.
[131. ]Cl. om. vs.
[134. ]H2. borow; Cm. borw; Cp. H. borugh; Ed. borowe; Cl. bourgh.
[138. ]Cl. were; rest is.
[141. ]wondren] Cl. Iape.
[155. ]Cp. H. Ed. it; rest om.
[159. ]H2. Ed. euery; Cl. H. al; Cp. alle.
[160. ]H2. In; rest As (usually with al).
[164. ]Cl. trewly; Cp. H. trewelich; Cm. trewely.
[176. ]Cm. nought; H2. no thing (om. for); rest no more.
[177. ]H. Cm. ther; Cl. ner.
[179. ]Cp. H. Cm. than; Cl. that.
[185. ]H. Cp. dredelees; Cl. Cm. dredles.
[188. ]Cm. al the; Cl. Cp. H. alle; rest al.
[194. ]Cl. Cm. gonne fro him.
[195. ]Cl. field (for feld).
[201. ]Cl. lyf and sheld; Cp. H. Ed. sheld and lif; H2. sheld of lyf; Cm. schild and spere.
[202. ]as] Cl. al.
[204. ]H. Cm. freendlyeste; Cl. frendlyest.
[206. ]Cl. felawship; H. felaweschipe.
[207. ]Cl. thenketh.
[212. ]Cl. womman; H2. woman; rest wommen.
[215. ]Cl. two; Cm. to; rest tho.
[216. ]Cm. Ed. herde; rest herd.
[217. ]they two] Cl. that they.
[220. ]Cm. H2. it; rest om.
[221. ]Cl. Cm. H2. and lat.
[223. ]Cl. yow-; rest your-.
[224. ]Cl. it; rest is. fair] Cp. gladde; Cm. H2. Ed. glad.
[226. ]witen] Cl. wete.
[227. ]Cl. om. this and tho.
[238. ]Cl. Cm. wete; Cp. H. Ed. weten; H2. wite. your] Cl. yow.
[239. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. myn.
[247. ]Cl. Cm. truste.
[248. ]Cl. om. to me. Cp. H. frende (error for fremde); H2. frend; Ed. fremed; Cl. Cm. frendly.
[250. ]Cl. here he keste; rest om. he.
[255. ]Cl. lo alwey.
[259. ]Cl. tales (!).
[260. ]H. sithen; Cp. Cm. sithe; Cl. sith. Cl. Cm. H2. the ende. Cl. ins. of after is.
[262. ]H2. Ed. peynt; Cm. pente; rest poynte.
[265. ]Cl. loke.
[266. ]Cp. H. goode; rest good.
[269. ]Cl. litel (!).
[276. ]Cl. om. faste. Cp. H. mauise.
[279. ]Cm. thoughte; Cl. Cp. thought.
[284. ]that] Cl. than. Cl. weylen (!).
[287. ]Cl. om. a.
[289. ]and] Cl. if.
[291. ]H. it slake; rest om. it.
[296. ]Cl. toforn; rest biforn.
[299. ]Cl. to yow; rest om. to. Cl. H. Ed. sworne; rest sworn.
[300. ]or] Cl. and.
[303. ]chaungeth] Cl. quaketh (!).
[308. ]Cl. nolde; rest wolde.
[309. ]Cl. H. Cp. om. my.
[315. ]Cl. shal yow; rest om. yow.
[317. ]H. Cm. goode; Cl. Cp. good.
[323. ]Cl. thow; rest ye. H2. lete; Cl. Cp. Cm. late; H. lat.
[324. ]Cl. nel. Cl. H. lye.
[325. ]Cl. myn owene; rest my (myn).
[328. ]Cl. giltles; H. Cm. gilteles.
[329. ]mende] H2. wyn.
[338. ]H. Cm. liste; Ed. lysteth; Cl. lyst.
[349. ]If] Cl. And.
[350. ]Cl. that ye; rest om. that.
[351. ]this] Cm. H2. it; H. om.
[359. ]Cl. behest.
[368. ]Cl. to se; Cp. H. sen.
[369. ]H2. a-yens; Ed. ayenst; H. ayeyn; Cm. ayen.
[370. ]fool] Cl. fel (for fol).
[371. ]Cl. frenship.
[372. ]Cl. om. What.
[374. ]Cl. om. wel and.
[380. ]Ed. wrie; Cm. wri; Cl. Cp. wre; H. were (!); H2. couere.
[381. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. sauacioun; rest saluacioun.
[383. ]Cm. H2. Ed. put alwey after nece. Cm. goode; rest good.
[384. ]Ed. H2. sugred.
[385. ]Cp. Cm. for; Ed. al; Cl. H. om.
[386. ]Cl. herd.
[387. ]meneth] H. Cm. mene.
[388. ]Cl. wole.
[389. ]sholde] Cl. shal.
[395. ]Cl. H2. om. that.
[401. ]Read think’th, ber’th (Cl. thenketh; Cp. H. berth). Cl. Cp. H. heighe; Ed. Cm. hye.
[403. ]Cl. ben growen; Cp. H. be growe; Ed. growe; Cm. hem waxen;H2. be wox. All eye (eighe, ey, eyen).
[405. ]H. H2. whiche; Cl. Cm. which; Cp. Ed. which that.
[406. ]Cm. H2. om. Nece. Cm. I bidde with (!); H2. I kepe than wisshe; (read Nec’ I bidd’ wisshë).
[411. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. strannge; H. H2. straunge folk; Cm. straunge men.
[413. ]Cp. H2. Ret; Ed. Rate; Cm. Redith; Cl. Bet (!); H. Let (!).
[414. ]H. tristed.
[421. ]this] Cl. that.
[423. ]Cl. behest.
[429. ]Cl. Ay; Cm. O; Ed. Ne; rest A.
[435. ]H. dispitouse; Cm. dispituse; rest dispitous (despitous).
[438. ]Cl. ins. ony (Cp. H. any, H2. eny) before vilanye. Cl. vylonye.
[446. ]Cl. certaynly.
[448. ]Cl. hym agayn.
[456. ]Cl. falles (sic).
[460. ]Cl. wyl; Cp. H. wol.
[461. ]Cl. of hit wold.
[466. ]lyth] Cp. H. is.
[468. ]Cl. don so.
[474. ]Cl. H2. y-wis; rest wis.
[480. ]Cm. H2. plese; rest plesen.
[482. ]Cp. Ed. dredde; rest drede.
[483. ]H. Ed. Cp. cesse; Cm. sese; (see l. 1388); Cl. cesseth.
[486. ]H. Cm. Ed. sauacioun; rest saluacioun.
[490. ]Cp. Ed. H2. Pandare; rest Pandarus.
[491. ]Cp. H. truste; Cm. troste; rest trust.
[494. ]Cp. Cm. doutelees; Cl. doutles.
[496. ]Cm. Cp. after; H. efter; rest ofter (!).
[500. ]love of god] Cl. Cp. H. his love.
[505. ]a litel gan to] Cl. bygan for to.
[507. ]Cl. go. Cp. H. Ed. longe; rest long.
[516. ]Cm. Ed. after; Cl. Cp. H. ther-after.
[519. ]Cl. softly hym.
[523. ]upon] Cl. on.
[535. ]Cl. om. botme.
[536. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. deyen.
[537. ]Cp. Cm. Ed. bywreyen; Cl. H2. bywryen; H. wryen.
[539. ]hem] Cl. hym. asshen] Cl. asshe.
[540. ]Cl. adown his hed.
[541. ]Cp. H. Cm. trewely; rest trewly.
[542. ]Cl. puts awey after I.
[543. ]Cp. leet; H. lete; Cl. Cm. let.
[3. ]H2. leef; Ed. lefe; Cl. lyef; Cp. H. lief.
[7. ]Cl. thin (for 2nd thy).
[9. ]Cl. of; rest if. Cp. Ed. wel; H2. wil; Cl. wole; H. wol.
[10. ]Cl. Cp. beste.
[11. ]Cl. H. Ed. The; H2. To. Cl. feld (for fele).
[12. ]Cl. nough (!).
[13. ]Cl. word; H. world; Cp. Ed. worlde; H2. wirk.
[17. ]Cl. H. Comeueden (rightly); Cp. Comended; Ed. Comenden; H2. Commodious (!). Cp. Ed. amorous; H2. amerous; Cl. H. amoreux. All hem (wrongly); read him; see l. 19.
[20. ]Cp. H. H2. hym; Ed. him; Cl. hem.
[22. ]H. apasen; Ed. apeasen; H2. apesyn. Cl. Iire.
[23. ]Cl. lyste rest list.
[28. ]H2. hym; rest it.
[32. ]Cl. thing.
[33. ]Cl. constreue. Cl. H. Cp. Io; H2. io; Ed. go; (Io = jo).
[36. ]Cl. vniuersite (!).
[38. ]Cl. H. worse.
[42. ]Cl. this (for thy). Cl. seruyce.
[44. ]Cp. H. Inhielde.
[49. ]H2. gladnes; rest om.
[51. ]All lesson.
[56. ]H2. leve (sic); rest leue. Cp. H. Ed. werken; Cl. werke.
[57. ]Cm. how; rest so. Cl. om. that.
[58. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. shorte; rest short.
[59. ]Cl. lad.
[60. ]Cl. om. in.
[65. ]Cl. rufully; Ed. routhfully.
[66. ]thou] Cl. yow.
[74. ]H2. Ed. ey; rest I.
[76. ]lordshipe] Cl. mercy.
[77. ]Cl. beseche.
[79. ]H. Cm. wex; Cl. Cp. wax.
[81. ]Cl. smyte.
[83. ]Cl. om. he.
[90. ]Cp. H. Ed. resons; Cl. resones; Cm. werkis; H2. wordis.
[92. ]Cl. An; H2. Hym; rest In.
[93. ]Cl. quooke.
[97. ]Cm. ferste; rest first (ferst).
[99. ]Cl. whily. Cl. ho (for he).
[100. ]Cl. that; rest for.
[101. ]Cl. om. I.
[110. ]Cm. wrethe (for herte). Cm. I; H2. y; rest om.
[114. ]Cl. for to; rest to.
[116. ]H. puked; H2. procurid (!).
[119. ]Cm. H2. om. that.
[121. ]Cp. H. Ed. wilne; Cm. wiln; Cl. wille. Cl. shal seye; rest om. shal.
[125. ]of] Cl. on.
[135. ]Cl. deligence.
[136. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. om. I; see l. 141.
[138. ]Cl. defende (!).
[139. ]Cl. Cm. digne; rest deigne.
[142. ]Cl. Cp. myn; Cm. myne.
[144. ]H2. serve; rest seruen. Cl. Cp. H. ben ay I-lyke; Ed. to ben aye ylike; H2. bene y-lyke; Cm. ay ben I-lik; but read been y-lyke ay.
[149. ]And] Cl. A. Cl. om. a.
[150. ]Cl. Cp. H. feste.
[152. ]Cl. that this; rest om. that.
[160. ]Cl. But (for And).
[167. ]Cp. H. hennes; Cm. henys; Cl. hens.
[172. ]MSS. soueraynte.
[173. ]Cp. Ny (for Ne I).
[176. ]Cl. my dere; rest om. my.
[179. ]Cl. Ed. to; rest in-to.
[180. ]yow] Cl. now.
[183. ]H. yen; Cm. eyȝyn; rest eyen.
[188. ]Cl. Cp. H. in the; rest om. the.
[190. ]Cl. Cm. H2. Ed. om. as.
[193. ]Cl. and on; Ed. H2. and one; H. and oon; Cp. an oon; Cm. a-non; read as oon?
[194. ]Cm. H2. the; Cp. to; rest two.
[195. ]my] Cl. Cm. myn.
[205. ]H2. They come vpwardis at.
[207. ]Cl. blynde.
[208. ]Cl. it is tyme.
[213. ]Cl. ins. hire bef. diden. Cp. H. diden; Cl. deden.
[214. ]Cm. spekyn wondir wel; Cl. (and rest) wonder wel spaken (speken).
[221. ]Cl. gardeyn.
[223. ]Cl. lyste; Cp. Ed. H. leste.
[229. ]Cp. Ed. paillet; rest pailet.
[237. ]Cl. speke; rest speken (spekyn).
[240. ]Cl. om. so.
[242. ]Cp. Cm. waxeth; Ed. woxe; rest wax (but read wex).
[244. ]Cl. sethen do.
[250. ]Cl. a game bygonne to.
[254. ]Cp. H. Bitwixen; Cl. Bytwene.
[260. ]Cl. alle; rest al.
[262. ]Cl. for to abrygge; Cp. H. for tabregge; Cm. to abregge. Cl. destresse.
[268. ]Cl. alwed.
[269. ]Cl. dar I; rest I dar wel.
[270. ]Cl. om. that.
[279. ]Cl. bygone.
[280. ]Cl. wonne.
[281. ]Cl. om. wol. Cl. H2. go.
[283. ]Cl. preuete.
[290. ]Cl. Cm. Ed. om. ther.
[293. ]H. Ed. this (for yet); Cp. thus.
[299. ]Cl. selue; Cm. seluyn.
[300. ]H2. as for to; blabbe.
[301. ]Cl. the (for they).
[308. ]Cl. kyng (for kynde). Cl. auauntures (!).
[310. ]As. Cl. A.
[312. ]Cl. H2. holde; rest holden.
[313. ]Cl. om. it.
[315. ]Cl. Cp. H2. And a; rest And. Cl. heste; H2. hest; rest byhesto.
[319. ]Cl. byhight; Cp. bihyghte.
[320. ]Cl. no more; rest om. no.
[322. ]Cl. womman (!).
[323. ]Cl. this not.
[324. ]Cm. wis man; H2. wyse man; rest wyse men.
[327. ]Cl. wys.
[329. ]Cl. om. harm.
[335. ]Cl. suffice; rest suffise.
[337. ]Cl. om. wel.
[340. ]the] Cl. H2. thi.
[341. ]Cl. make (for may).
[344. ]or] Cl. and.
[346. ]theffect] Cl. the feyth.
[347. ]Cl. sorwe (for herte).
[351. ]Cl. om. as.
[352. ]Cp. H. H2. dede; Cl. Cm. ded.
[355. ]Cl. Cp. H. for to (for to).
[356. ]Cm. Wex; Cl. Cp. H. Wax.
[360. ]Cm. aprille; H. aperil; rest April.
[361. ]remembre] Cl. remembreth.
[363. ]H. didest; Cl. Cp. dedest.
[366. ]Cl. I to; rest om. to.
[368. ]Cm. Ed. tel; rest telle.
[380. ]Cl. thenketh.
[382. ]Cp. H. Caytif; Cl. Castif; rest Captif. All Agamenoun.
[385. ]Ed. the lyketh; H2. it lyke the; Cl. it lyketh; Cp. H. Cm. it liketh the.
[386. ]Cl. meche; Cp. muche. Cl. Cm. don; rest I-do (y-do, ydon).
[389. ]Cl. In; rest on.
[390. ]Cl. the wole.
[391. ]Cp. H. sclaue; Ed. slaue; Cl. knaue (with sl altered to kn).
[397. ]Cl. baudery.
[398. ]Cl. om. wood.
[412. ]All Tel. Cl. Cp. H. om. me.
[414. ]Cl. seruyce.
[417. ]Ed. moste; rest most.
[425. ]Cp. Ed. though; H2. thogh; Cl. H. thought; Cm. tho.
[441. ]Cl. he (for her).
[442. ]All lay; perhaps read laye (subjunctive).
[443. ]Cl. dishesed.
[446. ]Cm. man; Cl. Cp. H. men. Ed. men be. Cl. yplesed; rest plesed.
[450. ]Cp. H. writen; Cl. wreten.
[451. ]Cl. om. and.
[452. ]or] Cl. Ed. and.
[453. ]Cl. as it; rest om. it.
[457. ]Cl. om. awayt.
[462. ]Cl. make; a (for an).
[463. ]Cm. speke; rest spake.
[475. ]Cl. seruyce.
[476. ]Cp. H. auyse; rest deuyse.
[481. ]Cm. goode; rest good.
[485. ]Cp. Ed. y-like; H. yhold; rest ylyk.
[491. ]wayten] Cl. wene.
[496. ]Cl. stont; Cp. H. Cm. stant.
[497. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. Hise.
[507. ]Cm. These; rest This.
[509. ]Cl. myght; Cp. H. Cm. myghte.
[510. ]Ed. fulfell; rest fulfille.
[514. ]Cl. And; rest As.
[516. ]Cl. There-as; rest Wher-as.
[520. ]Cl. om. -to.
[525. ]Cp. H. H2. impossible.
[526. ]Cp. H. Cm. Dredeles; Cl. Dredles. Cm. cler; rest clere.
[527. ]Of] Cl. From.
[531. ]Cp. H. H2. witen; rest weten.
[533. ]Cl. puruyaunce.
[540. ]H. moste; Cm. Ed. muste; Cl. most.
[545. ]Cl. om. -thy.
[547. ]Cl. there but; rest om. but.
[548. ]Cl. shortely.
[551. ]Ed. H2. welken; Cp. wolken; rest walkene (walken).
[552. ]Cl. straught; H. H2. streight; Cp. streght.
[555. ]Cl. woned; rest wont.
[558. ]Cp. H. cape.
[562. ]sholde] Cl. shal.
[563. ]Cl. om. ne.
[572. ]Cp. H. thruste (!); Cm. thourrste (for thurfte); H2. Ed. durst; Cl. dorste (but read thurfte). Cl. haue neuere.
[6, 11. ]Cl. Cp. H. whiel; H2. Ed. whele.
[7. ]Cl. here; rest him.
[21. ]Cl. vilonye; H. vilenye; rest vilanye.
[22. ]All herynes. Cl. nyghttes.
[23. ]Cl. compleynes; H. compleynen; Cp. compleignen.
[24. ]Ed. Allecto; Tesiphonee.
[25. ]Cp. H. to; Cl. H2. of.
[27. ]H. los; Cl. losse. Colophon. Cl. Cp. H. wrongly have Explicit liber Tercius; read prohemium.
[30. ]Cl. Giekys.
[31. ]Cl. whanne.
[32. ]H. herculis.
[33. ]H. Cp. ful; rest om.
[35. ]Cl. woned.
[40. ]Cl. on; rest in.
[41. ]Cl. lenge; rest lenger.
[43. ]sharpe] Cl. faste.
[44. ]Cl. fele.
[47. ]Cl. last; Cp. H. Ed. laste.
[51. ]Ed. Polymydas. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. Monesteo; H2. Penestio.
[53. ]H2. Riphio; Cl. Cp. H. Rupheo.
[57. ]Cp. H. a Grek; Cl. H2. Ed. at Grekes; read at Greek.
[59. ]Ed. moste; Cp. meste; rest most.
[60. ]Cl. yeue; Cp. Ed. yeuen.
[67. ]Cl. woned.
[69. ]Cl. don hym; rest om. hym.
[75. ]Cl. told; Cp. H. tolde.
[76. ]Cl. dredles; Cp. H. dredeles.
[78. ]Cl. for (for 2nd in).
[82. ]Cl. weres; Cp. H. Ed. weren. H. leue (gl. i. cari).
[86. ]Ed. regarde; rest resport (see l. 850).
[89. ]Cl. losse; dishese.
[90. ]Cl. -saf; Cp. H. -sauf.
[99. ]Cl. H. say; rest sawe.
[101. ]Cl. yif. H. H2. om. that.
[103. ]Cp. amonges; rest among (amonge).
[105. ]through] Cl. for.
[106. ]Cl. preson; H. prisoun.
[107. ]Cl. wille.
[108. ]Cl. chyd (sic).
[110. ]Cl. On; Cp. H. Oon.
[115. ]Cp. Cm. Ed. it; rest om.
[117. ]And] Cl. I.
[118. ]Cm. fer; H2. fere.
[119. ]Cl. in; Cp. H. Cm. Ed. to; H2. in-to.
[120. ]Cp. Ed. H2. Neptunus; H. neptimus; Cl. Neptainus; Cm. Natyinus.
[121. ]Cp. Ed. makeden; H. makkeden; rest maden.
[124. ]Ed. Lamedoun.
[125, 6. ]Cm. here, fere.
[129. ]Cl. terys; twye.
[131. ]Cl. by-seche.
[132. ]Cl. helen.
[133. ]Cp. yaue; Cl. Cm. yaf; Ed. gaue.
[134. ]Cl. y-nowh.
[138. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. bryngen; H. brynge; Cl. bryng. H. hom; Cl. Cm. hem; rest home. H. Tooas; Ed. Thoas.
[139. ]Cp. H. Ed. -garde; Cl. -gard. Cm. H2. his saf cundwyt hem sente.
[140. ]Cp. H. Ed. Thembassadours; Cl. H2. The ambassiatours (see l. 145).
[155. ]Cl. angwyssh.
[163. ]Cl. gon; rest go.
[165. ]H. Cm. ne; rest om.
[167. ]Cl. blowe; rest y-blowe.
[168. ]Cl. bothere; Ed. bother; Cp. brother (!); H2. bothe; Cm. botheis; H. eyther.
[173. ]Cl. whanne. Cl. Cp. Cm. hadde; rest had.
[175. ]Cp. H. aȝeyn; Cl. Cm. ayen.
[176. ]Cp. H. Ed. Grekes; rest Grekis.
[178. ]Cl. answerede; Cp. H. Cm. answerde.
[179. ]Cl. Cm. presoner.
[180. ]Cl. H2. om. that.
[183, 5. ]Cl. onys, nonys.
[184. ]Cl. in; H2. a; rest on.
[186. ]Cp. H. Ed. sholden; Cl. sholde.
[191. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. to; H. tolk (for to folk); rest of.
[198. ]Cl. liten (!). Cl. weten; H. Cp. witen; Ed. wenen; H2. know.
[201. ]Cl. here an; rest om. an.
[204. ]Cl. after he was.
[205. ]Ed. quytte; H2. quytt; H. Cp. quite; Cl. Cm. quyt.
[206. ]Cl. discressioun.
[207. ]Cl. Cm. dede.
[210. ]Cl. seyden; Cp. H. Cm. seyde; Ed. sayd; H2. saide. Ed. heere; rest here. Cm. hounne; rest howne (hown).
[211. ]Cl. was delibered.
[213. ]Cl. pronuncede; precident.
[214. ]Cl. Al they; preyede.
[220. ]Cl. Cm. spede; rest spedde.
[223. ]Cp. H. Cm Ed. slepen; Cl. slepe.
[229. ]Cl. I-bounde.
[236. ]Cl. hepede; H. heped.
[237. ]Cl. -brest; Cp. Cm. -breste; H. -brast. Cl. werkyn.
[242. ]Cl. Righ.
[243. ]Cl. Cm. festes; rest fistes.
[252. ]MSS. Schop, Shope.
[257. ]Cl. terys.
[260. ]Cl. Thanne; Cp. H. Than.
[270. ]Cp. Cm. Ed. now the; Cl. H. the now.
[277. ]Cl. on (for or). Cl. Cm. deye; Cp. H. dye.
[282. ]Cp. H. Ed. whidder; Cl. Cm. wheder.
[286. ]H. gerful; Ed. gierful; Cl. greful; Cm. gery; Cp. serful (!).
[294. ]Cl. repeles (!).
[295. ]Cm. H2. schal I; rest I may.
[296. ]Cl. cruwel; Cm. crewel.
[298. ]Cl. Allas; rest Allone.
[302. ]Cp. Ed. wery; Cm. werray; rest verray.
[305. ]H. vnneste (glossed i. go out of thi nest). Ed. woful neste (wrongly).
[309. ]Cl. desport.
[310. ]Cp. H2. brighte; rest bright (but Cm. varies).
[312. ]Cp. H. Stonden; Cm. Stondyn; Ed. Stonden; Cl. Stondeth. Cp. H. sighte; Cl. sight.
[313. ]Cp. H. lighte; Cl. lyght.
[314. ]Cl. tweyne; Cp. H. tweye.
[317. ]H2. thilke; Cm. ye ilke; rest this.
[318. ]Cl. Cp. H. the; Ed. thy; rest my.
[320. ]Cl. vn-to yow so.
[323. ]H. heighe; Cp. heigh; Cl. heyhe.
[327. ]Cl. whanne; be.
[330. ]Cp. H. Ed. myslyued; H2. mysleuyd; Cl. Cm. mysbyleued.
[336. ]Cl. where as; rest om. as.
[339. ]Cl. Meddles; rest Medled (Medlid).
[345. ]Cl. Burgeys & lord.
[350. ]Cp. H. rees; Cl. Cm. res; Ed. race.
[352. ]Cp. H. vndid; Cl. vndede.
[354. ]Cl. as ony; rest om. ony.
[356. ]Cm. nyste; Cl. Cp. H. nyst; see 349.
[362. ]Cl. colde.
[364. ]Cp. H. slough.
[367. ]H. Cp. ayein; Cl. Cm. ayen; Ed. ayenst.
[368. ]Cl. wyych.
[370. ]Cp. H. thise; Cl. this.
[379. ]Ed. deed; H. Cm. ded; Cl. Cp. dede.
[380. ]Cl. answerede.
[387. ]Cl. Als; rest As.
[392. ]Cl. Cm. his; rest hire (her).
[398. ]All eye (ey).
[402. ]Cm. sweche; Ed. H2. suche; Cl. H. Cp. swych.
[405. ]Cm. owene; Cl. Cp. H. owen; Ed. owne.
[408. ]Cl. om. in.
[413. ]Cl. Cm. of; rest for.
[414. ]Cl. H. zauzis; rest zanzis.
[415. ]Cp. H. chaceth; Cl. cacheth.
[417. ]Cl. thow art; Cp. artow; H. ertow; Cm. or thow; rest art thou.
[423. ]Cl. ellys.
[424. ]Cl. al.
[426. ]H. Tabrigge; Cp. Tabregge; Cm. To abregge.
[430. ]Cl. Cm. sorwe; rest wo.
[431. ]Cm. roughte; Cl. Cp. H. rought. Cl. vnthryf; om. that.
[434. ]Cp. at oothir; H. attother.
[435. ]Cl. he answered. Cl. seyde a; rest om. a.
[437. ]Cl. fende.
[438. ]Cp. H. traysen; Cl. trassen; Ed. trayen. Cl. Cm. here (hire); rest a wight.
[439. ]Cl. to god; rest om. to. Cp. H. y-the; Cl. the.
[440. ]Cl. anoon sterue right.
[443. ]Cl. her (for herte).
[444. ]Cl. heres; Cp. H. hires; Ed. hers.
[445. ]Cl. syn that; rest om. that.
[455. ]Cl. sleste; H. Cm. slest; rest sleest.
[459. ]H2. wolde; Cm. nulde; Cp. H. Ed. wol; Cl. wil.
[462. ]Cl. that (before for) and hath (over erasure); Cp. H. and; rest that.
[468. ]Cm. pasciounys; rest passions.
[472. ]Cl. Criseyde; Cm. Crisseid; rest Criseydes.
[478. ]Cl. a lasse; rest om. a.
[480. ]Cl. leue; Cm. lyuyn; Cp. H. lyuyd (!).
[483. ]Cl. Ed. knowe; rest y-knowe.
[484. ]Cl. thenketh; Cp. H. Cm. thynketh.
[493. ]Cl. leuede; H. lyuede; Ed. lyued.
[498. ]H2. repeats nay; rest Nay.
[506. ]Ed. hyre; H. H2. hire; Cl. Cm. here.
[510. ]H. outher; Cl. Cm. other; H2. eyther. Cl. yn this teris; rest om. this.
[520. ]Cl. om. out. Cl. a lambyc; H. a lambic; Cm. a lambik; H2. lambyke; Ed. allambyke.
[525. ]Cl. it; rest him.
[526. ]Cm. seyde; Cl. H. seyd.
[527. ]Cl. thow; rest thee (the). H. Cm. H2. to; rest om.
[528. ]Cl. self; H. Ed. seluen; Cm. selue.
[4. ]Cp. Ed. Committeth; H. Comitteth; Cl. Comytted.
[8. ]Ed. golde; Cl. Cp. H. gold; read golden. H2. The Auricomus tressed (!).
[9. ]H. alle; Cl. Cp. al. H2. shene; rest clere; cf. ii 920, iv. 1432.
[11. ]H. a-yeyn; Cl. a-yen.
[12. ]H. sone (glossed Troilus).
[13. ]H. hire (glossed i. Criseyde).
[14. ]Cl. o morwe; Cp. H. a morwe.
[16. ]Cl. for to; rest om. for.
[18. ]Cp. H. nyste; rest nyst.
[20. ]Cl. wyst.
[21. ]Cl. om. a.
[22. ]Cp. H. reed; Cl. red.
[26. ]Cl. here by fore.
[27. ]Cl. farewel now.
[29. ]Cp. bood; Cl. bod; rest bode.
[31. ]Cl. H. Cp. Ed. sene; H2. sen.
[33. ]Cl. houede. Cl. H. Cp. tabyde; rest to abide.
[37. ]Cm. H2. Ed. horse; rest hors.
[40. ]Cl. do it; rest om. do.
[41. ]Cl. onys.
[41, 42. ]H2. deye, dreye.
[43. ]Cl. onys.
[44. ]Cl. y-nowh.
[51. ]Cp. Ed. H. Cm. liste Cl. lyst
[52. ]alwey] Cl. alweys; Cp. H. alweyes.
[58. ]Cp. H. sighte; Cl. sight; Cm. syhede.
[60. ]Cp. rit; H. rite (for rit); H2. ritte; Ed. rydeth; Cl. right (!).
[62. ]Cl. that though.
[64. ]Cl. curtasie.
[66. ]Cl. H. compaynye.
[80. ]Cl. Cm. ner, rod; Cp. H. neer, rood.
[82. ]she] Cp. Cm. he.
[85. ]Cl. he al; rest om. al.
[88. ]Cl. Ed. toke.
[99. ]Cl. ynowh.
[105. ]So Cp. H.; Cl. That she shal not as yet wete what.
[109. ]Cl. desese.
[117. ]Cl. H. Cp. H2. preyde; Ed. prayde; Cm. preyede.
[120. ]Cl. thenketh (badly).
[122. ]H2. Troiaunes; Cl. H. Cp. Ed. Troians; read Troian-es.
[124. ]Cl. Cm. om. if.
[127. ]Cl. An.
[133. ]Cl. Cm. to; rest vn-to.
[135. ]Cl. take.
[138. ]Cl. Cm. to amenden; Cp. H. tamende; rest to amende.
[151. ]Cm. But be this; (this = this is).
[154. ]Cl. H2. aboue; rest abouen.
[155. ]Cl. H. borne; Cp. Ed. Cm. born.
[164. ]or] Cl. of; Cp. er.
[170. ]Cl. feyr; see 172.
[172. ]Cm. myghte; Cl. Cp. H. myght.
[174. ]Cl. you to; rest om. to.
[176. ]Ed. H. Cp. lyte; rest litel.
[180. ]Cl. hert; Cp. H. Cm. herte.
[182. ]of] Cl. on.
[185. ]H. H2. liste; Cl. Cp. lyst.
[186. ]Cp. Cm. good; Cl. H. goode.
[189. ]H. shalighte.
[194. ]Cl. mewet; Cp. H. muwet; Ed. muet.
[199. ]Cl. om. face.
[202. ]Cl. went; toke.
[206. ]Cm. frentyk.
[207, 8. ]Cl. curssed.
[214. ]Ed. lyte; Cp. H. lite; rest litel. Cl. Cm. a lytel his herte.
[224. ]Cp. Ed. pilowe; H2. pillowe; H. pilwo; rest pilwe.
[225. ]H. Cp. ayein; Cl. Cm. ayen.
[226. ]H. leete; Cl. Cm. let.
[230. ]H2. endowe.
[232. ]Cm. ryghte; Cl. Cp. H. right.
[236. ]Here speketh = spek’th.
[238. ]Cl. Cm. yuele.
[242. ]Cl. tendresse.
[245. ]Cl. in-to; rest vn-to.
[246 ]Cl. fill; ony.
[247. ]Cl. by-gonne; rest by-gynne.
[249. ]mete] H2. dreme. Cl. as he; rest om. as.
[255. ]Cl. tremor; rest tremour.
[263. ]Cl. Cp. H. seine; Ed. sayne; Cm. H2. sey.
[268. ]Cl. peyne; rest pyne.
[273. ]Cl. thenke.
[275. ]H2. y-waxen; Cl. H. Ed. y-woxen.
[277. ]Cl. wonted; Cm. wone; rest wont(e); read woned.
[280. ]Cl. H. sente.
[288. ]Cp. H. Cm. deuyne; Cl. dyuyne.
[290. ]Cl. peyne.
[297. ]Cp. H. Ed. lyuen; Cl. lyue.
[308. ]Cl. Cp. H. yef; Ed. yeue; rest yif.
[315. ]Cm. H2. prey; rest preyen. Cl. Cp. Ed. to kepe; rest om. to.
[319. ]Ed. hyght; Cm. highte; Cl. hatte; Cp. H. hette. Ed. Ascaphylo (i. e. Ascalaphus); Cl. Cp. Escaphilo; H. esciphilo; Cm. H2. eschaphilo.
[320. ]Cp. thise: Cm. Ed. these; Cl. H. this.
[327. ]Cm. red; rest rede.
[329. ]Cl. late; Cp. H. lat; rest let; read lete. Cp. worthen; Cl. worthe; H2. worth; rest worchen.
[330. ]Cp. Ed. tel; rest telle. Cl. nowe.
[331. ]Cl. Cm. ony.
[334. ]gon] Cm. forgon.
[335, 336. ]H. care, fare.
[348. ]Cm. H2. on-; Cl. Cp. H. o-; Ed. a-.
[352. ]Cl. fond; rest fonde.
[353. ]Cp. H. nought (for not). Ed. H2. to abyde. Cm. is not so longe to on-byde.
[354. ]Cp. H. Ed. comen; rest come.
[355. ]Cl. nyl not; rest om. not.
[356. ]Cm. dred; rest drede.
[357. ]Cp. H. ayein; Cl. Cm. a-yen.
[360. ]Cl. Cm. proceden.
[362. ]Read all’ swev’nés.
[368. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. infernals; rest infernal.
[369. ]Cl. seynt (!).
[378. ]Cl. lef; rest leue.
[380. ]Cl. foweles; H. fowelis.
[382. ]Cl. owlys.
[383. ]Cl. foule; Cp. H. Cm. foul.
[385. ]Cl. shad (!).
[387, 389, 390. ]H. Cp. foryiue, dryue, lyue; Cl. foryeue, dreue, leue.
[398. ]Cl. foyete; Cp. H. foryete. Ed. or; rest oure.
[403. ]Cl. hens; Cp. H. hennes.
[409. ]Ed. rouken (wrongly).
[410. ]Cl. thow trust; rest om. thow.
[413. ]Cl. dar.
[414. ]Cl. answered; Cp. Cm. Ed. answerde.
[421. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. fyn; rest fyne.
[423. ]Cl. sacrefise.
[425. ]Cl. foule; H. fowl; Cm. foul.
[428. ]Cp. H. reed; Cl. Cm. red.
[438. ]Cl. H. cost; rest coste.
[440. ]Ed. moste; H2. most; Cl. Cm. meste; H. meest. Cl. om. eek.
[441. ]Cl. ony.
[443. ]Cl. Cp. H. thorugh; Ed. through.
[444. ]Cl. ony.
[446. ]Cl. as; rest at.
[447. ]H. Nof.
[448. ]Cp. Ie; H2. ye; rest eye.
[451. ]Cp. pietous; H. pietus; rest pitous.
[455. ]Cl. gladyn; Cp. glade; Cl. H. Ed. glad. Cl. Cp. festenynge (for festeiynge = festeyinge); rest feestynge (festyng).
[456. ]Cl. laydyes.
[459. ]Cl. ony; H2. an; rest on.
[464. ]Cl. om. him.
[466. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. there; rest here.
[468. ]Cl. Cp. H. maze; rest mase.
[469. ]Cl. Cp. howue; Ed. houe; H. howen. Cl. Cp. H. glaze; rest glase.
[470. ]Cl. old.
[473. ]Cl. Ed. shap and; rest om. and.
[475. ]H. droofe; Cl. Cp. m[Editor: illegible character] drof. Cp. H. tanende.
[479. ]Ed. H2. conueyen.
[480. ]Cl. tok; [Editor: illegible character] toke.
[483. ]nil] Cl. wol.
[484. ]Cl. answered; H. Cp. Ed. answerde. Cl. heder; H. hyder; Cp. H2. hider.
[485. ]Cl. a-yen.
[488. ]Cl. ony.
[489. ]Cl. hens; Cp. H. hennes.
[490. ]Cl. vilonye.
[491. ]Cl. H. wold.
[492. ]Cm. wouke; Cl. Cp. H. wowke; Ed. weke.
[498. ]H2. alle; rest al.
[499. ]Cm. woukis; Cl. Cp. wykes; H. Ed. wekes. Cl. H. end.
[503. ]H. fynden; Cl. Cp. Cm. fynde.
[2.]‘That was the son of King Priam of Troy.’
[5.]fro ye, from you; observe the rime. The form ye is not here the nom. case, but the unemphatic form of the acc. you; pronounced (yǝ), where (ǝ) is the indefinite vowel, like the a in China. So in Shak. Two Gent. iv. 1. 3, 4, we have about ye (unemphatic) in l. 3, and you twice in l. 4.
[6.]Thesiphone, Tisiphone, one of the Furies, invoked as being a ‘goddess of torment.’ Cf. ‘furial pyne of helle,’ Sq. Ta. F 448.
[13.]fere, companion; viz. Tisiphone.
[16.]‘Nor dare pray to Love,’ &c.
[21.]Cf. Boccaccio: ‘Tuo sia l’ onore, e mio si sia l’ affanno,’ Fil. I. st. 5. And see ll. 1042, 3 below.
[57.]Here begins the story; cf. Fil. I. st. 7. Bell remarks that ‘a thousand shippes,’ in l. 58, may have been suggested by ‘mille carinae’ in Verg. Æn. ii. 198; cf. ‘anni decem’ in the same line, with l. 60.
[67.]Read éxpert. Calkas is Homer’s Calchas, Il. i. 69. He was a Greek, but Guido makes him a Trojan, putting him in the place of Homer’s Chryses. See the allit. Troy-book, 7886.
[70.]Delphicus, of Delphi; cf. Ovid, Met. ii. 543.
[77.]Ye, yea. wolde who-so nolde, whoever wished it or did not wish it. This idiomatic phrase is thus expressed in the MSS. Bell’s edition has wold who so or nolde, where the e in wolde is suppressed and the word or inserted without authority. I hesitate, as an editor, to alter an idiomatic phrase. Cf. will he, nill he, in which there is no or.
[91.]‘Deserve to be burnt, both skin and bones.’
[99.]Criseyde; Boccaccio has Griseida, answering to Homer’s Χρυσηΐδα, Il. i. 143. It was common, in the Middle Ages, to adopt the accusative form as the standard one, especially in proper names. Her father was Chryses; see note to l. 67. But Benoît de Sainte-Maure calls her Briseida, and Chryseis and Briseis seem to have been confused. The allit. Troy-book has Bresaide; l. 8029.
[119.]‘While it well pleases you’; good is used adverbially. Ital. ‘mentre t’ aggrada.’
[125.]‘And would have done so oftener, if,’ &c.
[126.]and hoom, and (went) home.
[132, 133.]This is a curious statement, and Chaucer’s object in making it is not clear. Boccaccio says expressly that she had neither son nor daughter (st. 15); and Benoît (l. 12977) calls her ‘la pucele.’
[136.]som day, one day; used quite generally.
[138.]‘And thus Fortune wheeled both of them up and down again.’ Alluding to the wheel of Fortune; see the Ballade on Fortune, l. 46, and note.
[145.]Troyane gestes, Trojan history; cf. the title of Guido delle Colonne’s book, viz. ‘Historia Troiana,’ which Chaucer certainly consulted, as shewn by several incidents in the poem.
[146.]Omer, Homer; whose account was considered untrustworthy by the medieval writers; see Ho. Fame, 1477, and note. Dares, Dares Phrygius; Dyte, Dictys Cretensis; see notes to Ho. Fame, 1467, 1468. These three authors really mean Guido delle Colonne, who professed to follow them.
[153.]Palladion, the Palladium or sacred image of Pallas, on the keeping of which the safety of Troy depended. It was stolen from Troy by Diomede and Ulysses; see Æneid, ii. 166. But Chaucer doubtless read the long account in Guido delle Colonne.
[171.]Hence Henrysoun, in his Testament of Criseyde, st. 12, calls her ‘the flower and A-per-se Of Troy and Greece.’ Cf. ‘She was a woman A-per-se, alon’; Romance of Partenay, 1148. Boccaccio’s image is much finer; he says that she surpassed other women as the rose does the violet. On the other hand, l. 175 is Chaucer’s own.
[172.]makelees, matchless, peerless; cf. A. S. gemaca.
[189.]lakken, to blame; see P. Pl. B. v. 132.
[192.]bayten, feed, feast (metaphorically); E. bait.
[205.]Ascaunces, as if; in l. 292, the Ital. text has Quasi dicesse, as if she said. See Cant. Ta. D 1745, G 838. It is tautological, being formed from E. as and the O. F. quanses, as if (Godefroy); so that the literal force is ‘as as if.’
[210.]‘And nevertheless [or, still] he (Cupid) can pluck as proud a peacock (as was Troilus).’ Cf. Prol. A 652.
[214-266.]These lines are Chaucer’s own.
[217.]falleth, happens; ne wenden, would not expect. In Ray’s Proverbs, ed. 1737, p. 279, is a Scotch proverb—‘All fails that fools thinks’ (sic); which favours the alternative reading given in the footnote.[ ]
[218.]Bayard, a name for a bay horse; see Can. Yem. Ta. G 1413.
[229.]wex a-fere, became on fire. Fere is a common Southern form, as a variant of fyre, though a-fyre occurs in Ho. Fame, 1858. The A. S. vowel is ȳ, the A. S. form being fȳr.
[239.]‘Has proved (to be true), and still does so.’
[257.]‘The stick that will bend and ply is better than one that breaks.’ Compare the fable of the Oak and the Reed; see bk. ii. 1387.
[266.]ther-to refere, revert thereto. Halliwell gives: ‘Refeere, to revert; Hoccleve.’ Chaucer here ends his own remarks, and goes back to the Filostrato.
[292.]Ascaunces, as if (she said); see note to l. 205.
[316.]awhaped, amazed, stupefied; see Anelida, 215; Leg. of Good Women, 132, 814, 2321; he was ‘not utterly confounded,’ but only dazed; cf. l. 322.
[327.]borneth, burnishes, polishes up; i. e. makes bright and cheerful. The rime shews that it is a variant spelling of burneth; cf. burned, burnished, Ho. Fame, 1387; Kn. Ta. A 1983.
[333.]Him tit, to him betideth; tit is for tydeth.
[336.]ordre, sect, brotherhood; a jesting allusion to the religious orders. So also ruled = under a religious rule.
[337.]noun-certeyn, uncertainty; cf. O. F. noncerteit, uncertainty (Godefroy); nounpower, want of power (P. Plowman); and F. nonchalance. Again spelt noun-certeyn, Compl. Venus, 46.
[340.]lay, law, ordinance; see Sq. Ta. F 18.
[344.]‘But observe this—that which ye lovers often avoid, or else do with a good intention, often will thy lady misconstrue it,’ &c.
[363.]a temple, i. e. in the temple.
[381.]First stands alone in the first foot. Cf. ll. 490, 603, 811.
[385.]Yelt, short for yeldeth, yields.
[394.]writ, writeth. Lollius; Chaucer’s reason for the use of this name is not known. Perhaps we may agree with Dr. Latham, who suggested (in a letter to the Athenæum, Oct. 3, 1868, p. 433), that Chaucer misread this line in Horace (Epist. i. 2. 1), viz. ‘Troiani belli scriptorem, maxime Lolli’; and thence derived the notion that Lollius wrote on the Trojan war. This becomes the more likely if we suppose that he merely saw this line quoted apart from the context. Chaucer does not seem to have read Horace for himself. As a matter of fact, ll. 400-420 are translated from the 88th sonnet of Petrarch. See note to Ho. of Fame, 1468. The following is the text of Petrarch’s sonnet:
In l. 401, whiche means ‘of what kind.’
[425.]Ital. text—‘Non so s’io dico a donna, ovvero a dea’; Fil. I. 38. Cf. Æneid, i. 327. Hence the line in Kn. Ta. A 1101.
[457.]That; in modern E., we should use But, or else said not for seyde.
[463.]Fled-de is here a plural form, the pp. being treated as an adjective. Cf. sprad-de, iv. 1422; whet-te, v. 1760.
[464.]savacioun; Ital. ‘salute.’ Mr. Rossetti thinks that salute here means ‘well-being’ or ‘health’; and perhaps savacioun is intended to mean the same, the literal sense being ‘safety.’
[465.]fownes, fawns; see Book of the Duch. 429. It is here used, metaphorically, to mean ‘young desires’ or ‘fresh yearnings.’ This image is not in Boccaccio.
[470.]I take the right reading to be felle, as in Cm. Ed., with the sense ‘destructive.’ As it might also mean ‘happened,’ other MSS. turned it into fille, which makes a most awkward construction. The sense is: ‘The sharp destructive assaults of the proof of arms [i. e. which afforded proof of skill in fighting], which Hector and his other brothers performed, not once made him move on that account only’; i. e. when he exerted himself, it was not for mere fighting’s sake. Chaucer uses fel elsewhere; the pl. felle is in Troil. iv. 44; and see Cant. Ta. D 2002, B 2019. For preve, proof, see l. 690.
[473, 4.]riden and abiden (with short i) rime with diden, and are past tenses plural. l. 474 is elliptical: ‘found (to be) one of the best, and (one of those who) longest abode where peril was.’
[483.]the deeth, i. e. the pestilence, the plague.
[488.]title, a name; he said it was ‘a fever.’
[517.]daunce, i. e. company of dancers. Cf. Ho. Fame, 639, 640.
[530-2.]‘For, by my hidden sorrow, (when it is) blased abroad, I shall be befooled more, a thousand times, than the fool of whose folly men write rimes.’ No particular reference seems to be intended by l. 532; the Ital. text merely has ‘più ch’ altro,’ more than any one.
[557.]attricioun, attrition. ‘An imperfect sorrow for sin, as if a bruising which does not amount to utter crushing (contrition); horror of sin through fear of punishment . . . while contrition has its motive in the love of God;’ New E. Dict.
[559.]ley on presse, compress, diminish; cf. Prol. A 81.
[560.]holinesse, the leanness befitting a holy state.
[626.]‘That one, whom excess causes to fare very badly.’
[631-679.]Largely original; but, for l. 635, see note to Bk. III. 329.
[638-644.]There is a like passage in P. Pl. C. xxi. 209-217. Chaucer, however, here follows Le Roman de la Rose, 21819-40, q. v.
[648.]amayed, dismayed; O. F. esmaier. So in Bk. IV. l. 641.
[654.]Oënone seems to have four syllables. MS. H. has Oonone; MS. Cm. senome (over an erasure); MS. Harl. 3943, Tynome. Alluding to the letter of Œnone to Paris in Ovid, Heroid. v.
[659-665.]Not at all a literal translation, but it gives the general sense of Heroid. v. 149-152:
Ipse repertor opis means Phœbus, who ‘first fond art of medicyne;’ Pheraeas, i. e. of Pherae, refers to Pherae in Thessaly, the residence of king Admetus. Admetus gained Alcestis for his wife by the assistance of Apollo, who, according to some accounts, served Admetus out of attachment to him, or, according to other accounts, because he was condemned to serve a mortal for a year. Chaucer seems to adopt a theory that Apollo loved Admetus chiefly for his daughter’s sake. The usual story about Apollo is his love for Daphne.
[674.]‘Even though I had to die by torture;’ cf. Kn. Ta. A 1133.
[686.]‘Until it pleases him to desist.’
[688.]‘To mistrust every one, or to believe every one.’
[694.]The wyse, Solomon; see Eccles. iv. 10.
[699.]Niobe; ‘lacrimas etiamnum marmora manant;’ Ovid, Met. vi. 311.
[705.]‘That eke out (increase) their sorrows,’ &c.
[707.]‘And care not to seek for themselves another cure.’
[708.]A proverb; see note to Can. Yem. Ta. G 746.
[713.]harde grace, misfortune; cf. Cant. Ta. G 665, 1189. Tyrwhitt quotes Euripides, Herc. Furens, 1250: Γέμω κακω̂ν δή, κοὐκέτ’ ἐσθ’ ὅπου τεθῃ̑.
[730, 731.]From Boethius, Bk. I. Pr. 2. l. 14, and Pr. 4. l. 2.
[739.]‘On whose account he fared so.’
[740.]Compare: ‘He makes a rod for his own breech’; Hazlitt’s Proverbs.
[745.]‘For it (love) would sufficiently spring to light of itself.’
[747.]Cf. Rom. de la Rose, 7595-6.
[763.]‘But they do not care to seek a remedy.’
[780.]Pronounced ben’cite; see note to Cant. Ta. B 1170.
[786.]Ticius, Tityos. MS. H2. wrongly has Siciphus. ‘The fowl that highte voltor, that eteth the stomak or the giser of Tityus, is so fulfild of his song that it nil eten ne tyren no more;’ tr. of Boeth. Bk. III. Met. 12. 28. The original has:
See also Verg. Æn. vi. 595; Ovid, Met. iv. 456.
[811.]First foot deficient, as in ll. 603, 1051, 1069, &c. winter, years. Perhaps imitated from Le Rom. de la Rose, 21145-9.
[846, 847.]See Boethius, Bk. ii. Pr. 3. 52-54.
[848.]From Boethius, Lib. II. Pr. 1: ‘si manere incipit, fors esse desistit.’ See p. 26 above, l. 83.
[1-3.]These lines somewhat resemble Dante, Purgat. i. 1-3.
[7.]calendes, the introduction to the beginning; see bk. v. l. 1634. Thus the ‘kalends of January’ precede that month, being the period from Dec. 14 to Dec. 31.
[8.]Cleo; so in most copies; H2. has Clyo; Clio, the muse of history.
[14.]Latin seems, in this case, to mean Italian, which was called Latino volgare.
[21.]‘A blind man cannot judge well of colours;’ a proverb.
[22.]Doubtless from Horace’s Ars Poetica, 71-3; probably borrowed at second-hand.
[28.]A proverb. In the Proverbs of Hendyng, l. 29, we have: ‘Ase fele thede, ase fele thewes,’ i. e. so many peoples, so many customs. See l. 42 below. Cf. Boethius, Bk. ii. Pr. 7. 49 (p. 47).
[36.]went, for wendeth; i. e. goes; pres. tense.
[46.]‘Yet all is told, or must be told.’
[48.]bitit, for bitydeth; i. e. betides, happens.
[55.]Bole, Bull, the sign Taurus. On the third of May, in Chaucer’s time, the sun would be in about the 20th degree of Taurus. The epithet white is from Ovid, Met. ii. 852.
[63.]wente, sb., a turn; i. e. he tossed about.
[64-68.]forshapen, metamorphosed. Progne was changed into a swallow; Ovid, Met. vi. 668. Tereus carried off Progne’s sister Philomela; see Leg. of Good Women (Philomela).
[74.]‘And knew that the moon was in a good plight (position) for him to take his journey.’ That is, the moon’s position was propitious; see note to Man of Lawes Tale, B 312.
[77.]‘Janus, god of (the) entry;’ see Ovid, Fasti, i. 125.
[81.]‘And found (that) she and two other ladies were sitting.’ Sete (A. S. sǣton) is the pt. t. pl., not the pp.
[84.]The celebrated story of the Siege of Thebes, known to Chaucer through the Thebais of Statius; see bk. v. 1484. And see l. 100.
[87.]Ey, eh! a note of exclamation, of frequent occurrence in the present poem.
[103.]lettres rede, i. e. the rubric describing the contents of the next section.
[100-105.]Œdipus unwittingly slew his father Laius; and the two sons of Œdipus contended for Thebes. For Amphiorax, see note to bk. v. 1500, and to Anelida, 57.
[108.]bokes twelve; the 12 Books of the Thebais. The death of Amphioraus is related at the end of Book vii.
[110.]barbe, ‘part of a woman’s dress, still sometimes worn by nuns, consisting of a piece of white plaited linen, passed over or under the chin, and reaching midway to the waist;’ New E. Dict. She wore it because she was a widow; see the quotations in the New E. Dict., esp. ‘wearing of barbes at funerals.’ And see Barbuta in Ducange.
[112.]‘Let us perform some rite in honour of May;’ see note to Kn. Ta. A 1500.
[117.]The right reading is necessarily sete, for A. S. sǣte, 3 p. s. pt. t. subj. of sitten; ‘it would befit.’ Cf. seten, they sat, 81, 1192.
[134.]‘And I am your surety,’ i.e. you may depend upon me; see bk. i. 1038.
[151.]unkouth, unknown, strange; hence, very; Sc. unco’.
[154.]wal, wall, defence; yerde, rod, scourge, as in bk. i. 740.
[167.]From Le Rom. de la Rose, 5684-6:—
Cf. Lucan, Phar. i. 92.
[236.]Withoute, excepting sweethearts; or, excepting by way of passionate love. The latter is the usual sense in Chaucer.
[273.]‘Therefore I will endeavour to humour her intelligence.’
[294.]so well bigoon, so well bestead, so fortunate. Cf. Parl. Foules, 171.
[318.]Which . . his, whose; cf. that . . his, Kn. Ta. A 2710.
[328.]‘Then you have fished to some purpose;’ ironical. To fish fair is to catch many fish.
[329.]What mende ye, what do you gain, though we both lose?
[344.]Gems were supposed to have hidden virtues.
[387.]fele, find out, investigate.
[391, 2.]Cf. Ovid, Art. Amat. ii. 107: ‘Ut ameris, amabilis esto.’
[393.]In the same, 113, we find: ‘Forma bonum fragile est,’ &c.
[396.]‘Go and love; for, when old, no one will have you.’
[398.]‘I am warned too late, when it has past away, quoth Beauty.’
[400.]The ‘king’s fool’ got the hint from Ovid, Art. Amat. ii. 118: ‘Iam uenient rugae,’ &c.
[403.]crowes feet, crow’s feet; wrinkles at the corners of the eyes; from the shape. So in Spenser, Shep. Kal. December, 136: ‘And bv myne eie the crow his clawe doth write.’
[408.]breste a wepe, burst out a-weeping.
[413.]Ret, for redeth, advises; cf. P. Plowman C. iv. 410, and note.
[425.]Pallas; perhaps invoked with reference to the Palladium of Troy; bk. I. l. 153. Moreover, Pallas was a virgin goddess.
[434.]‘Of me no consideration need be taken.’
[477.]‘Except that I will not give him encouragement;’ see 1222.
[483.]‘But when the cause ceases, the disease ceases.’
[507.]gon, gone; ‘not very long ago.’
[525.]mea culpa, by my fault; words used in confession: see P. Plowman, B. v. 77, and note.
[527.]Ledest the fyn, guidest the end; cf. Boeth. Bk. iv. Pr. 6. 149.
[537.]biwryen, used in place of biwreyen, to bewray. The same rather arbitrary form appears in Parl. Foules, 348.
[539.]‘Because men cover them up,’ &c.
[1-38.]This is an exceptionally difficult passage, and some of the editions make great nonsense of it, especially of ll. 15-21. It is, however, imitated from stanzas 74-79 of the Filostrato, Book III; where the invocation is put into the mouth of Troilus.
[2.]The planet Venus was considered to be in ‘the third heaven.’ The ‘heavens’ or spheres were named, respectively, after the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the ‘fixed stars;’ beyond which was the Primum Mobile, the earth being in the centre of all, and immoveable. Sometimes the spheres of the seven planets were reckoned backwards from Saturn, Venus being then in the fifth heaven; see Lenvoy a Scogan, 9, and the note.
[3.]‘O favourite of the Sun, O dear daughter of Jove!’ Venus was considered a fortunate planet. Perhaps it is best to quote the Italian text here:—
[11.]vapour, influence; Ital. Vapor (l. 598).
[15.]The readings in this stanza are settled by the Ital. text. Thus, in ll. 17, 19, 20, read him, not hem. Comeveden, didst move or instigate; agreeing with ye, for which Mod. E. uses thou. ‘Thou didst first instigate Jove to those glad effects (influences), through which all things live and exist; and didst make him amorous of mortal things; and, at thy pleasure, didst ever give him, in love, success or trouble; and, in a thousand forms, didst send him down to (gain) love on earth; and he caught those whom it pleased you (he should catch).’
[22.]Venus was supposed to appease the angry planet Mars; see Compl. of Mars, 36-42.
[27.]‘According as a man wishes.’
[29.]‘Tu in unità le case e li cittadi, Li regni, . . . Tien.’
I. e. ‘Thou only knowest the hidden qualities of things, whence thou formest such a construction, that thou makest to marvel any one who knows not how to estimate thy power.’ Chaucer seems to have used construe because suggested by construtto, but he really uses it as answering to sa (in the fourth line), and omits the words ’l costrutto vi metti tal altogether. Hence ll. 33-35 mean: ‘when they cannot explain how it may come to pass that she loves him, or why he loves her; (so as to shew) why this fish, and not that one, comes to the weir.’
[35.]were, weir, pool where fish are caught; see Parl. Foules, 138, and note.
[36.]‘You have imposed a law on folks in this universe;’ Ital. ‘Tu legge, o dea, poni all’ universo.’
[44, 45.]Inhelde, pour in. Caliope, Calliope, muse of epic poetry; similarly invoked by Dante, Purg. i. 9.
[87.]‘Though he was not pert, nor made difficulties; nor was he too bold, (as if about) to sing a mass for a fool.’ The last expression was probably proverbial; it seems to mean to speak without hesitation or a feeling of respect.
[115.]to watre wolde, would turn to water; cf. Squi. Ta. F 496.
[120.]‘I? what? i. e. ‘I? what (am I to do)?’ In l. 122, Pandarus repeats her words, mockingly: ‘You say I? what? why, of course you should pity him.’
[136-138.]‘And I (am) to have comfort, as it pleases you, (being at the same time) under your correction, (so as to have what is) equal to my offence, as (for instance) death.’ See Cant. Ta. B 1287.
[150.]‘By the feast of Jupiter, who presides over nativities.’ The reason for the use of natal is not obvious. Cf. ‘Scit Genius, natale comes qui temperat astrum;’ Horat. Ep. ii. 2. 187.
[188.]‘I seem to hear the town-bells ringing for this miracle, though no hand pulls the ropes.’
[193, 194.]and oon, And two, ‘both the one of you and the other.’
[198.]bere the belle, take the former place, take precedence; like the bell-wether that heads the flock. See the New E. Dict.
[228.]‘Straight as a line,’ i. e. directly, at once.
[294.]See Manc. Ta. H 333, and note.
[299.]‘Thou understandest and knowest enough proverbs against the vice of gossiping, even if men spoke truth as often as they lie.’
[308.]‘No boaster is to be believed, in the natural course of things.’
[328, 329.]drat, dreadeth. Cf. ‘Felix, quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum.’ But Chaucer took it from Le Rom. de la Rose, 8041-2: ‘Moult a benéurée vie Cil qui par autrui se chastie.’
[340.]‘And a day is appointed for making up the charters’ (which will particularise what she has granted you); metaphorical.
[349.]richesse, abundance; not a happy word, but suggested by the Ital. text: ‘I sospir ch’egli aveva a gran dovizia;’ Fil. iii. 11. Dovisia (Lat. diuitiae) is precisely ‘richesse.’ Bell has rehetyng, i. e. comforting (from O. F. rehaiter, reheiter), which gives no sense; and explains it by ‘reheating!’
[354.]lusty, lusty person; cf. Cant. Ta. A 165, 208.
[377.]‘Or durst (do so), or should know (how).’
[380.]stokked, fastened in the stocks; cf. Acts xvi. 24.
[404.]Departe it so, make this distinction.
[410.]frape, company, troop. Marked by Tyrwhitt as not understood. Other examples occur. ‘With hem a god gret frape;’ Adam Davy, &c., ed. Furnivall, p. 60, col. 1, text 3, l. 390; and see Allit. Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 2163, 2804, 3548. Godefroy gives O. F. frap, a multitude, and frapaille, rabble.
[445.]‘And wished to be seised of that which he lacked.’
[497.]‘Or to enumerate all the looks and words of one that is in such uncertainty.’
[502.]as seith; but it does not appear that Boccaccio says anything of the kind. The same remark applies to l. 575.
[510.]Fulfelle is a Kentish form, the e answering to A. S. y. Similar forms occur in Gower. See note to Book Duch. 438.
[526.]Scan: Dréd | elées | it cleer,’ &c. The sense is: ‘it was clear, in the direction of the wind, from every magpie and every spoil-sport.’ I. e. no one could detect them; they kept (like hunters) well to leeward, and there were no magpies or telltale birds to windward, to give an alarm.
[529.]Scan: In this matér-e, both-e frem’d. fremed, strange, wild.
[542.]holy, i. e. sacred to Apollo. From Ovid, Met. i. 566: ‘laurea . . uisa est agitasse cacumen.’
[545.]‘And therefore let no one hinder him.’
[572.]The readings all shew various corruptions of thurfte, which none of the scribes understood; see thurfen, tharf, in Stratmann. This is not the only place where thurfte has been ousted from the text. Cf. thar (for tharf) in the Reves Ta. A 4320, &c. Yow thurfte have, you would need (to) have. Yow is the dat. case, governed by the impers. verb. The reading yow durste turns yow (an accusative) into an imaginary nominative; but the nom. form is ye, which the cribes did not venture to substitute.
[1.]In the Proem, ll. 1-3 correspond to Fil. iii. st. 94, ll. 1-3; and ll. 8 and 10 to the same stanza, ll. 4 and 7. The rest is original.
[3.]Cf. Boethius, lib. ii. Pr. 1: ‘Intelligo . . illius [Fortunae] . . cum his, quos eludere nititur, blandissimam familiaritatem.’
[5.]hent and blent, for hendeth and blendeth, catches and blinds.
[6, 7.]Cf. Boethius, lib. ii. Met. 2: ‘Ultroque gemitus, dura quos fecit [Fortuna], ridet.’ Whence, in Le Roman de la Rose, 8076-9, the passage which Chaucer here imitates; the mowe = F. la moe.
[22.]Herines, i. e. Furies; used as the pl. of Erynis or Erinnys; see note to Compl. to Pite, 92. Their names (see l. 24) were Megaera, Alecto, and Tisiphone. Bell’s remark, that Chaucer found these names in Boccaccio, does not seem to be founded on fact. He more likely found them in Vergil, who has Erinnys, Æn. ii. 336, 573; vii. 447, 570; Alecto, id. vii. 324, 341, 405, 415, 445, 476; Megæra, id. xii. 846; Tisiphone, vi. 571, x. 761. But I suppose that, even in Chaucer’s time, MS. note-books existed, containing such information as the names of the Furies. Chaucer even knew that some (as Æschylus) considered them to be the daughters of Night.
[25.]Quiryne, Quirinus. Ovid, Fasti, ii. 476, tells us that Quirinus was Romulus; and just above, ii. 419, that Romulus and Remus were sons of Mars.
[29.]Ligginge . . The Grekes, while the Greeks lay.
[32.]Hercules Lyoun, Hercules’ lion, the lion of Hercules; alluding to the lion’s skin which Hercules wore. Valerius Flaccus, Argonauticon, lib. i. 263, has ‘Herculeo . . leoni;’ and Chaucer seems to have read this author, or at any rate his first book; see Leg. of Good Women, l. 1457, and the note. However, Chaucer shews his knowledge of the story clearly enough in his tr. of Boethius, Bk. iv. Met. 7. The reference is, simply, to the sign Leo. The sun was in this sign during the latter part of July and the former part of August; but we are further told that he was in the ‘breast’ of Leo, and therefore near the very bright star Regulus, called in Arabic Kalbalased, or the Lion’s Heart, which was situated almost on the zodiac, and (at that time) near the 20th degree of the sign. This gives the date as being the first week in August.
[41.]in the berd, in the beard, i. e. face to face.
[47.]shour, assault, attack; see note to Bk. iii. 1064.
[50-4.]From Boccaccio. The right names are Antenor, Polydamas, Menestheus or Mnestheus, Xanthippus, Sarpedon, Polymnestor, Polites, Riphaeus, all mentioned by Boccaccio, who probably took them from Guido delle Colonne. But Boccaccio omits ‘Phebuseo,’ and I do not know who is meant. Several of these names may be found in the allit. Destruction of Troy, ed. Panton and Donaldson; as Antenor and his son Polydamas, at ll. 3947, 3954; Xanthippus, king of Phrygia, l. 6107; Sarpedon, prince of Lycia, l. 5448; and in Lydgate’s Siege of Troy, Bk. ii. capp. 16, 20. Polymestor, or Polymnestor, was king of the Thracian Chersonese, and an ally of the Trojans. Polites was a son of Priam (Æneid. ii. 526). Mnestheus is repeatedly mentioned in Vergil (Æn. v. 116, &c.), and is also called Menestheus (id. x. 129); he is a different person from Menestheus, king of Athens, who fought on the other side. For Riphaeus, see Verg. Aen. ii. 339. The Ital. forms are Antenorre, Polidamas, Monesteo, Santippo, Serpedon, Polinestorre, Polite, Rifeo. Observe that Monostéo, Riphéo, Phebuséo rime together, with an accent on the penultimate.
[62.]thassege, for the assege, the siege; Barbour has assege, siege, in his Bruce, xvii. 270, xx. 8; pl. assegis, xx. 12. MS. H. wrongly has thessage. See l. 1480 below.
[64.]Calkas, Calchas; see Bk. i. 66, 71.
[79.]This town to shende, i. e. (it will be best for you) to despoil this town.
[86.]resport, regard. This strange word is certified by its reappearance in l. 850, where it rimes to discomfórt. It is given in Roquefort, but only in a technical sense. It was, doubtless, formed from O. F. esport, deportment, demeanour, regard (Godefroy), by prefixing re-; and means ‘demeanour towards,’ or (here) simply ‘regard,’ as also in l. 850. The etymology is from Lat. re-, ex, and portare. Cf. F. rapport, from re-, ad, and portare.
[96.]in hir sherte, in her smock only; i. e. without much rich clothing; ‘as she was.’
[99.]‘For because I saw no opportunity.’
[112.]as yerne, as briskly as possible, very soon; so in l. 201.
[120-4.]Laomedon, father of Priam, founded Troy. Apollo and Poseidon (Neptune) had been condemned for a while to serve him for wages. But Laomedon refused them payment, and incurred their displeasure.
[133.]Antenor had been taken prisoner by the Greeks; see Lydgate, Siege of Troye, Bk. iii. ch. 24. Lydgate’s version is that Antenor was to be exchanged for Thoas, king of Calydon; and, at the request of Chalcas, it was arranged that Antenor should be exchanged for both Thoas and Criseyde (see l. 138); to which Priam consented.
[143.]parlement; here Boccaccio has parlamento, i. e. a parley. Chaucer gives it the English sense.
[168.]‘The love of you both, where it was before unknown.’
[197.]From Juvenal, Sat. x. ll. 2-4:—
Cf. Dryden’s translation and Dr. Johnson’s poem on the Vanity of Human Wishes.
[198, 9.]what is to yerne, what is desirable. offence, disappointment.
[203.]mischaunce; because Antenor contrived the removal from Troy of the Palladium, on which the safety of the city depended. Cf. Lydgate, Siege of Troye, Bk. iv. ch. 34; or the account by Caxton, quoted in Specimens of English from 1394-1579, ed. Skeat, p. 89.
[210.]here and howne. The sense of this phrase is not known; but, judging by the context, it seems to mean—‘thus said every one, such was the common rumour.’ It has been explained as ‘thus said hare and hound,’ i. e. people of all sorts; but the M.E. form of hare is hare (A.S. hara), and the M.E. form of ‘hound’ never appears as howne, which, by the way, is evidently dissyllabic. In the absence of further evidence, guesswork is hardly profitable; but I should like to suggest that the phrase may mean ‘gentle and savage.’ The M.E. here, gentle, occurs in Layamon, 25867; and in Amis and Amiloun, 16 (Stratmann); from A.S. hēore. Houne answers, phonetically, to an A.S. Hūna, which may mean a Hun, a savage; cf. Ger. Hüne.
[225.]From Dante, Inf. iii. 112:—
[239.]This stanza follows Boccaccio closely; but Boccaccio, in his turn, here imitates a passage in Dante, Inf. xii. 22:—
[251, 2.]Almost repeated in the Clerk Ta. E 902, 3; see note to the latter line, and cf. Gower, Conf. Amant. ii. 14—‘Right as a lives creature She semeth,’ &c.
[263.]In MS. H., thus is glossed by ‘sine causa.’
[272.]Accent misérie on e; ‘Nella miseria;’ Inf. v. 123.
[279.]combre-world, encumbrance of the world, a compound epithet. It is used by Hoccleve, in his lament for Chaucer, De Regim. Principum, st. 299. ‘A cumber-world, yet in the world am left;’ Drayton, Pastorals, Ecl. ii. 25.
[286.]gerful, changeable; see note to Kn. Ta. A 1536.
[300.]Edippe, Œdipus, king of Thebes, who put out his own eyes on finding that he had slain his father Laius and married his mother Jocasta; Statius, Theb. i. 46.
[302.]Rossetti thus translates Fil. iv. st. 34: ‘O soul, wretched and astray, Why fliest thou not out of the most ill-fortuned body that lives? O soul brought low, part from the body, and follow Chryseis.’
[305.]unneste, glossed in H. by ‘go out of thi nest;’ correctly.
[318.]Read my, not the or thy; Rossetti thus translates Fil. iv. st. 36: ‘O my Chryseis, O sweet bliss of the sorrowing soul which calls on thee! Who will any more give comfort to my pains?’
[330.]unholsom; Boccaccio has insano, Fil. iv. st. 38. ‘I think it pretty clear that B. means insane in our ordinary sense for that word; but Chaucer’s unholsom is no doubt founded on B.’s epithet, and is highly picturesque.’—Rossetti.
[356, 7.]Nearly repeated in Man of Lawes Ta. B 608, 9. See l. 882.
[381.]‘As certainly do I wish it were false, as I know it is true.’
[392.]propretee, his own indefeasible possession; see Boethius, Bk. ii. Pr. 2. 9 (p. 27), 61 (p. 28).
[407.]Pandarus took his morality from Ovid; cf. Amorum lib. ii. 4. 10-44: ‘Centum sunt causae, cur ego semper amem;’ &c.
[413.]heroner, a large falcon for herons; faucon for rivere, a goshawk for waterfowl. See note to Sir Thopas, B 1927.
[414, 5.]From Boccaccio, who does not, however, give the name of the author of the saying. The remark ‘as Zanzis writeth’ is Chaucer’s own. It is quite clear that Zanzis in this passage is the same as the Zanzis in the Physiciens Tale, C 16; and he is no other than Zeuxis the painter. I do not suppose that Chaucer had any special reason for assigning to him the saying, but his name was as useful as that of any one else, and the medieval method of reference is frequently so casual and light-hearted that there is nothing to wonder at. Besides, we are distinctly told (l. 428) that Pandarus was speaking for the nonce, i. e. quite at random. The real author is Ovid: ‘Successore nouo uincitur omnis amor;’ Remed. Amor. 462.
[460.]pleyen raket, play at rackets, knocking the ball forwards and backwards; alluding to the rebound of the ball after striking the wall.
[461.]Netle in, dokke out means, as Chaucer says, first one thing and then another. The words are taken from a charm for curing the sting of a nettle, repeated whilst the patient rubs in the juice from a dock-leaf. The usual formula is simply, ‘in dock, out nettle,’ for which see Brockett’s Glossary of North-Country Words, s. v. dockon (dock); but Chaucer is doubtless correct. He refers to a fuller form of words, given in Notes and Queries, 1st Ser. iii. 368:—
Akermann’s Glossary of Wiltshire Words gives a third formula, as follows:—
i. e. nettle shan’t have ne’er one. See also N. and Q. 1st Ser. iii. 205, 368; xi. 92; Athenæum, Sept. 12, 1846; Brand, Pop. Antiq. iii. 315.
[462.]‘Now ill luck befall her, that may care for thy wo.’
[481-3.]gabbestow, liest thou. Ll. 482, 3 are a reproduction of Pandarus’ own saying, in Bk. iii. 1625-8.
[493.]Deficient in the first foot; read—‘I | that liv’d’ | &c.
[497.]formely; Cm. formaly; for formelly, i. e. formally.
[503.]From Boethius, Bk. i. Met. 1. 13, 14 (p. 1).
[506.]Troilus speaks as if dead already. ‘Well wot I, whilst I lived in peace, before thou (death) didst slay me, I would have given (thee) hire;’ i. e. a bribe, not to attack me.
[520.]alambyk, alembic; i. e. a retort, or vessel used in distilling; in Cant. Ta. G 794, MS. E. has the pl. alambikes, and most other MSS. have alembikes. The word was afterwards split up into a lembick or a limbeck; see Macb. i. 7. 67. Chaucer took this from Le Rom. de la Rose, 6406-7:—
[3.]Parcas, Fates; the accusative case, as usual.
[7.]Lachesis, the Fate that apportions the thread of life; often represented with the spindle, though this is properly the attribute of Clotho alone. Clotho spins, Lachesis apportions, and Atropos cuts, the thread of life. Atropos has been mentioned above; Bk. iv. 1208, 1546. Statius mentions all three in lib. iii. of his Thebaid; Clotho at l. 556, Lachesis (Lachesim putri uacuantem saecula penso) at l. 642, and Atropos at l. 68.
[8.]For golden tressed, MS. Harl. 3943 has Auricomus tressed (!). Cf. ‘Sol auricomus, cingentibus Horis;’ Valerius Flaccus, Argonaut. iv. 92.
[12, 13.]sone of Hecuba, Troilus; hir, Criseyde.
[15-9.]Note that ll. 15, 17 rime on -éde, with close e, but ll. 16, 18, 19 rime on -ède, with open e. Cf. Anelida, 299-307.
[22-6.]Lines 22, 24 rime on -ōre, with long close o; ll. 23, 25, 26 on -ǒre, with (original) short open o.
[25.]crop, shoot, upper part of a tree. more, root, still in use in Hants; A. S. more, moru; see P. Plowman, B. xvi. 5, C. xviii. 21.
[53.]‘Upon the report of such behaviour of his.’
[65.]So in Boccaccio: ‘Con un falcone in pugno;’ Fil. v. st. 10.
[67.]A mistranslation. Boccaccio’s word is not valle, a valley, but vallo, a rampart. The first foot lacks a syllable.
[71.]Antenor was the Trojan, captured by the Greeks, who was restored to Troy in exchange for Thoas and Criseyde.
[88.]sone of Tydeus, i. e. Diomede, often called Tydides; as in Æneid. i. 97, 471, &c.
[89.]To know one’s creed is very elementary knowledge.
[90.]by the reyne hir hente; Rossetti thinks Chaucer misunderstood di colei si piglia (Fil. v. 13), which might mean ‘takes hold of her,’ but really means ‘takes a fancy to her.’
[98.]This resembles ‘to take care of No. 1.’
[101.]make it tough, raise a difficulty, viz. by disparaging Troilus.
[106.]coude his good, knew what was good for him, knew what he was about. Bell says—‘understood good manners.’
[128.]helply; we now say ‘helpful,’ i. e. serviceable. to my might, to the best of my power.
[143.]O god of love, one and the same god of love.
[151.]this, contracted form of this is. enseled, sealed up.
[158.]As paramours, as by way of love. Cf. l. 332.
[180.]See below (l. 530), and Man of Lawes Ta. B 697. We can read either brast (burst), or braste (would burst).
[182.]sye, to sink down; A.S. sīgan; see siȝen in Stratmann.
[194.]mewet, mute; as in the Court of Love, 148. Mewet, muwet, or muet is from the O.F. muët, orig. dissyllabic, and answering to a Low Lat. diminutive type *mutettum. The E. word is now obsolete, being displaced by the simple form mute, borrowed directly from Lat. mutus, which in O.F. became mu. Mute is common in Shakespeare. Lydgate has: ‘And also clos and muët as a stone;’ Siege of Thebes, pt. iii. § 8. In Merlin, ed. Wheatley, p. 172, we find ‘stille and mewet as though thei hadde be dombe.’
[208.]Cipryde, i. e. Cypris, or Venus; see note to Parl. Foules, 277.
[212.]The -ie in furie is rapidly slurred over. Ixion is accented on the first syllable. Ixion was bound, in hell, to an ever-revolving wheel; Georg. iii. 38; Æn. vi. 601.
[249.]as mete, as (for instance) dream; see l. 251.
[283.]‘Although he had sworn (to do so) on forfeit of his head.’
[304.]pálestrál, i. e. games consisting of wrestling - matches and similar contests; from Lat. palaestra; see Verg. Æn. iii. 280, 281; and G. Douglas, ed. Small, vol. iii. p. 52, l. 24. There is a description of such games, held at a funeral, in Statius, Theb. vi., which is imitated by Chaucer in the Knightes Tale; see note to A 2863. Vigile (l. 305) is the same as Chaucer’s liche-wake; see note to A 2958.
[306.]He means that his steed, sword, and helm are to be offered up to Mars, and his shield to Pallas, at his funeral; cf. Kn. Ta. A 2889-2894.
[319.]Ascaphilo, a transposed form of Ascalaphus, whom Proserpine changed into an owl; Ovid, Met. v. 539. So also Adriane for Ariadne. Bell’s note, that the form of Ascaphilo is Italian, and helps to prove that Chaucer here follows Boccaccio is misleading; for Boccaccio does not mention Ascalaphus.
[321.]Mercury was supposed to convey men’s souls to Hades. See l. 1827 below, and note.
[332.]paramours, passionately; an adverb, as usual; cf. l. 158.
[345.]By freendes might, by constraint of their relatives.
[350.]hurt, for hurteth, hurts; present tense.
[360.]On dreams, cf. Non. Pr. Ta. B 4113-4129, 4280-4.
[365-8.]From Le Rom. de la Rose, 18709-12, q. v.
[379.]Lit. ‘Well is it, concerning dreams, to these old wives;’ i. e. these old women set a value on dreams.
[387.]Boccaccio has: ‘a te stesso perdona,’ i. e. spare thyself; Chaucer takes it literally—‘forgive thyself.’
[403.]Sarpedon had been taken prisoner by the Greeks (iv. 52). Neither Boccaccio nor Chaucer explains how he had got back to Troy. See l. 431.
[409.]iouken, slumber; cf. P. Plowman, C. xix. 126. It was chiefly used as a term in falconry, and applied to hawks. In the Boke of St. Albans, fol. a 6, we are told that it is proper to say that ‘your hauke Ioukith, and not slepith.’ From O. F. joquier, jouquier; see Godefroy.
[421.]of fyne force, by very necessity.
[451.]I read ‘piëtous,’ as in MS. H., not ‘pitous,’ for the sake of the metre, as in Bk. iii. 1444; cf. pietee, id. 1033. Perhaps Chaucer was thinking of the Ital. pietoso. We also find the spelling pitevous, for which form there is sufficient authority; see Wyclif, 2 Tim. iii. 12, Titus ii. 12; Rob. of Glouc. ed. Wright, 5884 (footnote); cf. Mod. E. piteous. Chaucer’s usual word is pitous, as in Cant. Ta. B 449, 1059, C 298, &c.
[460.]For, because; as frequently.
[469.]‘Fortune intended to glaze his hood still better.’ To ‘glaze one’s hood’ was to furnish a man with a glass hood, a jocular phrase for to mock or expose to attack; because a glass hood would be no defence at all. Chaucer himself admirably illustrates this saying in a passage which has already occurred above; see Bk. ii. 867.
[478.]her-e is dissyllabic; as in Ho. Fame, 980, 1014, 1885, 1912, &c.
[479.]congeyen us, bid us take leave, dismiss us.
[484.]‘Did we come here to fetch light for a fire, and run home again?’ A man who borrows a light must hurry back before it goes out.
[505.]Hasel-wode, hazel-wood; an allusion to a popular saying, expressive of incredulity. See note to l. 1174 below. Not the same proverb as that in Bk. iii. 890.