- II: Coke’s Speech and Charge At the Norwich Assizes
- (preface, Written By Robert Prickett)
- The Lord Coke, the Preface to His Charge Given At the Assises Houlden In Norwich, the Fourth of August, 1606.
- ¶ Here Followeth the Words of His Charge In Order.
- III: Excerpts From the Small Treatises
- A. Book of Entries
- The Preface of Sr. Edward Coke, Knight Lord Chiefe Justice of England of Pleas Before the King Himselfe to Be Holden Assigned, and One of the Lords of His Majesties Most Honorable Privie Councell.
- B. the Compleat Copyholder
- Sec. XXXIII.
- C. Little Treatise On Baile and Mainprize
- The Conclusion With Advertisment.
- IV: Excerpts From the Institutes
- A. the First Part of the Institutes
- The Preface.
- Section 1 Fee Simple
- Section 2 Fee Simple
- Section 3 Fee Simple
- Section 4 Fee Simple
- Section 5 Fee Simple
- Section 7 Fee Simple
- Section 8 Fee Simple
- Section 9 Fee Simple
- Section 10 Fee Simple
- Section 11 Fee Simple
- Section 12 Fee Simple
- Section 21 Fee Tail, Part 2
- Section 69 Tenant At Will, Part 2
- Section 80 Tenant By the Verge, Part 3
- Section 96 Escuage, Part 2
- Section 108 Knight’s Service, Part 6
- Section 138 Frankalmoin, Part 5
- Section 170 Tenure In Burgage, Part 9
- Section 199 Villenage, Part 18
- Section 342 Conditional Estates, Part 17
- Section 366 Conditional Estates, Part 41
- Section 372 Conditional Estates, Part 47
- Section 412 Descents, Part 27
- Section 464 Releases, Part 20
- Section 481 Releases, Part 37
- Section 723 Warranty, Part 30
- Section 728 Fee Warranty, Part 35
- B. the Second Part of the Institutes
- Deo, Patriae, Tibi.
- Magna Charta,
- C. The Third Part of the Institutes
- Deo, Patriae, Tibi.
- Cap. I. of High Treason.
- Cap. II. of Petit Treason.
- Cap. III. of Misprision of Treason.
- | Cap. IV. Felony By Compassing Or Conspiring to Kill the King, Or Any Lord Or Other, of the Kings Counsell.
- Cap. V. of Heresie.
- | Cap. VI. of Felony By Conjuration, Witchcraft, Sorcery, Or Inchantment.
- | Cap. Lxii. of Indictments.
- D. The Fourth Part of the Institutes
- Deo, Patriae, Tibi.
- Cap. I. of What Persons This Court Consisteth.
- Cap. VII. the Court of Kings Bench, Coram Rege. 1
And also where a man is seised of lands in Fee simple, & hath issue a sonne and daughter by one venter, and a son by another venter, and dye, and the eldest son enter, and dye without issue, the daughter shall have the land, & not the younger son, yet the younger son is heire to the father but not to his brother, but if the elder sonne doth not enter into the land after the death of his father but dye before any entry made by him then the younger brother may enter & shall have the land as heire to his father: but where the elder son in the case aforesaid enters after the death of his father, & hath possession there the sister shall have the land, Because Possessio fratris de feodo simplici facit sororem esse haeredem. But if there be 2. brothers by divers venters, and the elder is seised of land in fee, & die without issue, & his uncle enter as next heire to him, who also dye without issue, now the younger brother may have the land as heire to the uncle, for that he is of the whole bloud to him, albeit hee be but of the halfe bloud to his elder brother.
“seised of lands in Fee simple,”
These words exclude a seisin in Fee taile, albeit he hath a Fee simple expectant. (f ) And therefore if Lands bee given to a man and his wife, and to the heires of their two bodies, the remainder to the heires of the husband, and they have issue a sonne, and the wife dyeth, and hee taketh another wife, and hath issue a sonne, the father dieth, the eldest sonne entreth, and dyeth without issue, the second brother of the halfe bloud shall inherit, because the eldest sonne by his entrie was not actually seised of the fee simple, being expectant but onely of the estate taile. And the rule is, that Possessio fratris de feodo simplici facit sororem esse haeredem, and here the eldest sonne is not possessed of the Fee simple but of the estate taile. And where Littleton speaketh onely of Lands (g) yet there shall bee Possessio fratris of an use, of a seigniorie, a rent, an advowson and of other hereditaments.
“and the eldest son enter,”
(h) These words are materially added when the father dies seised of lands in fee simple, for if the eldest sonne doth not in that case enter, then without question the youngest | son shall be heire, because as it hath beene said before regularly hee must make himselfe heire to him that was last actually seised (or to the purchaser) and that was to the father where the eldest sonne did not enter. And therefore Littleton addeth that the son is heire to the father. (i) But when the eldest sonne in this case doth enter, then cannot the youngest sonne being of the halfe bloud bee heire to the eldest, but the land shalldescend to the sister of the whole bloud. Yet in many cases albeit the sonne doth not enter into lands descended in Fee simple, the sister of the whole bloud shall inherit, & in some cases where the eldest sonne doth enter, yet the younger brother of the halfe bloud shall be heire.
(k) If the father maketh a Lease for yeares, & the Lessee entreth & dieth, the eldest son dieth during the tearme before entrie or receipt of rent, the younger sonne of the halfe bloud shall not inherit but the sister, because the possession of the Lessee for yeares, is the possession of the eldest son, so as he is actually seised of the Fee simple, and consequently the sister of the whole bloud is to bee heire. The same Law it is if the lands be holden by Knights service, and the eldest sonne is within age, and the Gardian entreth into the lands. And so it is if the Gardian in Socage enter.
But in the case aforesaid, if the father make a lease for life or a gift in taile, and dieth, and the eldest sonne dieth in the life of Tenant for life or Tenant in taile, the younger brother of the halfe bloud shall inherit, because the Tenant for life or Tenant in taile is seised of the Freehold, and the eldest sonne had nothing but reversion expectant upon that Freehold or estate taile, and therefore the youngest sonne shall inherit the land as heire to his father, who was last seised of the actuall Freehold. And albeit a rent had beene reserved upon the lease for life, and the eldest sonne had received the rent and died, yet it is holden by some that the younger brother shall inherit because the seisin of the rent is no actuall seisin of the Freehold of the land. But 35. Ass. pl. 2. seemeth to the contrarie, because the rent, issueth out of the land and is in lieu thereof, wherein the onely question is, whether such a seisin of the rent be such an actuall seisin of the land in the eldest sonne as the sister may in a Writ of right make herselfe heire of this land to her brother. But it is cleere that (l) if there be a bastard eigne, and mulier puisne, and the father maketh a Lease for life or a gift in taile be reserving a rent and dye, and the bastard receive the rent and dye, this shall barre the mulier, for the reason of that standeth upon another maxime as shall manifestly appeare in his apt place, Sect. 399.
“seised of lands,”
(m) But in this case if the eldest sonne doth enter and get an actuall possession of the Fee simple, yet if the wife of the father be indowed of the third part and the eldest sonne dyeth, the younger brother shall have the reversion of this third part notwithstanding the elder brothers entrie, because that his actuall seisin which hee got thereby was by the endowment defeated. But if the eldest sonne had made a lease for life, and the Lessee has endowed the wife of the father, and tenant in dower had died, the daughter should have had the reversion, because the reversion was changed and altered by the Lease for life, and the reversion is now expectant on a new estate for life.
Hereupon the question groweth, whether if the father be seised of divers severall parcels of lands in one Countie, and after the death of the father the sonne entreth into one parcell generally, and before any actuall entrie into the other dieth, this generall entrie into part shall vest in him an actuall seisin in the whole, so as the sister shall inherit the whole. And this is a Quaere in 21. Hen. 7. 33. a.
| And some doe take a diversitie when an entrie shall vest, or devest an estate, that there must be severall entries into the severall parcels, but where the possession is in no man, but the Freehold in Law is in the heire that entreth, there the generall entrie into one part reduceth all into his actuall possession. And therefore if the Lord entreth into a parcell generally for a Mortmaine, or the Feoffor for a condition broken, or the Disseisee into parcell generally, the entrie shall not vest nor devest in these or like cases, but for that parcell. But when a man dies seised of divers parcels in possession, and the Freehold in Law is by a Law cast upon the heire, and the possession in no man, there the entrie into parcell generally seemeth to vest the actuall possession in him in the whole. But if his entrie in that case be speciall, viz. that he enter onely into that parcell and into no more, there it reduceth that parcell only into actuall possession.
“man is seised of lands”
What then is the Law of a Rent, Advowson, or such things that lye in grant? (g) If a Rent, or an Advowson doe descend to the eldest sonne, and hee dieth before he hath seisin of the Rent, or present to the Church, the Rent or Advowson shall descend to the youngest sonne, for that he must makehimselfe heire to his father, as hath been oftentimes said before. The like Law is of Offices, Courts, Liberties, Franchises, Commons of inheritance, and such like. (h) And this case differeth from the case of the Tenant by the Courtesie, for there if the wife dieth before the rent day, or that the Church become voyd, because there was no laches or default in him, nor possibilitie to get seisin, the Law in respect of the issue begotten by him will give him an estate by the Courtesie of England. But the case of the descent to the youngest sonne standeth upon another reason, viz. to make himselfe heire to him that was last actually seised, as hath beene said.
“in Fee simple”
(i) For halfe bloud is not respected in estates in taile, because that the issues doe claime in by descent, per formam Doni, and the issue in taile is ever of the whole bloud to the Donee.
(k) “Possessio fratris de Feodo simplici facit sororem esse haeredem.”
Hereupon foure things are to bee observed, everie word almost being operative and materiall. First, That the brother must be inactuall possession: For Possessio est quasi pedis positio. Secondly, De feodo simplici, exclude estates in taile. Thirdly, Facit sororem esse haeredem. So as (l)Soror est haeres facta, and therefore some act must be done to make her heire, and the younger sonne is haeres natus, (m) if no act be done to the contrarie. And albeit the words be Facit sororem esse haeredem, yet this doth extend to the issue of the sister, &c. who shall inherit before the younger brother. Fourthly, Of Dignities whereof no other possession can be had but such as descend (as to be a Duke, Marquesse, Earle, Viscount, or Baron) to a man and his heires, there can be no possession of the brother to make the sister to inherit, but the younger brother being heire (as Littleton saith) to the father, shall inherit the Dignitie inherent to the bloud, as heire to him that was first created noble.
And you shall understand that concerning Descents there is a Law, parcell of the Lawes of England, called Jus Coronae, and differeth in many things, from the generall Law concerning the subject. As for example, The King in any suit for any thing that pertaines to the Crowne shall not shew in certaine his cosinage as a subject shall doe, or as be himselfe shall doe for things touching his Dutchie. (n) And in the case of the King, if he hath issue a sonne, and a daughter by one venter, and a sonne by another venter, and purchaseth lands and dieth, and the eldest son enter and dieth without issue, the daughter shall not inherit these lands, not any other Fee simple lands of the Crowne, but the younger brother shall have them. Wherein note that neither possessio fratris doth hold of lands of the possessions of the Crowne, nor halfe bloud is no impediment to the descent of the lands of the Crowne, as it fell out in experience after the decease of King Edward the sixth to the Queene Marie, and from Queene Marie to Queene Elizabeth, both which here were of the halfe bloud, and yet inherited not onely the Lands which King Edward or Queene Marie purchased, but the ancient Lands parcell of the Crowne also.
A man that is King by descent of the part of his mother, purchase lands to him and his heires and dye without issue, this land shall descend to the heire of the part of the mother, but in the case of a subject, the heire of the part of the father shall have them.
So King Henry the eighth purchased lands to him and his heires, and died having issue two daughters, the Lady Mary, and the Lady Elizabeth, after the decease of King Edward, the eldest daughter Queene Mary did inherit only, all his lands in Fee simple. For the eldest daughter, or sister of a King shall inherit all his Fee simple lands. So it is if the King purchaseth Lands of the custome of Gavelkinde, and dye having issue divers sons, the eldest son shall onely inherit these lands. And the reason of all these cases is, for that the qualitie of the person doth in these andmany other like cases alter the descent, so as, all the Lands and possessions whereof the King is seised in jure Coronae, shall secundum jus Coronae, attend upon and follow the Crowne, and therefore to whomsoever the Crowne descend, those Lands and possessions descend also, for the Crowne and the Lands whereof the King is seised in jure Coronae, are concomitantia. If the | right heire of the Crowne be attained of treason, yet shall the Crowne descend to him, and eo instante (without any other reversall) the attainder is utterly avoided, as it fell out in the case of Henry the seventh. (o) And if the King purchase lands to him and his heires, he is seised thereof in jure Coronae, è fortiori, when he purchases land to him his heires and successours.
But hereof this little taste shall suffice.
[Ed.: The brother’s possession of an estate in fee simple makes the sister to be heir.]
(f ) 24. E. 3.24.30. 31. E.g. Count de Vouch. 83. 32. E. 3. tit. Voucher. 37. Ass. p. 4. 40. E. 3.9. 42. E. 3. 10. 39. E. 3. 10. fol. 13. 7. H. 5. 3.
(g) 5. E. 4. fo. 7. Pl. Com. fo. 58. in Wimbishes case.
(h) 10. Ass. 17. 34. Ass. 10. 31. E. 3. Count de Vouchee 88. 32. E. 3. tit. Vouch. 94.
(i) 11. H. 4. 11. 40. E. 3. 30. 41. E. 3. 13. 40. Ass. p. 6. Ratcliffes case, lib. 3. fol. 41.
(k) 5. E. 4.7 h. 3. H. 7.5. 8. Ass. p. 6. 45. E. 3. tit. Releases, 28.
H. 5. 34. per Halls & Logdington. 35. Ass. p. 2.
(l) 14. E. 2. Bastard 26. Vid. Sect. 399.
[Ed.: When a man has a bastard son, and afterwards marries the mother and by her has also a legitimate son, the elder son is “bastard eigne,” and the younger son is “mulier puisne.”]
(m) 7. H. 5. 2. 3. 4i.
21 H. 7. 33n.
(g) 19. F. 2. Quare imped. 177. 3. H. 7. 5.
(h) 7. E. 3. 66. tit. bar. 293. 3. H. 7.5.
(i) 8. E. 3. 11. 40. E. 3. 12. Ratcliffes case, lib. 3. F. 41.
[Ed.: by the form of the gift; by the designation of the giver and not by the operation of law.]
(k) Bracton lib. 2. fo. 65. & lib. 4 fol. 279. Britton cap. 119. Flet. li. 6. c. 1. 24 E. 3. 30.
[Ed.: Possession is, as it were, the position of the foot.]
[Ed.: of fee simple.]
[Ed.: causes the sister to be heir.]
(l) Ratcliffes case, lib. 3. fol. 42.
[Ed.: the sister is the born heir.
[Ed.: an heir born.]
(m) Britton cap. 119.
[Ed.: Law of the Crown.]
6. H. 4. 2.
(n) 24 H. 6. fol. 34. Pl. Com. sol. 245. 25 E. 3. ca. de natis ultra mare.
Pl. Com. ubi supra.
Pl. Com. fol. 247.
Pl. Com. 238. 1. H. 7. fol. 4
(o) 43. E. 3. fol. 20.
[Ed.: (by) law of the Crown, and so it follows.]