Front Page Titles (by Subject) THE INTRODUCTION, OR ORDER OF THE WORK. - The Oceana and Other Works
THE INTRODUCTION, OR ORDER OF THE WORK. - James Harrington, The Oceana and Other Works 
The Oceana and Other Works of James Harrington, with an Account of His Life by John Toland (London: Becket and Cadell, 1771).
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- Advertisement to the Reader.
- To the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sherifs, and Common Council of London.
- The Preface.
- The Life of James Harrington.
- The Mechanics of Nature:
- The Grounds and Reasons of Monarchy Considered: and Exemplify’d In the Scotish Line, Out of Their Own Best Authors and Records.
- The Commonwealth of Oceana. to His Highness the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
- The Introduction, Or Order of the Work.
- The Preliminarys, Shewing the Principles of Government.
- The Second Part of the Preliminarys.
- The Council of Legislators.
- Oceana: the Model of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- Anno Dom.
- Anno Domini.
- Anno Domini.
- Epitome of the Whole Commonwealth.
- Libertas. the Proclamation of His Highness the Lord Archon of Oceana Upon Promulgation of the Model.
- The Prerogative of Popular Government.
- Epistle to the Reader.
- The First Book, Containing: a Full Answer to All Such Objections As Have Hitherto Bin Made Against Oceana.
- The Preface.
- Chap. I. Antient and Modern Prudence.
- Chap. I.: Whether Prudence Be Well Distinguish’d Into Antient and Modern.
- Chap. II.: Whether a Commonwealth Be Rightly Defin’d to Be a Government of Laws and Not of Men, and a Monarchy to Be the Government of Som Man, Or a Few Men, and Not of Laws?
- Chap. III.: Whether the Balance of Dominion In Land Be the Natural Cause of Empire?
- Chap. IV. Chap. IV.: Whether the Balance of Empire Be Well Divided Into National and Provincial; and Whether These Two, Or Any Nations That Are of Distinct Balance, Coming to Depend Upon One and the Same Head, Such a Mixture Creates a New Balance.
- Chap. V.: Whether There Be Any Common Right Or Interest of Mankind Distinct From the Parts Taken Severally; and How By the Orders of a Commonwealth It May Be Best Distinguish’d From Privat Interest.
- Chap. VI.: Whether the Senatusconsulta, Or Decrees of the Roman Senat, Had the Power of Laws?
- Chap. VII.: Whether the Ten Commandments Were Propos’d By God Or Moses, and Voted By the People of Israel.
- Chap. VIII.: Whether a Commonwealth Coming Up to the Perfection of the Kind, Coms Not Up to the Perfection of Government, and Has No Flaw In It.
- Chap. IX.: Whether Monarchy Coming Up to the Perfection of the Kind, Coms Not Short of the Perfection of Government, and Has Not Som Flaw In It. In Which Is Also Treated of the Balance of France; of the Original of a Landed Clergy; of Arms, and Their Ki
- Chap. X.: Whether a Commonwealth That Was Not First Broken By Her Self, Was Ever Conquer’d By the Arms of Any Monarch?
- Chap. XI.: Whether There Be Not an Agrarian, Or Som Law of Laws of That Nature, to Supply the Defect of It In Every Commonwealth: and Whether the Agrarian, As It Is Stated In Oceana, Be Not Equal and Satisfactory to All Interests.
- Chap. XII.: Whether Courses Or a Rotation Be Necessary to a Well-order’d Commonwealth. In Which Is Contain’d the Courses Or Parembole of Israel Before the Captivity, Together With the Epitome of Athens and Venice.
- The Second Book; Or, a Political Discourse Concerning Ordination: Against Dr. H. Hammond, Dr. L. Seaman, and the Authors They Follow.
- Advertisment to the Reader.
- Order of the Discourse.
- A Political Discourse Concerning Ordination.
- The Introduction, Or First Chapter.
- Chap. II.: That the Citys, Or Most of Them Nam’d In the Perambulation of the Apostles Paul and Barnabas, Were At That Time Under Popular Government. In Which Is Contain’d the Administration of a Roman Province.
- Chap. III.: The Deduction of the Chirotonia From Popular Government, and of the Original Right of Ordination From the Chirotonia. In Which Is Contain’d the Institution of the Sanhedrim Or Senat of Israel By Moses, and That of Rome By Romulus
- Chap. IV.: The Deduction of the Chirothesia From Monarchical Or Aristocratical Government, and of the Second Way of Ordination From the Chirothesia. In Which Is Contain’d the Commonwealth of the Jews As It Stood After the Captivity.
- Chap. V.: Whether the Chirotonia Mention’d In the Fourteenth of the Acts Be Indeed, As Is Pretended By Dr. Mammond, Dr. Seaman, and the Authors They Follow, the Same With the Chirothesia, Or a Far Different Thing. In Which Are Contain’d the
- Advertisement to the Reader, Or Direction to the Answerer.
- An Answer to Three Objections Against Popular Government, That Were Given Me After These Two Books Were Printed.
- The Art of Lawgiving: In Three Books.
- The Order of the Work.
- The First Book.
- The Second Book.
- The Third Book.
- The First Book, Shewing the Foundations and Superstructures of All Kinds of Government.
- The Preface. Considering the Principles Or Nature of Family Government.
- Chap. I.: Considering the Principles Or Balance of National Governments; With the Different Kinds of the Same.
- Chap. II.: Shewing the Variation of the English Balance.
- Chap. III.: Of Fixation of the Balance, Or of Agrarian Laws.
- Chap. IV.: Shewing the Superstructures of Governments.
- The Conclusion: Observing That the Principles of Human Prudence Being Good Without Proof of Scripture, Are Nevertheless Such As Are Provable Out of Scripture.
- The Second Book, Containing the Commonwealths of the Hebrews; Namely, Elohim, Or the Commonwealth of Israel; and Cabala, Or the Commonwealth of the Jews.
- The Preface, Shewing That There Were Commonwealths Before That of Israel.
- Chap. I.: Shewing That Israel Was a Commonwealth.
- Chap. II.: Shewing What Commonwealth Israel Was.
- Chap. III.: Shewing the Anarchy, Or State of the Israelits Under Their Judges.
- Chap. IV.: Shewing the State of the Israelits Under Their Kings, to the Captivity.
- Chap. V.: Shewing the State of the Jews In the Captivity; and After Their Return Out of It; With the Frame of the Jewish Commonwealth.
- Chap. VI.: Shewing How Ordination Was Brought Into the Christian Church, and the Divers Ways of the Same That Were At Divers Times In Use With the Apostles.
- The Conclusion: Shewing That Neither God, Nor Christ, Or the Apostles, Ever Instituted Any Government Ecclesiastical Or Civil Upon Any Other Principles Than Those Only of Human Prudence.
- The Third Book, Containing a Model of Popular Government, Practically Propos’d According to Reason, Confirm’d By the Scripture, and Agreable to the the Present Balance Or State of Property In England.
- The Preface. Containing a Model of Popular Government, Propos’d Notionally.
- Chap. I.: Containing the Civil Part of the Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. II.: Containing the Religious Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. III.: Containing the Military Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- Chap. IV.: Containing the Provincial Part of This Model, Propos’d Practicably.
- The Conclusion: Shewing How the Model Propos’d May Be Prov’d Or Examin’d; and Giving a Brief Answer to Mr. Wren’s Last Book, Intitl’d, Monarchy Asserted Against Mr. Harrington’s Oceana.
- A Word Concerning a House of Peers.
- Six Political Tracts Written On Several Occasions.
- Valerius and Publicola: Or, the True Form of a Popular Commonwealth Extracted Ex Puris Naturalibus.
- To the Reader.
- To the Parlament of the Commonwealth of England, &c. the Humble Petition, &c.
- The Petitioner to the Reader.
- A System of Politics Delineated In Short and Easy Aphorisms. Publish’d From the Author’s Own Manuscript.
- Chap. I.: Of Government.
- Chap. II.: Of the Matter of Government.
- Chap. III.: Of the Privation of Government.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Form of Government.
- Chap. V.: Of Form In the Civil Parts.
- Chap. VI.: Of Form In the Religious Part.
- Chap. VII.: Of Form In the Military Part.
- Chap. VIII.: Of Form In the Legal Part.
- Chap. IX.: Of Form In the Judicial Part.
- Chap. X.: Of the Administration of Government, Or Reason of State.
- Political Aphorisms.
- Seven Models of a Commonwealth: Or, Brief Directions Shewing How a Fit and Perfect Model of Popular Government May Be Made, Found, Or Understood.
- The First Part.
- Divers Models the First Model of Popular Government Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Israel.
- A Second Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d.
- A Third Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Sparta.
- A Fourth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Athens.
- A Fifth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Rome.
- A Sixth Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Venice.
- A Seventh Model of a Commonwealth Propos’d. the Commonwealth of Holland.
- The Second Part, Proposing a Model of a Commonwealth Fitted to the Present State of This Nation.
- Conclusion; Or, the Use of These Propositions.
- The Ways and Means Wherby an Equal and Lasting Commonwealth May Be Suddenly Introduc’d, and Perfectly Founded, With the Free Consent and Actual Confirmation of the Whole People of England.
- The Humble Petition of Divers Well Affected Persons, Deliver’d the 6th Day of July, 1659, With the Parlament’s Answer Therto.
- Appendix, Containing All the Political Tracts of James Harrington, Esq; Omitted In Mr. Toland ’s Edition of His Works.
- Pian Piano: Or, Intercourse Between H. Ferne, D. D. And J. Harrington, Esq; Upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- Epistle to the Reader.
- Intercourse Between H. Ferne, D. D. And James Harrington, Esq; Upon Occasion of the Doctor’s Censure of the Commonwealth of Oceana.
- The Queries I Shall Interweave With the Doctor’s Answer Unto Each of Them, Returned Unto Me With This Preamble.
- The First Query. How Much, Or In What the Author of Oceana Is Mistaken, to Think the Commonwealth of the Hebrews Appliable to His Purpose.
- The Second Query.
- The Third Query.
- The Fourth Query.
- The Fifth Query.
- The Sixth Query.
- The Seventh Query.
- The Stumbling-block of Disobedience and Rebellion, Cunningly Imputed By P. H. Unto Calvin, Remov’d, In a Letter to the Said P. H. From J. H.
- A Letter Unto Mr. Stubs, In Answer to His Oceana Weighed, &c.
- Politicaster: Or, a Comical Discourse In Answer to Mr. Wren ’s Book, Intituled, Monarchy Asserted, Against Mr. Harrington’ S Oceana.
- Pour Enclouer Le Canon.
- A Discourse Upon This Saying: the Spirit of the Nation Is Not Yet to Be Trusted With Liberty; Lest It Introduce Monarchy, Or Invade the Liberty of Conscience.
- A Discourse Shewing, That the Spirit of Parliaments, With a Council In the Intervals, Is Not to Be Trusted For a Settlement; Lest It Introduce Monarchy, and Persecution For Conscience.
- A Parallel of the Spirit of the People With the Spirit of Mr. Rogers; and an Appeal Thereupon Unto the Reader, Whether the Spirit of the People, Or the Spirit of Men Like Mr. Rogers, Be the Fitter to Be Trusted With the Government.
- A Sufficient Answer to Mr. Stubb.
- A Proposition In Order to the Proposing of a Commonwealth Or Democracy.
- The Rota: Or, a Model of a Free State, Or Equal Commonwealth.
THE INTRODUCTION, OR ORDER OF THE WORK.
Pliny’s description of Oceana.OCEANA is saluted by the Panegyrist after this manner; O the most blest and fortunat of all countrys, OCEANA! how deservedly has Nature with the bountys of heaven and earth indu’d thee? thy ever-fruitful womb not clos’d with ice, nor dissolv’d by the raging star; where Ceres and Bacchus are perpetual twins. Thy woods are not the harbor of devouring beasts, nor thy continual verdure the ambush of serpents, but the food of innumerable herds and flocks presenting thee their shepherdess with distended dugs, or golden fleeces. The wings of thy night involve thee not in the horror of darkness, but have still som white feather; and thy day is (that for which we esteem life) the longest. But this extasy of Pliny (as is observ’d by Bertius) seems to allude as well to Marpesia and Panopea, now provinces of this commonwealth, as to Oceana it self.
The nature of the People.To speak of the people in each of these countrys, this of Oceana for so soft a one, is the most martial in the whole world. Let states that aim at greatness (says Verulamius) take heed how their nobility and gentlemen multiply too fast, for that makes the common subject grow to be a peasant and base swain driven out of heart, and in effect but a gentleman’s laborer; just as you may see in coppice woods, if you leave the staddels too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes: so in countrys, if the gentlemen be too many, the commons will be base; and you will bring it to that at last, that not the hundredth poll will be fit for a helmet, specially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of an army, and so there will be great population and little strength. This of which I speak has bin no where better seen than by comparing of Oceana and France, whereof Oceana, tho far less in territory and population, has bin nevertheless an overmatch, in regard the middle people of Oceana make good soldiers, which the peasants in France do not. In which words Verulamius (as Machiavel has don before him) harps much upon a string which he has not perfectly tun’d, and that is the balance of dominion or property: as it follows more plainly in his praise of the profound and admirable device of Panurgus king of Oceana, in making farms and houses of husbandry of a standard; that is, maintain’d with such a proportion of land to them, as may breed a subject to live in convenient plenty, and no servil condition, and to keep the plow in the hand of the owners, and not mere hirelings. And thus indeed (says he) you shall attain to Virgil’s character which he gives of antient Italy.
But the tillage bringing up a good soldiery, brings up a good commonwealth; which the author in the praise of Panurgus did not mind, nor Panurgus in deserving that praise: for where the owner of the plow coms to have the sword too, he will use it in defence of his own; whence it has happen’d that the people of Oceana in proportion to their property have bin always free. And the genius of this nation has ever had som resemblance with that of antient Italy, which was wholly addicted to commonwealths, and where Rome came to make the greatest account of her rustic tribes, and to call her consuls from the plow; for in the way of parlaments, which was the government of this realm, men of country-lives have bin still intrusted with the greatest affairs, and the people have constantly had an aversion to the ways of the court. Ambition loving to be gay, and to fawn, has bin a gallantry look’d upon as having somthing in it of the livery; and husbandry, or the country way of life, tho of a grosser spinning, as the best stuf of a commonwealth, according to Aristotle, such a one being the most obstinat assertress of her liberty, and the least subject to innovation or turbulency. Wherfore till the foundations (as will be hereafter shew’d) were remov’d, this people was observ’d to be the least subject to shakings and turbulency of any: wheras commonwealths, upon which the city life has had the stronger influence, as Athens, have seldom or never bin quiet; but at the best are found to have injur’d their own business by overdoing it. Whence the Urban tribes of Rome, consisting of the Turba forensis, and Libertins that had receiv’d their freedom by manumission, were of no reputation in comparison of the rustics. It is true, that with Venice it may seem to be otherwise, in regard the gentlemen (for so are all such call’d as have a right to that government) are wholly addicted to the city life: but then the Turba forensis, the secretarys, Cittadini, with the rest of the populace, are wholly excluded. Otherwise a commonwealth, consisting but of one city, would doubtless be stormy, in regard that ambition would be every man’s trade: but where it consists of a country, the plow in the hands of the owner finds him a better calling, and produces the most innocent and steddy genius of a commonwealth, such as is that of Oceana.
The nature of the Marpesians.Marpesia, being the northern part of the same iland, is the dry nurse of a populous and hardy nation, but where the staddels have bin formerly too thick: whence their courage answer’d not their hardiness, except in the nobility, who govern’d that country much after the manner of Poland; but that the king was not elective till the people receiv’d their liberty, the yoke of the nobility being broke by the commonwealth of Oceana, which in grateful return is thereby provided with an inexhaustible magazin of auxiliarys.
The nature of the Panopeans.Panopea, the soft mother of a slothful and pusillanimous people, is a neighbor iland, antiently subjected by the arms of Oceana; since almost depopulated for shaking the yoke, and at length replanted with a new race. But (thro what virtues of the soil, or vice of the air soever it be) they com still to degenerat. Wherfore seeing it is neither likely to yield men fit for arms, nor necessary it should; it had bin the interest of Oceana so to have dispos’d of this province, being both rich in the nature of the soil, and full of commodious ports for trade, that it might have bin order’d for the best in relation to her purse: which in my opinion (if it had bin thought upon in time) might have bin best don by planting it with Jews, allowing them their own rites and laws; for that would have brought them suddenly from all parts of the world, and in sufficient numbers. And tho the Jews be now altogether for merchandize, yet in the land of Canaan (except since their exile from whence they have not bin landlords) they were altogether for agriculture: and there is no cause why a man should doubt, but having a fruitful country, and excellent ports too, they would be good at both. Panopea well peopled, would be worth a matter of four millions dry rents; that is, besides the advantage of the agriculture and trade, which, with a nation of that industry, coms at least to as much more. Wherfore Panopea being farm’d out to the Jews and their heirs for ever, for the pay of a provincial army to protect them during the term of seven years, and for two millions annual revenue from that time forward, besides the customs which would pay the provincial army, would have bin a bargain of such advantage, both to them and this commonwealth, as is not to be found otherwise by either. To receive the Jews after any other manner into a commonwealth, were to maim it: for they of all nations never incorporat, but taking up the room of a limb, are of no use or office to the body, while they suck the nourishment which would sustain a natural and useful member.
IfPanopea had bin so dispos’d of, that knapsack, with the Marpesian auxiliary, had bin an inestimable treasure; the situation of these countrys being ilands (as appears by Venice how advantageous such a one is to the like government) seems to have bin design’d by God for a commonwealth.The situation of the commonwealth of Oceana. And yet that, thro the streitness of the place and defect of proper arms, can be no more than a commonwealth for preservation: wheras this, reduc’d to the like government, is a commonwealth for increase, and upon the mightiest foundation that any has bin laid from the beginning of the world to this day.
- Illam arctâ capiens Neptunus compede stringit:
- Hanc autem glaucis captus complectitur ulnis.
The sea gives law to the growth of Venice, but the growth of Oceana gives law to the sea.
These countrys having bin antiently distinct and hostil kingdoms, came by Morpheus the Marpesian (who succeeded by hereditary right to the crown of Oceana) not only to be join’d under one head; but to be cast, as it were by a charm, into that profound sleep, which, broken at length by the trumpet of civil war, has produc’d those effects, that have given occasion to the insuing discourse, divided into four parts.