Front Page Titles (by Subject) chapter 3: That the Portugals have no right of dominion over the Indians by title of the Pope's gift - The Free Sea (Hakluyt trans.)
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chapter 3: That the Portugals have no right of dominion over the Indians by title of the Pope’s gift - Hugo Grotius, The Free Sea (Hakluyt trans.) 
The Free Sea, trans. Richard Hakluyt, with William Welwod’s Critiuqe and Grotius’s Reply, ed. David Armitage (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2004).
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That the Portugals have no right of dominion over the Indians by title of the Pope’s gift
Secondly, if they will use the division of Pope Alexander the Sixth, above all that is specially to be considered whether the Pope would only decide the controversies of Portugals and Spaniards, which surely he might do as a chosen arbitrator between them as the kings themselves had made certain covenants between them concerning that matter, and if it be so when the thing was done between others, it appertaineth not to the rest of the nations;1 or whether he would give almost all the third part of the world to two peoples, which though the Pope could and would have done, yet shall it not presently follow that the Portugals are lords of those places, seeing their donation maketh not the lords but the livery2 which followeth, for even to this cause possession ought to be added.3
Moreover, if any man will search the law itself either divine or human and not measure it by his private commodity, he shall easily find such a kind of donation of that which is another’s to be of no moment. I will not here enter into disputation concerning the authority of the Pope, to wit, the bishop of the Church of Rome, nor will I absolutely set down anything but by hypothesis, to wit what the most learned men amongst them confess who attribute most to the authority of the Pope, chiefly the Spaniards who, considering through their quickness of wit and understanding they might easily see our lord Christ had rejected all earthly government,4 he had not truly dominion over the whole world as he was man, and if he had yet could it not be proved by any argument that such right was translated unto Peter or the Church of Rome by the right of vicar; seeing elsewhere also it is certain Christ had many things unto the which the Pope succeeded not,5 the interpreters affirmed (I will use their own words) that the Pope is not a civil or temporal lord of the whole world;6 yea, and that more is, if he had any such authority in the world, yet should he not rightly exercise the same, seeing he ought to content himself with his spiritual jurisdiction but could by no means grant it unto secular princes.7 So then if he have any temporal authority he hath it (as they say) by way of order unto spiritual things, wherefore he hath no authority over infidels seeing they appertain not unto the Church.8
Whence it followeth, by the opinion of Cajetanus and Victoria and the better part as well divines as canonists, that it is not a sufficient title against the Indians either because the Pope gave those provinces as absolute lord or because they do not acknowledge the dominion of the Pope, so that the very Saracens were never spoiled under this color and pretence.9