Front Page Titles (by Subject) Intercourse between H. Ferne, D. D. and James Harrington, Esq; upon Occasion of the Doctor's Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana. - The Oceana and Other Works
Intercourse between H. Ferne, D. D. and James Harrington, Esq; upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana. - James Harrington, The Oceana and Other Works 
The Oceana and Other Works of James Harrington, with an Account of His Life by John Toland (London: Becket and Cadell, 1771).
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- Advertisement to the Reader.
- To the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sherifs, and Common Council of London.
- The Preface.
- The Life of James Harrington.
- The Mechanics of Nature:
- The Grounds and Reasons of Monarchy Considered: and Exemplify’d In the Scotish Line, Out of Their Own Best Authors and Records.
- The Commonwealth of Oceana. to His Highness the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
- The Introduction, Or Order of the Work.
- The Preliminarys, Shewing the Principles of Government.
- The Second Part of the Preliminarys.
- The Council of Legislators.
- Oceana: the Model of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- Anno Dom.
- Anno Domini.
- Anno Domini.
- Epitome of the Whole Commonwealth.
- Libertas. the Proclamation of His Highness the Lord Archon of Oceana Upon Promulgation of the Model.
- The Prerogative of Popular Government.
- Epistle to the Reader.
- The First Book, Containing: a Full Answer to All Such Objections As Have Hitherto Bin Made Against Oceana.
- The Preface.
- Chap. I. Antient and Modern Prudence.
- Chap. I.: Whether Prudence Be Well Distinguish’d Into Antient and Modern.
- Chap. II.: Whether a Commonwealth Be Rightly Defin’d to Be a Government of Laws and Not of Men, and a Monarchy to Be the Government of Som Man, Or a Few Men, and Not of Laws?
- Chap. III.: Whether the Balance of Dominion In Land Be the Natural Cause of Empire?
- Chap. IV. Chap. IV.: Whether the Balance of Empire Be Well Divided Into National and Provincial; and Whether These Two, Or Any Nations That Are of Distinct Balance, Coming to Depend Upon One and the Same Head, Such a Mixture Creates a New Balance.
- Chap. V.: Whether There Be Any Common Right Or Interest of Mankind Distinct From the Parts Taken Severally; and How By the Orders of a Commonwealth It May Be Best Distinguish’d From Privat Interest.
- Chap. VI.: Whether the Senatusconsulta, Or Decrees of the Roman Senat, Had the Power of Laws?
- Chap. VII.: Whether the Ten Commandments Were Propos’d By God Or Moses, and Voted By the People of Israel.
- Chap. VIII.: Whether a Commonwealth Coming Up to the Perfection of the Kind, Coms Not Up to the Perfection of Government, and Has No Flaw In It.
- Chap. IX.: Whether Monarchy Coming Up to the Perfection of the Kind, Coms Not Short of the Perfection of Government, and Has Not Som Flaw In It. In Which Is Also Treated of the Balance of France; of the Original of a Landed Clergy; of Arms, and Their Ki
- Chap. X.: Whether a Commonwealth That Was Not First Broken By Her Self, Was Ever Conquer’d By the Arms of Any Monarch?
- Chap. XI.: Whether There Be Not an Agrarian, Or Som Law of Laws of That Nature, to Supply the Defect of It In Every Commonwealth: and Whether the Agrarian, As It Is Stated In Oceana, Be Not Equal and Satisfactory to All Interests.
- Chap. XII.: Whether Courses Or a Rotation Be Necessary to a Well-order’d Commonwealth. In Which Is Contain’d the Courses Or Parembole of Israel Before the Captivity, Together With the Epitome of Athens and Venice.
- The Second Book; Or, a Political Discourse Concerning Ordination: Against Dr. H. Hammond, Dr. L. Seaman, and the Authors They Follow.
- Advertisment to the Reader.
- Order of the Discourse.
- A Political Discourse Concerning Ordination.
- The Introduction, Or First Chapter.
- Chap. II.: That the Citys, Or Most of Them Nam’d In the Perambulation of the Apostles Paul and Barnabas, Were At That Time Under Popular Government. In Which Is Contain’d the Administration of a Roman Province.
- Chap. III.: The Deduction of the Chirotonia From Popular Government, and of the Original Right of Ordination From the Chirotonia. In Which Is Contain’d the Institution of the Sanhedrim Or Senat of Israel By Moses, and That of Rome By Romulus
- Chap. IV.: The Deduction of the Chirothesia From Monarchical Or Aristocratical Government, and of the Second Way of Ordination From the Chirothesia. In Which Is Contain’d the Commonwealth of the Jews As It Stood After the Captivity.
- Chap. V.: Whether the Chirotonia Mention’d In the Fourteenth of the Acts Be Indeed, As Is Pretended By Dr. Mammond, Dr. Seaman, and the Authors They Follow, the Same With the Chirothesia, Or a Far Different Thing. In Which Are Contain’d the
- Advertisement to the Reader, Or Direction to the Answerer.
- An Answer to Three Objections Against Popular Government, That Were Given Me After These Two Books Were Printed.
- The Art of Lawgiving: In Three Books.
- The Order of the Work.
- The First Book.
- The Second Book.
- The Third Book.
- The First Book, Shewing the Foundations and Superstructures of All Kinds of Government.
- The Preface. Considering the Principles Or Nature of Family Government.
- Chap. I.: Considering the Principles Or Balance of National Governments; With the Different Kinds of the Same.
- Chap. II.: Shewing the Variation of the English Balance.
- Chap. III.: Of Fixation of the Balance, Or of Agrarian Laws.
- Chap. IV.: Shewing the Superstructures of Governments.
- The Conclusion: Observing That the Principles of Human Prudence Being Good Without Proof of Scripture, Are Nevertheless Such As Are Provable Out of Scripture.
- The Second Book, Containing the Commonwealths of the Hebrews; Namely, Elohim, Or the Commonwealth of Israel; and Cabala, Or the Commonwealth of the Jews.
- The Preface, Shewing That There Were Commonwealths Before That of Israel.
- Chap. I.: Shewing That Israel Was a Commonwealth.
- Chap. II.: Shewing What Commonwealth Israel Was.
- Chap. III.: Shewing the Anarchy, Or State of the Israelits Under Their Judges.
- Chap. IV.: Shewing the State of the Israelits Under Their Kings, to the Captivity.
- Chap. V.: Shewing the State of the Jews In the Captivity; and After Their Return Out of It; With the Frame of the Jewish Commonwealth.
- Chap. VI.: Shewing How Ordination Was Brought Into the Christian Church, and the Divers Ways of the Same That Were At Divers Times In Use With the Apostles.
- The Conclusion: Shewing That Neither God, Nor Christ, Or the Apostles, Ever Instituted Any Government Ecclesiastical Or Civil Upon Any Other Principles Than Those Only of Human Prudence.
- The Third Book, Containing a Model of Popular Government, Practically Propos’d According to Reason, Confirm’d By the Scripture, and Agreable to the the Present Balance Or State of Property In England.
- The Preface. Containing a Model of Popular Government, Propos’d Notionally.
- Chap. I.: Containing the Civil Part of the Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. II.: Containing the Religious Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. III.: Containing the Military Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. IV.: Containing the Provincial Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- The Conclusion: Shewing How the Model Propos’d May Be Prov’d Or Examin’d; and Giving a Brief Answer to Mr. Wren’s Last Book, Intitl’d, Monarchy Asserted Against Mr. Harrington’s Oceana.
- A Word Concerning a House of Peers.
- Six Political Tracts Written On Several Occasions.
- Valerius and Publicola: Or, the True Form of a Popular Commonwealth Extracted Ex Puris Naturalibus.
- To the Reader.
- To the Parlament of the Commonwealth of England, &c. the Humble Petition, &c.
- The Petitioner to the Reader.
- A System of Politics Delineated In Short and Easy Aphorisms. Publish’d From the Author’s Own Manuscript.
- Chap. I.: Of Government.
- Chap. II.: Of the Matter of Government.
- Chap. III.: Of the Privation of Government.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Form of Government.
- Chap. V.: Of Form In the Civil Parts.
- Chap. VI.: Of Form In the Religious Part.
- Chap. VII.: Of Form In the Military Part.
- Chap. VIII.: Of Form In the Legal Part.
- Chap. IX.: Of Form In the Judicial Part.
- Chap. X.: Of the Administration of Government, Or Reason of State.
- Political Aphorisms.
- Seven Models of a Commonwealth: Or, Brief Directions Shewing How a Fit and Perfect Model of Popular Government May Be Made, Found, Or Understood.
- The First Part.
- Divers Models the First Model of Popular Government Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Israel.
- A Second Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d.
- A Third Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Sparta.
- A Fourth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Athens.
- A Fifth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Rome.
- A Sixth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Venice.
- A Seventh Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Holland.
- The Second Part, Proposing a Model of a Commonwealth Fitted to the Present State of This Nation.
- Conclusion; Or, the Use of These Propositions.
- The Ways and Means Wherby an Equal and Lasting Commonwealth May Be Suddenly Introduc’d, and Perfectly Founded, With the Free Consent and Actual Confirmation of the Whole People of England.
- The Humble Petition of Divers Well Affected Persons, Deliver’d the 6th Day of July, 1659, With the Parlament’s Answer Therto.
- Appendix, Containing All the Political Tracts of James Harrington, Esq; Omitted In Mr. Toland ’s Edition of His Works.
- Pian Piano: Or, Intercourse Between H. Ferne, D. D. And J. Harrington, Esq; Upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- Epistle to the Reader.
- Intercourse Between H. Ferne, D. D. And James Harrington, Esq; Upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- The Queries I Shall Interweave With the Doctor’s Answer Unto Each of Them, Returned Unto Me With This Preamble.
- The First Query. How Much, Or In What the Author of Oceana Is Mistaken, to Think the Commonwealth of the Hebrews Appliable to His Purpose.
- The Second Query.
- The Third Query.
- The Fourth Query.
- The Fifth Query.
- The Sixth Query.
- The Seventh Query.
- The Stumbling-block of Disobedience and Rebellion, Cunningly Imputed By P. H. Unto Calvin, Remov’d, In a Letter to the Said P. H. From J. H.
- A Letter Unto Mr. Stubs, In Answer to His Oceana Weighed, &c.
- Politicaster: Or, a Comical Discourse In Answer to Mr. Wren ’s Book, Intituled, Monarchy Asserted, Against Mr. Harrington’ S Oceana.
- Pour Enclouer Le Canon.
- A Discourse Upon This Saying: the Spirit of the Nation Is Not Yet to Be Trusted With Liberty; Lest It Introduce Monarchy, Or Invade the Liberty of Conscience.
- A Discourse Shewing, That the Spirit of Parliaments, With a Council In the Intervals, Is Not to Be Trusted For a Settlement; Lest It Introduce Monarchy, and Persecution For Conscience.
- A Parallel of the Spirit of the People With the Spirit of Mr. Rogers; and an Appeal Thereupon Unto the Reader, Whether the Spirit of the People, Or the Spirit of Men Like Mr. Rogers, Be the Fitter to Be Trusted With the Government.
- A Sufficient Answer to Mr. Stubb.
- A Proposition In Order to the Proposing of a Commonwealth Or Democracy.
- The Rota: Or, a Model of a Free State, Or Equal Commonwealth.
Intercourse between H. Ferne, D. D. and James Harrington, Esq; upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
WHEN I had published my Oceana, one of my sisters making good provision of copies, presented of them unto her friends, as well to shew her respect to them, as to know their judgments of it. Among the rest being acquainted with Doctor Ferne, she sent him one, and soon after receiv’d this answer:
I Received a book directed to me from your ladyship, with intimation I should express my sense of it. I acknowledge, Madam, the favour you have done me in sending it; but the return you expect hath its difficulties, the book being now past the press, and ofsuch an argument, had I seen it before it was publick, I should have said it was not likely to please, &c. But that is nothing to me; your desire, I suppose, is to know how I like it. I conceive your ladyship is not so far a stranger either to the book which you sent, or to me, whom you are pleased thus to own, but that you take me to be of a different judgment from the author in this his form, whether concerning state or church. And it may be your ladyship did therefore call me to speak, as one that would be less partial. Give me leave then, Madam, in plain English to say, that albeit the author hath shewn good sufficiency of parts, and taken much pains in order to his design; yet I conceive, first, that he is not a little mistaken in thinking the Israel commonwealth or government under Moses so appliable unto his purpose, as he would make it. Next, that when the question ’twixt his form and the monarchical is disputed over and over again, reason and experience will still plead for the latter. Nor can the balance be pretends stand so steady in his form, as in a well tempered monarchy, by reason the temptation of advancing are more like to sway with many in a commonwealth, than with one, &c. in the height of dignity. Next, when I consider such a change by this model from what was ever in, &c. and that the agrarian, with some other levelling orders, are the laws of it, I should think the nature of men was first to be new model’d, before they would be capable of this. Lastly, what is said in relation to the church or religion in the point of government, ordination, excommunication, had better beseemed Leviathan, and is below the parts of this gentleman, to retain and sit down with those little things, and poor mistakes, which the ignorance or wilfulness of many in these days hath broached in way of quarrel against the church of England. And lamentable it is to see so many (especially gentlemen of good parts) so opinionate, so boldly meddling in matters of religion, as if they had forgot, or did not understand their article of the catholick church.
MADAM, You see I have been plain in speaking my sense, and hope you will think me therefore more fit to do you real service, when you shall have occasion to command,
MADAM, Your humble servant.
Nov. 4th, 1656.
THE Doctor’s letter, though it be scandalous (for to charge a writer of little things, poor mistakes, sitting down by ignorance, or wilfulness, without proof, is no better) was yet but private; and therefore I may be asked why I would make it publick? Whereunto I answer, That what a divine will have to be true, is no less publick than if it were printed; but more, for he will preach it; and preaching communicates unto more than can read. Also his present doctrines are exceeding dangerous. For in government, that is cast upon parliaments or popular elections, as ours hath ever been and is, to take wise men, and understanding, and known among their tribes, to be rulers over them, hath ever (except where the people were not free in their elections) been, and must ever be, the certain and infallible consequence. Now wise men, and understanding, and known among their tribes, must needs be (at least for the greater part) of that rank, which we now call the aristocracy or gentlemen. Whence the senate in every well ordered commonwealth hath consisted of the aristocracy or gentry. And that the senate ever had the supreme authority, as well in matters of religion as state, is not only clear in all other popular governments, but in the Old Testament; which also is confirmed by our Saviour in the New, Matt. xxiii. 2, 3. The Scribes and Pharisees sitin Moses’s seat; and therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, (both he and his apostles observed the national religion) observe and do; for the liberty of conscience or prophetick right in the commonwealth of Israel, as in others, was such, as by which Christianity, notwithstanding the national religion, might grow. But do not (faith he) after their works, for they say and do not. In their enquiry after John, Joh. 1. they seem to imply or say, that if he were that prophet, there was nothing in the law why he might not introduce his baptism; and therefore why he might not gather churches, or instruct the people in his way. Nevertheless when they come to doing, they kill the prophets, and stone them. This indeed Christ blameth, being the abuse of their power. But whereas the supreme authority of the senate, whether in matters of religion or state, is confirmed by all divine and human prudence; and the senate is the more peculiar province of the gentry; the doctor faith, that lamentable it is to see so many, (not only men of such parts or quality as the people in their elections are not likely to look upon) but especially men of good parts (than which the people upon like occasions have no other refuge) so opinionate, so boldly meddling in matters of religion, as if they had forgot or did not understand their article of the catholick church. Now where-ever the clergy have gained this point, namely, that they are the catholick church, or that it is unlawful for gentlemen, either in their private capacity to discourse, or in their publick to propose, as well in the matter of church as state government, neither government nor religion have failed to degenerate into mere priest craft. This especially was the reason why I wrote unto the Doctor as followeth:
WHEREAS in a letter of yours to one of my sisters, I find your judgment given vehemently against me, but merely positive, I conceive that both in the matter and manner of delivery you have given me right to desire, and laid obligation upon your self to afford me your reasons, which may be done (if you please) either by confuting my book, or answering the queries hereunto annexed; in either of which ways, or any other, I am more than desirous to undertake you; and that for many considerations, as your abilities, the safety (at least on your part) in the performance, the importance of the argument, the seasonableness, and (however it came in your mind to distrust it) the welcomeness of such discourse unto all men of ingenuity, both in power and out of it, or whose interest is not the mere study of parties, from which the freest since the late troubles, that hath written in this nature, is,
SIR, Your humble servant.
Nov. 17. 1656.