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Saint Francis of Assisi, The Writings of Saint Francis of Assisi 
The Writings of Saint Francis of Assisi, newly translated into English with an Introduction and Notes by Father Paschal Robinson (Philadelphia: The Dolphin Press, 1906).
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Table of Contents
THE WRITINGS of ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI
to the most reverend Father Denis Schuler the one hundred and fifth successor of saint francis as minister general of the friars minor[Back to Table of Contents]
THE writings of St. Francis may, as is obvious, be considered from more than one point of view. Premising this, we are afforded a clue to the difficulty which has led students of Franciscan sources to divide themselves into two camps as to the objective value of these writings. Indeed, one writer1 goes so far as to compare the attitude of modern scholars toward them to that of the “Spiritual” and Conventual Friars respectively in the first century of Franciscan history. For while one party, led by M. Paul Sabatier,2 attaches what some regard as almost undue weight to the writings of St. Francis as a source of our knowledge of him, the other party, following Mgr. Faloci Pulignani,3 displays, we are told, a tendency to belittle their importance. The truth is, as Professor Muller long ago pointed out,4 that these writings afford us little if any information as to the life of their author, a fact which may perhaps account for their comparative neglect by so many of the Saint’s biographers, but it is not less true that they bear the stamp of his personality and reflect his spirit even more faithfully than the Legends written down on the very morrow of his death by those who had known him the best of all.1 For this reason they are well worth all the serious study that scholars outside the Franciscan Order are now beginning to give to them.
To say that the writings of St. Francis reflect his personality and his spirit is but another way of saying that they are at once formidably mystic and exquisitely human; that they combine great elevation of thought with much picturesqueness of expression. This twofold element, which found its development later on in the prose of mystics like St Bonaventure and in the verse of poets like Jacopone da Todi, and which has ever been a marked characteristic of Franciscan ascetic literature, leads back to the writings of the Founder as to the humble upper waters of a mighty stream. St. Francis had the soul of an ascetic and the heart of a poet. His unbounded faith had an almost lyric sweetness about it; his deep sense of the spiritual is often clothed with the character of romance. This intimate union of the supernatural and the natural is nowhere more strikingly manifested than in the writings of St. Francis, which, after the vicissitudes of well nigh seven hundred winters, are still fragrant with the fragrance of the Seraphic springtide
Important as the doctrinal aspect of St. Francis’ writings must of necessity be to all who would understand his life—since “the springs of action are to be found in belief, and conduct ultimately rests upon conviction”—it is foreign to the object of the present volume. I am here concerned with the literary and historical aspect of these writings. Suffice it to say that St. Francis’ doctrine,1 which received, so to speak, the Divine Imprimatur upon the heights of La Verna two years before his death,2 is nothing more or less than a paraphrase of the Sermon on the Mount. Nowhere can there be found a simpler literalness in the following of the “poverty, humility, and holy Gospel of the Lord Jesus” than in the writings of St. Francis, and any attempt to read into them the peculiar doctrines of the Abbot Joachim of Flora, the Humiliati, the Poor Men of Lyons, or any of their nameless followers, is as unjust as it is unjustifiable. Needless to add that St. Francis’ writings contain no new message. Indeed, the frequency with which certain very old and familiar aspects of the eternal truths are insisted upon by St. Francis in season and out of season, is not unlikely to weary the average reader who does not pause to look between the lines. This tendency to repeat himself, which is habitual with St. Francis, does not necessarily bespeak any dearth of ideas. On the contrary. His simple, childlike nature fastened upon three or four leading thoughts “taken from the words of the Lord,” which seemed to him all-sufficing, and these he works into his writings over and over, tempering them to the needs of the different classes he addresses as he understood them. If then we recall the circumstances under which St. Francis wrote and the condition of those for whom his writings were intended in the first instance, far from being bored, we may gain something from each new repetition.
Because St. Francis loved Jesus and His Eucharistic Passion, ardently, enthusiastically, almost desperately—to borrow Bossuet’s adjectives—his sympathy extended to every creature that suffered or rejoiced. His writings are eloquent witnesses to this far-reaching, all-embracing solicitude. They may be said to run over the whole gamut. Witness the soft note touched in the letter to Brother Leo and the deep masculine tone in which the Testament is pitched. On the whole, however, his writings fall naturally under three heads:1 those, like the Rules, which represent St. Francis as legislator; those, like the Letter to a Minister, which show us St. Francis as a spiritual father; and those, like the Praises and Salutations, in which we see St Francis as his earliest biographer saw him—“not so much a man praying as prayer itself.”2
It was Matthew Arnold, I believe, who first held St. Francis up to English readers as a literary type3 —a type withal as distinct and formal as the author of the Divine Comedy. But however true a poet—and without St. Francis no Dante—it is certain that the Poverello was in no sense a man of letters. He was too little acquainted with the laws of composition to advance very far in that direction. His early years had been a bad preparation for study, and he ever remained a comparative stranger to the ecclesiastical and classical learning of his time, though probably his culture was larger than we might be led to conclude from his repeated professions of ignorance and the disparaging remarks of some of his early biographers. Through his mother he seems to have got some acquaintance with French;1 he received elementary instruction in reading and writing from the priests at San Giorgio, who also taught him enough Latin to enable him to write it in later years after a fashion,2 and to understand the ritual of the Church and its hymns, which he was wont to sing by the wayside. But in considering St. Francis’ literary formation, we must reckon largely with the education he picked up in the school of the Troubadours, who at the close of the twelfth century were making for refinement in Italy3 The imagery of the chansons de gestes seems to have exercised an abiding influence upon St. Francis’ life and writings, as is evident from his own tale of the Lady Poverty, which later inspired the pen of Dante and the brush of Giotto. Witness, too, his frequent allusions to the Knights of the Round Table; his desire that his Friars should become “the Lord’s Jongleurs,” and his habit of courtesy extended even to Sister Death.4 On the other hand St. Francis was nothing if not original. His writings abound not only in allegory and personification, but also in quaint concepts and naive deductions. His final argument is often a text of Holy Scripture, which he uses with a familiarity and freedom altogether remarkable. Indeed there are parts of his writings in which the interweaving of Scriptural phrases is so intricate as almost to defy any attempt to indicate them by references, the more so since the Biblical language adopted by St. Francis is not always taken from the Bible, but often from the Liturgy, Missal, and Breviary.1 For the rest, as Celano puts it, “he left empty ornaments and roundabout methods of speech and everything belonging to pomp and to display to those who are ready to perish; for his part he cared not for the bark, but for the pith; not for the shell, but for the nut; not for the multiple, but for the one only sovereign good.”2
If we may judge from the two solitary autographic fragments of his that have come down to us,3 St. Francis was not by any means a skilful penman. Be this as it may, St. Bonaventure clearly implies that he had a secretary,4 to whom he dictated notes, and affirms with Celano that the Saint signed such documents as called for his signature with the “sign thau,” or capital T.1 Whether or not St. Francis’ practice of signing his name thus has any connection with Brother Pacifico’s vision of the large T,2 is a matter of conjecture and of small import. What is certain is that St. Francis wrote little The most characteristic of his extant writings are very short, extremely simple in style, and without any trace of pedantry. If some of the longer pieces seem to show the touch of a more skilful hand than that of St. Francis, idiota et simplex, we need not on this account feel any misgivings as to their authenticity. Whatever assistance he may have received in pruning and embellishing certain of his later compositions from Cæsar of Spires or another, no one who examines these writings carefully can doubt but that they are the work of the great Saint himself.
From a literary standpoint perhaps the most carefully composed bit of St. Francis’ writing that has come down to us is the realistic picture of the miser’s death in the letter “To all the Faithful.” More interesting, however, to the student is the “Canticle of the Sun,” not only as an example of the simple, spontaneous Umbrian dialect rhyme which St. Francis taught his poet followers to substitute for the artificial versification of courtly Latin and Provençal poets, but also because of the light it throws on St. Francis’ literary method,—if method it may be called. His piecemeal fashion of composing as the spirit moved him, is also manifest in a very different work, the First Rule, as is evident from the modification and additions this strange piece of legislation suffered during the fourteen years it was in force.1 St. Francis’ practice of returning to his old writings, retouching and remoulding them, working them over and inserting parts of them in his new ones, goes far toward explaining difficulties which would otherwise arise from the resemblance between his different compositions.
For the rest, even though St. Francis’ literary culture was incomplete, his constant contemplation of the “things that are above” and the perfect purity of his life whetted alike his understanding of supernatural truth and of the human heart, and so it comes to pass that his simple words, written down in the far-off thirteenth century and with a fashion of speech different from ours, yet work wonders to this day, while the tomes of many a learned doctor “leave all things as they were before.”
It remains to say a few words concerning the history of St. Francis’ writings before coming to the writings themselves.
The history of the writings of St. Francis, from the time of their composition in the far-off thirteenth century down to our own day, opens up a most interesting field for speculation. Who, it may be asked, first gathered these writings together? In answer to this question nothing definite can be said, for the early Legends and Chronicles of the Order are silent on the subject, and we must rest content to begin our inquiry with the oldest MS. collections containing the writings of St. Francis. Many such collections exist in mediæval codices, but any attempt to classify these MSS. is, in the present state of our documentation, beset by peculiar difficulties. Not the least of these difficulties arises from the fact that even as in the Legends or Lives of St. Francis we can distinguish a double current;1 so, too, in the early MS. collections two distinct families or categories are found representing or rather illustrating the twofold tradition and observance which date from the very beginnings of Franciscan history.2
The first place among these collections belongs to the MS. numbered 338, formerly in the Sacro Convento, but now in the municipal library at Assisi. Critics who have studied this early codex are not in accord as to its age.1 But it dates at least from the beginning of the fourteenth century. It includes eleven of the nineteen works here translated. They are contained in three parchment books in the following order: fol 12-16, The Second Rule of the Friars Minor;2 fol. 16-18, The Testament;3 fol. 18-23, Admonitions;4 fol. 23-28, The Letter to All the Faithful;5 fol. 28-31, The Letter to the General Chapter;6 fol. 31-32, Instruction to Clerics on the Holy Eucharist;7 fol. 32, Salutation of the Virtues;8 fol. 33, The Canticle of the Sun;9 fol. 34, Paraphrase of the Lord’s Prayer;10 fol. 34-43, The Office of the Passion;11 and fol. 43, The Regulation for Hermitages.12
The same collection either wholly or in part is given in the well-known fourteenth century compilation of materia seraphica known as Fac secundum exemplar from the opening words of its prologue, and which may be found in the Vatican MS. 4354, the Berlin MS. 196, the Lemberg MS. 131,1 and the Liegnitz MS. 122 The Mazarin MSS. 989 and 1743,3 as well as the Dusseldorf MS 132,4 may also be said to belong to this family of codices which present the writings of St. Francis in practically the same number and order as Mariano of Florence adopts in his Chronicle, composed about 15005
We now come to the second collection of St Francis’ writings, which is often found along with the traditional Legenda Trium Sociorum, and the Speculum Perfectionis. It is represented by the celebrated Florentine codex at Ognissanti,6 the codex 1/25 at St. Isidore’s, Rome,7 the Vatican MS. 7650,8 and the codex of the Capuchin convent at Foligno,1 all of which contain St. Francis’ works in almost the same order as that given by Bartholomew of Pisa, in his Liber Conformitatum.2
This second collection of the writings of St. Francis differs from the first one in several details. In the first place it omits the Instruction to Clerics on the Holy Eucharist and adds the letter To a Certain Minister3 Again, the Assisi and Liegnitz MSS., which are typical examples of the first collection, place the prayer, “O Almighty Eternal God,” etc.,4 at the end of the letter to the General Chapter, whereas in the Ognissanti MS. and others of the same family this prayer is found elsewhere. So, too, in the Assisi and Liegnitz MSS. the Salutation of the Virtues is inscribed “Salutation of the Virtues which adorned the Soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary and which ought to adorn the holy soul,” while in the Ognissanti and kindred MSS. the title of this piece reads: “Salutation of the Virtues and of their efficacy in confounding Vices.” These examples suffice to indicate that this twofold family of MSS. includes also a twofold reading, as becomes more evident from the variants noted elsewhere in the course of this work. Meanwhile, let us pass on from the MS. collections of St. Francis’ writings to the
Two diverse compilations, each containing part of the Opuscula, were published at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The first of these, known as the Speculum Vitae B. Francisci et Sociorum ejus,1 and quarried largely from the Actus Beati Francisci, contains (fol. 126-127) among various legends and other narrations some of St. Francis’ prayers, and (fol. 189) also the First Rule The second compilation, which is of a much more polemic character,2 and which contains a larger number of the Opuscula, appeared successively with some variations in form at Rouen in 1509 as the Speculum Minorum,3 at Salamanca in 1511 as the Monumenta Ordinis Minorum,4 and at Paris in 1512 as the Firmamentatrium Ordinum B. Francisci.1 The seventeenth century saw the appearance of
The honor of making the first serious attempt to collect all the writings of St. Francis belongs to the renowned Annalist of the Order, Father Luke Wadding.2 His celebrated edition of the Opuscula3 is distributed in three parts: Part I contains the Letters, Prayers, and the Testament; Part II, the Rules; and Part III, the Monastic Conferences, the Office of the Passion and Canticles, followed by Apophthegms, Colloquies, Prophecies, Parables, Examples, Benedictions, etc.
Wadding’s edition of the Opuscula differs mainly from all preceding collections in this, that whereas the latter contained only those pieces which as regards both matter and form were the handiwork of St. Francis, Wadding felt justified in including among St. Francis’ writings many dicta of the Saint found in the early Legends. For example, St. Bonaventure4 relates of St. Francis “Non enim securum esse putabat earum formarum introrsus haurire imagines.” Wadding, in his sixth Conference, by changing putabat into puto, gives this passage as the ipsissima verba of St. Francis Again, in the seventeenth Conference, he entirely changes the form of what St. Bonaventure elsewhere1 relates of St. Francis when he substitutes “Officium praedicationis Patri misericordiarum omni sacrificio est acceptius” for “Istius Miserationis officium Patri misericordiarum omni sacrificio firmabat acceptius.”
Thus it comes to pass that in Wadding’s edition, side by side with the undisputed writings of St. Francis, we find doubtful, even spurious, extracts from different sources attributed to the Seraphic Father. It must ever remain a matter of regret that Wadding, instead of following the oldest MSS. that he had at hand, was content to transcribe the incomplete and often interpolated parts of them he found in second-hand compilations, like that of Mark of Lisbon. His work from our standpoint is vitiated by imperfect research and unreliable criticism. But if Wadding was more profuse than prudent in his attribution of Franciscan fragments to the Founder, it must be remembered that he wrote at a time when even the highest minds troubled themselves little enough about literary exactness. For what we now glorify as “scientific criticism” had not yet become the fashion. The faults therefore of Wadding’s edition of the Opuscula are largely the faults of his time; and considering the difficulties to be overcome, the result of his labors was very creditable. And if he had never undertaken the task of collecting St. Francis’ writings, any attempt of ours to that end would be surely more arduous, and perhaps not so fruitful.
Several editions of St. Francis’ writings have appeared since Wadding’s day, notably those published by de la Haye,1 Von der Burg,2 and Horoy.3 But these editions are very imperfect. Their authors, in spite of the advance made in historical criticism since Wadding’s day, have merely reproduced and rejuvenated the edition of the great annalist. The same is true of the various translations of the Opuscula,—they are simply Wadding in Italian,4 English,5 French,6 German,7 or Spanish,8 as the case may be.
On the other hand, M. Sabatier’s strictures on the “numerous ecclesiastics” who have edited the writings of St. Francis, for not reprinting Wadding’s comments on them, are a trifle wide of the mark, seeing that their editions were prepared mainly for a class of readers whose point of view is practical and devotional, rather than theoretical and speculative, who read the writings of the saints not merely as historical or literary documents, but as words of spirit and of life. For such a clientele critical notes would be caviare indeed.
The remarkable upgrowth of interest in the sources of early Franciscan history that has characterized the literature of the past decade accentuated the need of a more perfect edition of St. Francis’ writings. The matter was soon taken in hand by the Friars Minor at Quaracchi—already famous in the literary history of the Order—and in 1904 they issued the
First Critical Edition
of the Opuscula.1 Without overlooking the internal character of each document, the Quaracchi editors based their edition upon the early MS. tradition, weighing by this standard all the various writings contained in the stereotyped editions of St. Francis’ works, with the result that many a familiar page that had come down to us on the good faith of Wadding was found wanting. Thus the seventeen letters commonly ascribed to St. Francis have been reduced to six, the Rules of the Second and Third Orders have been eliminated, only one of the twenty-eight monastic conferences, and one of the seven blessings, are left; most of the prayers have gone, and all the colloquies, prophecies, parables, etc, have likewise disappeared. Most likely the doubtful and suppositious works thus excluded often embody the doctrine and ideas of St. Francis; to a greater or lesser extent some of them may even be his in substance, but as there is no good reason to believe they are his own composition they are not entitled to a place among his writings.
The authentic works of St Francis left to us then, according to the Quaracchi edition, are the Admonitions, Salutation of the Virtues, Instruction on the Blessed Sacrament, the First and Second Rules of the Friars Minor, the Testament and Regulation for Hermitages, some fragments from the Rule of the Clares, Six Letters, the Praises of God, the Salutation of the Blessed Virgin, the Chartula containing the Laudes and Benediction for Brother Leo, the prayer Absorbeat, and the Office of the Passion.
The Quaracchi edition does not therefore embody any new matter, but it contains for the first time in any edition of St. Francis’ works the letter “To a Minister” in its entirety. For the rest, while purging the text of St. Francis’ writings of the many doubtful and apocryphal pieces with which they had come to be burdened in the course of time, the Quaracchi editors have perfected the text of the authentic writings by their emendations and collations, notes and comments, thus conferring the freedom of no small city upon the students of Franciscan sources.
The year 1904 also saw the publication, almost simultaneously, of two other works dealing with the Opuscula of St. Francis, written by well known professors at Bonn1 and Munich,2 and both of real value.3 It would be foreign to our present purpose to examine either of these works in detail. Suffice it to say that they accord in substance almost completely with the conclusions of the Quaracchi editors. If anything, they lean more on the side of kindliness toward certain doubtful writings. Thanks to this trilogy of works, and to certain learned criticisms which they have called forth from Fr. Van Ortroy,1 M. Sabatier,2 and Mr. Carmichael3 among others, we are now in a position to form a fairly accurate estimate of what St. Francis really wrote.
It is obvious, however, that in dealing with writings like those of St. Francis we are left largely to the probabilities of criticism; and criticism has by no means said the last word as to the authenticity of certain pieces. It may yet take away from St. Francis some writings now commonly ascribed to him; it may even give back to him others at present with seemingly greater likelihood made over to one or another of his immediate followers. But in the long run, to whatever criticism St. Francis’ writings may be subjected, the main lines will always remain the same. It may well be true as a recent writer4 has remarked, that it is not yet the time to essay a complete English edition of St. Francis’ writings, yet withal the lack of any translation of these writings in English which aims at fulfilling the requirements of modern criticism has led me to think that English students of Franciscan literature might be glad to have some such translation of them, however imperfect. To this end I have ventured to prepare this humble volume, which may perhaps be suffered tentatively, at least, to stand in the gap which it is not worthy permanently to fill.
My first object, then, is to give a literal and, I hope, accurate translation of the Latin text of the authentic writings of St. Francis as it stands in the critical Quaracchi edition. The present volume, however, represents something more than a mere translation of the Quaracchi text. In the first place it is not restricted to the Latin works of St. Francis, and as a consequence the “Canticle of the Sun,” which does not figure in the Quaracchi edition, finds a place here. I have often deviated from the order of the Quaracchi edition and have distributed the critical notes throughout the book instead of relegating them to the end. I have added an Introduction, Appendix, Bibliography and Index, besides much original matter collected at Quaracchi and elsewhere in Italy, when I was afforded an opportunity of consulting the original MS. authorities. I should state that I have not translated all the variants in the Latin text, but only such as change the sense. A table I had made for the purpose of indicating the probable date of each piece, I have omitted, since it remains a matter of pure conjecture when many were written.
I am glad of this opportunity to record my sincere thanks to all those who have assisted me in any way in the preparation of this volume. Not only have I profited by the labors of the Fathers at Quaracchi, but I have enjoyed the rare advantage of Fr. Leonard Lemmens’ personal interest in the work. To him, therefore, my grateful recognition is first due. I wish further to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Montgomery Carmichael, who, amid his own literary labors, made time to assist me with many helpful suggestions. Moreover, by placing at my disposal all the references to Holy Scripture which occur in the Office of the Passion, which he had looked up and translated, he has afforded me very substantial aid. My thanks are also due to Father Stephen Donovan, O.F.M., for his kind cooperation in collating the text of the “Canticle of the Sun,” in the Assisi MS., with other versions, and for contributing the translation of it. For the generous loan of books of reference I am under obligation to Mgr. O’Hare, Father John J. Wynne, S.J., Fathers Ludger Beck, and Bede Oldegeering, O.F.M., and Mr. John A. Tennant; for the gift of their own writings to Father Cuthbert, O.S.F.C., Luigi Suttina, and Prof. A. G. Little; and for the photographs here reproduced to Mgr. Faloci Pulignani, M. Paul Sabatier and Signor Lunghi. I may perhaps be permitted to take this occasion to thank the Guardians at the Portiuncula, La Verna, St. Damian’s, and the Carceri, as well as the Friars at St. Antony’s and St. Isidore’s at Rome, at Ognissanti, Florence, and the Mother Abbess at Santa Chiara, for their courtesy and hospitality.
For the rest, it is with a clear sense of its many shortcomings and not without some diffidence that I offer this volume to the public. I shall be more than repaid for any labor its preparation may have entailed if its publication conduces ever so little toward making St. Francis better known and better loved. To this end I ask the reader to forget all that may be mine within these pages, and to remember only the words of him who, “saintlier than any among the saints, among sinners was as one of themselves.”1
Fr. Paschal Robinson, o.f.m.,
Feast of St. Agnes of Asissi, 1905.[Back to Table of Contents]
ADMONITIONS, RULES, ETC[Back to Table of Contents]
Words of Admonition of our Holy Father St. Francis.
UNDER this title a precious series of spiritual counsels on the religious life has come down to us from the pen of St Francis The early Legends afford no indication of the time or circumstances of the composition of these Admonitions; nor is it possible to determine by whom they were collected. But they accord so completely with the Saint’s genuine works and are so redolent of his spirit that their authenticity is admitted by all.1 Moreover, the various codices in which these Admonitions may be found are unanimous in attributing them to St. Francis, while the number of the Admonitions2 and the order in which they are given in the different codices are almost the same as in the Laurentian codex at Florence, dating from the thirteenth century.
Codices containing the Admonitions of St. Francis are to be found at the following places 1. Assist (Munic. lib. cod. 338, fol. 18),—2. Berlin (Royal lib. cod. lat. 196, fol. 101);—3. Florence (Laurentian lib. cod. X. Plut XIX dextr., fol. 448),—4. Florence (cod. of the Convent of Ognissanti, fol. 5);—5. St. Floriano (monast lib. cod XI 148, fol 38);—6. Foligno (cod. of Capuchin Conv., fol. 21),—7. Lemberg (Univ. lib. cod. 131, fol 331),—8 Liegnitz1 (lib. of SS Peter and Paul cod. 12, fol 131),—9. Luttich (Munic. lib. cod. 343, fol. 154),—10. Munich (Royal lib. cod. lat. 11354, fol 25, number 1 only);—11. Naples (Nation lib. cod XII. F. 32, folio antepaen. numbers 6-27),—12 Oxford2 (Bodl. lib. cod. Canon miscell. 525, fol. 93);—13 Paris (Nat. lib. cod 18327, fol. 154),—14, 15. Paris (Mazarin lib. cod 1743, fol. 134, and cod. 989, fol 191),—16. Paris (codex at lib. of the Prot. theol faculty, fol. 86);—17. Prague (Metrop. lib. cod B XC., fol. 244),—18. Rome (codex at St. Antony’s Coll.,3 fol. 77),—19, 20. Rome (archiv. of St Isidore’s College, cod. 1/25, fol. 14, and cod. 1/78, fol 11);—21, 22. Rome (Vatic. lib. cod. 4354, fol. 39, and cod. 7650, fol. 10);—23. Toledo (capit. lib. cod. Cai. 25, no. 11, fol. 65) and—24 Volterra (Guarnacci lib. cod 225, fol. 141).
Of the foregoing codices that in the Laurentian Library at Florence dates from the thirteenth century; those at Ognissanti, Florence, at Assisi, Berlin, St Floriano, Oxford, Rome (St. Antony’s, St. Isidore’s, and the Vatican codex 4354), Toledo, and Volterra date from the fourteenth, and the others from the fifteenth century.
For the Quaracchi edition of the Admonitions, upon which the present translation is based, the two oldest of all these codices, to wit, those of the Laurentian Library at Florence and of the Municipal Library at Assisi,1 have been used Those at St Isidore’s, Rome, and Ognissanti, Florence, have also been consulted, besides the editions of the Admonitions found in the Monumenta Ordinis Minorum (Salamanca, 1511, tract. 11, fol. 276 r), the Firmamenta Trium Ordinum2 (Paris, 1512, P. I, fol. 19 r), and the Liber Conformitatum of Bartholomew of Pisa (Milan, 1510, fruct. XII, P. 11). But for the titles and paragraphing, which differ more or less in different codices, the Laurentian codex has been followed3
So much by way of preface to the
Of the Lord’s Body.
The Lord Jesus said to His disciples: “I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life. No man cometh to the Father, but by Me. If you had known Me you would, without doubt, have known My Father also: and from henceforth you shall know Him, and you have seen Him. Philip saith to Him: Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us. Jesus saith to him: Have I been so long a time with you and have you not known Me? Philip, he that seeth Me seeth [My] Father also. How sayest thou, Shew us the Father?”1 The Father “inhabiteth light inaccessible,”2 and “God is a spirit,”3 and “no man hath seen God at any time.”4 Because God is a spirit, therefore it is only by the spirit He can be seen, for “it is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing.”5 For neither is the Son, inasmuch as He is equal to the Father, seen by any one other than by the Father, other than by the Holy Ghost. Wherefore, all those who saw the Lord Jesus Christ according to humanity and did not see and believe according to the Spirit and the Divinity, that He was the Son of God, were condemned. In like manner, all those who behold the Sacrament of the Body of Christ which is sanctified by the word of the Lord upon the altar by the hands of the priest in the form of bread and wine, and who do not see and believe according to the Spirit and Divinity that It is really the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, are condemned, He the Most High having declared it when He said, “This is My Body, and the Blood of the New Testament,”6 and “he that eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood hath everlasting life.”1
Wherefore [he who has]2 the Spirit of the Lord which dwells in His faithful, he it is who receives the most holy Body and Blood of the Lord: all others who do not have this same Spirit and who presume to receive Him, eat and drink judgment to themselves.3 Wherefore, “O ye sons of men, how long will you be dull of heart?”4 Why will you not know the truth and “believe in the Son of God?”5 Behold daily He humbles Himself as when from His “royal throne”6 He came into the womb of the Virgin; daily He Himself comes to us with like humility; daily He descends from the bosom of His Father upon the altar in the hands of the priest. And as He appeared in true flesh to the Holy Apostles, so now He shows Himself to us in the sacred Bread; and as they by means of their fleshly eyes saw only His flesh, yet contemplating Him with their spiritual eyes, believed Him to be God, so we, seeing bread and wine with bodily eyes, see and firmly believe it to be His most holy Body and true and living Blood And in this way our Lord is ever with His faithful, as He Himself says: “Behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.”7
The Evil of Self-will.
The Lord God said to Adam: “Of every tree of paradise thou shalt eat. But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat.”1 Adam therefore might eat of every tree of paradise and so long as he did not offend against obedience he did not sin. For one eats of the tree of knowledge of good who appropriates to himself his own will2 and prides himself upon the goods which the Lord publishes and works in him and thus, through the suggestion of the devil and transgression of the commandment, he finds the apple of the knowledge of evil; wherefore, it behooves that he suffer punishment.
Of Perfect and Imperfect Obedience.
The Lord says in the Gospel: he “that doth not renounce all that he possesseth cannot be” a “disciple”3 and “he that will save his life, shall lose it.”4 That man leaves all he possesses and loses his body and his soul who abandons himself wholly to obedience in the hands of his superior, and whatever he does and says—provided he himself knows that what he does is good and not contrary to his [the superior’s] will—is true obedience. And if at times a subject sees things which would be better or more useful to his soul than those which the superior commands him, let him sacrifice his will to God, let him strive to fulfil the work enjoined by the superior. This is true and charitable obedience which is pleasing to God and to one’s neighbor.
If, however, a superior command anything to a subject that is against his soul it is permissible for him to disobey, but he must not leave him [the superior], and if in consequence he suffer persecution from some, he should love them the more for God’s sake. For he who would rather suffer persecution than wish to be separated from his brethren, truly abides in perfect obedience because he lays down his life for his brothers.1 For there are many religious who, under pretext of seeing better things than those which their superiors command, look back2 and return to the vomit of their own will.3 These are homicides and by their bad example cause the loss of many souls.
That no one should take Superiorship upon himself.
I did “not come to be ministered unto, but to minister,” says the Lord.4 Let those who are set above others glory in this superiority only as much as if they had been deputed to wash the feet of the brothers; and if they are more perturbed by the loss of their superiorship than they would be by losing the office of washing feet, so much the more do they lay up treasures to the peril of their own soul.
That no one should glory save in the Cross of the Lord.
Consider, O man, how great the excellence in which the Lord has placed you because He has created and formed you to the image of His beloved Son according to the body and to His own likeness according to the spirit.1 And all the creatures that are under heaven serve and know and obey their Creator in their own way better than you And even the demons did not crucify Him, but you together with them crucified Him and still crucify Him by taking delight in vices and sins. Wherefore then can you glory? For if you were so clever and wise that you possessed all science, and if you knew how to interpret every form of language and to investigate heavenly things minutely, you could not glory in all this, because one demon has known more of heavenly things and still knows more of earthly things than all men, although there may be some man who has received from the Lord a special knowledge of sovereign wisdom. In like manner, if you were handsomer and richer than all others, and even if you could work wonders and put the demons to flight, all these things are hurtful to you and in nowise belong to you, and in them you cannot glory; that, however, in which we may glory is in our infirmities,2 and in bearing daily the holy cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Of the Imitation of the Lord.
Let us all, brothers, consider the Good Shepherd who to save His sheep bore the suffering of the Cross. The sheep of the Lord followed Him in tribulation and persecution and shame, in hunger and thirst, in infirmity and temptations and in all other ways;1 and for these things they have received everlasting life from the Lord. Wherefore it is a great shame for us, the servants of God, that, whereas the Saints have practised works, we should expect to receive honor and glory for reading and preaching the same.
That Good Works should accompany Knowledge.
The Apostle says, “the letter killeth, but the spirit quickeneth.”2 They are killed by the letter who seek only to know the words that they may be esteemed more learned among others and that they may acquire great riches to leave to their relations and friends. And those religious are killed by the letter who will not follow the spirit of the Holy Scriptures, but who seek rather to know the words only and to interpret them to others. And they are quickened by the spirit of the Holy Scriptures who do not interpret materially every text they know or wish to know, but who by word and example give them back to God from whom is all good.
Of avoiding the Sin of Envy.
The Apostle affirms that “no man can say the Lord Jesus but by the Holy Ghost,”1 and “there is none that doth good, no not one.”2 Whosoever, therefore, envies his brother on account of the good which the Lord says or does in him, commits a sin akin to blasphemy, because he envies the Most High Himself who says and does all that is good.
The Lord says in the Gospel, “Love your enemies,” etc.3 He truly loves his enemy who does not grieve because of the wrong done to himself, but who is afflicted for love of God because of the sin on his [brother’s] soul and who shows his love by his works.
Of Bodily Mortification.
There are many who if they commit sin or suffer wrong often blame their enemy or their neighbor. But this is not right, for each one has his enemy in his power,—to wit, the body by which he sins. Wherefore blessed is that servant who always holds captive the enemy thus given into his power and wisely guards himself from it, for so long as he acts thus no other enemy visible or invisible can do him harm.
That one must not be seduced by Bad Crample.1
To the servant of God nothing should be displeasing save sin. And no matter in what way any one may sin, if the servant of God is troubled or angered—except this be through charity—he treasures up guilt to himself.2 The servant of God who does not trouble himself or get angry about anything lives uprightly and without sin. And blessed is he who keeps nothing for himself, rendering “to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar’s and to God the things that are God’s.”3
Of Knowing the Spirit of God.
Thus may the servant of God know if he has the Spirit of God: if when the Lord works some good through him, his body—since it is ever at variance with all that is good—is not therefore puffed up; but if he rather becomes viler in his own sight and if he esteems himself less than other men.4
How much interior patience and humility a servant of God may have cannot be known so long as he is contented1 But when the time comes that those who ought to please him go against him, as much patience and humility as he then shows, so much has he and no more.
Of Poverty of Spirit.
“Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven”2 Many apply themselves to prayers and offices, and practise much abstinence and bodily mortification, but because of a single word which seems to be hurtful to their bodies or because of something being taken from them, they are forthwith scandalized and troubled. These are not poor in spirit: for he who is truly poor in spirit, hates himself and loves those who strike him on the cheek.3
“Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.”4 They are truly peacemakers who amidst all they suffer in this world maintain peace in soul and body for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Of Cleanness of Heart.
“Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God.”1 They are clean of heart who despise earthly things and always seek those of heaven, and who never cease to adore and contemplate the Lord God Living and True, with a pure heart and mind.
Of the Humble Servant of God.
Blessed is that servant who is not more puffed up because of the good the Lord says and works through him than because of that which He says and works through others. A man sins who wishes to receive more from his neighbor than he is himself willing to give to the Lord God.
Of Compassion toward one’s Neighbor.
Blessed is the man who bears with his neighbor according to the frailty of his nature as much as he would wish to be borne with by him if he should be in a like case.
Of the Happy and Unhappy Servant.
Blessed is the servant who gives up all his goods to the Lord God, for he who retains anything for himself hides “his Lord’s money,”2 and that “which he thinketh he hath shall be taken away from him.”3
Of the Good and Humble Religious.
Blessed is the servant who does not regard himself as better when he is esteemed and extolled by men than when he is reputed as mean, simple, and despicable: for what a man is in the sight of God, so much he is, and no more.1 Woe to that religious who is elevated in dignity by others, and who of his own will is not ready to descend. And blessed is that servant who is raised in dignity not by his own will and who always desires to be beneath the feet of others.
Of the Happy and the Vain Religious.
Blessed is that religious who feels no pleasure or joy save in most holy conversation and the works of the Lord, and who by these means leads men2 to the love of God in joy and gladness. And woe to that religious who takes delight in idle and vain words and by this means provokes men to laughter.
Of the Frivolous and Talkative Religious.3
Blessed is that servant who does not speak through hope of reward and who does not manifest everything and is not “hasty to speak,”4 but who wisely foresees what he ought to say and answer. Woe to that religious who not concealing in his heart the good things which the Lord has disclosed to him and who not manifesting them to others by his work, seeks rather through hope of reward to make them known to men by words: for now he receives his recompense and his hearers bear away little fruit.
Of True Correction.
Blessed is the servant who bears discipline, accusation, and blame from others as patiently as if they came from himself. Blessed is the servant who, when reproved, mildly submits, modestly obeys, humbly confesses, and willingly satisfies. Blessed is the servant who is not prompt to excuse himself and who humbly bears shame and reproof for sin when he is without fault.
Of True Humility.1
Blessed is he2 who shall be found as humble among his subjects as if he were among his masters. Blessed is the servant who always continues under the rod of correction. He is “a faithful and wise servant”3 who does not delay to punish himself for all his offences, interiorly by contrition and exteriorly by confession and by works of satisfaction.
Of True Love.
Blessed is that brother who would love his brother as much when he is ill and not able to assist him as he loves him when he is well and able to assist him. Blessed is the brother who would love and fear his brother as much when he is far from him as he would when with him, and who would not say anything about him behind his back that he could not with charity say in his presence.
That the Servants of God should honor Clerics.
Blessed is the servant of God who exhibits confidence in clerics who live uprightly according to the form of the holy Roman Church. And woe to those who despise them: for even though they [the clerics] may be sinners, nevertheless no one ought to judge them, because the Lord Himself reserves to Himself alone the right of judging them. For as the administration with which they are charged, to wit, of the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which they receive and which they alone administer to others—is greater than all others, even so the sin of those who offend against them is greater than any against all the other men in this world.
Of the Virtues putting Vices to flight.
Where there is charity and wisdom there is neither fear nor ignorance Where there is patience and humility there is neither anger nor worry.1 Where there is poverty and joy there is neither cupidity nor avarice. Where there is quiet and meditation there is neither solicitude nor dissipation. Where there is the fear of the Lord to guard the house the enemy cannot find a way to enter. Where there is mercy and discretion there is neither superfluity nor hard-heartedness.
Of hiding Good lest it be lost.
Blessed is the servant who treasures up in heaven2 the good things which the Lord shows him and who does not wish to manifest them to men through the hope of reward, for the Most High will Himself manifest his works to whomsoever He may please. Blessed is the servant who keeps the secrets of the Lord in his heart.3[Back to Table of Contents]
Salutation of the Virtues.
Thomas of Celano, St. Francis’ earliest biographer, bears witness to the authenticity of this exquisite Salutation in his Second Life, written about 12471 It is found in the codices of Assisi, Berlin, Florence (Ognissanti MS.), Foligno, Liegnitz, Naples, Paris (Mazarin MSS. and MS. of Prot. theol. fac.), and Rome (Vatican MSS.), above mentioned,2 as well as at Düsseldorf (Royal arch. cod B. 132), and is given by Bartholomew of Pisa in his Liber Conformitatum3 (fruct. XII, P. 11, Cap. 38). This Salutation was also published in the Speculum Vitae B. Francisci et Sociorum Ejus (fol. 126 v)4 and by Wadding,5 who followed the Assisian codex. This codex, which is the oldest one containing the Salutation, has been used for the Quaracchi edition, which I have here followed, as well as the Ognissanti MS. and the version given in the Conformities.
Now follows the
SALUTATION OF THE VIRTUES.6
Hail,7 queen wisdom! May the Lord save thee with thy sister holy pure simplicity! O Lady, holy poverty, may the Lord save thee with thy sister holy humility! O Lady, holy charity, may the Lord save thee with thy sister holy obedience! O all ye most holy virtues, may the Lord, from whom you proceed and come, save you! There is absolutely no man in the whole world who can possess one among you unless he first die. He who possesses one and does not offend the others, possesses all; and he who offends one, possesses none and offends all; and every one [of them] confounds vices and sins. Holy wisdom confounds Satan and all his wickednesses. Pure holy simplicity confounds all the wisdom of this world and the wisdom of the flesh. Holy poverty confounds cupidity and avarice and the cares of this world. Holy humility confounds pride and all the men of this world and all things that are in the world Holy charity confounds all diabolical and fleshly temptations and all fleshly fears. Holy obedience confounds all bodily and fleshly desires and keeps the body mortified to the obedience of the spirit and to the obedience of one’s brother and makes a man subject to all the men of this world and not to men alone, but also to all beasts and wild animals, so that they may do with him whatsoever they will, in so far as it may be granted to them from above by the Lord.[Back to Table of Contents]
On Reverence for the Lord’s Body and on the Cleanliness of the Altar.
The arguments already adduced to establish the authenticity of the Admonitions may also be used in behalf of this instruction addressed “to all clerics.” It is found in eight of the codices above mentioned—to wit, those of Assisi, Liegnitz, Paris (both Mazarin MSS. and at lib of Prot. theol. fac), Rome (St. Antony’s and St. Isidore’s MS. 1/73), and Dusseldorf. In Wadding’s edition of the Opuscula this instruction on the Blessed Sacrament is placed among the letters of St. Francis1 (No. XIII), but the early codices do not give it in an epistolary form,2 but rather as it is printed here without address or salutation. For the present edition the Assisian codex3 has been used as well as the codices of St. Antony’s and St. Isidore’s at Rome. The text is as follows
ON REVERENCE FOR THE LORD’S BODY AND ON THE CLEANLINESS OF THE ALTAR.
Let us all consider, O clerics, the great sin and ignorance of which some are guilty regarding the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ and His most holy Name and the written words of consecration. For we know that the Body cannot exist until after these words of consecration. For we have nothing and we see nothing of the Most High Himself in this world except [His] Body and Blood, names and words by which we have been created and redeemed from death to life.
But let all those who administer such most holy mysteries, especially those who do so indifferently, consider among themselves how poor the chalices, corporals, and linens may be where the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ is sacrificed. And by many It is left in wretched places and carried by the way disrespectfully, received unworthily and administered to others indiscriminately. Again His Names and written words are sometimes trampled under foot, for the sensual man perceiveth not these things that are of God.1 Shall we not by all these things be moved with a sense of duty when the good Lord Himself places Himself in our hands and we handle Him and receive Him daily? Are we unmindful that we must needs fall into His hands?
Let us then at once and resolutely correct these faults and others; and wheresoever the most holy Body of our Lord Jesus Christ may be improperly reserved and abandoned, let It be removed thence and let It be put and enclosed in a precious place In like manner wheresoever the Names and written words of the Lord may be found in unclean places they ought to be collected and put away in a decent place. And we know that we are bound above all to observe all these things by the commandments of the Lord and the constitutions of holy Mother Church And let him who does not act thus know that he shall have to render an account therefor before our Lord Jesus Christ on the day of judgment. And let him who may cause copies of this writing to be made, to the end that it may be the better observed, know that he is blessed by the Lord.[Back to Table of Contents]
Rules of the Friars Minor.
The early history of the Seraphic legislation, to wit, the Rules of the Friars Minor, the Poor Ladies and the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, is intricate beyond measure, as those at all conversant with the subject are but too well aware. Withal, as regards the Rule of the Friars Minor, with which we are now more particularly concerned, St Francis seems, on the whole, to have written it twice. We have the formal testimony of St Bonaventure and other trustworthy authorities to this effect Suffice it to say that in the third year after he underwent the great spiritual crisis we call conversion, “the servant of Christ, seeing that the number of his Friars was gradually increasing, wrote for himself and for them a form of life in simple words, laying as its irremovable foundation the observance of the holy Gospel and adding a few other things which seemed necessary for uniformity of life.”1 It was this “form of life,” which has become known as the first Rule, that Innocent III approved viva voce, April 23, 1209.2 Some fourteen years later on, when the Order had greatly increased, Francis “desiring to bring into a shorter form the Rule handed down in which the words of the Gospel were scattered somewhat diffusely . . . caused a Rule to be written. . . . And this Rule. he committed to the keeping of his Vicar, who, after a few days had elapsed, declared that he had carelessly lost it. Once more the holy man . . . rewrote the Rule as at the first . . . and by Pope Honorius obtained its confirmation”1 on November 29, 1223. Such in briefest outline is the genesis of the first and second Rules written by St. Francis for the Friars Minor.
To these two Rules Prof Karl Muller2 and M Paul Sabatier3 would fain add a third, written, as they aver, in 1221 Their opinion, however, seems to rest upon a misconception, for the Rule which they describe as dating from 1221, is not a new one, but the same that Innocent III approved, not indeed in its original form, which has not come down to us,4 but rather in the form it had assumed in the course of twelve years, as a consequence of many changes and additions.5
Early expositors of the Rule, such as Hugo de Digne1 and Angelo Clareno,2 in their works always represent the Rule of which we are now speaking as the first and original one Moreover, none of the thirteenth century writers make mention of any third rule; they speak only of the changes and accretions which the first Rule suffered between 1209 and 1223.3
For example Jordan a Giano tells us that St. Francis chose Brother Cæsar of Spires, a profound student of Scripture and a devoted friend, to assist him in putting this Rule into shape,1 and Jacques de Vitry, writing about 1217, relates that the Friars “meet once a year . . . and then with the help of good men adopt and promulgate holy institutions approved by the Pope”2 One of these institutions has been recorded for us by Thomas of Celano in his Second Life. It appears that “on account of a general commotion in a certain chapter, St. Francis caused these words to be written ‘Let the friars take care not to appear gloomy and sad like hypocrites, but let them be jovial and merry, showing that they rejoice in the Lord, and becomingly courteous,’ ”3 words which may be found in the seventh chapter of the first Rule.4 Honorius III, on September 22, 1220, issued a decree forbidding the Friars to leave the Order after having made profession, or to roam about “beyond the bounds of obedience,” and this ordinance was added to the second chapter of the Rule.5
All permanent and powerful rules grow, as a recent writer6 has justly remarked, and it was thuswise that the first Rule of the Friars Minor received constant additions in the form of constitutions enacted at the Chapters held at Portiuncula after 1212 or otherwise—it is necessary to insist on this point1 —during the fourteen years it was in force. It is not hard therefore to understand why the texts we have of this Rule do not always agree, since these changes and additions did not come to the knowledge of all through the same channel. For example, in the tenth chapter, which deals with “the sick brothers,” we have two different readings the one followed in the present translation is that found in the majority of the codices;2 the other, which has been incorporated by Celano in his Second Life,3 has been used by Hugo de Digne in his exposition of the Rule4 So too in the twelfth chapter, which prescribes that the friars should avoid the company of women, we find the following addition in the exposition of Angelo Clareno5 and the Speculum Vitae B Francisci.6 “Let no one walk abroad with them alone or eat out of the same plate with them at table,”—words not to be found in the more common form of the Rule
It remains to say a word about the relation of this first Rule to the second and definitive one approved in 1223. In treating of the difference between these two Rules, M. Sabatier errs still more strangely They had little in common, he avers, except the name, the second being the very antithesis of the first, which alone was truly Franciscan.7 To say the truth this assertion is less conformable to reality than it is to the theories and prejudices of the French writer. In so far as the first and second Rules written by St. Francis for the Friars Minor may be said to differ, the difference lies in this that the second Rule is shorter, more precise, and more orderly;1 but essentially and in substance it is clearly and truly the same as the first Rule. Indeed, the very wording of the second Rule already exists in great part in the first one, as any one must observe who makes an unbiassed comparison of the two So true is this agreement between the two Rules that they are often regarded as one and the same. Thus Pope Honorius III himself in his bull of 1223 confirming the second Rule makes no distinction between the two. “We confirm,” he says, “the Rule of your Order approved by Pope Innocent, our predecessor, of happy memory.”2 And Brother Elias, in a letter addressed to the friars “living near Valenciennes,” exhorts them to observe purely, inviolably, unweariedly the “holy Rule approved by Pope Innocent and confirmed by Pope Honorius.”3 Rightly then does Hugo de Digne (“spiritualis homo ultra modum”) describe the difference between the two Rules in his Exposition,4 when he says: “Some things were afterwards omitted for the sake of brevity from the Rule approved by Pope Innocent before it was confirmed by the bull of Pope Honorius.”1
For the rest, M Sabatier’s assertion that the “Spiritual” friars at the beginning of the fourteenth century did not dream of using the first Rule2 can hardly be admitted. To refute it, it suffices to cite Angelo Clareno, the leader of the “Spiritual” friars, who so very often mentions the first Rule in his exposition and whose citations prove that in the first quarter of the fourteenth century there was no memory of any other Rule, even in the camp of the rigorists. In a word, “the opposition which the distinguished French critic would fain set up between the two Rules, does not exist, and Chapter XV of his Life of St. Francis is not at all consonant with history.” Such is the assertion of the Quaracchi editors. Its truth will be best demonstrated by an examination of the text of both Rules, which now follow:
FIRST RULE OF THE FRIARS MINOR
|Ps. 55: 9.||O God, I have declared to Thee my life; Thou hast set my tears in Thy sight.|
|Ps. 40: 8.||All my enemies devised evils against me.|
|Ps 70: 10.||They have consulted together.|
|Ps 108: 5.||And they have repaid me evil for good and hatred for my love|
|Ps 108: 4.||Instead of making me a return of love they detracted me; but I gave myself to prayer.|
|Ps. 21: 12.||My holy Father, King of heaven and earth, depart not from me; for tribulation is near and there is none to help.|
|Ps 55: 10.||When I cry unto Thee, then shall mine enemies be turned back; behold I know that thou art my God.|
|Ps. 37: 12.||My friends and my neighbors have drawn near and stood against me; and they that were near me stood afar off.|
|Ps. 87: 9.||Thou hast put away my acquaintance far from me; they have set me an abomination to them; I was delivered up and came not forth|
|Ps 21: 20.||Holy Father, remove not Thy help far from me: My God, look toward my help.|
|Ps. 37: 23.||Attend unto my help, O Lord, the God of my salvation,—Glory be. Holy Virgin Mary, there is none like unto Thee born in the world among women, daughter and handmaid of the most high King, the heavenly Father! Mother of our most holy Lord Jesus Christ, Spouse of the Holy Ghost; pray for us, with St Michael Archangel, and all the Virtues of heaven, and all the Saints, to thy most holy, beloved Son, our Lord and Master. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost As it was in the beginning is now and ever shall be world without end. Amen.|
Note that the foregoing antiphon is said at all the Hours and it is said for antiphon, chapter, hymn, versicle, and prayer, and at Matins and at all the Hours likewise. He said nothing else in them except this antiphon with its Psalms. At the completion of the office Blessed Francis always said: Let us bless the Lord God living and true; let us refer praise, glory, honor, blessing and all praise to Him, always. Amen. Amen. Fiat. Fiat.
Ant. Holy Virgin Mary.
|Ps. 87: 2.||O Lord, the God of my salvation, I have cried in the day and night before Thee.|
|Ps. 87: 3.||Let my prayer come in before Thee; incline Thy ear to my petition.|
|Ps. 68: 19.||Attend to my soul and deliver it: save me because of my enemies.|
|Ps. 21: 10||For Thou art He that hast drawn me out of the womb; my hope from the breasts of my mother;|
|Ps. 21: 11.||I was cast upon Thee from the womb. From my mother’s womb Thou art my God;|
|Ps. 21: 12||Depart not from me.|
|Ps. 68: 20.||Thou knowest my reproach and my confusion and my shame.|
|Ps. 68: 21.||In Thy sight are all they that afflict me: my heart hath expected reproach and misery.|
|And I looked for one that would grieve together with me, but there was none, and for one that would comfort me and I found none.|
|Ps. 85: 14.||O God, the wicked are risen up against me and the assembly of the mighty have sought my soul; and they have not set Thee before their eyes.|
|Ps. 87: 5.||I am counted among them that go down to the pit; I am become as a man without help,|
|Ps. 87: 6.||free among the dead.|
|Thou art my Father, most holy, my king and my God.|
|Ps. 37: 23.||Attend unto my help, O Lord God of my salvation.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 56: 1.||Have mercy on me, O God, have mercy on me; for my soul trusteth in Thee.|
|Ps. 56: 2.||And in the shadow of Thy wings will I hope, until iniquity pass away.|
|Ps. 56: 3.||I will cry to my most holy Father, the Most High: to God, who hath done good to me;|
|Ps. 56: 4.||He hath sent from heaven and delivered me; He hath made them a reproach that trod upon me.|
|God hath sent His power and His truth.|
|Ps. 17: 18.||He delivered me from my strongest enemies and from them that hated me; for they were too strong for me.|
|Ps. 56: 7.||They prepared a snare for my feet; and they bowed down my soul; they dug a pit before my face; and they are fallen into it.|
|Ps. 56: 8.||My heart is ready, O God, my heart is ready; I will sing, and rehearse a psalm.|
|Ps. 56: 9.||Arise, O my glory, arise psaltery and harp;|
|I will arise early.|
|Ps. 56: 10.||I will give praise to Thee, O Lord, among the people; I will sing a psalm to Thee among the nations;|
|Ps. 56: 11.||For Thy mercy is magnified even to the heavens; and Thy truth unto the clouds.|
|Ps. 56: 12||Be Thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; and Thy glory above all the earth|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 55: 2.||Have mercy on me, O God, for man hath trodden me under foot; all the day long he hath afflicted me, fighting against me.|
|Ps. 55: 3.||My enemies have trodden on me all the day long; for they are many that make war against me.|
|Ps. 40: 8.||All my enemies devised evil against me;|
|Ps. 70: 10.||they have taken counsel together.|
|Ps. 40: 7.||They went out and spoke to the same purpose.|
|Ps. 21: 8.||All they that saw me have laughed me to scorn; they have spoken with the lips and wagged the head.|
|Ps. 21: 7.||But I am a worm and no man, a reproach of men and outcast of the people.|
|Ps. 30: 12.||I am become a reproach among all my enemies and very much to my neighbors; and a fear to my acquaintance.|
|Ps. 21: 20.||Holy Father, remove not Thy help far from me; my God, look toward my defense|
|Ps. 37: 23.||Attend unto my help, O Lord God of my salvation. Glory be, etc|
Ant Holy Mary.
|Ps. 141: 2.||I cried to the Lord, with my voice; with my voice I made my supplication to the Lord.|
|Ps. 141: 3||I pour out my prayer in His sight; and before Him I declare my trouble.|
|Ps. 141: 4.||When my spirit failed me, then Thou knewest my paths. In this way wherein I walked, they have hidden a snare for me.|
|Ps. 141: 5.||I looked on my right-hand, and beheld, and there was no one that would know me. Flight hath failed me; and there is no one that hath regard to my soul.|
|Ps. 68: 8.||Because for Thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face.|
|Ps. 68: 9.||I am become a stranger to my brethren; and an alien to the sons of my mother.|
|Ps. 68: 10.||Holy Father, the zeal of Thy house hath eaten me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached Thee are fallen upon me.|
|Ps. 34: 15.||And they rejoiced against me and gathered together; scourges were gathered together upon me and I knew not.|
|Ps. 68: 5.||They are multiplied above the hairs of my head who hate me without cause|
|My enemies are grown strong who have wrongfully persecuted me; then did pay I that which I took not away.|
|Ps. 34: 11.||Unjust witnesses rising up, have asked me things I knew not.|
|Ps. 34: 12.||They repaid me evil for good and|
|Ps. 37: 21.||detracted me; because I followed goodness.|
|Thou art my Father, most holy; my King and my God.|
|Ps. 37: 23.||Attend unto my help, O Lord God of my salvation.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Lam. 1: 12.||O all ye that pass by, attend and see if there be any sorrow like to my sorrow.|
|Ps. 21: 17.||For many dogs have encompassed me; the council of the malignant hath besieged me.|
|Ps. 21: 18.||They looked and stared upon me;|
|Ps. 21: 19.||they parted my garments among them and upon my vesture cast lots.|
|Ps. 21: 17.||They have dug my hands and my feet;|
|Ps. 21: 18.||they numbered all my bones.|
|Ps. 21: 14.||They have opened their mouth against me: as a lion ravening and roaring.|
|Ps. 21: 15.||I am poured out like water and all my bones are scattered.|
|And my heart is become like melting wax in the midst of my bowels.|
|Ps. 21: 16.||My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue hath cleaved to my jaws.|
|Ps. 68: 22.||And they gave me gall for my food: and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.|
|Ps. 21: 16.||And Thou hast brought me into the dust of death;|
|Ps. 68: 27.||and they have added to the grief of my wounds.|
|I slept and rose again; and my most holy Father received me with glory.|
|Ps. 72: 24.||Holy Father, Thou hast held my right hand; and by Thy will Thou hast conducted me and hast received me with glory.|
|Ps. 72: 25.||For what have I in heaven; and besides Thee what do I desire upon earth?|
|Ps. 45: 11.||Be still and see that I am God, saith the Lord; I will be exalted among the nations and I will be exalted in the earth.|
|Blessed is the Lord God of Israel,|
|Ps. 33: 23||who has redeemed the souls of His servants with His own most holy Blood; and none of them that trust in Him shall offend.|
|Ps. 95: 13.||And we know that He cometh; for He will come to judge justice.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 46: 2.||O clap your hands, all ye nations, shout unto God with the voice of joy.|
|Ps 46: 3.||For the Lord is high, terrible: He is a great king over all the earth.|
|For the most holy Father of heaven, our King, before ages sent His beloved Son from on high:|
|Ps. 73: 12||and hath wrought salvation in the midst of the earth.|
|Ps. 95: 11.||Let the heavens rejoice and let the earth be glad, let the sea be moved and the fulness thereof:|
|Ps. 95: 12.||the fields and all that are in them shall be joyful.|
|Ps. 95: 1.||Sing unto Him a new canticle; sing unto the Lord, all the earth.|
|Ps. 95: 4.||For the Lord is great and exceedingly to be praised;|
|He is to be feared above all gods.|
|Ps. 95: 7.||Bring to the Lord, O ye kindreds of the gentiles, bring to the Lord glory and honor.|
|Ps. 95: 8||Bring to the Lord glory unto His Name.|
|Bring your own bodies and bear His holy cross; and follow His most holy precepts even unto the end.|
|Ps. 95: 9.||Let all the earth be moved at His presence;|
|Ps. 95: 10.||say among the gentiles that the Lord hath reigned.|
It is said up to this place daily from Good Friday until the feast of the Ascension On the feast of the Ascension, however, these versicles are added over and above:
|And He ascended unto heaven; and sitteth on the right-hand of the most Holy Father in heaven.|
|Ps. 56: 12.||Be Thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; and Thy glory above all the earth.|
|Ps. 95: 13.||And we know that He cometh: for He will come to judge justice.|
And note that from the Ascension until the Advent of the Lord this Psalm is said daily in the same manner, namely: “O clap your hands,” with the foregoing versicles, “Glory be to the Father” being said where the Psalm ends, namely, “for He will come to judge with justice.”
Note that the foregoing Psalms are said from Good Friday until Easter Sunday: they are said in the same manner from the octave of Whitsunday until the Advent of the Lord and from the octave of the Epiphany until Maundy Thursday,1 except on Sundays, and the principal feasts, on which they are not said: on the other days however they are said daily.
HOLY SATURDAY AT COMPLINE.
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 69: 2.||O God, etc. (Ps. 69), as in the Psalter.|
It is said daily at Compline until the octave of Pentecost.
EASTER SUNDAY AT MATINS.
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 97: 1.||Sing ye to the Lord a new canticle: for He hath done wonderful things. His right hand hath sanctified His Son; and His arm is holy.|
|Ps. 97: 2.||The Lord hath made known His salvation; He hath revealed His justice in the sight of the gentiles.|
|Ps. 41: 9.||In the day time the Lord hath commanded His mercy: and a canticle to Him in the night.|
|Ps. 117: 24||This is the day which the Lord hath made: let us rejoice and be glad in it.|
|Ps. 117: 26.||Blessed be He that cometh in the name of the Lord.|
|Ps. 117: 27.||The Lord is God and He hath shone upon us.|
|Ps. 95: 11||Let the heavens rejoice and let the earth be glad: let the sea be moved and the fulness thereof.|
|Ps. 95: 12.||The fields shall rejoice and all that are in them.|
|Ps. 95: 7.||Bring to the Lord, O ye kindreds of the gentiles, bring to the Lord glory and honor:|
|Ps. 95: 8.||bring to the Lord glory unto His Name.|
It is said up to this place daily from Easter Sunday to the feast of the Ascension at all the Hours except at Vespers and Compline and Prime. On the night of the Ascension these verses are added:—
|Ps. 67: 33.||Sing ye to God, ye kingdoms of the earth: sing ye to the Lord: sing ye to God,|
|Ps. 67: 34.||who mounteth above the heaven of heavens to the east. Behold He will give to His voice the voice of power:|
|Ps. 67: 35.||give ye glory to God for Israel: His magnificence and His power is in the clouds.|
|Ps 67: 36.||God is wonderful in His saints: the God of Israel is He who will give power and strength to His people. Blessed be God.|
And note that this Psalm is said daily from the Ascension of the Lord until the octave of Whitsunday with the foregoing versicles at Matins and Tierce and Sext and Nones. “Glory be to the Father,” being said where “Blessed be God” is said, and not elsewhere. Also note that it is said in the same manner only at Matins on Sundays and the principal feasts, from the octave of Whitsunday until Maundy Thursday because on that day the Lord ate the Pasch with His disciples, or the other Psalm may be said at Matins or at Vespers when one wishes, to wit, “I will extol Thee, O Lord,” as it is in the Psalter, and this from Easter Sunday to the feast of the Ascension and not longer.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. Have mercy on me, etc.—as above, p. 159.
AT TIERCE, SEXT AND NONES
Psalm. Sing ye to the Lord, etc.—as above, p. 167
Psalm O clap your hands, etc.—as above, p. 164.
Here begin the other psalms which our most blessed Father Francis likewise arranged which are to be said in place of the foregoing psalms of the Passion of the Lord on Sunday and the principal festivities from the octave of Whitsunday until Advent and from the octave of the Epiphany until Maundy Thursday.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. O God, etc. (Ps 69),—as it is in the Psalter.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. Sing ye to the Lord, etc.,—as above, p. 167.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. Have mercy on me, etc.,—as above, p. 159.
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 65: 1.||Shout with joy to God, all the earth.|
|Ps. 65: 2.||Sing ye a Psalm to His name: give glory to His praise.|
|Ps. 65: 3.||Say unto God, How terrible are Thy works, O Lord: in the multitude of Thy strength Thy enemies shall lie to Thee.|
|Ps. 65: 4.||Let all the earth adore Thee and sing to Thee: let it sing a psalm to Thy Name.|
|Ps. 65: 16||Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will tell you what great things He hath done for my soul.|
|Ps. 65: 17||I cried to Him with my mouth: and I extolled Him with my tongue.|
|Ps. 17: 7.||And He heard my voice from His holy temple: and my cry came before Him.|
|Ps. 65: 8||O bless our God, ye gentiles: and make the voice of His praise to be heard.|
|Ps. 71: 17||And in him shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed: all nations shall magnify Him.|
|Ps. 71: 18||Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who only doth wonderful things.|
|Ps. 71: 19.||And blessed be the Name of His majesty forever: and the whole earth shall be filled with His majesty. Amen. Amen.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 19: 2.||May the Lord hear thee in the day of tribulation: may the Name of the God of Jacob protect thee: may He|
|Ps. 19: 3.||send thee help from the sanctuary and defend thee out of Sion:|
|Ps. 19: 4.||be mindful of all thy sacrifices, and may thy whole burnt-offering be made fat;|
|Ps. 19: 5.||Give thee according to thy own heart, and confirm all thy counsels.|
|Ps. 19: 6.||We will rejoice in thy salvation, and in the Name of our God we shall be exalted.|
|Ps. 19: 7.||The Lord fulfil all thy petitions: now I know that the Lord hath sent Jesus Christ His Son,|
|Ps. 9: 9.||and will judge the people with justice.|
|Ps. 9: 10.||And the Lord is become a refuge for the poor: a helper in due time of tribulation.|
|Ps. 9: 11.||And let them trust in Thee who know Thy Name.|
|Ps. 143: 1.||Blessed be the Lord my God:|
|Ps. 58: 17.||for Thou art become my support and refuge in the day of my trouble.|
|Ps. 58: 18.||Unto Thee, O my helper, will I sing: for God is my defence, my God, my mercy.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 70: 1.||In Thee, O Lord, have I hoped, let me never be put to confusion.|
|Ps. 70: 2.||Deliver me in Thy justice and rescue me: incline Thine ear unto and save me.|
|Ps. 70: 3.||Be Thou unto me, O God, a protector and a place of strength: that Thou mayest make me safe.|
|Ps. 70: 5.||For Thou art my patience, O Lord; my hope, O Lord, from my youth.|
|Ps. 70: 6.||By Thee have I been confirmed from the womb, from my mother’s womb Thou art my protector: of Thee I shall continually sing.|
|Ps. 70: 8.||Let my mouth be filled with praise, that I may sing Thy glory; Thy greatness all the day long.|
|Ps. 68: 17.||Hear me, O Lord, for Thy mercy is kind; look upon me according to the multitude of Thy tender mercies.|
|Ps. 68: 18.||And turn not away Thy face from Thy servant; for I am in trouble, hear me speedily.|
|Ps. 143: 1.||Blessed be the Lord my God.|
|Ps. 58: 17.||For Thou art become my support and refuge in the day of my trouble.|
|Ps. 58: 18.||Unto Thee, O my helper, will I sing; for God is my defence, my God, my mercy.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. O clap your hands. . . as above, p. 164.
Here begin other Psalms which our most blessed Father Francis likewise arranged, which are to be said in place of the foregoing Psalms of the Passion of the Lord from the Advent of the Lord until Christmas eve and not longer.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. How long, O Lord (Ps. 12), as it is found in the Psalter.
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 85: 12.||I will praise Thee, O Lord, most Holy Father, King of heaven and earth; because|
|Ps. 85: 17.||Thou hast comforted me.|
|Ps. 24: 5.||Thou art God my Saviour.|
|Ps. 11: 6.||I will deal confidently and will not fear.|
|Ps. 117: 14.||The Lord is my strength and my praise; and is become my salvation.|
|Exod. 15: 6.||Thy right hand, O Lord, is magnified in strength;|
|Thy right hand, O Lord, hath slain the enemy:|
|Exod. 15: 7||And in the multitude of Thy glory Thou hast put down Thy adversaries.|
|Ps. 68: 33.||Let the poor see and rejoice: seek ye God and your soul shall live.|
|Ps. 68: 35.||Let the heavens and the earth praise Him: the sea and everything that creepeth therein.|
|Ps. 68: 36.||For God will save Sion and the cities of Juda shall be built up.|
|And they shall dwell there: and acquire it by inheritance.|
|Ps. 68: 37||And the seed of His servants shall possess it: and they that love His Name shall dwell therein.|
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm Have mercy on me, etc.—as above, p. 159.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. Shout with joy, etc.—as above, p. 169.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. May the Lord hear thee in the day, etc.—as above, p. 170.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. In Thee, O Lord, have I hoped—as above, p. 171.
Ant. Holy Mary.
Psalm. O clap your hands, etc.—as above, p. 164.
Also note that the whole Psalm is not said but up to the verse, “Let all the earth be moved”; understand however that the whole verse “Bring your own bodies” must be said. At the end of this verse “Glory be to the Father” is said. And thus it is said daily at Vespers from Advent until Christmas eve.
CHRISTMAS DAY AT VESPERS.
Ant. Holy Mary.
|Ps. 80: 2.||Rejoice to God our helper.|
|Ps. 46: 2.||Shout unto God, living and true, with the voice of triumph.|
|Ps. 46: 3.||For the Lord is high, terrible: a great king over all the earth.|
|For the most holy Father of heaven, our king, before ages sent His Beloved Son from on high and He was born of the Blessed Virgin, holy Mary.|
|Ps. 88: 27.||He shall cry out to me: Thou art my Father;|
|Ps. 88: 28.||And I will make Him My First-born, high above the kings of the earth.|
|Ps. 41: 9.||In the day time the Lord hath commanded His mercy: and a canticle to Him in the night.|
|Ps. 117: 24.||This is the day which the Lord-hath made: let us rejoice and be glad in it.|
|For the beloved and most holy Child has been given to us and born for us by the wayside.|
|Luke 2: 7.||And laid in a manger because He had no room in the inn.|
|Luke 2: 14||Glory to God in the highest; and on earth peace to men of good will.|
|Ps 95: 11.||Let the heavens rejoice and the earth be glad, and let the sea be moved and the fulness thereof.|
|Ps. 95: 12||The fields shall rejoice and all that are in them.|
|Ps 95: 1||Sing to Him a new canticle; sing to the Lord, all the earth.|
|Ps 95: 4.||For the Lord is great and exceedingly to be praised: He is to be feared above all gods.|
|Ps. 95: 7.||Bring to the Lord, O ye kindreds of the gentiles, bring to the Lord glory and honor.|
|Ps. 95: 8.||Bring to the Lord glory unto His Name. Bring your own bodies and bear His holy cross and follow His most holy precepts even unto the end.|
And note that this Psalm is said from Christmas until the octave of the Epiphany at all the Hours.[Back to Table of Contents]
SOME LOST, DOUBTFUL, AND SPURIOUS WRITINGS
DOUBTLESS we should have expected every fragment of St. Francis’ writings to have been preserved with loving care throughout the ages. But when we consider the conditions under which some of them were composed and the vicissitudes they afterwards passed through, we need not be surprised if all of them have not come down to us. On the contrary. For if we may believe such writers as Ubertino da Casale, serious attempts were made in certain quarters toward the close of the thirteenth century to suppress altogether part of the Saint’s writings.1 Be this as it may, it is certain that several of these precious documents disappeared in the course of time. Among such lost treasures we must reckon the primitive Rule of the Friars in the form approved by Innocent III in 1209.2 Again only two fragments seem to have survived of the “many writings” which, as has been already mentioned, St. Francis addressed to the Poor Ladies at St. Damian’s.1 Whether or not either of these fragments is to be identified with a letter written by St. Francis to console the Clares, of which we read in the Speculum and the Conformities, it is well nigh impossible to determine.2 Celano speaks3 of a letter to St. Antony of Padua, different apparently from the one known to us, and of others to Cardinal Ugolino.4 So, too, Eccleston5 tells of letters written to the brothers in France and at Bologna.6
As to the famous letter of St. Francis to St. Antony commissioning the latter to teach theology, there is no small diversity of opinion. It is given for the first time in the Liber Miraculorum,7 and also in the Chron XXIV Generalium.8 M Sabatier, who was, I believe, the first to call the authenticity of this letter into question,9 now seems less inclined to reject it.1 Professor Goetz2 has decided for, and Professor Boehmer3 against it. The Quaracchi editors, in excluding this letter from their edition of the Opuscula, by no means intended to deny that St. Francis wrote to fratri Antonio,4 but they were unable to determine which if any of the three different forms of this letter now in circulation might be the genuine one. Since the matter is sub judice,5 so to say, I think, with Mr. Carmichael, this letter might find a place among the “Doubtful Works” of St. Francis.6
Apropos of the Saint’s doubtful works it seems proper to say a word as to the Rule of the Brothers and Sisters of Penance. Although this Rule—like that of the Clares—is wanting in all the early MS. collections of St. Francis’ writings, we know from Bernard of Besse7 that St. Francis, with the cooperation of Cardinal Ugolino, wrote a Rule for these Tertiaries. What became of this document? It is generally conceded that the Rule of this Third Order as it stands in the Bull Supra montem of Nicholas IV in 12891 is not the handiwork of St. Francis; and for the rest the early history of the Third Order is uncertain, as all Franciscan students are aware2 But what are we to think of the much older text of this Rule published by M. Sabatier in 1901, after MS. XX of the convent at Capistran in the Abruzzi?3 Father Mandonnet, O.P., has tried to prove that the first twelve of the thirteen chapters comprising this document discovered by M. Sabatier, represent the Rule of 1221 in its primitive state.4 I would fain share the opinion of the learned Dominican on this head, but the objection raised against it by the Quaracchi editors seems to me insuperable. It amounts to this: In Chapter VI, § 4, of this Regula Antiqua there is a clear allusion to a Bull of March 30, 1228,1 which it is difficult to regard as an interpolation. Moreover, as Fr. Ubald d’Alençon points out,2 the mention of coin in circulation at Ravenna is also hard to explain in an Umbrian writer. Perhaps this document may prove to be St Francis’ Rule for Tertiaries put into legislative form, with the addition of a few minor regulations. Meanwhile, following the example of the Quaracchi editors, I have abstained from including it among the authentic writings of St. Francis.3
Coming next to St Francis’ poems, although he doubtless wrote some few canticles besides the Canticle of the Sun, the two others given by Wadding can hardly be accepted as his, at least in their present form. I refer to the Amor de caritade4 and In foco l’amor mi misc.5 True, they are both attributed to St. Francis by St. Bernardine of Siena,6 but they are also found among the works of Jacopone da Todi,7 although Ozanam thinks that at most they were only retouched by the latter.8 The tendency nowadays is to ascribe all the early Franciscan poetry to Jacopone. When the critical edition of this extraordinary man’s works is published at Quaracchi, some needed light will no doubt be thrown on this delicate question; then too, perhaps, Pacifico, the “King of Verses,” and “most courtly doctor of singers,” may at length come into his own. Meanwhile a number of poems found in a fifteenth century manuscript at the National Library at Naples, once at the convent of Aquila in the Abruzzi, and lately ascribed to St. Francis, are clearly apocryphal, as Professor Ildebrando della Giovanna has sufficiently demonstrated
Wadding himself regarded the seven sermons of St Francis he gives as of doubtful authenticity. And rightly, for they are from the work of Fr. Louis Rebolledo, already mentioned1 The twenty-eight Collationes are, pace Fr. Mandonnet, who regards them as genuine,2 rightly rejected by Professor Goetz, who points out how Wadding compiled them from various sources.3 Many are translated from an Italian MS. at Fano in the Marches of which we know neither the age nor the parentage.4 But they seem to be mere transcripts from the early legends. Thus Collatio I is an adaptation of Celano (1, 2) and Collatio XIV is taken almost verbatim from St. Bonaventure, while Collatio V is an accommodation of Celano and St. Bonaventure, XXVI and XXVIII are abridged from the Speculum, XXIV is found in the Chron. XXIV Gen, and so on. It is therefore to the authors of these works and not to St. Francis that these conferences are to be ascribed.
At the end of his edition of the Opuscula Wadding has collected several “Prayers of St Francis” of which the text is more than doubtful. Let us see why. Take for example the prayers said to have been used by St. Francis “at the beginning of his conversion” or “in time of sickness” or “at the elevation” One searches in vain among the early MS. collections for any trace of these prayers, nor is mention of them to be found1 elsewhere. As regards the prayer “to obtain Poverty,” it has long been known that it was not written by St. Francis himself. Wadding found it in the Arbor Vitae (l. v., cap. iii), but Ubertino da Casale is there quoting from the Sacrum Commercium B. Francisci cum Domina Paupertate.2 The latter work is not an historical narrative, but an exquisite allegory in which St Francis’ own tale of his mystic espousals with the Lady Poverty is most poetically expanded by one of his followers,1 and consequently Ubertino did not pretend in citing such a work to give this prayer as the actual composition of Francis.2
In some MS. collections and library catalogues certain works may be found ascribed to St. Francis which are obviously spurious. For example, the Epistola B. Francisci ad Fr. Bernardum, found in at least two fifteenth century codices,3 is nothing else but the letter of St. Bonaventure continens XXV memoralia.4
Sbaralea5 mentions copies of a book of the “Sayings” of St Francis as existing at Assisi and Ferrara,6 but a careful search has failed to reveal any trace of them. He also refers to a MS. (B. 31) in the Vallicellian Library at Rome in which “the sayings of St. Francis are found with the Rule,”7 but this codex is also missing. In this library, however, there is a codex (B. 82, fol. 141 r) which contains a “Sermon delivered by St. Francis at the end of his life.”8 The number of patristic citations this work contains is alone sufficient to demonstrate its spuriousness.
The Francisci Collationes cum fratribus, catalogued among the Latin MSS of the Royal Library at Munich1 as being contained in a fifteenth century MS. at that library (cod. 11354), are a selection from the Dicta of the Blessed Brother Giles, as is evident from the Incipit of the prologue and the text of the first collation.2 Their attribution to St. Francis is therefore an error of the catalogue. The Verba S. Francisci de Paupertate, mentioned in the same catalogue as contained in Cod. 5998, fol. 189, are an excerpt from Chap. VI of the Second Rule of the Friars Minor.3
This attribution of writings to St. Francis which clearly do not belong to him is rarely intentional; it is often the result of error. For the rest, it was easiest for compilers and librarians unacquainted with the authorship of certain Franciscan works, and not eager to undertake deep researches as to their origin, to ascribe them to the common father of all Franciscan literature and the source of its inspiration.
Since every new revelation of St. Francis must be a priceless gain, it is devoutly to be wished that the present energetic research work among the sources of Franciscan history may happily bring to light some of St. Francis’ writings not known to us save through the formal attestation of the early legends and chronicles, or at least put us in possession of complete copies of such as have come down to us only in frag mentary form
Meanwhile I conclude this volume by wishing its readers their full share in the blessing which St. Francis himself has promised to those who receive his words kindly: Omnes illi et illac, qui ea benigne recipient, benedicat eis Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus. Amen.[Back to Table of Contents]
The following list of works is intentionally limited. Its aim is to give collectively and in alphabetical order a fuller reference to the principal and most accessible sources of information cited in the course of the present volume.
Acta Sanctorum quotquot toto orbe coluntur, collegit Joannes Bollandus, etc. (ed. 3).
Actus B. Francisci et Sociorum ejus. Ed Sabatier, Paris, 1902.
Prof. Alessandri: Inventario dei Manoscritti della biblioteca del conv. di S. Francesco di Assisi. Forli, 1894.
Analecta Bollandiana.1 Brussels.
Analecta Franciscana. Quaracchi.
Matthew Arnold: Essays in Criticism. Macmillan, 1875.
Reginald Balfour: The Seraphic Keepsake. Burns & Oates, 1905.
Fr. Francisci Bartholi, O.F.M.: Tractatus de Indulgentia S. Mariae de Portiuncula. Ed. Sabatier, Paris, 1900.
Fr. Bartholomaeus Pisanus, O.F.M.: De Conformitate Vitae B. Francisci ad vitam D. N. Jesu Christi. Milan, 1510.2
Fr Bernardus de Bessa, O.F.M.: Liber de Laudibus B. Francisci. In Anal. Franc., t. III.
Fr. Bernardo da Fivizzano, O.M.Cap.: Oposcoli di S. Francesco. Florence, 1880.
Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina antiquae et mediae aetatis. Ed. Socii Bollandiani. Brussels.
Prof. H. Boehmer: Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi. Tubingen and Leipzig (Mohr), 1904
Bullettino Critico di Cose Francescane. Florence
S. Bonaventura. Legendae duae de Vita S. Francisci. Quaracchi, 1898. (English translation by Miss Lockhart. Washbourne, 1898.)
Bullarium Franciscanum. Ed. F. F. Hyacinth Sbaralea and Conrad Eubel, O.M.Conv. 1759 and 1898.
Montgomery Carmichael: La Benedizione di San Francesco. Livorno, 1900. “The Origin of the Rule of St. Francis,” in Dublin Review, Vol CXXXIV, 1904, pp. 357-385. “The Writings of St. Francis,” in the Month, January, 1904, t. CIII, pp. 156-164. See also under Sacrum Commercium.
Fr. Thomas de Celano, O.F.M.: Vita Prima S. Francisci. Ed. Suyskens, S.J., in Acta S.S., Oct., II.
Vita Secunda S. Francisci. Ed. Amoni. Rome, 1880.
Tractatus de Miraculis. Ed. Van Ortroy, S.J., in Anal. Boll., t. XVIII, 1899.
Vita S. Clarae. Ed. Sedulius, O.F.M. Antwerp, 1613.
Fr. Leopold de Chérancé: S. François d’Assise. Paris, 1892. (English translation by R. F. O’Connor: Burns & Oates, 1901.)
Fr. Bernard Christen, O M Cap.: Leben des hl. Franciscus von Assisi. Innsbruck, 1899.
Chronica XXIV Generalium in Anal. Francis., t. III.
Fr. Cuthbert, O.S.F.C. See under Eccleston.
G. Cozza-Luzi: Chiara di Assisi ed Innocenzo IV. Rome, 1887.
Lina Duff Gordon: The Story of Assisi. Dent, 1901.
Fr. Thomas Eccleston, O.F.M.: De Adventu Fratrum Minorum in Angliam in Anal. Franc., t. I; see Monumenta Franc. Ed. Brewer. Rolls series. (English translation by Fr. Cuthbert, O.S.F.C.: The Friars and how they came to England. Sands, 1903.)
Fr. Edouard d’Alençon, O.M.Cap:1Epistola S. Francisci ad Ministrum Generalem in sua forma authentica. Rome, 1899. La Benediction de S. François. Paris, 1896. See also Sacrum Commercium.
Fr. Ehrle, S.J.: “Die Historischen Handschriften von S. Francesco in Assisi” in the Archiv furLitteratur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, t. I, pp 484 seq. “Controversen uber die Anfange des Minoritenordens” in Zeitschrift fur Katholische Theologie, t. XI, pp 725 seq.
Mgr. Faloci-Pulignani: “Tre Autografi di S. Francesco” in Misc. Francescana, t. VI, pp 33 seq., and “La Calligrafia di S. Francesco,” l. c., t. VII, pp 67 seq.
Floretum S. Francisci Assisiensis. Ed. Sabatier. Paris, 1902. A satisfactory Italian version of the Fioretti is that of Barbere, Florence, 1902. An excellent English translation, The Little Flowers of St. Francis, is published by Kegan Paul, 1905.
Etudes Franciscaines. Namur.
Joseph Gorres: Der hl. Franciscus von Assisi, ein Troubadour. Ratisbon, 1879.
Prof. Walter Goetz: Die Quellen zur Geschichte des hl. Franz von Assisi. Gotha, 1904.
Prof. John Herkless: Francis and Dominic and the Mendicant Orders. Scribner, 1901.
Fr. Jordani a Jano, O.F.M.: Chronica, in Anal. Franc., t. I.
Leon de Kerval: Sancti Antonii de Padua Vitae duae. Paris, 1904.
Fr. Leonard Lemmens, O.F.M.: “Die Anfänge des Clarissenordens” in Romische Quartalschrift, t. XVI, pp. 93 seq. Scripta Fratris Leonis, Quaracchi, 1901. See also under Speculum Perfectionis.
Abbé Leon Le Monnier: Histoire de S. Françoisd’Assise. (English translation by a Franciscan Tertiary. Kegan Paul, 1894.)
Prof. A. G. Little: Description de MS. Can. Misc. 525, de la Bibliothèque Bodleienne. Paris, 1903.
Canon Knox Little: St. Francis of Assisi: His Times, Life, and Work Isbister, 1904.
Anne Macdonnell: The Words of St. Francis. Dent, 1905.
Fr P. Mandonnet, O.P.: Les Origines de l’Ordo de Poenitentia (Freiburg, 1898). Les Regles et le Gouvernement de l’Ordo de Poenitentia au XIIIe Siècle (Paris, 1902).
Miscellanea Francescana di Storia di Lettere, di Arti. Foligno.
Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Berlin.
Prof. Karl Muller: Anfange des Minoritenordens und der Bussbruderschaften. Freiburg, 1885.
A. F. Ozanam: Les Poètes Franciscains en Italie au Treizième Siècle. Paris, 1882, 6th ed.
Opuscula S. P. Francisci Assisiensis. Edita a PP. Collegii S. Bonaventurae, Quaracchi, 1904.
Fr. Panfilo da Magliano, O.F.M.: Storia Compendiosa di San Francesco. Rome, 1874-1876.
Paul Sabatier: Vie de S. François d’Assise. Paris, 1894. (English translation by L. S. Houghton.) Regula antiqua Fratrum et Sororum de Poenitentia. Paris. (English translation in Adderley and Marsons’ Third Orders. Mowbray, 1902) Description du MS. Franciscain de Liegnitz. Paris, 1901. Examen de quelquesTravaux recents sur les Opuscules de Saint François. Paris, 1904 See also under Actus, Bartholi, and Speculum.
Fr. Hyacinth. Sbaralea, O M.Conv.: Supplementum et Castigatio ad Scriptores Trium Ordinum S. Francisci. Rome, 1806
Sacrum Commercium Beati Francisci cum Domina Paupertate. Ed. Fr. Ed. d’Alençon, O.M.Cap Rome, 1900. (English translation by Montgomery Carmichael, The Lady Poverty; Murray, 1901)
Emma Gurney Salter: Franciscan Legends in Italian Art. Dent, 1905.
Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales. Quaracchi, 1897.
Speculum Perfectionis. Ed. Lemmens: Quaracchi, 1901.
Speculum Perfectionis. Ed. Sabatier. Paris, 1898. (English translation of the text only, by the Countess de la Warr: The Mirror of Perfection. Burns & Oates, 1902.)
Luigi Suttina: Appunti Bibliografici di Studi Francescani. Padua, 1904.
H. Thode: Franz von Assisi und die Anfänge der Kunst der Renaissance in Italien. Berlin, 1885 and 1904.
Trium Sociorum, Legenda S. Francisci Assis. Ed. Faloci. Foligno, 1898. (English translation by E. Gurney Salter: The Legend of the Three Companions. Dent, 1902.)
Fr. Ubald d’Alençon, O.M.Cap.: Les Opuscules de S. François d’Assise. Paris, 1905.
Fr. Van Ortroy, S.J. For his article on the Opuscula of St. Francis, see Analecta Bollandiana, t xxiv, fasc. iii (1905), p. 411 seq.
Fr. Luke Wadding, O.F.M.: Annales Minorum.1B. P. Francisci Assisiatis Opuscula. Antwerp, 1623. Scriptores Ordinis Minorum. Rome, 1650.
[1 ]Prof A G Little See English Historical Review, Oct, 1902, p 652
[2 ]M Sabatier’s views on this point are summarized in his Vie de S. François, Paris, 1904 See Études des Sources, p. xxxvi.
[3 ]Mgr Faloci’s opinion may be found in his Miscellanea Francescana, Foligno, t VII, p 115 seq
[4 ]Die Anfänge des Minoritenordens, Freiburg, 1885, p 3.
[1 ]See Opuscula Ed Quaracchi, p vi
[1 ]See on this subject the long study of Cardinal Gabriel de Treio, given by Wadding in the Opuscula The full title is “Gabriel, divina miseratione S R E Tituli S Pacratii prebyter cardinalis de Treio, in epistola missa ad R admodum P Lucam Wadingum” It is given in substance by Fr. Apollinaris, O F M, in his Doctrine Spirituelle de S François (Paris, 1878) See also the Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum (Cologne, 1618), which ranks St Francis among the Fathers
- “ nel crudo sasso, intra Tevere ed Arno,
- Da Cristo prese l’ultimo sigillo,
- Che le sue membra due anni portarno”
- Paradiso, XI—114
[1 ]See Boehmer, Analekten, p xlv
[2 ]“Non tam orans quam oratio factus” 2 Cel 3, 51.
[3 ]See his chapter on “Pagan and Mediæval Religious Sentiment” in the Essays on Criticism Third edition, Macmillan, 1875, pp 243-248
[1 ]See Leg III Soc, 10
[2 ]Eccleston speaks of his “false Latin” See below, p 132
[3 ]Some of the greatest troubadours of Provence were then sojourning in Italy On their journeys and influence there see Fauriel, Histoire de la poésie Provençale, t II, and three articles by the same author in the “Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes,” t III and IV Fragments of their poems are given by Monaci Testi antichi provenzali (Rome, 1889).
[4 ]See Görres Der hl Franciscus von Assisi, ein Troubadour (Ratisbon, 1879)
[1 ]I have rendered all Scripture phrases by the corresponding Douay Version, not, indeed, that I wish to raise any vexatious question as to the relative merits of the Douay and the English Authorized Version from a literary point of view, but because, as every student of Franciscan literature must be aware, the Biblical passages in the early documents are quoted from the Vulgate, and the English Authorized Version is not and does not profess to be a translation of the Vulgate See Franciscan Annals, January, 1905, p 8
[2 ]1 Cel 1.
[3 ]See below, p 130
[4 ]M. Sabatier (Vie de S François, p 5) suggests that Brother Leo may have acted in this capacity, and invokes the authority of Bernard of Besse to prove it
[1 ]For the testimony of St. Bonaventure and Celano see below, p 147.
[2 ]See Tract de Miraculis, Anal Bol, t xviii, p 115
[1 ]See below, p 27.
[1 ]See Lemmens De duobus generibus vitarum S P Francisci in Doct Ant Franc, P II, p 9, and de Kerval, Les Sources de l’histoire de S François in Bullettino Critico, fasc i, p 3
[2 ]See Sabatier: Opuscules, fasc x, p 133, also Boehmer Analekten, p vi
[1 ]See Ehrle, S J Die historischen Handschriften des Klosters San Francesco in Assisi in Archiv fur Litteratur, etc, t I, p 484; Mgr Faloci Pulignant in the Miscell Francescana, t VI, p 46, M Sabatier, Vie de S François, I, p 370, and Professor Alessandri Inventario dei manoscritti della biblioteca del conv de S Francesco di Assisi, p 57
[2 ]See page 64
[3 ]See page 81
[4 ]See page 5
[5 ]See page 98
[6 ]See page 111.
[7 ]See page 23
[8 ]See page 20
[9 ]See page 152
[10 ]See page 139
[11 ]See page 155
[12 ]See page 89
[1 ]See Speculum Perfectionis (ed Sabatier), p clxxvi, for description of these three MSS
[2 ]See Sabatier Le Manuscrit de Liegnitz, in Opuscules, t I, p 33 This codex adds the Salutation of the Blessed Virgin and the letter to Brother Leo
[3 ]On these MSS see Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), p clxiv
[4 ]This MS adds the example Fuit quidam miles, etc. See Actus B Francisci (ed Sabatier), cap 66
[5 ]The Chronicle of Mariano, so often quoted by Wadding, is now lost It comprised five large volumes in folio In the first of these he gives the catalogue of St Francis’ writings above referred to, and which is reproduced in the Quaracchi edition after Wadding I have not deemed it necessary to translate it here On Mariano and his works, see Sabatier Bartholi, p 137
[6 ]On this MS see Minocchi “La Legenda trium Sociorum,” p 13, also his “Nuovi Studii” in the Archiv Storico Ital, t XXIV, p 266, see also Sabatier Bartholi, p cxxxv
[7 ]On this MS see Lemmens Doct Ant Franc, P III, p 52
[8 ]On this MS see Sabatier Bartholi, p cxlvi
[1 ]On this MS see Faloci Misc Frances, t VII, p 45; and Sabatier Opuscules, t I, p. 359 It may be noted that the Foligno MS conforms more to that of St Isidore’s and the Vatican MS rather to that of Ognissanti
[2 ]My references to the Conformities are to the Milan edition of 1510 The edition published in 1590, especially in the historical part, is mutilated and corrupted at almost every page, as I can personally attest after a comparison of it with several old MS. versions
[3 ]See below, p 121
[4 ]See below, p. 118
[1 ]It was printed at Venice “expensis domini Jordani de Dinslaken per Simonem de Luere” in 1504, and at Metz “per Jasparem Hochffeder” in 1509 Both these editions are identical It was republished by Spoelberch at Antwerp in 1620
[2 ]It is largely a collection of declarations and expositions of the Rule, and of statutes, decrees, and privileges concerning the Order
[3 ]The Speculum Morin, as it is called from the printer, Martin Morin, is now very rare In a copy at the National Library, at Paris, it is ascribed to Fr John Argomanez, a Spanish provincial See Études Franc, t. XIII, p 317
[4 ]Also at Barcelona, in 1523. See Sbaralea Supplementum, p 51
[1 ]On the edition published at Venice, in 1513, see Sbaralea Supplem, p 196
[2 ]See The Life of Father Luke Wadding, by Fr Joseph O’Shea, O F.M
[3 ]See Wadding B P Francisci Assisiatis Opuscula, Antwerp, 1623 See also his Scriptores Ordinis Minorum, p 112, and Sbaralea Supplem, p 244
[4 ]Leg Maj, V, 5
[1 ]Leg Maj, VIII, 1.
[1 ]Opera Omnia S Francisci, Paris, 1641
[2 ]Opera B P Francisci, Cologne, 1849
[3 ]Sti Francisci Assisiensis Opera Omnia, Paris 1880 (vol VI of Bibliotheca Patristica)
[4 ]Oposculi di S Francesco, by Fr Bernardo da Fivizzano, O M Cap, Florence, 1880 The Latin text is also given in this edition
[5 ]Works of St Francis Translated by a Religious of the Order London, 1890
[6 ]Œuvres de S François Trans of Berthaumier Paris, 1864
[7 ]Leben, Regel, und Werke des h Franziskus von Assisi By Hereneus Haid Ratisbon, 1856
[8 ]Obras Completas del B P S Francisco de Asis segun la coleccion del P Wadingo. Ternel, 1902
[1 ]“Opuscula Sancti Patris Francisci Assisiensis sec. Codices MSS emendata et denuo edita a PP. Collegii S. Bonaventurae. Ad Claras Aquas (Quaracchi), 1904”
[1 ]H Boehmer Analekten zur Geschichte des Franciscus von Assisi S Francisci Opuscula Tubingen and Leipzig, 1904
[2 ]W Goetz Die Quellen zur Geschichte des hl Franciscus von Assisi Gotha, 1904 The part of this work dealing with the Opuscula already appeared in the Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte As there is some difference between the reprint and the original, I have quoted sometimes from one and sometimes from the other
[3 ]There is also an excellent new French translation by Fr Ubald d’Alençon, O M Cap,—Les Opuscules de Saint François d’Assise (Paris, Poussielgue, 1905) I have quoted from it elsewhere A critical Italian edition is in preparation by Fr Nicolò Dal-Gal, O F M, already well known for his contributions to Franciscan history
[1 ]See Analecia Bollandiana, fasc III, p 411
[2 ]Examen de quelques travaux recents sur les Opuscules de Saint François, in Opuscules, fasc X
[3 ]“The Writings of St Francis,” by Montgomery Carmichael, in the Month, January, 1904
[4 ]See The Words of St Francis, by Anne Macdonell, p 7, London, 1904
[1 ]1 Cel 29
[1 ]See Goetz Quellen zur Geschichte des hl Franz von Assisi, in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, t xxii, p 551, and Van Ortroy, S J., in Anal. Bolland, t xxiv, fasc. iii (1905), p 411.
[2 ]The codex of St Antony’s College, Rome, omits the Admonitions numbered 11 and 22 It may be noted, however, that both these numbers are found at the end of the Speculum Perfectionis, ed Lemmens. See Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. II, p 84
[1 ]On this MS see Sabatier, Opuscules, fasc. ii.
[2 ]On this MS. see Little, Opuscules, fasc. v.
[3 ]As to this codex see Lemmens Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. III, p 72.
[1 ]Mgr. Faloci has edited the first of the Admonitions from this codex in his Miscellanea Francescana, t. vi, p 96
[2 ]In this edition, which Wadding has followed (fol 21 v.), nos 20, 21, and 23 are repeated.
[3 ]In places where variants are noted at the foot of the page the following abbreviations will be used.
|An||Codex at St Antony’s College.|
|Is.||Codex at St Isidore’s College.|
|Mon.||Version of the Monumenta|
|Firm.||Version of the Firmamenta.|
|Pis.||Version given by Bartholomew of Pisa in his Conformities.|
[1 ]John 14. 6-9
[2 ]I Tim 6. 16.
[3 ]John 4 24.
[4 ]John 1 18
[5 ]John 6 64.
[6 ]Mark 14. 22-24.
[1 ]John 6. 55.
[2 ]These words are added in the text given by Pis. and Wadd.
[3 ]See I Cor. 11 29
[4 ]Ps 4 3.
[5 ]John 9. 35.
[6 ]Wis. 18. 15.
[7 ]Matt. 28 20.
[1 ]Gen. 2. 16-17.
[2 ]To which, namely, he has no right after religious profession, having relinquished his will by the vow of obedience.
[3 ]Luke 14 33.
[4 ]Matt. 16 25.
[1 ]See John 15. 13.
[2 ]See Luke 9. 62
[3 ]See Prov. 26 11.
[4 ]Matt. 20 28.
[1 ]See Gen. 1. 26.
[2 ]See II Cor. 12. 5.
[1 ]See John 10. 11, Heb. 12. 2, John 10 4, Rom. 8 35
[2 ]II Cor. 3. 6
[1 ]I Cor. 12 3.
[2 ]Ps 52 4
[3 ]Matt 5. 44.
[1 ]This Admonition is wanting in codex An., but is found in the Speculum Perfectionis, ed Lemmens. See Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. II, p. 84
[2 ]See Rom. 2. 5
[3 ]Matt. 22: 21.
[4 ]Cod O and Is. read “If therefore his body is puffed up, he has not the Spirit of God. If, however, he becomes rather viler in his own sight, then he truly has the Spirit of God.”
[1 ]Cod O. reads “so long as he enjoys everything according to his wish and necessity.”
[2 ]Matt 5. 3
[3 ]See Matt. 5. 39
[4 ]Matt. 5. 9.
[1 ]Matt. 5 8.
[2 ]See Matt 25 18
[3 ]Luke 8 18.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, VI, 1. “And he had these words continually in his mouth ‘what a man is in the eyes of God, so much he is, and no more’ ” See also Imitation of Christ, Bk III, Chap L, where the same saying of St Francis is quoted
[2 ]See Speculum Perfectionis, ed. Sabatier, p 189
[3 ]This Admonition (like No 11) is wanting in Cod An, but is found in the Speculum Perfectionis, ed Lemmens See Doc Ant. Franc, P II, p 84.
[4 ]Prov 29 20
[1 ]In Cod. O. numbers 23 and 24 are not divided
[2 ]Cod An reads “Blessed is that superior . . . ”
[3 ]Matt 24 45.
[1 ]Cod. O omits this sentence.
[2 ]See Matt 6 20
[3 ]St Francis would often say to his brethren “When a servant of God receives any divine inspiration in prayer, he ought to say, ‘This consolation, O Lord, Thou hast sent from heaven to me, a most unworthy sinner, and I commit it to Thy care, for I know that I should be but a thief of Thy treasure.’ And when he returns to prayer, he ought to bear himself as a little one and a sinner, as if he had received no new grace from God”—St Bonaventure, Leg Maj., X, 4
[1 ]“Wherefore,” he writes of St. Francis, “in the praises of the virtues which he composed he says ‘Hall! queen wisdom, God save Thee with Thy sister pure, holy simplicity’ ” See 2 Cel 3, 119, for this Incipit
[2 ]See page 3.
[3 ]In the text of the Conformities (which for the most part agrees with that of the Ognissanti MS.) the Salutation is preceded by No 27 of the Admonitions and begins with the words “There is absolutely no man,” etc.
[4 ]Ed of Venice, 1504, and of Metz, 1509.
[5 ]Opuscula, Antwerp, 1623.
[6 ]In the Assisi codex (as in that of Liegnitz) the title reads “Of the virtues with which the Blessed Virgin Mary was adorned and with which a holy soul ought also to be adorned,” whereas in the Ognissanti codex and others of the same class, the title is “Salutation of the Virtues and of their efficacy in confounding Vice.” (See Introduction.)
[7 ]Cod. As omits “Hail.”
[1 ]Wadding, following Mariano of Florence, prefaces the letter with the following Salutation “To my reverend masters in Christ, to all the clerics who are in the world and live conformably to the rules of the Catholic faith brother Francis, their least one and unworthy servant, sends greeting with the greatest respect and kissing their feet. Since I am become the servant of all, but cannot, on account of my infirmities, address you personally and viva voce, I beg you to receive, with all love and charity, this remembrance of me and exhortation which I write briefly” Wadding also (p 45) adds at the end of this instruction the following words “May our Lord Jesus Christ fill all my masters with His holy grace and comfort them”
[2 ]Father Ubald d’Alençon (Opuscules de Saint François, p 21) is inclined, with M Sabatier, to regard this instruction as a kind of postscript to St Francis’ letter to the General Chapter and to all the Friars (See Speculum Perfections, ed. Sabatier, p clxvi)
[3 ]Mgr. Faloci has edited the Instruction after this codex, see Misc Francescana, t VI, p 95.
[1 ]See I Cor. 2 14.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, III, 8 See also 1 Cel. 1, 5, and the Vita S Francisci, by Julian of Spires, cap iv.
[2 ]Although M Sabatier (Vie de S François, p 100), following Wadding (Annales ad an 1210, n 220 seq.), fixes this event in the summer of 1210, it is far more probable that the approbation of the Rule took place on April 23, 1209, the date given by the Bollandists and the Seraphic Breviary This latter date is not only more conformable to the ancient tradition of the Order (see Anal Franciscana, t. III, p 713) but involves no historic difficulties (see Appunti critici sulla cronologia della Vita di S Francesco, by Father Leo Patrem, O F M, in the Oriente Serafico, Assisi, 1895, Vol. vii, nn. 4-12.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, IV, 11
[2 ]Muller Anfange des Minoriten-Ordens und der Bussbruderschaften (Freiburg, 1885), p 4, seq
[3 ]Sabatier Vie de S François d’Assise (Paris, 1894), p 288, seq
[4 ]More than a century ago—in 1768—Fr Suyskens demonstrated that the lengthy Rule of twenty-three chapters could not have been presented to Pope Innocent by St Francis in its present form (See Acta S. S, t ii, Oct) All agree that the first Rule in its original form was, very short and simple
[5 ]Prof Müller was therefore right in attempting to reconstruct the Rule in its original form out of this longer one He has almost conclusively demonstrated that the opening words of this original Rule were. “Regula et vita istorum fratrum haec est” (See Anfange, pp 14-25, 185-188.) Prof Boehmer has also attempted to reconstruct it from various writings See his Analekten, p 27 See also 2 Cel. 3, 110, Speculum Perfectionis (ed. Sabatier), c. 4, n 42
[1 ]His exposition of the Rule may be found in the Monumenta Ordinis Minorum (Salamanca, 1511, tract 11, fol 46 v) and in the Firmamenta (Paris, 1512, p iv, fol 34 v) In chapter 6 (Mon, fol 67v, Firm, fol 48r) he says “This he lays down at greater length in the original rule as follows ‘When it may be necessary let the friars go for alms,’ ” etc (see below, p 43) On Hugo de Digne see Sbaralea, Supplemenium, p 360; also Salimbene, Chron Parmensis, 1857, passim
[2 ]His exposition of the Rule has never been published, although a critical edition is promised by Fr Van Ortroy, S.J (See Anal Bolland, t xxi, p 441 seq) Meanwhile it may be found at St Isidore’s, Rome, in the codex 1/92, at the Vatican lib, in cod Ottob 522 (in part only) and Ottob 666, and at the Royal lib of Munich in cod 23648. In this exposition Clareno says (cod Ottob 666, fol 50 v) “In the Rule which Pope Innocent conceded to him and approved . . . it was written thus ‘The Lord commands in the Gospel,’ ” etc (see below, p. 41) Clareno died in 1337 On his writings see Fr Ehrle, S J, in the Archiv, vol I (1885), pp 509-69
[3 ]To be sure, the traditional Legend of the Three Companions says of St Francis “He made many rules and tried them, before he made that which at the last he left to the brothers” (See Legenda III Sociorum, n 35.) But unless these words are understood as referring to different versions of the same Rule, they only raise a new difficulty against the authenticity of this Legend
[1 ]“And the Blessed Francis seeing Brother Cæsar learned in the Scriptures commissioned him to embellish with evangelical language the Rule which he himself had put together in simple words.” Chron Fr Jordani a Jano Analecta Franc, t I, page 6, n 15 Brother Jordan also notes “that according to the first Rule the Friars fasted on Wednesday and Friday” (L. c, p. 4, n 11)
[2 ]See Speculum Perfectionis (ed Sabatier), Appendix, p 300, also Les Nouveaux mémoires de l’Académie de Bruxelles, t XXIII, pp 29-33 Jacques de Vitry died as Cardinal Bishop of Frascati in 1244, leaving a number of writings in which St Francis figures prominently
[3 ]2 Cel, 3, 90
[4 ]See below, p 41
[5 ]See below, p 34
[6 ]Canon Knox Little. St. Francis of Assisi (1904), Appendix, p. 321.
[1 ]See Van Ortroy, S J, Annal Bolland, t. xxiv, fasc iii, 1905, p 413.
[2 ]See below, p 44
[3 ]See 2 Cel, 3, 110
[4 ]See Mon, fol 68 v, Firm, fol 49 r.
[5 ]See Cod Ottob 666, fol. 99 v.
[6 ]See Speculum, fol. 193 v.
[7 ]“Celle de 1210 et celle qui fut approuvée par le pape le 29 Novembre, 1223,” he writes, “n’avaient guère de commun que le nom” . . . “Celle de 1210 seule est vraiment franciscaine Celle de 1223 est indirectement l’œuvre de l’Église”—Vie de S François, p 289
[1 ]See Le Monnier. History of St Francis, p 337
[2 ]See Seraphicæ Legislationis Textus Originales (Quarachi, 1897), p 35
[3 ]This letter, which is dated “in the tenth year of the Pontificate of Pope Honorius,” may be found in the Annalibus Hannoniæ Fr Jacobi de Guisia, lib. XXI, cap. xvii; see Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores, t. XXX, P. I, p 294
[4 ]See Mon, fol 46 v, Firm, fol 34 v.
[1 ]See Ehrle “Controversen uber die Anfange des Minoritenordens” in the Zeitschrift fur Katholische Theologie, t XI, p 725, seq
[2 ]“À partir de Bonaventure,” he writes, “la règle primitive tombe dans l’oubli Les Franciscaines Spirituels du commencement du XIV siècle ne songèrent pas à l’en tirer” See Spec Perf. (ed Sab), p ix
[3 ]In preparing the Quaracchi text, which is the one I translate here, the codices at St Antony’s and St Isidore’s, and the Florentine codex at Ognissanti were used, besides the versions of this Rule found in the Speculum, Minorum, Monumenta, and Firmamenta (see Introduction for description of these codices and editions) The expositions of the Rule by Hugo de Digne and Angelo Clareno, already mentioned, have often been consulted, as well as the Conformities of Bartholomew of Pisa The text of the first Rule, given in part in the Conformities, often agrees with the MSS of Ognissanti and St Isidore’s
[1 ]This last sentence is omitted in Mon. and Firm, also by Wadding
[2 ]Matt 19 21
[3 ]Matt. 16 24.
[1 ]Luke 14. 26.
[2 ]See Matt. 19. 29.
[1 ]From the Latin caparo. See Du Cange, Glossar latin
[2 ]See the bull Cum secundum of Honorius III, dated September 22, 1220 (Bullarium Franciscanum, t 1, p 6)
[3 ]Luke 9: 62
[4 ]See Matt. 11 8, Luke 7. 25
[1 ]See Mark 9. 28.
[2 ]Matt 6 16.
[1 ]See Luke 10 8
[2 ]Matt 7 12
[3 ]See Tob 4 6
[4 ]Matt 20 28.
[1 ]Heb 10 31
[1 ]See Matt. 9 12
[2 ]Matt. 20. 25
[3 ]See Matt 23 11
[4 ]See Luke 22 26
[5 ]See Ps 118. 21
[1 ]See Mark 8 36
[1 ]Ps 127 2
[2 ]II Thess 3. 10
[3 ]See I Cor 7. 24.
[4 ]St Jerome says “Semper facito aliquid boni operis, ut diabolus te inveniat occupatum.” Epis. 125 (alias 4), n. 11.
[5 ]St Anselm says, “Otiositas inimica est animae.” Epist. 49.
[1 ]See I Peter 4 9.
[2 ]See above, page 28.
[3 ]See Luke 12. 15, and 21. 34
[4 ]See Leg III Soc., n 35.
[5 ]Eccle 1 2
[1 ]O, Is and Pis read “money for alms,” Clar and Spec read “alms of money,” An, Mon and Wadding read “money or alms”
[2 ]I Tim 6. 8
[1 ]Is 50. 7.
[1 ]Rom. 14 3
[2 ]Mark 2 26
[3 ]Luke 21 34-35.
[1 ]See Acts 13. 48
[2 ]Apoc 3 19
[3 ]See 2 Cel 3, 110, also Hugo de Digne, l [Editor: illegible word] fol 68 v and Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), chap 42
[4 ]See II Tim 2. 14
[5 ]Luke 17 10
[6 ]Matt 5 22
[1 ]John 15 12
[2 ]Jas 2 18
[3 ]I John 3 18
[4 ]Tit 3 2
[5 ]Rom 1 29-30
[6 ]Tit 3 2
[7 ]Is 38 15
[8 ]Luke 13 24
[9 ]Matt 7 14
[10 ]See above, p 29
[1 ]This prohibition refers to a vow of obedience made by a woman to her spiritual director, as Fr Van Ortroy points out See Anal Boll, t xxiv, fasc iv, p 523
[2 ]Matt 5 28
[3 ]See Luke 9. 3, 10 4-8
[4 ]See Matt. 5. 39.
[1 ]See Luke 6: 29-30.
[2 ]Matt 10. 16.
[1 ]I Pet 2 13
[2 ]John 3 5
[3 ]Matt 10 32
[4 ]Luke 9 26
[5 ]Mark 8 35, Luke 9 24
[1 ]Matt 5 10
[2 ]John 15 20
[3 ]See Matt 10 23
[4 ]Matt 5 11-12
[5 ]Luke 6 23
[6 ]Luke 12. 4
[7 ]Matt 24 6
[8 ]Luke 21 19
[9 ]Matt 10 22
[10 ]See I John 4 8
[1 ]Luke 10 20
[2 ]James 1 2
[3 ]Matt 6 2
[1 ]See Luke 18 19
[1 ]James 5. 16
[1 ]John 6 55
[2 ]Luke 22 19
[3 ]I Thess 5 18
[4 ]Matt 3 2
[5 ]Luke 3 8
[6 ]Luke 6 38.
[7 ]Luke 6 37
[8 ]See Mark 11. 26.
[9 ]See James 5 16
[10 ]See John 8. 44
[1 ]Matt 5: 44
[2 ]See I Peter 2 21.
[3 ]See Matt. 26. 50
[4 ]See Matt 15 19, and Mark 7 21-22
[1 ]See Matt 13 19-23, Mark 4 15-20, Luke 8 11-15.
[2 ]Matt 8 22.
[1 ]Matt 12 43-45; see Luke 11. 24-26.
[2 ]See I John 4 16
[1 ]Luke 21 36
[2 ]See Mark 11 25.
[3 ]Luke 18 1
[4 ]John 4. 24
[5 ]I Peter 2 25
[6 ]See John 10 11 and 15.
[7 ]See Matt. 23 8-10.
[8 ]John 15. 7.
[9 ]Matt. 18 20
[10 ]Matt. 28 20.
[11 ]John 6 64.
[12 ]John 14 6.
[1 ]See John 17 6-26.
[2 ]The Speculum Minorum condenses this chapter.
[3 ]See Gen. 1 26; 2 15.
[4 ]See John 17 26.
[5 ]Matt. 25 34.
[1 ]See Matt. 17: 5.
[1 ]See Deut 6. 5; Mark 12: 30 and 33; Luke 10: 27.
[2 ]See Luke 18 19.
[1 ]This is the text of 1223 and represents the Rule at present observed throughout the first Franciscan Order It is here translated according to the text of the original Bull which is preserved at the Sacro Convento in Assisi A duplicate of this document, contained in the Pontifical Register at the Vatican Library, has been consulted for certain passages less legible in the original.
[1 ]See Matt. 19. 21.
[1 ]See above, page 34, note 2.
[2 ]Luke 9. 62.
[3 ]This passage ex quo habere poterunt breviaria, may also be rendered “as soon as they can have breviaries” (See Wadding, Opusc, p 179.) But the latter translation has less foundation.
[1 ]See Matt 4 2.
[2 ]See Tit 3 2 and II Tim 2 14.
[3 ]See Luke 10 5 and 8.
[1 ]See I Peter 2 11
[2 ]See Ps. 141 6 It was this Psalm that St Francis recited at the hour of death
[1 ]See Ps 11 7 and 17 31.
[2 ]See Rom 9. 28.
[1 ]See Luke 12 15
[2 ]Matt 5 44
[1 ]Matt. 5 10.
[2 ]Matt 10 22
[3 ]This is comformable to the original bull, which reads nec hac occasione, but most of the printed texts give ne, “lest scandal arise,” instead of nec.
[1 ]See Col. 1 23
[1 ]“Plura scripta tradidit nobis,” Test B Clarae See Seraphicae Legislationis textus originales, p 276.
[2 ]“When Clare,” he says, “and some other devout women in the Lord chose to serve under the same observance of religion, Blessed Francis gave them a little rule of life” (formulam vitae tradidit) See the bull Angelis gaudium of May 11, 1238 (Bullar Franc., t I, p 242)
[3 ]See Bullar, I, 11 and 13: the letters Prudentibus Virginibus Ann. Min I, 312 Gubernatis, Orb Seraph. II, 603. also Bullar. I, 4, n. (a) The Rule may be found in the bull Cum omnis vera of Gregory IX, of May 24, 1239 See Bullar., t I, p 263
[4 ]See Bullar., t. I, p. 242.
[1 ]See Bullar., t. I, p 315
[2 ]On the origin of the Second Order and the early Rule, see Lemmens “Die Anfange des Clarissenordens” in the Romische Quartalschrift, t XVI, 1902, pp 93-124, which is in the nature of a rejoinder to Dr. Lempp’s article with the same title, published in Brieger’s Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, XIII, 181-245
[3 ]This Rule is contained in the bull Solet annuere, of Innocent IV. See Seraphicae Legislationis textus originales, page 49 seq. See also Bullar, I, 167, Ann. Min., III, 287
[1 ]Forma vivendi. See Seraph. Legislat, p. 62.
[2 ]The biographers place the writing of this fragment in the autumn of 1220, after St. Francis returned from the East.
[3 ]See Seraph. Legislat., p. 63
[4 ]They are numbered IV and V among the Epistolae in his edition of the Opuscula
[5 ]This bull, which had been lost for several centuries, was brought to light early in 1893, after a protracted search in different countries, it was found wrapped within an old mantle of Saint Clare, preserved in the Monastery of Santa Chiara, at Assisi See Seraph. Legislat, pp 2, seq See also G Cozza-Luzi: Un autografo di Innocenzo IV e Memorie di S Chiara, ed 2da, Rome, 1895
[6 ]Some critics regard this fragment as a promise or engagement accompanying the formula vitae or as the beginning of the formula itself, and believe that the text of the latter, now lost, was also inserted originally in the sixth chapter of St Clare’s Rule. Be this as it may, it is certain that this chapter has been completely changed in several editions In the vernacular versions of it, based on Wadding, the two fragments here given do not appear at all See Fr Van Ortroy, S J, in Anal Boll, t xxiv, fasc iii, p 412
[1 ]See 2 Cel. 3, 132
[1 ]Sabatier. Vie de S François, Étude des Sources
[2 ]See also Goetz, l. c, t XXII, pp. 372 seq.
[3 ]See 1 Cel 17, 2 Cel 3, 99
[4 ]See Bonav, Leg. Maj, III, 2
[5 ]It is also expressly cited in the Leg III Soc 11 and 29
[6 ]“Circa ultimum vitae suae,” etc See Bullarium Franc, t I, p 68
[7 ]“À la fin de chacune de ces crises, il faisait de nouveau son testament” Speculum Perf (ed. Sabatier), p. xxxiii, note 2. See also Speculum (ed Lemmens), No. 30.
[1 ]See S Francisci Intentio regulae, nn. 14 and 15, in the Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. I, p 97.
[2 ]See Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. II, p 60
[3 ]See page 3.
[1 ]The text of the Testament given by M. Sabatier in his edition of the Speculum Perf. is that of this Assisi MS.
[2 ]It may also be found in the Speculum Minorum (Tract. III, 8 r) and in the Annales of Wadding (ad an. 1226, 35).
[3 ]See 1 Cel. 17, where this passage of the Testament is quoted. See also Bonav. Leg. Maj, II, 6, and Leg III Soc. 11 Some texts instead of “feci misericordiam cum illis” give “feci moram cum illis” “I made a sojourn with them” See Miscell. Franc, III (1888), p 70. It is interesting to note here how St Francis on the eve of his death, casting a backward glance over the ways by which he had been led, dwells on this incident which had marked a new era in his life.
[4 ]Cod. As. reads “talem fidem,” “such faith”
[1 ]Cod As. and O omit “here.” (See 1 Cel 45, and Bonav. Leg. Maj. 43, where this prayer may be found) Cod. An. Firm and Wadd. insert “here.”
[2 ]Order, i e, sacerdotal character.
[3 ]Priests of the world, i. e, secular priests
[1 ]See 2 Cel 3, 99, where this passage of the Testament is quoted, see also Bonav. Epis. de tribus quaestionibus in which it is also referred to (Opera Omnia, t. VIII, p 335.)
[2 ]See Leg. III Soc. 29, for reference to this passage
[3 ]Cod O. reads: eramus “we were content”
[4 ]Cod As omits qui volebant, “by those who wished.”
[5 ]Firm. and Wadd add: “poor and neglected churches”
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, III, 2
[2 ]Cod As. omits “other things,” and O. omits “all other things”
[3 ]See Documenta antiqua Franciscana, P. I, page 98, n. 15, where this passage is cited among the Verba quae scripsit Frater Leo
[4 ]Cod O. omits “by obedience.”
[5 ]Cod An omits this clause.
[6 ]Cod. O omits “either for a church.”
[1 ]Cardinal Ugolino, afterward Gregory IX, was then Bishop of Ostia, and Protector of the Order.
[1 ]Cod As and Mon. for “purely” read “without gloss,” Firm and Wadd add “without gloss”
[2 ]Cod. An and O. read “this” for “these things”
[3 ]Cod. O adds “to him who caused these words to be written, be all honor, all praise and glory forever and ever”
[4 ]See 1 Cel. 38, for the blessing given by St. Francis on his deathbed to Elias and the Order.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg. Maj., XII, 1, where the Saint is represented as discoursing on the relative merits and advantages of the active and contemplative life. Wadding gives this discourse among the Monastic Conferences he attributes to St Francis. See Opuscula, Coll XIV, p 318
[2 ]See Floretum S. Francisci, ed Sabatier, cap 16, p 60 This chapter, which is one of the most interesting from a critical point of view, represents St. Francis as consulting St Clare and Brother Sylvester on the subject of his doubt.
[3 ]See First Rule, chap vii (above, p. 40), also Speculum Perf., ed. Sabatier, pp. 25-26
[4 ]As is most poetically described by the author of the Sacrum Commercium. Show me your cloister, asks the Lady Poverty of the friars And they, leading her to the summit of a hill, showed her the wide world, saying. This is our cloister, O Lady Poverty (See The Lady Poverty, by M. Carmichael, p. 128.)
[1 ]See 1 Cel 1, 17, and Leg. III Soc 55. Such grottoes may still be seen in St Francis’ country, they serve as a shelter for beggars and gypsies.
[2 ]St Francis habitually uses the word locus or place to designate the habitations of the friars (see above, Rule II, chap. vi, p. 68).
[1 ]See “Franciscus in admonitionibus suis” (fruct xii, P. 11, cap 30). It was from this text that Wadding took the Regulation for his edition of the Opuscula in which it figures under the heading Collationes Monasticae III
[2 ]The figure which presents Mary and Martha as types of the contemplative and active life was already a familiar one. See Gregor, VI Moral., c. 37, n 61. “Quid per Mariam, quae verba Domini residens audiebat, nisi contemplativa vita exprimitur? Quid per Martham exterioribus obsequiis occupatam nisi activa vita signatur?”
[3 ]Cod. As. after cloister reads: “in which each one shall have his own cell.”
[4 ]Cod. As. reads. “immediately after sunset”
[1 ]Luke 12 31
[2 ]This is the reading of the Cod As and Is, other texts read the “poorest beggars”
[3 ]Cod O adds. “any woman or person whatsoever.”
[4 ]The text in Cod. As ends here.
[5 ]See 2 Cel 3 113.
[1 ]On this letter see Appendix
[2 ]Wadding drew on the Spanish text of Rebolledo (Chron, P I, l II, c. xxvii) and himself appears to have had misgivings, at least as regards the authenticity of Epistle VII.
[3 ]See Actus B. Francisci, etc, ed. Sabatier, p. 63. M Sabatier attributes the authorship of this compilation (which contains, as is now known, among other matters, the original Latin text of the traditional Fioretti) to Fra Ugolino di Monte Giorgio, and believes its date to be between 1280 and 1320. It is, however, from Thomas of Celano that we know St Francis to have written a letter to the Lady Giacoma (See Tr de Miraculis in Anal. Bolland, t. xviii). See also Spec. Perf (ed. Sabatier), c. XII, for reference to this letter The narrative of Celano renders the text of the letter given in the Actus very doubtful The fact that the expression “St. Mary of the Angels” is used in it to designate the Portiuncula is in itself sufficient to militate against its authenticity. Neither St Francis nor his companions ever employed this term, they invariably said “St. Mary of the Portiuncula.” Any document, therefore, containing the former expression bespeaks a fourteenth century origin at earliest See Frère Jacqueline Recherches Historiques, by Fr. Edouard d’Alençon, Paris, 1899
[1 ]See above, pp. 23, 77, 78
[1 ]The letter which Wadding translated from the Spanish, under this title and numbered XIV, appears to have been an incomplete version of the letter here given in full.
[1 ]Compare for example the passage on p 101, beginning “Let us therefore love God,” etc., with Chapter XXII of the First Rule (p 58); and the prayer of Christ given on p 105, with the conclusion of the same chapter (p 59).
[2 ]See Le Monnier, l c, p 202, and Knox Little, l c, p 164 Wadding, Annales, ad an. 1213, places the writing of this letter two or three years earlier, which seems less probable
[1 ]See Le Monnier, l c, p 203 To him I am indebted for these quotations
[2 ]See his edition of Bartholi, Tractatus, Appendix, p 132 seq
[3 ]See Historiarum Seraphicae Religionis libri tres (Venice, 1586), fol. 174 r, for that part of the letter which Wadding gives as Epistola I.
[1 ]It has been adopted in the new French edition of St Francis’ works See Opuscules, pp 122-135
[2 ]It was from this fourteenth century MS that M Sabatier edited as a new opuscule the fragment above mentioned
[3 ]Bartholomew of Pisa here inserts the greater part of the letter passim
[1 ]Cod O reads. “all the words of the Lord”
[2 ]Cod O. reads “by this present letter and now”
[3 ]John 6 64
[4 ]See Luke 1 31
[5 ]See II Cor 8 9
[1 ]See Matt 26 26-28, Luke 22 19-20, I Cor 11. 24-25
[2 ]Matt 26 39
[3 ]Luke 22 44
[4 ]See Matt 26 42 and 39
[5 ]Cod O omits “and was born for us”
[6 ]John 1 3
[7 ]See I Peter 2 21
[8 ]Cod O omits “And He wishes that we should all be saved by Him”
[9 ]See Matt 11 30
[10 ]See Ps 33. 9
[11 ]See John 3 19
[12 ]Ps. 118 21
[1 ]Matt 22. 37-39
[2 ]John 4 23
[3 ]John 4: 24.
[4 ]Luke 18 1
[5 ]Cod O adds “For the Lord says, who does not eat,” etc.
[6 ]See John 6 54
[7 ]I Cor. 11 29
[8 ]Luke 3 8
[1 ]Cod As and editions omit “or cannot”
[2 ]Cod O reads “judgment and mercy”
[3 ]See Jas 2. 13
[4 ]See Tob 4 11
[5 ]See Eccli 3 32
[1 ]Luke 11 42
[2 ]See Matt 15 18-19
[3 ]See Luke 6 27
[4 ]See Luke 22 26
[5 ]I Cor 1 26
[1 ]Ps 21 7
[2 ]I Peter 2 13
[3 ]See Is 11 2
[4 ]See John 14. 23.
[5 ]See Matt 5 45
[6 ]See Matt 12 50.
[7 ]Cod As and that of Volterra with the Mon add “the Paraclete”
[8 ]See John 10 15
[1 ]See John 17 6-24
[2 ]See Apoc 5 13
[3 ]See Luke 18. 19
[1 ]Ps 106. 27
[2 ]See Matt 15. 19
[1 ]Jer 17 5
[2 ]Cod O and Pis read “Wilt thou satisfy for the things taken unjustly,—that is, those things by which thou hast cheated thy neighbor”
[3 ]Cod As and Mon omit “a bitter death” Cod Pis and Volterra omit “miserable man”
[4 ]Cod As. and Mon omit “wisdom”
[5 ]See Luke 8 18
[1 ]These words are not found except in Cod As, which omits the following sentence “All to whom this letter may come”
[2 ]See I John 4 16
[3 ]Cod As. and Mon read “that these words and others”
[4 ]Cod As and Mon omit what follows up to “And all those”
[5 ]See John 6 64
[6 ]See Matt 10 22
[1 ]So Ubertino da Casale tells us in his Arbor Vitae, finished on Mount La Verna, September 28, 1305 (l v, cap vii).
[2 ]As we learn from the rubric in the Assisi MS 338 “De lictera et ammonitione beatissimi patris nostri Francisci quam misit fratribus ad capitulum quando erat infirmus”
[3 ]Hist Seraph, fol. 173 v.
[4 ]Epistles X, XI, and XII in his edition.
[1 ]Following this MS, Mgr Faloci edited the first part of the letter (to “world without end Amen,”—see page 116) in his Miss Frances, t VI, p 94
[2 ]The Mon and Firm, like Rodolfo (fol 173 v), give only the first part of the letter, which Wadding makes Epis XII
[3 ]It is placed immediately before the letter in the other family of MSS mentioned in the Introduction, to which the Ognissanti MS belongs
[1 ]Cod As omits this invocation
[2 ]Cod As adds “to Brother A, minister general” It has been surmised that St Francis wished this letter to be read at the opening of all subsequent chapters, with a view to perpetuating his spiritual presence among the brothers In this hypothesis, the copyist was supposed to fill in here the initial of the minister general governing the order at the time he wrote The fact that A is the initial given at the head of the Assisian MS may afford a clue to the date of its composition (Albert of Pisa governed the order 1239-40, and Aymon of Faversham, 1240-44), but in the body of the letter (see below, p 117) the minister general is referred to as Brother H [Helias (?) 1232-39] Cod An at the head of the letter reads Brother T [Thomas of Farignano (?), 1367-73]
[3 ]See Apoc 1 5
[4 ]See Gen 19 1 and elsewhere
[5 ]See Luke 1 32
[1 ]See Acts 2 14
[2 ]See Isa 55 3
[3 ]See Ps 135 1
[4 ]See Tob 13 6
[5 ]Cod An reads “you may make all stand dumbfounded who oppose Him in word or deed”
[6 ]See Tob 13 4
[7 ]See Heb. 12. 7.
[8 ]See Heb 12 7
[9 ]See Col 1. 20.
[10 ]The word priests is added in Cod As, and by Ubertino
[1 ]See Eph 6 6, and Col 3 22
[2 ]Cod As reads “to the Lord”
[3 ]Luke 22 19
[4 ]Cod O., Mon, and Firm, with Ubertino, omit the rest of this sentence
[5 ]See I Cor 11 27
[6 ]See Heb 10 28.
[7 ]Heb 10 29
[8 ]See I Cor. 11 29
[1 ]See Jerem 48 10
[2 ]Mal 2 2.
[3 ]See I Pet. 1 12
[4 ]See Levit 11 44
[1 ]See Ps 61 9
[2 ]See 1 Pet 5 6
[3 ]Philip Melanchthon in his Apology (Augsburg Confession, art on the Mass) usurped these words of St Francis to defend his erroneous teaching against private Masses But there is nothing in this letter or elsewhere to show that St Francis reprehended such Masses in any way On the contrary, as the Bollandists point out, the words “according to the form of holy Church” refer to the rite of the Roman Church to be followed in the celebration of Mass and not to the one Mass to be celebrated daily (See Acta S S, t II, Oct, pp 998-999)
[1 ]John 8 47
[2 ]See 1 Tim 4: 5
[1 ]See Philip. 2. 8.
[1 ]This prayer, which, as I have said, is found in some MSS at the head and in others at the foot of the present letter, is separated from it altogether by Wadding, who (p 101) places it immediately after the sheet given by St Francis to Brother Leo There it is also found in the new French edition of the Opuscula (p 25)
[1 ]It refers to “the chapters which speak of mortal sin” which are only found in the First Rule (see pp 37, 47, 53), and speaks of proposed changes in the Rule which could not, as is clear, have been made after November, 1223 In particular the subject of the tenth chapter of the new Rule discussed in the Chapter held at Portiuncula, June 11th of that year (see Spec Perf, ed Sabatier, c 1), is mentioned as not yet definitely settled
[2 ]See Quellen, etc, t XXII, p 547
[1 ]“ plus des objurgations et des reproches que des conseils”—Sabatier, Bartholi, p 120
[5 ]See his edition of Bartholi, pp 113-131.
[2 ]Hist Seraph, fol 177 v
[3 ]Fruct XXII, P 11, n 46 The part here given is that which Wadding exhibits as Epis VI M Sabatier is clearly mistaken in regarding these different abstracts of the letter published separately as so many complete epistles He says “ Frère Elie ne se corrigeant pas, le saint ne cessa pas de lui faire des recommendations identiques,” l. c., p. 119
[4 ]See Epis VIII This is a different and longer version than that given in the Conformities Wadding gives yet another abstract of the letter as Epis VII This he translated from the Spanish, though he confesses misgivings as to the authenticity of its form
[6 ]See Frère Elie de Cortone, p 51, where the idea of abolishing penances is described as “so Franciscan”
[7 ]See “The Writings of St Francis,” in the Month, January, 1904, pp 161-164
[1 ]In 1899, after the Vatican MS 7650, and the Foligno codex See Epistola S Francisci ad ministrum generalem in sua forma authentica cum appendice de Fr Petro Catanii
[2 ]In 1900, after the Ognissanti MS See his Bartholi, p 113
[3 ]In 1900 See his Frère Elie de Cortone, p 50 seq
[4 ]This is the superscription of the Neapolitan MS According to the greater number of codices the letter is addressed “To Brother N Minister” The MSS of Foligno and St Isidore’s read “To Brother N Minister General,” and some Italian versions cited by M Sabatier (see Bartholi, p 121, note 1) add the name of Brother Elias (see also Rodolfo, l c, fol 177 v) The rubric in the second family of MSS already described (See Introd) reads simply “Letter which St Francis sent to the Minister General as to the way to be followed regarding brother subjects sinning mortally or venially” Wadding (Opusc, p 25, n 1) thinks the letter was addressed to Peter of Catana See Speculum Minorum, fol 218 v
[1 ]For the rendering of this doubtful passage et in hoc dilige cos ut velis quod sint meliores Christiani, I have translated the Latin text as given in the Isidorean MS 1/25, in the Conformities (fol 132, v), in Wadding’s edition (Epis VIII), and in that of Quaracchi (p 108) In the Ognissanti MS, however, this passage reads et non velis “and do not desire that they be better Christians” This reading has been followed by Fr Edouard d’Alençon and M Sabatier The latter thinks St Francis is here referring to ungrateful and recalcitrant lepers whom he was wont to call Christians But in that hypothesis the passage might be translated “and do not desire to make them better lepers!”
[2 ]Cod O for eremitorium reads meritorium But may not this very improbable reading be that most common thing in early MSS,—the slip of a copyist?
[3 ]Cod O omits the remainder of this sentence
[1 ]The Neapolitan MS for “appears” reads “sins”
[2 ]Chaps V, XIII, and XX of the first Rule (See above, pp 37, 47, and 53)
[3 ]See Matt 9 12
[4 ]Cod O. reads “another”
[1 ]In chap XX of the First Rule (see above, p 53) The passage enclosed in brackets is the part omitted by Wadding and those who have followed him
[2 ]See John 8 11
[1 ]Minister General of the Order, 1579-1587, afterwards Bishop of Mantua (see Acta Ordinis Minorum, 1904, p 265)
[2 ]De Origine Seraphicae Religionis Franciscanae (Venice 1603), p 806
[3 ]See Quellen, etc, p. 535
[4 ]See Gen 47 39
[1 ]See Ps 118 21
[2 ]See Ezech 33 12
[3 ]See Luke 8 18
[4 ]See Wis 6 7
[1 ]Cod 225, mentioned above (p 110) See Sabatier’s Bartholi, p 135
[2 ]Seemingly an allusion to the mysteries of the Eucharist
[1 ]An obvious reference to the formula of consecration
[2 ]See John 6 54
[1 ]See Gli Autografi di Francesco, by Mgr Faloci (Misc Franc, t VI, p 33), and La Calligrafia di S Francesco, by the same author (Misc. Franc., t VII, p 67)
[2 ]The Blessing given to Brother Leo (see below, Part III).
[1 ]See, for example, the parallel Latin and Italian text given by Father Bernardo da Fivizzano, O M Cap, in his edition of the Oposculi (Florence, 1880), which reads. “F Leo Frater Franciscus tuus salutem et pacem”
[2 ]“Ce pluriel montre bien que Frère Léon avait parlé au nom d’un groupe”—Sabatier Vie de S François, p. 301.
[3 ]When he caused any letters to be written by way of salutation or admonition, he would not suffer any letter or syllable in them to be erased, though they were often superfluous or unsuitably placed (See 1 Cel 82)
[1 ]See Eccleston De Adventu Minorum in Angliam (Mon Germ hist, Scriptores, t XXVIII, p 563), although another reading is given in the Anal Franc, t I, p 232, and by Fr Cuthbert, O S F C, The Friars, etc, p 167
[2 ]Fr Ubald d’Alençon, Opuscules, p 23
[3 ]See Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), p lxiv, note 3
[4 ]Opuscula, Epist XVI
[5 ]Misc Franc, t VI, p 39
[1 ]It is interesting to compare with this letter the somewhat similar expressions of encouragement used by St Francis to Brother Richer See 1 Cel. 1, 49, Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), c 2 and 16, Actus B Francisci, c 36 and 37
[1 ]It is found in the Assisi MS 338 and in the compilation beginning Fac secundum exemplar contained in the Berlin, Lemberg, Liegnitz MSS and the Vatican codex 4354, as well as in the other family of MSS represented by the Ognissanti and Foligno MSS. and the codices of St Isidore’s (1/25) and the Vatican 7650
[2 ]A fourteenth century codex at St Isidore’s Rome (MS 1/73, fol 10 v) But I have not found it in any of the collections of Brother Giles’ Dicta which I have had occasion to consult in preparing the new English version of the same I hope soon to publish
[3 ]See Opuscules, fasc x, pp 136-137 As a postscript to his Examen M Sabatier gives the text of the paraphrase of the Our Father after the rare edition of the Speculum (Morin)
[4 ]See Analekten, p 71.
[1 ]“He also ordained and ordered it to be strictly observed that any friar who either when doing nothing or at work with the others, uttered idle words, shall say one Our Father, praising God at the beginning and end of the prayer, and if conscious of his fault he accuse himself, he shall say the one Our Father and the Praises of the Lord for his own soul . . . And if on reliable testimony he is shown to have used idle words, he shall repeat the Praises of the Lord at the beginning and at the end aloud so as to be heard and understood by the surrounding friars,” etc Further on we read “The Praises of the Lord the most Blessed Father always said himself, and with ardent desire taught and impressed upon the friars that they should carefully and devotedly say the same.” See Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), c 82 I have quoted this passage from Lady de la Warr’s translation, pp. 121-122 See also Opuscules, fasc x, p 137, where M Sabatier, speaking of the relation of the Speculum to the Praises, says, “Les deux documents se correspondent, se corroborent et se garantissent l’un l’autre”
[2 ]The Conformities, edition of 1510, gives the complete text as the handiwork of St Francis
[1 ]Such is the rubric which precedes the Praises in the Assisian MS
[2 ]See Eph 3 18.
[1 ]See Apoc 4 8
[2 ]See Dan. 3 57
[3 ]See Apoc 4 11
[4 ]See Apoc 5 12
[5 ]See Dan 3 57
[6 ]See Apoc 19 5
[7 ]See Apoc 5 13
[1 ]Analekten, p xxvii
[2 ]Opuscules, fasc x, p 134
[3 ]The text given by Wadding (Opusc, p 105) was copied by him from an Irish MS at Salamanca
[4 ]Cod Is omits from “Hail thou His tabernacle” to “Hail thou His handmaid,” inclusive
[5 ]Wadding omits from “Hail thou His house” to “Hail thou His handmaid,” inclusive.
[1 ]The text of the Conformities and Wadding here add the second part of the antiphon given below in the Office of the Passion beginning “Mother of our most Holy Lord Jesus Christ,” etc In the Speculum (ed Morin, 1509) this Salutation is followed by another prayer to the Blessed Virgin (see Sabatier, Opuscules, fasc x, p 164), but from the beginning of the seventeenth century, the second prayer is no longer found in the text of the Speculum (see the edition of Spoelberch, P I, pp 176-178, and Wadding, Opusi, p 107) In the opinion of Professor Boehmer this Salutation ought to follow immediately after the Salutation of the Virtues given above (p. 20) See his Analekten, pp vi and xxviii They are found in this order in the Spec Vitae of 1504 and the Vatican MS 4354
[1 ]St Bernardine died in 1444 See his Opera Omnia, t II, sermo 60, art 11, c ii
[2 ]See Arbor Vitae, l v, c iv
[3 ]See Ehrle, Archiv, etc, vol II, pp 374-416, as to the writings of Ubertino
[1 ]2 Cel 2, 18, see also Bonav Leg Maj, XI, 9, where the narration is clearly borrowed from Celano
[2 ]A photograph of the reliquary containing it is here reproduced
[3 ]For example Papini La Storia di S Francesco, t I, p 130, n 8, Grisar, see Civilta Cattolicà, fasc 1098 (1896), p 723, Mgr Faloci Pulignani, Misc. Franc, t VI (1895), p 34, Fr. Edouard d’Alençon, La Benediction de St François, M Sabatier, Spec Perf., pp lxvii-lxx, Reginald Balfour, The Seraphic Keepsake, and Montgomery Carmichael, La Benedizione di San Francesco See also Fr Saturnino da Caprese, O F M, Guida Illustrata della Verna (Prato, 1902), p 93 On the testimony of three leading German palæographers, Wattenbach, Dziatzko and Meyer, see Theol Literatur-Zeitung, Leipzig, 1895, pp 404 and 627
[1 ]Says Celano “The sign thau was more familiar to him than other signs With it only he signed sheets for despatch and he painted it on the walls of the cells anywhere” See Tr. de Miraculis, in Anal Boll, t xviii, pp 114-115
[2 ]“He signed it upon all the letters he directed” See Bonav Leg Maj, IV, 3
[1 ]These words seem to be transposed in the autograph.
[1 ]From this point to the end of the Praises the autograph is illegible
[2 ]See Num 6 24-26
[3 ]Mr Balfour points out that the position of Leo’s name in relation to the thau is intentional and that the thau thus becomes a cross of blessing, St. Francis, following the practice of all old Missals and Breviaries, having placed it so as to divide the name of the person blessed See The Seraphic Keepsake, p 106
[1 ]See 2 Cel. 3, 138-139, and 1 Cel 80.
[2 ]See Cherancé, Life of St Francis, p 260
[3 ]See on this head Ozanam, Les Poètes Franciscains, p 82, and Matthew Arnold, Essays on Criticism, pp 243-248 Mr Arnold’s translation of the Canticle is well known
[4 ]For a list of the more important studies on it, see Speculum Perfectionis (ed Sabatier), p 289, L Suttina, Appunti bibliografici di studi francescani, p 19, also Gasparry’s Italian Literature to the death of Dante, p 358
[1 ]See his St Francis of Assisi, p 235, note 2
[2 ]See Nouvelles Etudes d’histoire religieuse, p 331
[3 ]Vie de S François, p xxxiv and chap xviii
[4 ]This text was published by Fr Panfilo da Magliano, O F M, in his Storia Compendiosa, also by M Sabatier in his Vie de S François and later in his Speculum, pp 334-35
[5 ]Professor Boehmer published the text of the Maz MS 1350 in his Sonnengesang v Fr d’A, in 1871
[1 ]I have had the advantage of studying two of the oldest MSS of this work known,—those of the convents of La Verna and Portiuncula
[1 ]It was soon after the canonization of St Clare, about 1256, that Celano undertook the task of compiling this legend by order of Alexander IV
[2 ]See Acta S S, t II, Aug., p 761
[1 ]See Little in Opuscules, t I, p 276
[2 ]See Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), p cxcvi
[3 ]See Opuscules, t I, p 55 This MS contains only the first part of the Office, it ends with the words the “Lord hath reigned”
[4 ]See above, p 3-4 Other MSS containing the Office are enumerated by Wadding See also Boehmer’s Analekten
[5 ]See above, p 139
[6 ]See above, p 141
[1 ]The Oxford Codex here reads “until Easter Sunday”
[1 ]“Et toto conatu fuerunt solliciti annulare scripta beati patris nostri Francisci, in quibus sua intentio de observantia regulae declaratur”—See Archiv, III, pp 168-169
[2 ]See above, p 26
[1 ]We need not despair of finding others, the Clares’ archives have mostly escaped spoliation
[2 ]See Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), c 108, and ed Lemmens, c 18 See also the Conformities (I, fol 185), and above, p 75
[3 ]See 2 Cel 3, 99
[4 ]See 1 Cel 82 See also Leg III Soc, 67, where the Incipit of the letters is given
[5 ]De Adventu Minorum in Angliam See Mon Germ Hist, Script, t XXVIII, p 563, and Anal Franc, t I, p 232, note 4 See also Fr Cuthbert’s translation of Eccleston, p 64
[6 ]Prof Herkless in his Francis and Dominic, p 54, cites some passages from a letter which St Francis “wrote to his friends at Bologna” in 1228 One searches in vain for any trace of such a letter among the early collections of St Francis’ writings
[7 ]See ed Acta S S, no 20
[8 ]See Anal Franc., t III, p 132
[9 ]Vie de S François, p 322
[1 ]See Opuscules, fasc x, p 128, note 1
[2 ]Die Quellen, etc, p 20. He places its composition between 1222 and 1225
[3 ]Analekten, p vii
[4 ]In the Liegnitz MS and the Vatican Codex 4354 the present letter is addressed fratri Antonio episcopo meo, which corresponds with the direction given by Celano (2 Cel 3, 99)
[5 ]On this letter see also Papini (Storia, t I, p 118, n 1), Muller (Anfange, p. 103), Lempp (Zeitschrift, t. XII, pp 425, 438), Lepitre (S Antoine, p 73), and de Kerval (S Antonii, etc, p 259, n 1)
[6 ]Another less well known letter to St Antony, giving him permission “to build a church near the city wall of Patti,” is sometimes attributed to St Francis. But the text is most improbable and gives rise to colossal historic difficulties See Lepitre, S. Antoine, p. 120, note, and Fr Edouard d Alençon, Etudes Franc., t. XII, p 361.
[7 ]Liber de Laudibus in Anal Franc, t. III, p 686
[1 ]The text of this Rule (which was the one in force for Franciscan Tertiaries until the promulgation of the Apostolic Constitution Misericors Dei Filius, by Leo XIII, May 30, 1883) may be found in Seraph Legisl, pp 77-94 For the new Rule substituted by Leo XIII, see Acta ad Tertium Franciscalem Ordinem spectantia (Quaracchi, 1901), pp 72-87
[2 ]See Anal Boll, t xviii, p 294
[3 ]Regula Antiqua Fratrum et Sororum de Poenitentia See Opuscules, t. I, p 17 Boehmer also gives the text in his Analekten
[4 ]“La règle donnée en 1221 dans son état primitif” See his Les Règles et le gouvernement de l’ordo de poenitentia au XIIIe Siècle in Opuscules, t I, p 175.
[1 ]The Bull Detestanda humani generis of Gregory IX
[2 ]Opuscules de S François, p 28
[3 ]There is an English translation of it See Third Orders, etc., by Adderley and Marson (Mowbray, 1902)
[4 ]Rosetti translated part of this poem in his Dante and his Circle, attributing it to St. Francis
[5 ]See Misc. Franc., 1888, pp 96 and 190, for two interesting texts of this poem.
[6 ]Opera omnia, t IV, sermo 16 and 4 (see Acta S S, t II, Oct, p 1003)
[7 ]Jacopone, lib VI, chap XVI, and lib VII, chap VI.
[8 ]Les Poètes Franciscains, p 90
[1 ]See Wadding, Opusc, p 508 ff
[2 ]See his Les Origines de l’ordo de Poenitentia, see also the Révue Thomiste, pp 295-314
[3 ]Quellen, etc, XXII, 362 But see above, p 89, n 1 also
[4 ]“Codiculus quidam vestustus MS Italico idiomati exaratus mihi à Fano Piceni urbe, ad Metaurum amnem extructa, transmissus” See Wadding, Opusc, p 285
[1 ]The text of the prayer “in time of sickness” is given by Bonav Leg Maj, XIV, 2
[2 ]Latin text published in 1900 by Fr Ed d’Alençon, and English translation by Montgomery Carmichael (The Lady Poverty) in 1901
[1 ]See Chron XXIV Generalium in Anal Franc, t III, p 283
[2 ]It is none the less a pearl of Franciscan literature. See the beautiful rendering of it which forms the appendix to Mr Carmichael’s translation of the Sacrum Commercium.
[3 ]At Vicenza (Bertol lib cod G I 10 24, fol 89 r), also the Capistran MS XXI, fol 180 r
[4 ]See Bonav Opera omnia, t. VIII, p 491.
[5 ]Supplementum, p 244
[6 ]Liber Dictorum cujus initium Quid faciet homo et finis Oratio semper est praemittenda
[7 ]“Dicta S Francisci, cum regula extant,” he says
[8 ]It is entitled “Praedicatio quaedam quam fecit B Franciscus Fratribus suis circa finem mortis sui corporis.” It abounds in quotations from SS Basil, Chrysostom, Augustine, Isidore, Gregory, and Bernard.
[1 ]See Catal codicum latinorum, t II, P II, p 17, n 214
[2 ]See Dicta B Ægidii (Quaracchi, 1905), pp 1-51
[3 ]As to the “Perfectiones S Francisci, quas dedit fratri Junipero,” found at Paris (nat lib., cod. 18327, fol 158 r), see Monumenta, tr II, fol. 281 r.
[1 ]The space devoted by Fr Van Ortroy, S J, to Franciscan history in this periodical assumes larger proportions each year
[2 ]A critical edition of this work will form Vol IV of the Anal Franc
[1 ]When this volume is almost through the press, I learn of the publication of Fr Edouard’s long-promised edition of Celano’s works—S Francisci Assisiensis vita et miracula additis opusculis liturgicis auctore Fr Thoma de Celano Hanc editionem novam ad fidem mss recensuit P Eduardus Alenconiensis, Rome. Desclée, 1905.
[1 ]Wadding’s Annales appeared at Lyons in 8 vols in fol 1625-54 Fr Jos Man Fonseca published a new edition and a continuation of the Annales in 19 vols at Rome, 1731-45 The official Annalists of the Friars Minor have since added 6 vols (tom 20-25), which were issued at Naples, Ancona, and Quaracchi The last vol (t 25) edited by Fr Eusebius Fernandzin († 1899) extends to the year 1622 The Quaracchi Friars are now engaged on the 26th volume