Front Page Titles (by Subject) No. II.: THE EXILES AND THEIR CHURCHES IN HOLLAND. - The Works of John Robinson, vol. 3
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No. II.: THE EXILES AND THEIR CHURCHES IN HOLLAND. - John Robinson, The Works of John Robinson, vol. 3 
The Works of John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, with a Memoir and Annotations by Robert Ashton, 3 vols (London: John Snow, 1851). Vol. 3.
Part of: The Works of John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, with a Memoir and Annotations by Robert Ashton, 3 vols.
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THE EXILES AND THEIR CHURCHES IN HOLLAND.
The commerce and manufactures so extensively carried on by the Dutch during the latter part of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries, had induced many British merchants and others to settle in the principal towns of the United Provinces.
The wars threatened by Spain against Holland impelled the Dutch to make application to the English government for assistance against their common foe. Treaties were formed between Queen Elizabeth and the Seigniors, by which England engaged to furnish both troops and money to her allies, on certain conditions, for the secure fulfilment of which some important towns were to be held by the British forces. This alliance between the two governments occasioned the residence of an additional number of British subjects in the Netherlands.
One article of the treaty of 1585 contains a stipulation that the Dutch “will permit to the governor and garrison the free exercise of religion as in England, and to this end a church will be provided for them in each town.”
The places of worship thus provided for the British troops, were open also to other British residents who might choose to frequent them.
Grants were also made from the public treasury, on application, to assist the merchants and settlers elsewhere in establishing worship according to their respective opinions.
Hence at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnheim, Middleburg, Leyden, Rotterdam, Bruges, and other towns, English worship was constantly performed in buildings erected or appropriated for that purpose by the government, as well as in the garrison and military chapels appointed according to treaty.*
Other British subjects were finding their way to Holland during this period. Humble and godly men, they would have gladly remained in their native land. Neither military glory nor commercial enterprise forced their expatriation. Religious persecution, under episcopal tyranny, had well nigh impoverished and ruined them; and still threatened the extinction of their liberties, if not of their lives. Many of their companions and predecessors had fallen victims to the fury of the ecclesiastical oppressor. Royalty, too, instead of throwing its shield of protection over all its subjects, had hurled its denunciations against such as should dare to question its prerogatives in religion, or refuse to obey its imperious mandates. At the gibbet, and the stake, as well as in the awful, death-producing dungeons, many a “martyr of Nonconformity” had sealed his testimony for truth and conscience.
Puritans, Anabaptists, Romanists, Separatists, were names odious to the authorities; and hence the extermination, imprisonment, or banishment of all, to whom they applied such names, was resolved on. Thacker, Copping, Barrowe, Greenwood, Penry, Dennis, were among the public martyrs of Independency; while a larger host of Baptist worthies, both English, and also Dutch who had come to England for protection against the horrible inquisition set up by Spain in Holland, had been even more obnoxious to the powers that be, arid “were tortured, not accepting deliverance,” and stand high on the roll of martyr fame.† During the early part of the reign of Elizabeth, numbers fled to Holland to escape the death -which threatened them; and at a later period, when the folly of killing men to convert them was perceived, and banishment or imprisonment was tried to prevent defection from the established church, others followed the example, and became exiles to the United Provinces, where liberty of conscience and of worship was freely allowed.
Many of these exiles being Puritans, and not Separatists, attached themselves to the congregations of the English settlers in various parts of the provinces; while some of their pastors, who had accompanied or followed them, became ministers of these English churches. The Rev. Francis Johnson was one of this class, and became minister of the English congregation at Middleburg. The order of worship was chiefly Presbyterian, as distinguished alike from the episcopal and the congregational. Such exiles as were Separatists or Brownists worshipped either privately, or in less prominent places than those occupied by their merely Puritan brethren.
One of the earliest of these Separatists, and whose name was attached to the entire party for a season, was
of Tolethorpe, Rutland, a clergyman of high family, and related to the Lord Treasurer Burleigh. He was chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk. He joined the Puritan party, and advocated the reformation of the national church. He became a Separatist, and collected several small congregations on Separatist principles in the county of Norfolk. He was frequently cited in the ecclesiastical courts, and imprisoned for his attacks, both from the pulpit and the press, on the episcopal establishment. His high connexions saved him from perpetual imprisonment, or death. He fled to Holland, having Mr. Harrison, a schoolmaster, and several of his friends, as his companions in flight. He settled at Middleburg, where he formed a congregation, over which he and Mr. Harrison presided. Disagreeing with his people, he returned to England, and pursued an itinerating course, preaching the gospel and inveighing against the church. He took up his abode at Northampton, and renounced his Separatist principles, and was rewarded for his tergiversation by the rectorship of Achurch in that county. His temper and habits in later years were of a dubious character, and for striking a constable in the execution of his duty, it is stated, he was committed to gaol, where he died in the 81st year of his age. He is reported to have said, “that he had been in thirty-two prisons, and in some of which he could not see his hand at noon day.”
Different opinions have been formed concerning the sincerity of Browne. Mr. Fletcher, in his “History of Independency,” thinks justice has not been done to his character. The common enemies of the Separation unite in the denunciation of the man, principally on the ground of his opposition to the established church. But even those who could have no sympathy with these opponents, and even adopted the general sentiments of Browne as their own, are equally united in his condemnation. Ainsworth, Johnson, Robinson, Brewster, and others, exhibit him in a most unfavourable light, and earnestly disclaim the appellation of Brownists.
Though it is to be feared without principle himself, he advocated the noblest principles of freedom both in conscience and worship. A doubtful expression or two have been quoted from his works by Mr. Underhill, in his Preface to “The Broadmead Records,” which appear to justify the interference of the magistrates in religious affairs; but this is to make the man an offender for a word, and to put a construction on the expressions which seems at variance with his general arguments. Posterity is deeply indebted to him for his writings and labours. He collected and condensed the scattered rays of truth which had been gleaming through the darkness from the days of Wickliffe, and presented them in a glowing, genial light in his works. As the champion of religious liberty and the independence of the Church of Christ, all honour is due to his memory; would that he could be venerated for his character and life! He was an earnest and energetic man; an enthusiast and a genius. He pursued an erratic course, heedless of consequences. Bold and courageous by impulse, rather than by conviction, he became a coward and quailed before his persecutors. The truth had no vital power in him. He acquired no martyr fame, but died ingloriously and disgraced in the prison, a warning and a beacon to coming generations.
It is surely with an ill grace that ecclesiastical writers reproach Nonconformity for the errors and inconsistencies of Browne, since, all scapegrace as he was, when he repudiated his separatism, he was welcomed into the church, was honoured with her preferment, and died in her fellowship.*
Mr. Harrison, the colleague of Browne, continued steadfast to the end of his course, and it is believed died at Middleburg.
THE EXILED CHURCH AT AMSTERDAM
now claims consideration. The date of its origin is unrecorded. It has been conjectured that 1593 or 1594 was the period of its formation; but probabilities are rather in favour of 1600, being about the time when Francis Johnson and Henry Ainsworth became pastors and teachers in that city. Johnson, in his self-exile in 1593, went to Middleburg, became English preacher of the Puritan order, and there manifested his opposition to the Separatists as described by Mr. Waddington.† He could not have been banished from London after his visit to Barrowe and Greenwood, much earlier than 1600. He settled at Amsterdam, and found Ainsworth there, every way qualified to become his associate in ministerial labour. They jointly formed a church of such English Separatists, both exiles and others, as were residing in that city.
This church, consisting eventually of three hundred members, was exceedingly unhappy in its history; persons were united with it, whose characters became disreputable. Amsterdam was a common refuge for the persecuted and destitute. Hall speaks of it, contemptuously, as the common harbour and sink of all sectaries, and that Johnson's church was formed of heterogeneous parties, entertaining all kinds of opinions.
Beside the fact that Johnson and Ainsworth presided over it, little is known of the church except its contentions and divisions. Three secessions took place between its formation in 1600, and the year 1610, and on three different grounds.
The first secession happened in 1604, and was occasioned by the marriage of Mr. Johnson with the widow of a merchant, who, being accustomed to genteel life, dressed according to the style and fashion of the circle to which she belonged. Mr. Johnson's father, and his brother George, who were both members of the church, with others, were scandalized at this apparent conformity to the world, and sought her exclusion from the church. This led to disputes, parties, controversies, and finally to the excommunication of Mr. Johnson, sen., Mr. George Johnson, and several others, whose doubtful characters had come to light in the course of the disputes.*
It must have been a sore trial to Mr. Francis Johnson, as the pastor, in the name of the church to excommunicate his father and his brother: but the decision of the church was founded, doubtless, on just principles, and executed only after long delay, in the hope of reconciling the various parties. Mr. Ainsworth concurred in this excision, and justified it as the only means of securing the purity and peace of the church.
The second secession was the retirement of Rev. John Smyth and his adherents from the fellowship of the church. Mr. Smyth, an account of whom is given in former volumes,† was the pastor of the Separatist church in Lincolnshire, and came as an exile with many of his followers to Amsterdam, in the year 1606. They united themselves to Mr. Johnson's church, and remained in fellowship till the unhappy differences on account of Mr. Smyth's change of opinion respecting evangelical doctrine and infant baptism led to their secession. This controversy must have arisen about the time of Mr. Robinson's arrival in 1608, as it would seem he retired to Leyden with his exiled company, in order that he might escape from the broils and contentions at Amsterdam. Mr. Smyth embraced the doctrinal views of Arminius respecting general redemption, and advocated the practice of believers’ and adults’ baptism, to the exclusion of infants from that ordinance. Hellwisse and Murton espoused his cause, and together with Mr. Smyth, left Mr. Johnson's church, and established another of their own in Amsterdam, which continued a few years, and then was broken up; the principal part of the people, it is supposed, returning to England. This movement of Mr. Smyth's occasioned a very general controversy, in which Johnson, Ainsworth, Clyfton and Robinson took an active part. The subjects of debate at that period are not yet settled. Calvinism and pædo-baptism, as well as their antagonist systems, still continue, and the controversy on both sides probably will not be terminated till the clearer light of heaven shall reveal the truth, and the respective parties, though holding these dissimilar views, shall be placed together in regions where no prejudice shall becloud the understanding, nor sin alienate the affections.
It is a rather singular fact, that zealous as were Mr. Smyth and his friends for believers’ baptism, and earnest as were their opponents in behalf of infant baptism, the question of the mode of baptism was never mooted by either party. Immersion baptism does not appear to have been practised or pleaded for by either Smyth or Hellwisse, the alleged founders of the general Baptist denomination in England. Nothing appears in their controversial writings to warrant the supposition that they regarded immersion as the proper and only mode of administering that ordinance. Incidental allusions there are, in their own works and in the replies of Robinson, that the baptism which Mr. Smyth performed on himself must have been rather by affusion or pouring. Nor is this supposition improbable, from the fact that the Dutch Baptists, by whom they were surrounded, uniformly administered baptism by affusion.
It is asserted plainly and unequivocally by the Baptist historians, Crosby, Ivimey, and Adam Taylor, as also by Hanbury, Brook, and other writers among the Independents, that Smyth and others were immersed; but sufficient grounds for believing that such was the fact do not appear.
Before we proceed to the third division that took place, it seems desirable to give a brief account of the Reverend
the colleague of Mr. Johnson, and teacher of the church. He was one of the most learned and accomplished of the Puritans. Of his early history nothing is known. Persecution drove him into exile about 1593. He probably accompanied Mr. Johnson and his friends to Holland, but remained himself at Amsterdam, while Mr. Johnson proceeded to Middleburg, as the minister of the English church in that town. He resolved on obtaining a livelihood in any way that Providence might direct. He became a porter in a bookseller's shop, where his taste and learning were soon discovered by his employer. It would be interesting to know whether he pursued his ministry while thus engaged in his secular calling, and was at this time collecting a congregation over which Mr. Johnson and himself should hereafter preside. But history is at fault on this point. Conjecture only can surmise. His position as teacher only, and not pastor in the church, would afford him the opportunity of engaging in other employments than those of the ministry. He pursued his studies, and composed many of his works, while united with Mr. Johnson in the ministration of the church. A man of large heart and loving spirit, as well as erudite and accomplished, he must have been a blessing to the people; his soul must have been riven with distress, when he witnessed the contentions among the brethren, and especially when the providence of God seemed to necessitate his own separation from the Christian society of his friends. His works are numerous. Controversial and Biblical Divinity compose the bulk of his treatises. His Annotations on the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the Songs of Solomon, are generally known and deservedly esteemed. His treatise on the “Communion of Saints,” is an admirable performance, and discovers his Christian spirit, and his intimate acquaintance with the sacred oracles.
It was the intention of the “Wycliffe Society,” had it continued in existence, to have reprinted the principal devotional and practical works of Ainsworth. But the enterprise failing, no other parties have been induced to take the responsibility of publishing them.*
On the removal of Mr. Robinson and his friends to Leyden, and shortly after the retirement of Mr. Smyth and his party to another part of Amsterdam, a difference of opinion arose between Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ainsworth, respecting the eldership and church power, and the true interpretation of Matt. xviii. 17, respecting excommunication. Mr. Johnson would restrict church power to the elders and officers, while Mr. Ainsworth, like his friend Robinson and all true Separatists, considered it as belonging to the whole society. The subject was discussed in the meetings of the church, parties were ranged on each side of the question, angry feeling arose, and the Johnsonians were disposed to exclude from fellowship all such as would not concur in the opinion of their pastor.
So hopeless did reconciliation appear among themselves, that Mr. Ainsworth desired the counsel and advice of the church at Leyden, and wished that a deputation might be sent. The majority, with Mr. Johnson, objected on various grounds to such a deputation; especially, as deeming themselves competent to settle their own differences.
Mr. Ainsworth, however, forwarded a letter to Leyden, signed by thirty of the members, in treating that Mr. Robinson and some messengers from the church might be sent to hear the statements of both parties, and to advise accordingly. The messengers came: various propositions were considered; one, that the respective parties should continue and worship together, the objectors having given in their protestation against the practice adopted by Mr. Johnson and his friends; another, that the parties objecting might continue to hear at Amsterdam, but should unite with the church at Leyden, that church adopting the principle contended for by Mr. Ainsworth; a third and middle course, by way of compromise, as proposed by Mr. Robinson, that all the business of the church should be first considered and resolved on by the pastors and elders privately, and then submitted to the church for confirmation only. None of these proposals gave satisfaction, especially as the Johnson party were urgent that the objectors should remove out of the city. The subject having been under discussion twelve months, and no hope of agreement appearing probable, Mr. Ainsworth and his adherents withdrew from the church, December 15th and 16th, 1610, and formed a separate society. The two congregations were severally designated by their common enemies, Franciscan Brownists, and Ainsworthian Brownists, according to the names of their respective leaders.*
The Rev. Richard Clyfton, who had gone over to Holland, between the times that Smyth and Robinson severally exiled themselves, and who had been associated with both in the Separatist church in the Midland Countries, was at this period in connexion with the Amsterdam church. He took a decided part against Smyth in reference to his baptismal views, and wrote extensively and vigorously on the subject, in his “Plea for Infants and Elder people, concerning their Baptism,” 1610.
He also coincided in Johnson's views respecting church power, and, on the retirement of Ainsworth, became associated with Johnson in the pastorship of the church.
“He was a grave and fatherly old man when he came first into Holland, having a great white beard: and pity it was that such a reverend old man should be forced to leave his country, and at those years to go into exile. But it was his lot, and he bore it patiently. Much good had he done in the country where he lived, and converted many to God by his faithful and painful ministry, both in preaching and catechising. Sound and orthodox he always was, and so continued to his end.”†
Differences again arose in the church over which Johnson and himself presided, after the retirement of Mr. Ainsworth. Lawne and his party having been cut off for their impieties, they published their “Profane Schism of the Brownists,” &c., and “Brownisme turned the Inside Outward,” &c., and to which Mr. Clyfton replied in his “Advertisement concerning a Book lately published by Christopher Lawne and others,” 1612. To which work, in consequence of its allusions to Ainsworth's proceedings, Mr. Ainsworth replied in his “Admonition.”
He continued his ministerial service till death summoned him to rest.
Mr. Johnson removed after a few years with a portion of his church to Embden; he subsequently returned to Amsterdam, where he died.
Mr. Ainsworth continued in the pastorate over his flock, to which it is probable after the retirement of Johnson and death of Clyfton, the original church united itself, for 13 years; he died suddenly, in 1623, not without suspicion of having been poisoned through the coveteousness or malignity of a Jew in the city. He was succeeded by Mr. Canne, who went out from England in 1624, and jointly, as some suppose, with Mr. de Lescluse presided over the church: while others conjecture, that the church was again divided, and that they became pastors respectively of the churches thus formed into two Christian societies.*
The Church at Leyden.
Mr. Robinson removed with his friends to Leyden in 1609, and formed their church, as soon as they could assemble for worship, in that celebrated city. The numbers were at first comparatively small, but were gradually augmented by exiles from England and other parts of the United Provinces, till it was nearly as large as the mother church at Amsterdam, in its most palmy state. The pastor, with the elder, Mr. Brewster, and the church, appeared to live in peace and harmony. They were frequently consulted by the church at Amsterdam, on occasion of the differences between Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ainsworth.
A letter from the church at Amsterdam to that at Leyden, on the subject of the differences, with Mr. Robinson's reply in behalf of his church, and the rejoinder, are preserved in Clyfton's “Advertisement,” and are reprinted in the following pages:—
“Letter from the Church at Amsterdam to that of Leyden.
“Beloved, touching the things that have now lately been spoken of between the two churches, yours and ours, about the dismission of such, on either part, as are not content with protestation, peaceably to walk in their difference of judgment, we have occasion to entreat the continuance of your consideration yet further thereabout. 1st, Because yourselves signified it came suddenly upon your church: and if either you or we minded otherwise by the Word of God, we should after signify it: wherefore we expect to hear, whether you continue likeminded as heretofore. 2nd, Because there is with us a new motion of our walking together thus, by bearing one with another, so as for peace, to permit of a double practice among us, that those that are minded either way should keep a like course together, as we would do if we were asunder, according as the persons shall be that have the causes. Which way, if it may be found warrantable by the Word of God, and peaceable unto and among ourselves, we hope all that love peace in holiness will accord. These things as we are to consider of, so pray we you to do the like with us and for us, that we may do that which is most to God's glory and our mutual comfort. Thus, &c.
November 5, old, style, 1610.”
“Reply of the Church at Leyden to that of Amsterdam.
“Touching the agreement, brethren, between the churches for our mutual peace and the relief of the consciences of our brethren, we did and do repute the same as full and absolute on both sides, except either some better course can be thought on, or this manifested to be evil, and that it be reversed, with the mutual consent of both churches. And for this last motion about a double practice, as we are glad of the great and godly desire to continue together, in it manifested, so we do not see, how it can stand either with our peace or itself: but that it will not only nourish, but even necessarily beget endless contentions, when men diversly minded shall have business in the church. If therefore it would please the Lord so far to enlarge your hearts on both sides, brethren, as that this middle way be held, namely, that the matter of offence might first be brought for order, preparation, and prevention of unnecessary trouble, unto the elders, as the church governors (though it is like we for our parts shall not so practise in this particular); and after, if things be not there ended, to the church of elders and brethren, there to be judged on some ordinary known day ordinarily, the admonition being carried according to the alteration practised and agreed upon by all parts, till it shall please the God of wisdom and Father of lights, by the further consideration and parties discussing of things, either in word or writing, to manifest otherwise for our joint accord: it would surely make much to the glory of God and the stopping of their mouths, which are so wide opened upon us in respect of our daily dissipations, and should be to us matter of great rejoicing, whose souls do long after peace and abhor the contrary; and that thus, walking in peace and holiness, we might all beg at God's hands the healing and pardon of all our infirmities, and so be ready to heal and forgive the infirmities of one another in love. And with this prayer unto God for you and for ourselves, we re-salute you in the Lord Jesus.
November 14, 1610.”
“Reply of the Church of Amsterdam to that of Leyden.
“Your letter, brethren, we received and read publicly. Concerning which we have occasion to signify some things unto you thereabout. And first touching the agreement treated of between us, that for such of us as will not come thither to remain with you, but purpose still to live here, in this city, apart from us: albeit there be some that could be content, notwithstanding, so to dismiss them, yet there are others of us, that having more considered of it, think it not lawful to have any hand in consenting thereunto, and mean therefore to reverse our former agreement unto it; besides that divers of us say, they never consented hereunto. And, further, some of us also begin to think that it will be found unlawful to keep spiritual communion with them in such estate, however we may still retain with them civil society.
“The reasons minded, why not so to dismiss them, nor to have spiritual fellowship with them in such estate and walking are these:—
“Thus we thought to acquaint you with these things and the reasons thereabout. Which yet are so minded of us, as if either among ourselves or by others, we shall hereafter better discern what is according to the will of God herein, we shall, God willing, be ready so to receive and walk.
“As touching the double practice, misliked by you, although indeed it may seem somewhat strange and difficult, yet for the present, some of us could like better of it, than of a parting: but the brethren differing from us will not admit of it. Neither will they yield to that middle course propounded in your letter. Yet have we left it, with the former things, to their further consideration. And howsoever it pleaseth the Lord to dispose of us, our trust is, that he will work all in the end to the furtherance of his truth and peace of his church in Christ Jesus. To whose gracious protection and guidance we commend you, &c.
November 19, 1610.”*
Some misapprehension having arisen as to the course pursued and advice given, by Mr. Robinson and the messengers sent from Leyden to Amsterdam, they, at the request of Mr. Ainsworth, published the following document:—
“The Testimony of the Elders of the Church at Leyden.
“Though we much rather desired to have been mediators of the peace of our brethren, than witnesses of their strife, yet may we not, because that which we desired could not be effected by us, withdraw from that, which both may, and ought by us to be done. We, therefore, being desired thereunto by Mr. Ainsworth, and occasioned by that which both Mr. Johnson and he have written, and taking the evils which have befallen others, as matter both of humbling and warning to ourselves, do signify what we know and have found in our dealings thereabout.
“And First. Our special calling to intermeddle in this uncomfortable business, was a letter sent unto us by some thirty of the brethren there; in which, mentioning in the beginning of it, their long and grievous controversy, they signified how they had oft desired of the church to request our help therein, and that the elders would no way approve thereof, but would only permit our coming, either of ourselves, or at their request. Wherein they also certified us, how some of them had charged the exposition of these words, “Tell the Church,” Matt. xviii. 17, Tell the Elders, with some other particulars thereupon depending, to be error; and so were to prove their charge; and therefore earnestly requested us to help in that great business; that the truth might be maintained, and not by their weakness injured, and the innocent condemned; and that we would help the Lord against the mighty, &c.
“And the reason why they thus earnestly requested our help was, because Mr. Ainsworth. was so sparing in opposing of Mr. Johnson's new doctrine (though always misliking it), as they scarce knew how he was minded in the things; so loth was he to come to any professed and public opposition with him, whom he rather hoped to pacify by moderation, than by opposition to stop in his intended course. Besides, he was careful not to give any encouragement to the too violent oppositions of some brethren, though minded as they were, in the things themselves.
“This their letter, and earnest request in it, notwithstanding, we went not, but wrote to the church, and showed them what the substance of the letter was, desiring by them to be informed how things stood with them, and signifying withal, our unwillingness to interpose, but upon a due and necessary calling, and that, also as much as might be under the conditions of best hope of good issue.
“They, as before, denied to approve of our coming, and would only permit it, and that under the terms of jealousy and advantage, as appears by that which themselves have published; and did oft and earnestly require of us a copy of the letter before mentioned, with the names of the persons subscribed unto it; which though we judged, and still do, an hard and extreme imposition in itself, considering they themselves had permitted them to send unto us, and knew from us whereabout they wrote, and had not laid it upon them to show them their letter before they sent it; yet had we given way to their desires herein, had it not been for one phrase in the end of the letter, which being borrowed from Deborah's speech against Sisera, Judges v. 33, and applied as it was, might give offence, and minister occasion of further strife, which phrase also we reproved in the writers of the letter, and they acknowledged amiss; professing, notwithstanding, they had no evil meaning in it, but only a desire to provoke us the more effectually to supply their inability against those with whom they had to deal. Now, for our withholding the copy of the letter, though since that time, for their importunity we sent it them, as also for our purpose of coming unto them, and the ends thereof, we will here insert what we wrote unto them in two several letters thereabout.
“For the former thus:—‘If the letter whereof you desire a copy, might further your common peace, or procure good to any, we should easily answer your desire; but if, on the contrary, there were the least evil in it, we should hold it our duties to deal with the parties offending ourselves, and not to discover their sin.’ And loth would we be either to minister matter of further scanning amongst you, or that any register of unkindness should come unto you from our hands. And the fear of this was in truth the only cause why we refused to send this letter, as they required. Wherein if we failed, as we see no cause so to think, yet was it the error of our love, and great desire of their peace.
“About our coming we thus wrote:—‘Our purpose therefore is, according to the request of the brethren which have moved us, and our duty, to send or come unto you’; not to oppose any person, or to maintain any charge of error, but by all other brotherly means to help forward your holy peace (if so the Lord's will be); which how precious it is unto us, we hope to manifest to the consciences of all men; than which we know nothing in this world we have more cause to endeavour, both with God and yourselves. Of which our coming we pray you to accept, and to appoint us some such time, as seems to you most convenient. Where also we shall satisfy you to the utmost, both touching the letter, and other particulars in all equity, yea, so far as we can without apparent sin.’
“These things, notwithstanding they would not approve, but only permit of our coming, as men use to permit of that which is evil, and which indeed they could not hinder. And so we came unto them; first of ourselves, and afterwards at the request of Mr. Ainsworth, and them with him, being sent by the church, whereof we are: and so enforcing ourselves upon them, for the delivering of the church's message, did reprove what we judged evil in them, and that, we confess, with some vehemency. And in that regard it was, that (upon the motion made by Mr. Johnson for the free dismission of such members with them, unto us, as could not there walk with peace of conscience, there lying no other cause against them, which should also be mutually performed on our part) we signified, as he writeth, that ‘we little thought they had been so inclinable to peace, and that if we had so thought, we would have carried ourselves otherwise towards them, than we did.’ And good cause had we so to speak. For neither is the same carriage to be used towards men prosecuting their purposes and persuasions with all violence and extremity, and towards them which manifest Christian moderation in the same; neither had we before, or have we since found the like peaceable inclination in them, to that which they then manifested. Which how great grief it hath been unto us, and how it hath even wounded our very hearts, He only knoweth which seeth the sorrows of the hearts of his servants, and putteth their tears in his bottle.
“But to pass by these things, and to proceed. The motion made by Mr. Johnson for a peaceable dismission, was by the church there received with general assent, unto which the church also at Leyden condescended; and so sent hack the officers for the further ratification of it, and for some other purposes tending to the establishing of peace amongst them. Whereupon it was also the second time by them confirmed, always indeed with submission to the Word of God, as was meet; and that if either they or we minded otherwise, we should so signify. Which notwithstanding they did not; but reversed the agreement of themselves, without acquainting us with the change of their mind or reasons thereof.
“Afterwards, indeed, they gave us knowledge of their purpose, as appears in their former letter by themselves published, desiring the continuance of our consideration about it, as if the thing which was fully agreed upon, as is aforesaid, and that oftener than once, had been only in consideration; and in their second letter, as also appeareth, they gave us certain reasons of their dislike.
“Unto which reasons of theirs we gave no answer (as they both write) before their parting. And the causes were: 1. For that they continued not long together after they came to our hands. 2. We had upon occasion of the motion made for a double practice, propounded another course, both more fit and warrantable, as we thought, than that, for the bringing of things first to the elders, as appears in our letter. Unto which course, though we do not bind our brethren, yet may we safely say, so far as we remember, that there never came complaint of sin to the church since we were officers, but we took knowledge of it before, either by mutual consent on both sides, or at least, by the party accused; with whose Christian modesty and wisdom we think it well sorteth, that being condemned by two or three brethren, he should not trouble the church, or hazard a public rebuke upon himself, without counselling with them who are set over him, and who either are, or should be best able to advise him.
“Thirdly, and which was the chief cause, we were without all hope of doing good, when they once misliked the motion which made it. Whilst they liked it, we had hope, though it were with hard measure to the other, and so did further it, to the utmost of our power; but when they laid it down, we knew all our labour would be lost in endeavouring their second liking of it.
“Lastly, where Mr. Johnson affirmeth, that at the first treating of the matter, we conceived that those by them dismissed should remain at Leyden with us, notwithstanding their want of means of living, it may well be, as he saith, though we well remember it not. And therein all men may see how we were even overcarried with a vehement desire of peace with them, and amongst themselves, and how far we were from being partial towards them with whom we agreed in the things in controversy. Yea, the truth is, we were boldest with them, both because we would prevent all jealousy in the other, and preserve in them all the interest we could for the common peace; and also because we were well assured of Mr. Ainsworth's great moderation, upon whom the rest did much depend.
But howsoever we conceived at the first, it is certain that both they and we conceived otherwise in the agreement; and, therefore, when one amongst them made exception, that we should not dismiss them back, which came unto us, to live a distinct congregation in the same city with them, it was presently answered, both by Mr. Johnson and Mr. Studley, that, that concerned not them, but that they would leave it unto us; though that appeared afterwards to be the only thing for which they broke off their purpose and promise. And here the work of God's providence is to be observed, that they who would have no peace with their brethren, abiding in the same city with them, are about to leave it themselves, and to settle their abode elsewhere. Which thing, that it might well come to pass in short time, they were by us put in mind of beforehand, if God gave them not again to re-unite, which by a peaceable parting, might have been furthered. Which how much better had it been they had admitted of, all things considered, than through extreme straitness in themselves (not to meddle with the main cause) thus to have made their brethren their adversaries, and themselves, yea, and us all, a by-word to the whole world.
“William Brewster .”*
Mr. Johnson having written “An Answer touching the Division,” &c. containing an animadversion on a passage in Mr. Robinson's reply to Bernard,† respecting church authority, which was so strongly debated at that time, Mr. Ainsworth called Mr. Robinson's special attention to it, and desired him to answer it.
“Mr. Robinson's Answer.
“Because Mr. Johnson hath in his ‘Answer touching the Division,’‡ expressly taxed my book against Mr. Bernard, I think it meet to insert a brief answer to his exceptions, as followeth.’ He there writeth thus—
“‘Whereas we had learned and professed that Christ was the only king and lord of his church, and had left unto it among men, but a ministerial government, and that all the multitude of the members, the saints ought to obey, and submit to the eldership in every church. Now we have lately been taught, that the people as kings have power one over another, and that the saints being kings are superior to their officers, because the order of kings is the highest order in the church, &c. Also, that the church may in relation to the officers being servants therein, be called a lord, &c.;’ and for this he quoteth my book, adding that I ‘ advance the people one above another as kings, entitle them with kingly and lordly power in the outward policy and affairs of the church, by which as the prelates on the one hand, so the people on the other hand become idols.’
“Acknowledging the former and latter part of that, he saith we have formerly professed, I except against the middle clause of the sentence, in sundry respects. First, in that he draws the question, which is about the power of Christ in the church, common to all, to the government and guidance of the church in the use of this power, which is peculiar to the officers; which may also more clearly appear to him that reads the places he quotes in the margin, wherein he concludeth, though more covertly, a double untruth; the one, that, because the government of the officers is only ministerial and not kingly, therefore there is no kingly power left unto the church, or communicated with the saints for the suppressing of sin: the other that, because the officers are the only governors of the church, and so by us acknowledged, therefore they only have the power of Christ. And thus he would closely wrap up the church's power in the officers’ government, and not be seen in it. For the clearing then of the difference between government and power, it must be considered, that by government may either be understood the whole dispensation of Christ's kingly office, whether inward or outward, whether by himself or by others; and so this power we speak of is comprehended under it as a part thereof. Or, it is taken more strictly for the guidance and ordering of the church in her public affairs, and the administration and execution of them; and so it appertaineth to the officers, and is clean another thing than the power in question. For the proving of this difference, the apostle Paul writes to the whole Church of Corinth to excommunicate the incestuous man, by the power of the Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Cor. v. 4, 5. This power he would have the whole church to use, but yet would not have the whole church to become governors, nor to take upon them government, but the officers only; by which it appeareth that government and power are diverse things. I do further add, what if the whole eldership should be charged by two or three witnesses, with heresy, blasphemy, or the like crime, and complaint thereof be made to the church? Mr. Johnson, in this his Answer,* confesseth that the church (he would be asked whether women and children or no) may depose all her officers jointly, persisting in transgression, though in the same place he mince the matter too small, in saying they may depose, or refuse them, and separate from them; and again, refuse them. Whereas to depose, and to separate from, or refuse, are very diverse; for first to separate from the eldership requires no power, but liberty, and therefore may be done by one man or woman, upon just occasion: so cannot deposition be upon any occasion, but by the church; for which deposition of all the officers of the kingdom of Christ, the church, a man would think the power of Christ were needful, and that by it such a judgment should pass out. Besides, the church in deposing her officers, doth not separate herself from them (to speak properly), but them from her. Well, to take the least liberty he will give the people. If they may separate from all their officers, persisting in transgression, then they must receive the complaint of sin, which is orderly brought, and by sufficient witnesses, against them, and must examine and judge the matter. Now, if it argue power to receive a complaint of sin against one brother, and to examine and judge it, and so to censure him by excommunication, if there be cause; doth it not also argue power to receive a complaint of sin against all the officers, to examine and judge it, and so to censure them, as there is cause, by deposition? But what now shall the elders do accounting themselves innocent, and wrongfully accused, whilst the church thus examineth things, and judgeth of them? Shall they surcease their government, and fail the church in so great a need? and would Mr. Johnson so practise? or are they not now to do a special work of their government, not only in preserving order, but in directing, instructing, and guiding the church by the Word of God in her whole proceedings? By which it appeareth, that judging of sin, and power to suppress it, is one thing; and government for the right use and ordering of the same, another thing. The officers which are judged do govern, and the body of the church which judgeth them, is governed by them. We may yet further see this difference even in the lordly governments of this world, and that both in peace and war.
“In the civil government of our own land, than the which none in the world, in the right use of it, is more excellent when a malefactor comes to be arraigned at the assizes or sessions, he is to be tried by his country (a competent company, where all cannot possibly pass upon him), which they call the jury, whose power and sentence is of such force, as that the lord chief justice himself, and all the bench with him, cannot proceed against it, either for the quitting or condemning of the person; and yet the bench governeth the whole action, and the jury is by them, according to law, to be governed. I wish the elders with whom we have to do would allow the body of the church the like liberty at their sitting, as they call it, that is, at their spiritual sessions; or rather, that they would better consider that they are as ministers to stand and serve, and not as lords, to sit and judge. Numb. xvi. 9; 2 Chron. xxxv. 3; 2 Cor. iv. 5.
“Lastly, when an army is sent against the king's and their own enemies, the government is in the captains and officers, but so is not all the power for fighting with, and subduing of their, and their king's, enemies. Neither is all the power of the church, which is an army with banners, in the officers alone, for the subduing of Christ's and their enemies, sin and Satan, though the government be. Thus may the difference plainly be seen betwixt power and government; in the opening of which I have been the longer,* because, 1. I think it a main ground of our controversy. 2. Our opposites do much insult over us, as speaking contradictions, when we yield the officers all the government, and yet deny them all the power. 3. The weaker sort are much misled, and carried away through want of discerning this difference.
“I proceed to a second thing, and affirm that Christ hath not left to the church among men only a ministerial power (which he confusedly calleth government), as he saith. He hath left the Word of God, and gospel in the church, which is lively, and mighty in operation, piercing even to the dividing asunder of the soul and spirit, &c., Heb. iv. 12; 2 Cor. x. 4, 5, ruling, and reigning in and over the very hearts and lives of men; binding their consciences, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. I know men can only minister this power, whether in doctrine or discipline, as they speak; but it is one thing to say the power is only ministerial, and another thing, that men can only minister it; for men may be the ministers only of that power which is kingly and lordly in itself, and so over men, as this is. So the saints can only minister their kingly power, by participation of Christ's anointing, as one special grace they have received; of which more hereafter.
“Now in laying down the things wherewith he chargeth me, he alters my words, misinterprets my meaning, and conceals that which I have written; and he read in my book for the explaining of the same.
“And first he saith, I have taught that the people are as kings one over another; that I advance them one over another as kings, and above their governors, entitling them with kingly and lordly power (that is government, as he explains himself) in the outward policy of the church.
“I do not in these places, or any other, advance the people one over another, much less over their officers, in the outward policy of the church, that is, as he explains his meaning, in the government of it. I do everywhere profess the officers the governors, and the people the governed by them.
“Neither do I anywhere affirm that the people are kings, or as kings one over another, as he chargeth me. I say in one place,* that the saints are not kings for themselves alone, but for their brethren also; as they are not priests only for themselves, but for their brethren. And in another place,† that every one of the faithful is a king, not only to himself, but to every other member, as he is a priest, and a prophet, &c. Here is a king one for another, and one to another, but not one over another, much less over the officers, for government, in the external policy of the church. The plain and simple truth then, is, whatsoever men either mistake of ignorance, or suggest of an evil mind, that we do not call the saints kings in respect of outward order and government, as though they were to order and govern the church in her public affairs, which is the work of the officers; hut as they are partakers of Christ's kingly anointing, by his Spirit, common to the head and the members’, and so kings by participation, and endowed with kingly power for the conquering and subduing of the power of sin and Satan, not only in themselves, but in their brethren also, by the sword of the Spirit, the Word of God, which they are to minister unto them, as all other graces in their order.
“And this meaning being held, it may safely be taught that they are over one another, that is, to watch one over another, and so as kings to conquer their spiritual enemies, one in another mutually. But I will rather insist upon mine own words, “for or to one another,” as being most fit to show that communion of the saints in this grace, as in the rest, which he also in all equity should have done. And thus I will prove this royal communion of the saints. And for them that make themselves merry herewith, let them suffer me to speak, and when I have spoken, let them mock on. Job xxi. 3.
“And first, it must be observed, that the place and scriptures which Mr. Johnson notes in our Confession, to prove Christ the only king of his church, prove him as well, and that truly, to be the only priest and prophet of his church. And if notwithstanding his sole prophecy and priesthood peculiar to him, as the head, the saints may be prophets and priests as members, by communication, they may also be kings by communication, notwithstanding his peculiar imperial power. And so the Scriptures testify that he hath made us kings and priests unto God, even his Father, and so our Father. Rev. i. 6; and v. 10.
“But it will be answered, that Christ hath made us kings to resist, subdue, and conquer our spiritual enemies, sin, Satan, this world, and our worldly lusts, by the sword of the Spirit, the Word of God, and the work of the Spirit, in and by the same. Eph. vi. 11, 17. I grant it, and thereupon conclude, that since God's people are also by the same weapons and means to resist and subdue the power of sin in their brethren, they are also kings in the same respect unto them.
“The saints are Christians, Acts xi. 26; Rom. xiv. 4, 5; 1 Cor. xii. 27, and that for, and in respect one of another, as members under Christ, one of another, and therefore kings. For to be a Christian for another, is nothing else but by participation of Christ's anointing, to be a priest, prophet, and king for another. Add unto this, that whatsoever grace any member of the body hath received, it is for the use and edification of the rest, and so in order to be administered by him as a good disposer of the grace of. God. 1 Pet. iv. 10. And must this royal grace then, which the saints have received, find no time nor place for the dispensation, of it unto others?
“When a brother comes to subdue, and make conquest of some spiritual enemy, or sin, appearing in his brother, either privately or publicly, in his place and order, he doth this as a fellow-member and Christian, and so by one of his three states and endowments, of priest, prophet, or king (for he hath no office wherein he administereth); but by neither of the two former, therefore by the latter, and as a king, and so made by Christ.
“Lastly, the people are, by Mr. Johnson's own grant, to choose their officers, as also upon just occasion to depose them. And this, as the former, they do, not as priests or prophets, and therefore by their kingly endowment from and under Christ.
“And thus much to prove the saints in their communion (as priests to offer up the prayers one of another, and prophets to instruct one another, so also) partakers of the kingly dignity of Christ, as his members, for the suppressing and conquering of sin, appearing one in another, in that order which Christ hath left. And where do I in all this, as is imputed to me, advance the people, as others do the prelates, and make them idols? Do I give them power to prescribe and appoint other forms of God's worship, offices of ministry, canons, ceremonies, or holy days, than Christ hath prescribed and appointed? to bind the con-science, by urging subscription ex animo, to their own inventions, or to loose conscience, by dispensations to sin, as of pluralities, non-residences, and the like? or that one man should set up and pull down ministers, and excommunicate and absolve both ministers and people by his sole authority? If another man should thus have charged Mr. Johnson, when he maintained the same liberty of the brethren, if not greater, which I now do, though it may be not under the same terms, he would have pronounced it blasphemy in him. But passing by his terms of provocation and reproach, I come to another exception; which is, that I make the order of saints superior unto the order of officers; to wit, in itself, as I there explain my meaning, and not in respect of government, as he traduceth me. I know that he which guideth, ordereth, and directeth another, is in that his art and work, superior unto him that is so guided, ordered, and directed. So is the pilot in guiding the ship, superior and above all the passengers in it, though the king and his council. So is the physician, in ordering the king's body; as is also the meanest guide in leading and directing him, and his army royal, in unknown places. So are the officers superior to the church in their art, or work of government, which is the opening and applying of the Scriptures to the use and direction of the church; but as this is done by them, in an order of service, and not of lordship, so I judge, and call them inferior. And so in my book, I make them equal in their persons, as saints, superior in the word they minister, and in the place of God; not so in their order of servants, wherein they minister, but inferior.*
“My reasons there brought to prove mine affirmation, because he here meddles not with, I also forbear in this place to confirm; only a few words of one of them, upon which the next and last exception dependeth. Which is, that the order of church officers is inferior to the order of the saints, because their order is an order of service, 2 Chron. xxxv. 3; Numb. xvi. 9; Ezek. xliv. 11; 2 Cor. iv. 5, and servants unto the saints of the church. I know kings may be said to serve their people, and so to become their servants; but this is only in respect of their love towards them, and care for them; but not in respect of their order, which is a lordship and kingship, by which they reign over their people, as their servants and subjects. The like may be said of Christ himself, as that he served his disciples, and became as a servant, &c. And for that it must be considered, that as in the things wherein he did thus serve, and become as a servant, he did in his love make himself inferior to his disciples, and preferred them before himself; as in giving his life a ransom for many, Matt xx. 28; in being as he that serveth at the table whereat his disciples sat, Luke xxii. 27, in which respect he expressly teacheth them to be greater than himself; and in washing their feet as they sat at supper, John xiii. 4, 5; so was not his order an order of service in itself, but of headship and kingship, which if our church officers could prove their order to be, we would then acknowledge it indeed superior to the order of saints. But their order being merely an order of servants, methinks common sense should serve to judge the same inferior to the order of the church, whose servants under Christ they are.
“I add in my book,* that the officers being by their order servants, the church may, in that relation, be called a lord; not for the governing of them in the outward policy and affairs in the church, as he injuriously collects, but as they are for the church's use and service, which he conceals, though I expressly so note in the same place; as also that the same church servants are church governors; the government of the church being a mere service. And for the thing. If the officers be to be called servants to the church, what is the church to be called to the officers? A servant is a relative, and must have a correlative; and I would know by what name he would call it, if not by the name of lord, master, mistress, or the like. And if he deny this, he takes away from men the use of common reason and understanding. Let the servants know, yea, though stewards, as are the church officers, and so betrusted with the government in a special manner, that the wife of their lord and master is a degree above them, and so to be acknowledged by them, lest they not only wrong her, but provoke him to wrath.
“Lastly, because he imputes new doctrine to me, I will note down the doctrine of some few others, both more ancient and more worthy of respect than myself.
“Musculus, in his Commentaries upon 1 Cor.iii. 22–24, ‘Let no man glory in men, for all are yours,’ &c., saith thus: ‘Is it not absurd that the greater, to wit, the church, should glory in the less,† to wit, the officers; the lord or master in the servant?’* And in this sense, saith he further,’ The perverseness of the false apostles is noted, who when they were servants of the church, did make of a mistress,† or dame, a servant, and of servants, lords. And again, the foolishness of the church is taxed, who when they were lords‡ of their ministers, glowed in their servants.’
“Bullinger, upon the same place, ver. 21, saith thus: ‘ So great is the dignity of them that believe, that God hath subjected all things unto them. It is therefore great folly if the lord§ of things subject himself to the things,’ &c.
“Pareus, Professor, of Heidelberg, in his Commentaries upon the same scripture, reproving the church's glorying in Paul, Cephas, &c., and quoting 2 Cor. iv. 5, ‘We preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, and ourselves your servants, for Jesus sake,’ saith thus: ‘ It is not meet that the lord should glory in his servant; we are your servants, therefore,’ &c.‖
“All these, and many more call the church expressly a lord, in the very same relation with me; and yet I suppose, never man challenged them for making an idol of it, or setting up a lordly government; neither would Mr. Johnson me, had he not been immoderately jealous for the officers’ dignity.
“John Robinson. ”¶
The Leyden church continued in unbroken fellowship,. till the embarkation of the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620. The numbers continued to diminish by successive emigrations and removals. The few members who survived the death of Mr. Robinson in 1625, found their way across the Atlantic, and thus the church at Leyden became extinct, only to arise in greater vigour and power on the distant shores of the new-found world.
The Church Principles and Regulations of the Exiled Churches.
As a defined and invariable form, of church order is not exhibited or enjoined in the New Testament, it would be interesting to learn how Congregationalism first developed itself in the religious services of the exiles and pilgrims. Happily we are at no loss on this subject Clyfton, Bradford, Robinson, and Prince have furnished information respecting the principles and forms of worship adopted by the churches at Amsterdam, at Leyden, and by the first Congregational church in Plymouth, New England.
The venerable Mr. Clyfton, colleague of Mr. Johnson in the pastorship of the church at Amsterdam, thus describes the order of their worship:—
To this order of their service may be appended Bradford's Enumeration of Church Officers, as given in his Dialogues.†
“Truly there were in them (the churches at Amsterdam and Leyden) many worthy men; and if you had seen them in their beauty and order, as we have done, you would have been much affected therewith, we dare say. At Amsterdam, before their division and breach, they were about three hundred communicants; and they had for their pastor and teacher those two eminent men before named (Johnson and Ainsworth); and, in our time, four grave men for ruling elders, and three able and godly men for deacons, and one ancient widow for a deaconness, who did them service many years, though she was sixty years of age when she was chosen. She honoured her place, and was an ornament to the congregation. She usually sat in a convenient place in the congregation, with a little birchen rod in her hand, and kept little children in great awe from disturbing the congregation. She did frequently visit the sick and weak, and especially women; and, as there was need, called out maids and young women to watch and do them other helps, as their necessities did require; and if they were poor, she would gather relief for them of those that were able, or acquaint the deacons: and she was obeyed as a mother in Israel, and an officer of Christ.”
‘This distinction of officers—pastors, teachers, ruling elders, deacons, and deaconesses—doubtless obtained, as far as practicable, in the other churches of the exiles; and is in exact accordance with Robinson's ideal of a complete church, as described in his Catechism.*
It has been seen† “that Mr. Robinson, and a considerable portion of his companions from Scrooby, removed, after a few months’ residence, from Amsterdam to Leyden, and organized themselves into a distinct society, over which he was ordained as their pastor.‡ The constitution and officers of the church would be according to the Amsterdam model, so far as circumstances would allow.
A passage from the “Dialogues” will illustrate the Order of the Leyden church:—
“And for the church at Leyden, they (the members) were sometimes not much fewer in number, nor at all inferior in able men, though they had not so many officers as the other; for they had but one ruling elder with their pastor, a man well-approved (Mr. Brewster) and of great integrity; also they had three able men for deacons. And that which was a crown to them, they lived together in love and peace all their days, without any considerable differences or any disturbance, that grew thereby, but such as was easily healed in love; and so they continued until, with mutual consent, they removed into New England. And what their condition hath been since, some of you that are of their children do see and can tell. Many worthy and able men there were in both places (Amsterdam and Leyden), who lived and died in obscurity in respect of the world, as private Christians, yet were they precious in the eyes of the Lord, and also in the eyes of such as knew them; whose virtues we wish such of you as are their children, do follow and imitate.”*
Further light is thrown on the history of the Leyden worship and order by Robinson and Brewster's Letters to Sir John Wolstenhohne, on the subject of their proposed emigration to America.
Sir John was one of the leading members of the council of the Virginia Company, and was anxious to know the religious opinions and practices of the community over whom Robinson and Brewster presided, and wherein their practices differed from those of the reformed churches in Holland, France, &c. Insinuations had been thrown out affecting their orthodoxy and loyalty, which Sir John was desirous of disproving, if possible, by statements from the ministers of the Leyden emigrants.
“TO SIR JOHN WOLSTENHOLME, —
“Right Worshipful,—With due acknowledgment of our thankfulness for your singular care and pains in the business of Virginia, for our and (we hope) the common good, we do remember our humble duties unto you, and have sent, as is desired, a further explanation of our judgments on the three points specified by some of His Majesty's honourable privy council. And although it be grievous unto us, that such unjust insinuations are made against us, yet we are most glad of the occasion of making our just purgation unto the so honourable personages. The Declarations we have sent enclosed: the one more brief and general, which we think the fitter to be presented; the other something more large, and in which we express some small accidental differences, which, if it seem good to you and other of your worship's friends, you may send instead of the former. Our prayer unto God is, that your worship may see the fruit of your worthy endeavours, which on our part we shall not fail to further by all good means. And so praying you would with all conveniency that may be, give us knowledge of the success of the business with His Majesty's Privy Council, and accordingly what your further pleasure is, either for our direction or furtherance in the same: so we rest.
January 27, 1617.
“Declaration, No. 1.
“Touching the occlesiastical ministry, namely of pastors for teaching, elders for ruling, and deacons for distributing the church's contribution, as also for the two sacraments, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, we do wholly and in all points agree with the French Reformed Churches, according to their Public Confession of Faith: though some small differences.
The Oath of Supremacy we shall willingly take, if it be required of us, if that convenient satisfaction be not given by our taking the Oath of Allegiance.
“William Brewster. ”
“Declaration, No. 2.
“Touching the ecclesiastical ministry, namely of pastors for teaching, elders for ruling, and deacons for distributing the church's contribution, as also for the two sacraments, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, we agree in all things with the French Reformed Churches, according to their Public Confession of Faith: though some small differences be to be found in our practices, not at all in the substance of the things, but only in some accidental circumstances: as,
“Other differences, worthy mentioning, we know none.
“William Brewster. ”*
The church at Leyden was the mother-church of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, New England. During the life of Mr. Robinson, and the continuance of the church at Leyden, the two societies were essentially one. The Pilgrims did not establish a new organization: they went out according to mutual agreement as an “absolute church of themselves “already constituted, being only a branch of the church still remaining in Holland. So identical were the churches, that it was agreed that such members of the already existing church as should go to America or return, should be “reputed as members, without farther dismission or testimonial,” and therefore entitled at once to take their places at the sacramental board, and to exercise their rights in the meetings of the church.
Originally one in the members of which the churches were composed, they continued to be essentially one in religious sentiment, and ecclesiastical practices.
Dr. Cheever, in his interesting work, entitled “The Pilgrim Fathers,” has given a summary of the constitutional principles of this first church of Christ, in New England, as detailed more at large by Mr. Prince in his “New England Chronology.”
A similar representation of the church order and worship of the Pilgrim Church, is given by Mr. Punchard, in his “History of Congregationalism,” from about a.d. 250 to 1616.
The following is Dr. Cheever's enumeration of the church principles and regulations of the Plymouth church, and which are substantially those of the original churches at Leyden and Amsterdam:—
“(1.) Pastors, or teaching elders, who have the power both of overseeing, teaching, administering the sacraments, and ruling too, and being chiefly to give themselves to studying, teaching, and the spiritual care of the flock, are therefore to be maintained.
“Mere ruling elders, who are to help the pastors in overseeing and ruling, that their offices be not temporary, as among the Dutch and French Churches, but continual; and being also qualified in some degree to teach, they are to teach only occasionally, through necessity, or in their pastor's absence, or illness; but being not to give themselves to study or teaching, they have no need of maintenance.
“That the elders of both sorts form the presbytery of overseers and rulers, which should be in every particular church; and are in Scripture called, sometimes presbyters, or elders; sometimes bishops, or overseers; and sometimes rulers.
“(2.) Deacons, who are to take care of the poor, and of the church's treasure; to distribute for the support of the pastor, the supply of the needy, the propagation of religion, and to minister at the Lord's table, &c.
“7. That these officers, being chosen and ordained, have no lordly, arbitrary, or imposing power, but can only rule and minister with the consent of the brethren.
“8. That no churches, or church officers whatever, have any power over any church or officers, to control or impose upon them; but are equal in their rights and privileges, and ought to be independent in the exercise and enjoyment of them.
“9. As to church administrations, they held that baptism is a seal of the covenant of grace, and should be dispensed only to visible believers, with their unadult children; and this in primitive purity, as in the times of Christ and his apostles, without the sign of the cross, or any other invented ceremony. And that the church or its officers have no authority to inflict any penalties of a temporal nature; excommunication being wholly spiritual, in a rejection of the scandalous from the communion of the church.
“10. And lastly, as for holy days. They were very strict for the observation of the Lord's-day; in a pious memory of the incarnation, birth, death, resurrection, ascension, and benefits of Christ; as also solemn fastings and thanksgiving, as the state of providence requires. But all other times not prescribed in Scripture, they utterly relinquished. And, as in general, they could not conceive anything a part of Christ's religion, which he has not required, they therefore renounced all human right of inventing, and much less of imposing it on others.”
“These,” says Mr. Prince, “were the main principles of that scriptural and religious liberty, for which this people suffered in England, fled to Holland, traversed the ocean, and sought a dangerous retreat in these remote and savage deserts of North America; that here they might fully enjoy them, and leave them to their last posterity.”*
|1. An Answer to a Censorious Epistle....||1609||iii.||395|
|2. A Justification of Separation, from the Church of England||1610||ii.||1|
|3. Letters on Christian Fellowship...||1611||iii.||81|
|4. On Religious Communion....||1614||iii.||91|
|5. The People's Plea for the Exercise, of Prophecy||1618||iii.||281|
|6. A Just and Necessary Apology...||1619||iii.||1|
|7. A Letter to the Congregational Church in London||1624||iii.||378|
|8. An Appeal on Truth's Behalf...||1624||iii.||387|
|9. On the Lawfulness of Hearing, &e....||162.4||iii.||335|
|10.A Defence of the. Doctrine propounded at the Synod of Dort....||1624||i.||261|
|11. Essays on Observations, Divine and Moral.||1624||i.||1|
|12.Catechism: An Appendix to Rev. W. Perkins Earliest Edition found....||1642||iii.||421|
INDEX OF SUBJECTS.
- Absalom, sin of, illustrative of God's decrees, i. 278–280.
- Actions, God the author of, but not of sinfulness in, i. 293: sinful, suffered, but not decreed by God, 276; lawful, become sinful by their misapplication, 295: two kinds, personal and ecclesiastical, iii. 104.
- Acts of Parliament against Nonconformists enumerated, iii. 451.
- Adam in innocence, the grace of perseverance gives an advantage over, to the godly, i. 29: fall and sin of, iii. 242: connexion between, and God's decrees, i. 27–4, 275: mysterious beyond human comprehension, proof of, 275: left to himself, God's decree, 280: grace would have preserved him, 284: the object of his creation, good only, 284: immutable in holiness, could he have been made? 285–288: sin of, illustrated by David's adultery, Joab's murder, 293: did infants sin in? 403; possessed freedom of will after his fall, iii. 245: not a private person, 246: left to himself, as all are who sin against God, 256.
- Adultery, a base sin, i. 241.
- Afflictions, their cause, i. 139: reasons why sent, 140: their connexion with the Gospel dispensation, 140: of Christians, character of, 141, 142: specific cases, caution in applying Scripture to, required, 142: sometimes the greatest happiness, 143, 144.
- Age, characterized by ignorance, contemptible, i. 253.
- Agapemone near Taunton, identical with Familists, i. 390, note.
- Ainsworth, Henry, biographical notice of, iii. 462.
- Allen, Rev. W., D.D., on Descendants of Robinson, i. lxxi.
- Ames, Dr., general biographical sketch of, iii. 84.
- Amsterdam, the Congregational Church at, notice of, iii. 339,459: its divisions, 460: controversy at, respecting Baptism, peculiar, 461: letter of, to the church at Leyden, 467: another, 468: forms of conducting public worship at, 485.
- Anger, when wrong, i. 225: identical with madness, except as it respects duration, 226: branded by God, characteristic of a fool, 227: preservatives against, 227, 228.
- Antiquity, true, i. e. the Word of God, to be followed, ii. 34.
- Appearance, that by which men judge, i. 183: a rule by which men should act, 184: of evil, to be avoided, 184: without reality, blameworthy, 185.
- Apostacy in general, i. 389: Hymeneus (1 Tim. i. 19, and 2 Tim. ii. 17), Antichrist, (1 John ii. 26, &c.), illustrations of, i. 391.
- Apostles, peculiar officers, ii. 145: commission extraordinary, 155: did not constitute the church, 200: not ordained by laying on of hands, 438.
- Apostolic succession from Rome; the Church of England, holding its ministry from Rome, inconsistent in separating from, ii. 413, 424, 430: makes the minister lord of the church, 432: consequences and absurdities of, 433: overthrows itself, 433: who ordains the pope? 434: Timothy and Titus did not succeed the apostles, 164.
- Arundel, Rev. John, Pastor of Church at Southwark, iii. 453.
- Assemblies, parish, not of God, iii. 126.
- Atheists, various kinds of, i. 68: atheism and idolatry, 68: the characters that adopt atheism, 68.
- Authority, province of, i. 53: human, of little value unless it be that of inspired men, 56, 57: that of God, how set aside, 57: civil, to be obeyed and how, ii. 17: of the magistrate, predominant in the Church of England, 39: to preach, administer sacraments, censures, discussed, 129–131: to choose deacons and elders, 153: supposed mischief of its being solely vested in the church, 211–216: opinions of reformers and others respecting, viz. of Paphuntius, Tertullian, Cyprian, Austin, Jerome, Demetrius, Peter Martyr, Bucer, Bastingius, Beza, Hooper, Fox, Cartwright and Jacob, 218–221: popular confusion alleged to be incident to, 222.
- Baptism in general, i. 415: of infants, Scripture authority for, 416; iii. 211, 216: reasons why not more plainly and expressly spoken of, 216: outward and inward; instances of the outward baptism, conferred without the inward, i. 417: proof against infant baptism refuted, 419: proof for, adduced, 420: connexion of repentance with, 421: children “clean,” a proof of, 422: into Moses, 426: of households, 427: Christ commanding infants to be brought to him, 428: infant circumcision, 430: Abrahamic covenant, 431: two seeds of Abraham, 432: new and better covenant, Abraham the father of the faithful, 440: lawful and unlawful administration of, 445: church membership not by, 447: churches not constituted by, 449: instances of, before the first Christian church was constituted, 450: extreme views of, rebuked, 451: to be administered by official persons, 452: John's extraordinary, 454: the apostolic commission not authorising non-official persons to administer, 455: an official act, 457: duty of the church when without officers, in respect to, 461–471: the design of, ii. 28: and the ministry, difference between, 415— 418: effect of, 458: administration of, to whom, iii. 17–19: that outwardly received in England lawfully retained, 164: not the mode or means of union with Christ, 166: not admission to the church, 167: self-baptism performed by Mr. Smyth at Amsterdam, deemed essential to the formation of a church and the exercise of social prayer, 168, 169: a church not constituted by, 180: re-baptism required on re-admission into the church, 180: has two parts, the sign and the thing signified, 183: the outward valid where the inward is not, 184: is in the place of circumcision, 187: Romish, 192: household, 222: the Dutch practice by affusion, i. 452: first English Baptists in Holland did not practise immersion, iii. 461.
- Barrowe, Henry. [See notice of, iii. 439.]
- Believers, all transgressions persevered in, separate from, iii. 353.
- Bishops, spoken of in Scripture as over particular churches, and not otherwise, 416: over many flocks, a device of Antichrist, 138, 139: prelatical, usurp all the rights and liberties Christ gave his church, 140: work, of, according to the New Testament, excluded by the parochial system, 142: how regarded by the Scotch, 418.
- Books, the best counsellors, because sincere and impartial, i. 96: the will of God in, the advantage of, i. 107–109: service-book, an idol, in. 132.
- Browne, Rev. Robert. [See notice of, iii. 457.]
- Catechism by Rev. J. Robinson, iii. 421: notice of by Editor, 342: titles of, 344.
- Canne, John. [See notice of, iii. 449.]
- Children, education of, i. 242: oneness of with their parents contemplated in God's covenant, 243: in charge of mothers in earlier, of fathers in riper years, 244: surrounded by dangers, 244: diseases of body, 30 those of mind hereditary, 245: love to, how shown, 246: discipline of, its kind, 246, 247: how to secure the obedience of, 247: disposition and spirit of must be discovered by parents, 248: partial affection of parents for some of, wrong, 249 : those who honour parents, promises to, 250.
- Church, two or three constitute, ii. 131–139, 439: its members must be holy, iii. 66, 126: officers of, what qualifies for, ii. 132, 146, 148: duty of, ii.. 147: a company of faithful covenanting people, form, eight reasons for, 132–136: all ministrations vested in, 137–139: popular constitution of, 139–142: ministers of, interpreters of God's laws, cannot receive civil titles, 143: eldership of, its character, 144.: testimony of Scripture concerning, 145—160: church matters may originate with private members, 148–150:. ministers of, their duty, 155: “Tell the church,” meaning of, 179: censures of, 184: order of, 186: its power of binding and loosing, 190, 201: perfect rule of discipline in, Matt. xviii.: discipline of, consistent with the power of the magistrate, 193: governors of, 195: word “church” used figuratively, 216: its duty to its officers, 224: clergy not above the condition of common Christians in, 229: its power and their exercise not identical, 235: its members have a right to judge in church matters, 235: relationship of officers and members in, 237: separation from, on what ground justified, 259: the materials of a true church, 284, 292: the question, May it, include the ungodly? examined, 321–323: false analogies and reasonings on this subject, 325–327: admission of unconverted persons into, a fatal error, 486: visible form of, 327: properties and privileges of, 358: power of excommunication in, to whom it belongs, 367: reasons for, in a true church, 368: an ordinance, like preaching the Gospel, 369: rights and powers of, enumerated, 448–450: in a false, conversion possible, 458: pre-requisites for the formation of, 473–480: no visible church, except particular congregations, 338: acts of, the brethren join equally with the officers in, 449: should not consist of more than can conveniently meet together in one place, iii. 13: universal, or catholic, true meaning of, 16: cannot be called visible, 14: discipline of, conducted not by the elders but by the body of the faithful, 37–43: not separated from the world, involves a profane error, 129: false and true, 173, 176: in what senses it may be false, 348: Christ did not gather and form a church, 487: but the apostles did, ii. 487: Dutch and French reformed, formed on the principle of separation, iii. 128.
- Church of England, a compound of error and truth, ii. 5, 6: impurity and errors of, forbidding communion with, 12: reasons why many ministers remain in, 14: testimony of various writers adduced as to her popish character, 81: bishops of, antichristian, gift of the Holy Ghost by, in ordination, 91,92: an idol, ii. 100: its constituents compared with those of Corinth, 355: popish ceremonies in, 360: nourishes thousands in dangerous errors, 471: built up by Antichristianism, 474: a popish device and inconsistent with itself, 480: overthrown by Eph. iv. 11, 12: its prelacy and priesthood usurping the office of Christ, iii. 172: history of during the reign of Mary and Elizabeth, proves it to be, not “a scriptural church, ii. 489: additions to, impossible, as the whole nation on principle belongs to it, 491: public service of, not according to Scripture, 496–499.
- Christ offered to all, meaning of, i. 340–349: care of his sheep, 382: kingdom of, spiritual, ii. 40.
- Christians should seek and enjoy church-fellowship, iii. 152.
- Communion, union with Christ essential to, ii. 266: what the apostle forbids, 345: private, iii. 104: public, 126.
- Conscience, its province, i. 193: mistakes connected with, to be corrected by the Word of God, 194: the law of God written, on, 338: its voice to be attended to, subject to God's teaching, ii. 19.
- Contempt hard to be borne, i. 169: injurious effects of, 170: manifested towards others when feeble in body or mind, is shown against God, 170: affected, unworthy, 171.
- Counsel, definition of, i. 95: motives for asking, 97.
- Covetousness (and prodigality), nature and results of, i. 132: pleas for, 134.
- Credit and good name the result of virtue, i. 165. Crosses, right use of, i. 142.
- Days, holy, not, except the Lord's-day, of divine appointment, iii. 43: Lord's-day to be sanctified, 46–54.
- Deacons, office of, false in the English Establishment, ii. 364.
- Death, in what it consists, i. 254: alters the condition of men eternally, i. 155: understood by no creature but by man, i. 256: divine appointment, 256: teaches moderation, time of uncertain; teaches watchfulness; of saints, precious, i. 256–258: of Christ, for whom, 329–334: the consequence of sin, 408.
- Decree, divine connexion with the death of Christ, i. 276.
- Deeds, good, the principle on which they should be performed, i. 19–21.
- Discretion, its importance, i. 87.
- Discipline, in the church to be conducted by ministers only, fallacious, ii. 165.
- Divorce, when lawful, i. 24.
- Ecclesiastical causes and civil matters, difference between, ii. 31.
- Effectual calling, i. 116: its privileges, 116, 117: principle of, illustrated in secular life, i. 118.
- Election, definition of, by the Synod of Dort, i. 310: definition of, on the Arminian hypothesis, incorrect, 317–328.
- Elders, duty of, ii. 178: office of, in what it consists, iii. 31: ought not to relinquish their appointment, 29, 30: are not to discharge their functions in consistory, but in the church, proof of, 34–37.
- Eloquence, in what it consists, i. 104.
- Enmity, of former friends, the greatest, i. 164.
- Envy described, i. 172–174.
- Esau and Jacob, (hated and loved,) God's decree connected with, i. 360–364.
- Establishment, errors in, ii. 272–276.
- Excommunication, meaning of in Scripture, ii. 190: power of, where vested, 195: exercised by the church, not by officers, as practised in the English Establishment; twelve reasons for, 238— 255: separation of the lepers and the unclean, not excommunication, 197.
- Faith, defined, i. 59: its origin and nature, 61: power of, known to the devil, 61, 62: God's Word its foundation, 62: shield of, necessary, 63.
- Falsehood, sinful, and from the devil, i. 75.
- Falling away, meaning of, i. 367, 368: cautions and exhortations respecting, 369.
- Familists, a mystic religious sect, i. 390. [See Agapemone.]
- Fathers of the first age of the church after Christ, preferable to all others, ii. 55.
- Fear, an Essay on, i. 221.
- Fellowship, Christian, nature and grounds of, iii. 85–89: reasons for, with persons belonging to a corrupt church, 111: not with them in their church capacity, but as individual Christians, 116: former may not be done, 117: the Jews forbidden all communion with the uncircumcised, not a valid ground for Christians, 118: rightly understood, does not confirm those who belong to a corrupt church in that relationship, 119: but only with the godly, 121: objects of prayer identical, a ground for, 122: the faith of Rome different, not a justifying faith, hence no fellowship with, 122: the danger of confusion, not a sufficient bar to, 123.
- Flattery, an Essay on, i. 178.
- Forgiveness of injuries, its importance, i. 148, 149.
- Free-will, an Essay on, i. 393.
- Friendship, how to show, i. 163: influence of wealth and prosperity on, 163.
- Gifts, spiritual, imparted by Christ to the church, not to its officers only, ii. 167.
- God, knowledge of, derived from his works and Word, i. 1, 2. iii. 237: notions of entertained by curious wits, imperfect, i. 2: essence of, known to himself alone, 3: the means and process by which the knowledge of is gained, 3: love of, 4: himself the chief object of, ground of to other beings, 4: the ways in which he reveals himself, 4: promises of, 8: his goodness, sustaining the natural powers by which the creature sins against him, no reflection on, 16: works of, demand praise, 16, 17: the source of every good, the creature that of evil, 18, 19: the worship of, and man's happiness inseparable, 32: laws of, to be interpreted in the largest sense, 48: his dominion regards all things, small and great, 280: revealed and secret will, difference between, how discovered, 281: will of, simple in its nature, exercising itself diversely, three degrees of, 289; foreknowledge and truthfulness of, 298, 301: counsel of, its meaning, 301, 302: concurrence of, in human actions, 302–306: general permission of, difference between suffering and sending evil, 306–309; instructions of (John chap. xii. 39, 40 discussed) rejected, 311— 314: purposes of, apparently frustrated, 334–338: his hating and loving, meaning of, 355: will of, resisted, 360: decrees of, and sin, iii. 238: love of, and man's recovery, 235: love in the execution of his vengeance, iii. 254: fatherhood of, and that of man, not identical, 257.
- Godliness, its importance in friendship, i. 161.
- Goodness, created, discussed, i. 17–24.
- Gospel, what it does, i. 52: preached by the clergy, therefore they are true ministers—this argument of churchmen examined, ii. 397.
- Government of the church, in what it consists, iii. 134.
- Grace, falling from, how spoken of in Scripture, i. 29, 30.
- Greenwood, Rev. J., notice of, and his persecution, iii. 439.
- Hall's (Bishop) letter to Messrs. Smyth and Robinson on Separation, iii. 401: answer to, 405.
- Hanbury, B. [See List of Authors.]
- Happiness, consisting in the knowledge of God, i. 1.
- Health, the greatest temporal blessing, how to preserve, 136.
- Heart, the source of all evil, 99: Can man change his own? i. 397.
- Heathen, every obstinate offender to be treated by the church as such, ii. 354.
- Heresy and schism, i. 70.
- Hierarchy of the English Establishment forming an insuperable objection to Nonconformists, i. 69, 71.
- Holland, the Nonconformist exiles and their churches in, (notice by the Editor), iii. 455.
- Hope defined, i. 59.
- House of Lords, examines six members of the church at Southwark, iii. 450.
- Humility described, i. 228, 229: advantages of, 229: leads to God, 230; danger of becoming excessive, 231; a form of pride, 231.
- Humphrys, Dr., pastor of the church at Southwark, iii. 453.
- Hypocrisy, meaning of the term, i. 206: leads to atheism, 207: base and foolish, 208: when and by whom falsely ascribed to the godly, 208: odious, yet advantages of, 209.
- Idolatry, what constitutes, i. 69.
- Ignorance, not always blameworthy, i. 80.
- Immersion, not practised by Dutch Baptists, nor by first English Baptists in Holland, i. 452; iii. 461.
- Independency, principles of government where vested according to, ii. 7: no novelty, 42: charges brought against refuted, 46: not enjoying the approbation of foreign churches alleged, 49: ministers of, hated by the prelates, 50: confession of, printed, translated into Latin, 50: the opposition of learned and godly divines no valid argument against, 51; the judgment of God alleged against, the charge refuted, 56: contentions in, no argument against the principle, 60: crimes committed by members of, no valid argument against, 63: ill success of, no argument, 65: all true doctrines and ordinances of the Church of England, enjoyed by, 69: evils of the system, 73.
- Independents, peace and truth contended for by, ii. 82.
- Infants, connection of with Adam, i. 404: how accounted innocent by Christ, 407: Have they any need of Christ? 412: of Israel within the covenant, iii. 199: included in the promises, 201: born in sin, 252.
- Inferences from passages of Scripture to be received, ii. 33.
- Injuries, differences in, i. 145: to be pitied, 146: odious in four classes of persons, 146: received with indignation, 147: when wise not to heed, 148: not to be requited, 149.
- Inspiration of the Scriptures, principle of, i. 44: internal and external, 45.
- Intentions, good, how rewarded by God, 110, 111.
- Jacob, Henry [see List of Authors], emigrated to America, iii. 447.
- Johnson, Francis, his remarkable conversion to Nonconformist principles, iii. 440, 460.
- Junius, Francis [see List of Authors], biographical sketch of, iii. 101.
- Justification, Paul and James on, reconciled, 329.
- Killinghall, pastor of the church at Southwark, iii. 453.
- Kindness bestowed, not a ground for glorying; received, not a ground for shame, i. 23.
- Kingdom of Christ, who are the subjects of, ii. 102: who are not, 105: of heaven, its keys, to whom, committed, 154: keys, meaning of, 156, 227.
- Kings and Queens, nurses, not parents, of the church, ii. 488.
- Knowledge essential to faith, i. 77: for what end it should be sought, 78: the means by which it should be obtained, 78: prosperity and greatness unfavourable to, 79.
- Labour, the original appointment of, i. 113, 114: despised by the proud, 114: lawful and profitable, a blessing, 115: for eternal things cannot be too great, 115.
- Lactantius. [See List of Authors.]
- Lathrop, J., and Lamb, pastors of the church at Southwark, &c., iii. 449, 453.
- Law and gospel, confusion of, lamentable, i. 51.
- Law, canon, the only authority for discipline in the Church of England, but contrary to the teaching of the Church of England, ii. 21: character of canons, iii. 418.
- Learning, the use of, for understanding Scripture, i. 54.
- Leyden, notice of congregational church at, iii. 339, 340, 381–385, 388, 466, 467: testimony of the elders of, 470: becomes extinct, 484: order of, 486, 488.
- Liberality and its contraries, i. 130: how rightly exercised, true nature of, 131.
- Liberty, of Christ, must be maintained, ii. 24: of churches infringed by patrons, 459.
- Life, shortness of, a wise providence, i. 255: eternal, ordained to, 366.
- Liturgy, written, reasons for rejecting, iii. 19–22: reasons for not using what is called the “Lord's Prayer” as such, 22–25: the direction of Moses to the priests, no authority for, 25: reading prayer contrary to what the term implies, 26: incompatible with ministerial gifts, 27: with the reason of the thing, 28.
- Love of God, its power, influence, and extent, i. 5, 6: in God and in the creature different, 5: what is, 60: power of, 64: of the brethren, a proof of to God, 64: fulfilling the law, 65: perfect, would render law unnecessary, 65: generates love, 66: regulated by faith and tope, 66: essential to the proper observance of the Lord's Supper, ii. 265: difference of, and goodwill and friendship, i. 160.
- Luciferians, a religious sect in the fourth century, ii. 44,
- Luther. [See List of Authors.]
- Lying, the fearful consequence of the habit, i. 76.
- Magistrates cannot act in matters of faith, what they may do, i. 41— 43: identical on church principles with church officers, fallacious, ii. 173: hold a civil office only, iii. 63: magistracy and oaths, iii. 275.
- Man, in what kind of good deeds he should glory, i. 19: a religions creature, 31: spiritual or carnal, 314.
- Mankind, original state of, 403.
- Marriage, ordained of God, design of, ‘how viewed by some heathen poets, how by Popery, i. 236, 237: guided by reason, 237: how contracted improperly, 238: what qualifies for, 239: ought to be performed by magistrates, not by pastors, ii. 466; iii. 45, 46.
- Marryat, Dr. Zephaniah, pastor of the church at Southwark, iii. 453.
- Martyrs for nonconformity, iii. 443, 444.
- Mayflower and Speedwell vessels sail. [See Memoir of Mr. Robinson.]
- Means, defined, i. 3: feeble, used by God for his own glory, 112: only moral allowed by Christ for the advancement of his kingdom, ii. 307–309.
- Medicines, skill required in administering of, i. 138, 139.
- Men, fickleness of, apparent in changing their religion, i. 37: ought to find the truth, 39.
- Mind, affections of, i. 217: the body not the seat of, kinds of, i. 218: power of, 219: strong affections, not always right to manifest, 220: how to guide, 221.
- Ministers, what constitutes true, ii. 371: ability to preach, not a necessary qualification for, in the Establishment, ii. 372: made in, before election and before probation, ii. 382: choice of by the people, 386: denied by churchmen, this examined, 391–395: reasons for the people choosing, 396: of the Establishment shown not to be true ministers, 410–413: those of the Establishment, succeed the priests, ii. 415: Can a church alone make? 423: churches, how to be supplied with, 431.
- Ministry of the gospel, the seal of, ii. 9–11: dignities of, 233: qualifications for, 385: success of, in the Establishment, not an argument for its validity, ii. 400–407: Which precedes, the church the ministry, or the ministry the church? the question examined, ii. 418–423.
- Ministerial labour, the experience of Mr. Nichols in his “Plea of the Innocent,” ii. 288.
- Modesty, the effects of, i. 233: manifest, in men of understanding, 234: the want of, odious, 235: prayer for, becoming, 235.
- Monastic life, opposed to God's purpose as shown in man's social character, 158.
- Name, great, rather than good, sought by many, i. 165: good, to be obtained by well-doing, 167: worthless, when, not approved of by God, 168.
- Necessity and compulsion, difference between, 290): acts of men, an illustration of, 291.
- Nonconformists object to the mode of entrance to the ministerial office in the Establishment, ii. 390: their trials from four sources, iii. 5–7: their defence, 7: their calumnies brought against, 7, 8: their views of the Apocrypha and reasons for rejecting, 9, 10: their agreements with the reformed churches of Holland, 10–12: the self-expatriation of, offensive to their opponents, 97; opposed from political motives, 98: opponents of, many worthless characters, 99: retained only persons of piety in their fellowship, 100: their strictness, a ground of offence, 101: partake in social prayer with others, 105: their objections to the English Establishment, 106: while objecting to the order of the Establishment, admit the piety of thousands of its members, 107: churches of, charged by Mr. Hellwisse to be false, because not re-baptized, 175: charged with the vices of the city of Amsterdam, 417.
- Nonconformity, grounds of enumerated, iii. 73.
- Oaths and lots, affinity between, described, i. 201: strongest confirmation of truth, 202: used to inferiors, by those who are cowardly to superiors, 224, 225.
- Offences, given or taken, to be avoided, by walking in “love and by faith,” i. 187: readiness to take, shows weakness or pride, 188: meaning of in Matt. xviii., ii. 187.
- Officers, church, are not officers except in their own individual churches, ii. 418: servants of the church, 435: chosen by the multitude; this apostolic and just, iii. 135: election of, and ordination of, vested in the church, ii. 445.
- Orders and ordinances, piety does not consist in, iii. 109: importance of, 110: sale of, (and institutions), constituting the charge of trafficking in the souls of men, 141.
- Ordination, Is Romish valid? ii. 378: examination for, in the Establishment, not warranted by Scripture, 385: conferred only by ministers, when orderly and regular, 430: What is ? 436: laying on of hands observed in, 439: scriptural, examined, 441: power of in each separate church, 440, 445: admitted by Perkins, by Melancthon, 446: by Peter Martyr, Zanchy, Tilenus, Sadeel, 447.
- Owen, Jonathan, [See notice of, iii. 452.]
- Paganism and Antichristianism, difference between, ii. 467.
- Papacy, priests of, usurp the rights of the people and those of each other, one at last, those of all, ii. 390.
- Patience, its nature and importance, i. 150, 151: necessity of, 152: when most difficult to exercise, 153.
- Patricians, and Paternians, account of, ii. 282.
- Patronage unscriptural, ii. 395.
- Peace, what comprehended under, i. 154: the importance of shown by God, 155: not always destroyed by dissenting from others, 155, 156.
- Persecution, the heathen, Papists and Protestants addicted to while pleading for toleration to themselves, i. 40: laws in Judea, no warrant for persecution, 41: fleeing from, iii. 155: the practice of Jacob, Moses, David, Jeremiah and Christ, in fleeing from, considered, iii. 156, 157: reasons against fleeing from, weighed, 159–164: the persecuted more likely to have the truth, i. 560.
- Perseverance essential to salvation, i. 27: means of, 28.
- Persons ungodly, cannot be members of the true church, ii. 339.
- Pharaoh's heart hardened, discussed, i. 357–359.
- Pilgrims, embarkation and debarkation of. [See Memoir of Mr. Robinson.]
- Plymouth, New England, church at, constitution of, iii. 489–491.
- Poverty, why sent, i. 125.
- Prayer, what is; influence of, not upon God but upon ourselves, i. 196: advantages of, 197: the character of, 198: necessary to prosecute worldly undertakings, 199: comfort of, advantages of, 200: forms of, no warrant for in Scripture, ii. 499–503: reasons against the use of the forms in the English Establishment, ii. 504.
- Preaching, an official act, i. 459: the principal work of the ministry, but incompatible with prelacy, ii. 384: lay, vindicated, iii. 288: lay, not forbidden by the power of binding and loosing sins, 289: not by the commission of prophets and apostles, 291: inspiration of the first teachers and the imposition of hands, no valid argument against, 292: nor the extraordinary gift in the apostolic churches, 296: nor the gift of tongues, 301: edification, a ground for, 303: not forbidden by the spiritual gifts in; 1 Cor. xiv. 304: the special revelation mentioned, not a valid argument, 306: the forbidding of Eldad and Medad, no argument against, 308: Scripture sustains the practice, 309–335.
- Precepts, affirmative and negative, how to be understood, i. 50.
- Predestination, preface of Turretin on, i. 269, 270: meaning of the term, 271: defence of, 272: articles of the Synod of Dort on, 272, 273: punishment of sin, how connected with, 283: conditions of, 386.
- Prelacy, how upheld, ii. 45: prayer extolled by, for the purpose of setting aside preaching, 78: subverts the order of Christ, iii. 141: not a plant, planted by God, must therefore be plucked up, 143: a worldly system, 144: unscriptural, therefore unlawful for the people of God to be connected with, 146: a support of the papal system, 147.
- Prelates send the ministers, not the church, in the Establishment, ii. 380: how regarded by Nonconformists, iii. 417.
- Presbytery, in each church approved, iii. 28, 468.
- Pride, displayed in the selection of associates, i. 162:the proud abominable to God, 232: shown most generally in apparel, 232: remedies against, 233.
- Priestly office of Christ, corrupted in the English Establishment, ii. 276.
- Priests, Romish, and English, clergy, have the same office, 376.
- Profession of religion, does not make the matter of the church, ii. 281, 283.
- Prophesying (or preaching), ii. 246: nature of discussed, 248–251: meaning of, iii. 324: women restrained from, no valid argument against, iii. 326: duty of proved, 331: the exercise of, to whom committed, 55–58.
- Redemption, universal, iii. 258: meaning of the word, 260–262.
- Reformation effected by Elizabeth, imperfect, not the same in character with that effected by Hezekiah, Josiah, Nehemiah, in the Jewish church, ii. 309–318, 492: not voluntary, 318.
- Regeneration, iii. 250, 265: means necessary, 268.
- Religion, differences and controversies respecting, i. 31: controversies sometimes necessary, always dangerous, 36: rites of, some essential, and some a matter of order, 32, 33: the best thing, its corruption, therefore the worst, 33: the amount of, is what a man has between him and God, 33, 35: differences in, do not dissolve natural or civil obligations, 39: does not depend on probabilities, ii. 20: zeal in, against supposed error, in danger of becoming wrath, iii. 97: real, in the heart, its bearing on the ordinance of baptism, 170.
- Reproofs, church, not directed by John against officers only, ii. 177.
- Rewards and punishments in this life, the principle of, i. 7, 214: influence of, on society, 215: how punishment ought to be administered, 216.
- Riches and poverty, i. 122.
- Robinson, John. [Sea Life of, vol. i., and various notices of, vol. iii. 464–475.]
- Rome. Is Rome a true church? the question examined, ii. 293— 302: the negative proved, 302–307: admitted to be the mother of the English Establishment, 304, 305.
- Sacrifice of Christ, iii. 264.
- Saints, characteristics of, constitute the church, ii. 110–128: form the highest order in the church, 228: perfect in Christ, 272.
- Salvation, apostolic labours insufficient to secure; illumination or “drawing” (John vi. 44) necessary to, i. 315: more than publishing the gospel necessary to, 316: refusal of, by the lost, 328.
- Schism, what its origin, i. 70: description of, 71: separation of the Independents from the Establishment does not constitute, ii. 87.
- Schwenckfeldians, account of, ii. 282.
- Scriptures, their design and province, i. 43: their perfection does not exclude reason, i. 46: translations of, and the originals, their comparative value, i. 47: have but one immediate proper sense, i. 48: obscure words and phrases in, how to interpret, 49: commentaries to be used, 51: to be expounded by other scriptures, ii. 178; interpretation of, by Episcopalians, to support their theory and practice, 217.
- Selfishness detestable, i. 164.
- Separation, when lawful, ii. 268.
- Shepherds, properties of, overthrow diocesan Episcopacy, ii. 412.
- Silence, not always wise and right, i. 106.
- Simplicity and craftiness illustrated, i. 81.
- Sin, its punishment, i. 210: rational creatures capable of, 210: are men compelled to? 393: liberty and necessity to commit may co-exist, 398: itself unreasonable, 211: its greatness, 212: against the Holy Ghost, 213: followed by punishment, 214: God the author of, denied by the Synod of Dort, 273: cause of, in Adam, 274: privative, 294: exists in the soul, 296: none, light, ii. 15: connivance at, in what it consists, 257: from the creature only, iii, 239: permitted by God, 240: original, experience proves, 246–249.
- Slander, what constitutes, i. 174: devilish, injurious to all, 176: good conscience and a good name, a defence against, 177.
- Smyth, the Rev. J., change of sentiment, iii. 460.
- Sobriety, the demand of scripture and nature, i. 128: joined to watchfulness, 130.
- Society and friendship natural to man, i. 157: should be sought, 159.
- Soul, origin of, iii. 247.
- Southwark, church at, account of by the Rev. J. Waddington and the Editor, iii. 439–454.
- Speech, an index of the mind, i. 100: of the wise, profitable, 101: injurious, unbecoming, 103: long and short, when commendable, 105.
- Substance and circumstance, difference between, ii. 22.
- Sumner, Geo., his interesting work on Pilgrims of Leyden, in Memoir of Robinson, 1.
- Suspicion, definition of, i. 180: when carried to extremes, violates the law of charity, 181: to be avoided, 182.
- Swearing, irreverent toward God, i. 203: punishment of, 204.
- Synagogues, nature of, ii. 197.
- Synods, no authority for, in Acts xv. ii. 208.
- Teachers, false, no Scripture commands to hear, ii. 460.
- Temples and consecrated places, iii. 59.
- Temptations, what included in, i. 189: tow drawn into, 190; advantageous to the pious, 191: to be delivered from, should be a matter of prayer, 192.
- Testimony, human, when useful, i. 57.
- Things, use and abuse of, 119–122: indifferent, on what principle to be used, iii. 59–62.
- Thoughts of evil, not always evil thoughts, i. 90: judged of by man and by God on different principles, i. 100.
- Truth, what class of persons God will direct in, i. 41; and falsehood, definition of, 72: to be reverenced, above all men, 73: to be propagated, 74: to confirm it, three different methods, i. 202.
- Tyre and Sidon, repentance of, i. 396.
- Union among Christians, marks of, i. 331: with the unholy to be avoided, 351.
- Wadsworth, Thomas. [See notice of, iii. 452.]
- Watson, Dr. James, pastor of the church at Southwark, iii. 453.
- Wealth, the purpose for which it is bestowed; its accumulation for the most part contrary to God's method in nature and grace, i. 22: not used does not make rich, 122: temptations of, 124.
- Well-doing, equability and perseverance in, habitual to the good man, i. 24.
- Will of God, its nature and its exercise, i. 12, 13.
- Wisdom of God, manifest in his works, nature of his works, and how controlled by, i. 13, 14: and folly illustrated, i. 83: importance of, 86.
- Works of God exhibit his perfections, the result of his will, power, and wisdom, i. 11–17.
- Worship, according to the Prayer-book, false, ii. 450.
- Youth (and age,) influence of in the commonwealth, i. 250: what is becoming to each, 251: virtue of, grateful in old age, 252: the honour of age cannot be borne by, 253: to live well in, is wise, 253.
- Zeal, denned, in religion, despised by wordly men, i. 204: false and true described, 205, 206: requires to be regulated, ii. 1–5: its characteristics, ii. 25.
OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO OR QUOTED,
WITH OCCASIONAL BRIEF NOTICES OF THEIR WORKS AND LIVES.
- Æmilius paulus, historian, born at Verona, died in Paris 1529, i. 243.
- Agesilaus, King of Sparta, died b.c. 362, i. 104.
- Ainsworth, Rev. H., [see notice of, vol. iii. 462], i. 405, 407, 411; ii. 1, 50, 51, 59, 157; iii. 106, 107, 127.
- Alciatus, Andrew, a Milanese lawyer, died at Pavia in 1550, i. 79.
- Alison, Dr. R., a divine of the English Church, ii. 7, 47.
- Allen, Rev. W., D.D. [See Descendants of Robinson, i. lxxi.]
- Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, born 333, died 397, i. 73, 100, 131, 169, 190, 233, 243, 255.
- Anacharsis, A Scythian philosopher, flourished 600 years b.c. i. 54.
- Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, born in Piedmont, died in 1109, i. 210.
- Antisthenes, an Athenian philosopher, born b.c. 423, i. 177.
- Antoninus Marcus, philosopher and emperor, born 121, died 180, i. 139.
- Aristotle, the head of the Peripatetic School at Stagyra in Thrace, flourished, b.c. 384, i. 73, 130, 244, 252.
- Arminius, James, a Dutch divine, professor of divinity at Leyden, died 1609, iii. 52.
- Audæus, founder of the sect of Audæans, ii. 45.
- Augustine, an African Father, born in 354. His mother Monica was an example of maternal piety, i. 6, 8, 14,18, 19, 28,41, 72, 74, 83, 90, 94, 110, 119, 126, 130, 146, 155, 157, 165, 167, 168, 187, 192, 197, 198, 229, 230, 233, 251, 254, 255, 256, 258; iii. 33, 50, 61, 78.
- Bancroft, Dr., a tyrannical flatterer and bishop of King James, ii. 50, 81, 82, 93.
- Barlow, Bishop of Winchester, ii. 219.
- Barrowe, Henry. [See notices of, vol. iii. 106, 439.]
- Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, born 326, i. 174.
- Bastingius, Jer., ii. 219.
- Bernard, a divine of the Romish Church, Abbott of the Monastery of Clairvaux, born in 1091, i. 20, 25, 62, 76, 78, 79, 110, 114, 126, 173, 175, 187, 193, 203, 256.
- Bernard, Richard, Vicar of Worksop, and afterwards Rector of Batcombe. [See ii. throughout.]
- Beza, Theo., born in 1519 in Burgundy, died 1605, i. 94, 210; ii. 219; iii. 32, 33.
- Bodinus, John, a French lawyer, born 1530, died 1596, i. 81, 111, 182, 215; iii. 42.
- Bæthius, a Roman philosopher, and profound scholar, i. 128, 143.
- Bradshaw, W., Rev., a celebrated Puritan, ii. 6; iii. 360.
- Broughton, Hugh, a celebrated polemical writer, born 1549, died 1612, iii. 10.
- Brook's Lives, [often quoted in editorial notices.]
- Browne, Robert, [see notice of, iii. 457], ii. 57.
- Bucanus, Guil., a celebrated continental divine of the 16th century, iii. 23, 27, 45.
- Bucer, Gerson, a learned divine of the sixteenth century, iii. 28, 33.
- Calvin, John, born at Noyon in Picardy in 1509, died 1564. His works form nine volumes folio, i. 31, 92, 149, 156, 177, 184, 196, 223, 230, 231, 242, 250; iii. 23, 26, 59.
- Carleton's, Bishop of Chichester, letters from Dort, i. 265; iii. 35, 62.
- Cartwright, Thos., a Puritan divine, born in 1555, persecuted by Archbishop Grindal, imprisoned, died at Warwick in 1603, i. 86, 132,164; ii. 81, 220; iii. 16, 333.
- Cassander, Geo., a German controversialist, born 1515, died 1566, i. 126.
- Cato, an illustrious Roman soldier and author, born b.c. 232, died 148, i. 226.
- Celsus, a famous physician at Rome, who wrote a Treatise of Rhetoric, i. 49.
- Chadderton's Sermons, Dr. Lawrence, ii. 81.
- Chemnitius, M., a Lutheran divine, born 1522, died 1586, i. 121, 201; iii. 45.
- Chrysostom, John, a Greek father, born at Antioch in 354, died at Pityus on the Euxine Sea, in the year 407. On account of his eloquence he was surnamed Chrysostom, i. e. Golden-mouthed, i. 49, 151, 160, 173, 177, 182, 206, 223, 241; iii. 42, 53.
- Cicero, the celebrated Roman orator, born b.c. 106, died b.c. 43, i. 31, 69, 73, 104, 131, 134, 148, 165, 168, 169, 203, 209, 215, 233, 235, 251.
- Cluse, De Les, a French preacher in Amsterdam, [see notice of, iii. 127], iii. 132, 148.
- Comenius, a divine at Amsterdam, born 1592, died 1671, i. 55.
- Cyprian, an African father, born at Carthage in the first half of the third century, i. 122, 172, 198; iii. 7, 23,41.
- Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, died 444, i. 60, 200.
- Daneus, Lambert, a celebrated divine, i. 160.
- Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, a disciple of Origen, i. 3.
- Donatus. [See notice of, ii. 44.]
- Dove, Dr., an English divine, ii. 184.
- Downame, Dr., Bishop of Derry, ii. 91, 184.
- Edwards, President, works referred to in note, i. 294.
- Epictetus, a stoic philosopher in the reign of the Emperor Domitian, originally a slave, i. 169.
- Erasmus, Desiderius, was born at Rotterdam in 1467, reputed the most learned man of his day in Europe; works, 10 vols. folio, i. 97, 119, 238, 247.
- Eusebius, Pamphilius, born in Palestine about 270, died about 338; author of Ecclesiastical History, &c.; works, 3 vols folio, i. 20, 27, 73, 83, 176, 217; iii. 49, 58, 328.
- Euring, William. [See notice of, iii. 283.]
- Ferus, i. 23.
- Ficinus, Marcilius, lived in the fifteenth century, i. 32.
- Fox, the martyrologist, a native of Boston, born 1517, died 1587, ii. 220.
- Gellius, John, born at Florence in 1498, was a learned shoe-maker, a member of the academy at that city, an eminent Greek scholar; Dialogues are highly valued, i. 240.
- Giffard's book referred to, ii. 45, et alibi.
- Greenham, a Puritan divine at Drayton and Christchurch, born 1531, died 1591, i. 91, 169.
- Greenwood, John, B.A. [See notice of, iii. 439.]
- Gregory Nazianzen, Bishop of Constantinople, was born in 324; works, 2 vols folio, i. 27, 130, 132, 134, 140, 151, 155, 164, 190, 191, 198, 208, 228, 256.
- Grotius, Hugo, was the son of a Burgomaster at Delft, born in 1583; his works are numerous and learned, i. 101,156,192, 257; iii. 101.
- Hale's Letters from Dort, referred to, i. 265.
- Hall's Rev. Peter, “Harmony of Protestant Confessions,” referred to or quoted in editorial notices, i. 265, 273; iii. 9, 10, 17.
- Hall, Bishop. [See notice of, iii. 397.]
- Hanbury, Benjamin. Notices of his works often occur in editorial notes, ii. 59; iii. 84, 127, especially 453, 459, 463, 465.
- Hellwisse, [see a biographical sketch of, iii. 155], i. 342, 452.
- Herodotus, Greek historian, born at Halicarnassus, b.c. 484, i. 176.
- Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, martyr in 1555, ii. 220.
- Hubert, i. 175.
- Ignatius, a disciple of the evangelist John, Bishop of Antioch, and a martyr, torn to pieces by lions at Rome,. 107; i. 60, 140, 169 iii. 49.
- Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, a disciple of Polycarp, i. 48, 82.
- Isidorus, an exegetical writer at Pelusium, died a.d. 450, i. 165.
- Jacob, Henry, [see notice of, iii. 444; character of, 446], ii. 17, 82, 221, 397; iii. 58, 339.
- Jerome, a native of Prague, a disciple of John Huss, died a martyr in 1416, i. 46, 115, 122, 128, 133, 227, 242, 256; iii. 5.
- Johnson, Francis, Amsterdam, ii. 6, 50, 62, 397; iii. 25, 360, 441, et alibi.
- Josephus, the Jewish Historian, born a.d. 37, died 95, i. 90, 232, 242; iii. 299.
- Junius, Francis, Professor of Divinity at Leyden, i. 12, 44; iii. 14, 16, 49, 55, 61, 101, 149.
- Keckerman, Bartholomew, Professor of Philosophy, Dantzic, died 1609, i. 42, 95, 143; iii. 45.
- Knox, John, the celebrated Scotch reformer, i. 296.
- Lactantius, a father of the church; Constantine appointed him tutor to his son, i. 131, 149, 150, 179, 219, 220.
- Laertius, Diogenes, a Greek author, died a.d. 222, i. 121, 152, 239.
- Livius, or Livy, the celebrated Roman historian, born b.c. 59, died a.d. 17, i. 82, 138.
- Lucifer, Bishop of Cagliari in the fourth century, ii. 44.
- Luther, the celebrated German reformer, i. 48, 60.
- Macrobius, a Latin writer of the fourth century, i. 342.
- Maldonatus, a Spanish Jesuit, who wrote on original sin, and on grace, &c., ii. 219.
- Martial, the epigrammatic poet, born in Spain, died in 104, i. 125.
- Martyr, Justin, an early Greek writer, martyred at Rome, 165, iii. 49.
- Martyr, Peter, a native of Florence, a Professor of Divinity at Oxford in the reign of Edward VI., i. 57; ii. 447; iii. 58.
- Melancthon, Luther's companion, i. 49, 140, 233, 250; ii. 232, 446.
- Menander, a Greek poet, flourished at Athens, b.c. 342; i. 95, 236.
- Morneus, Philip, a French divine, i. 32, 45, 68, 104.
- Morton, or Murton, i. 266, 267, 449, 466.
- Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, often referred to in editorial notes.
- Neal, History of the Puritans. [See various notes.]
- Nicholas, Henry, the founder of the sect of the Familists, i. 390.
- Novatian. [See notice of, ii. 45.]
- Paget, John, a writer against the Separatists in Holland, iii. 127.
- Panormita, i. 96.
- Pareus, David, a celebrated German divine of the seventeenth century, i. 242 ; iii. 75.
- Parker, Matthew, an episcopal divine, iii. 33, 69.
- Patricius, Francis, an Italian author of the sixteenth century, i. 128.
- Payne, Dr. George, quoted. [See note, i. 294.]
- Perkins, William, a Puritan divine of Cambridge, [see notice of, iii. 425], i. 16, 62,193, 202, 257, 467, 468; ii. 446; iii. 23, 61, 425, et alibi.
- Philo-Judæus, a learned Jewish, writer, flourished in the first century, i. 5, 112.
- Philpot, Bishop, the martyr, i. 194.
- Pindarus, the prince of lyric poets, flourished, 500 b.c., i. 119.
- Piscator, the celebrated commentator, born 1546, died 1626, iii. 23.
- Plato, Athenian philosopher, flourished, 430 b.c., i. 92, 219, 226, 249.
- Plautus, a Romaa writer, died b.c. 184, i. 76.
- Pliny, the natural historian, born a.d. 23, perished at Herculaneum 79, i. 137, 164, 165.
- Plutarch, a celebrated historian, a native of Cheronea, in Bœotia, died 140, i. 23, 79, 88, 92, 97, 101, 120, 121, 134, 161, 172, 173, 216, 228, 234, 237, 251, et alibi.
- Politian, a learned Tuscan historian, poet, and critic, died 1494, i. 89, 173, 193.
- Polybius, a Greek historian, died b.c. 121, i. 133.
- Ringelberd, a Dutch, divine of the sixteenth century, i. 114.
- Sadeel, Anthony, a celebrated divine, Hebrew Professor at Geneva, whose works are published in three vols. folio, ii. 447; iii. 14, 58.
- Sallust, a Latin author, born b.c. 86, died b.c. 34, i. 132.
- Scaliger, a voluminous writer, bom 1540, died 1609, i. 5, 38, 59, 60, 64, 72, 172, 224, 225, 235, 256; iii. 22.
- Scott, Rev. Thomas, referred to in note, i. 265.
- Seneca, a Roman philosopher, flourished in the beginning of the first century, i. 20, 67, 78, 86, 102, 122, 146, 159, 160, 172, 180 193, 216, et alibi.
- Smyth, John, the Separatist at Amsterdam, who became a Baptist, i. 452; ii. 1, 62, 157, 216; iii. 168, 169, et alibi.
- Snecanus, Gellius, a celebrated divine of the sixteenth century, iii. 37, 75.
- Socrates, the Athenian philosopher, born b.c. 469, died b.c. 399, i. 79.
- Stoebus, John, a Greek author of the fifth century, i. 239.
- Stoughton, Rev. J., “Spiritual Heroes,” quoted in note, iii. 446.
- Suetonius, the Roman historian of the second century, i. 103, 180, 232, 235.
- Sumner's Memoirs of the Pilgrims at Leyden. [See Robinson's Memoir, i.]
- Tacitus, the celebrated historian, i. 148.
- Terence, a Roman poet, an African by birth, died b.c. 159, i. 22, 129, 146, 224, 251.
- Tertullian, a father of the church, flourished under the emperors Severus and Caracalla, i. 12, 25, 31, 40, 47, 49, 50, 72, 77, 91, 108, 146, 188, 200, 252, et alibi; iii. 7, 13, 19, 25, 28, 40 49, 78.
- Thales, the founder of the Ionic sect of philosophers, died b.c. 545, i. 2, 33.
- Theodoret, an ecclesiastical historian and commentator, &c.; works, 4 vols. folio, i. 104.
- Tremelius, joint translator of the Scriptures with Junius, iii. 149.
- Udal, John, [see notice of, ii. 220.]
- Underhill, E. B., Esq., frequently referred to in editorial notea, i. 452; iii. 456, 459, et alibi.
- Ursinus, A German Divine, Professor at Heidelberg i. 59, 417; iii. 23.
- Varro, Roman writer, died b.c. 29, iii. 54.
- Virgil, Polydorus, Latin historian, born at Urbino, died 1596, iii. 45.
- Whitaker, Dr., a writer against Popery, died 1595, i. 45, 47, 56; iii. 36, 39.
- Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 220.
- Williams, Dr. Ed., “Treatise on Equity and Sovereignty,” note, i. 294.
- Willoughby, Lord, i. 82, 92.
- Wolflus, John, a Latin Divine of the sixteenth century, iii. 40, 59.
- Yates, J., B.D., biographical notice of, iii. 283.
- Young's Chronicles, ii. 59, and iii., frequently.
- Zanchius, Petrus, i. 64, 77, 80; ii. 447; iii. 33, 62.
- Zuinglius, the celebrated Swiss reformer, ii. 218.
of important texts of scripture
illustrated or quoted.
|2. .||17. .||i.||404. .|
|3. .||15. .||iii.||. .128|
|4. .||12, 16.||iii. .||128|
|6. .||2–5. .||iii. .||128|
|22. .||2–12.’||i. .||281|
|4. .||21, 22.||i. .||281|
|32. .||32, 33.||i. .||375|
|26. .||11, 12.||i. .||346|
|20||24. .||i. .||346|
|6. .||23, 24.||i. .||499|
|11. .||28. .||iii.||. .308|
|11. .||29. .||iii.||. .310|
|4. .||37. .||i. .||321|
|7. .||7, 8. .||i. .||321|
|11.||.2. .||i. .||405|
|14.||.2. .||i. .||321|
|23. . . . .||i.||. . 298|
|16||. . 10. .||i||303|
|24||1. .||i. .||304|
|21||. . 26. .||i.||396|
|22. .||22. .||i.||. .304|
|12. .||10, 11, 12||i.||. .278|
|12. .||1, 15, 16||i. .||. .282|
|36. .||16. .||i.||. .332|
|1||. . 21. .||i.||. .304|
|4. .||3. .||i. .||313|
|16. .||3. .||i.||. .322|
|103. .||14. .||i.||. .410|
|115||3. .||i. .||313|
|16.||4. .||i. .||301|
|45.||19. .||i. .||369|
|23. .||11, 14, 17, 22||i.||, 398|
|18. .||18. .||i.||. .291|
|18. .||18. .||i. .||409|
|33. .||11. .||i. .||291|
|33..||18. .||i. .||289|
|4. .||10. .||i. .||416|
|5.||15. .||i. .||372|
|6. .||9. .||ii. .||499|
|8. .||31,32.||i. .||306|
|10. .||1,5,6.||iii. ..||313|
|11. .||11. .||iii. ..||314|
|13. .||30. .||iii. ..||75|
|13. .||24–30.||ii. ..||121|
|13. .||47–50.||ii. ..||128|
|16. .||16–18.||ii. .||133,154,156|
|18. .||15–17.||ii. ..||184|
|18. .||7. .||i. .||391|
|18. .||15–17.||iii. .||32|
|18. .||17. .||ii. ..||178|
|18. .||20. .||i. .||448|
|22. . . . .||i. ..||335|
|22. .||14. .||i. .||317|
|24. .||24. .||i. .||301|
|26. .||53. .||i. .||298|
|28. .||16. .||i. .||455|
|28. .||19. .||i. ..||448|
|28. .||19. .||ii. .||96,98,155|
|5. .||12,13.||i. ..||306|
|3. .||6. .||i. ..||342|
|7. .||30. .||i. ..||301|
|8. .||32. .||i. ..||306|
|11. .||2. .||ii. ..||499|
|4. .||28,29,39||iii. ..||316|
|6. .||44. .||i. ..||401|
|8. .||44. .||iii. ..||128|
|9. .||22. .||ii. ..||196|
|10. .||27,28.||i. ..||382|
|10. .||3,8,27.||iii. ..||370|
|12. .||39,40.||i. .||309|
|12. .||42. .||ii. ..||196|
|13. .||1. .||i. ..||383|
|16. .||2. .||ii. ..||196|
|17. .||6,9,14,16||ii. ..||350|
|20. .||21–23.||ii. ..||155|
|1. .||20–26||iii. .||37|
|2. .||38,39.||i. .||421|
|2. .||40. .||ii. ..||348|
|2. .||39. .||iii.||213,227|
|5. .||3. .||i. .||298|
|6. .||3,6.||ii. ..||145|
|6. .||1–8. .||iii. .||38|
|10. .||34,35.||ii. .||71|
|13. .||48. .||i. ..||366|
|14. .||21–23.||ii. ..||145|
|14. .||27. .||ii. ..||208|
|14. .||23. .||iii. ..||38|
|15. .||18. .||i. ..||398|
|15. .||1–3,23||ii. ..||208|
|15. .. ..||iii. ..||38|
|17. .||26. .||i. ..||407|
|19. .||8,9. .||ii. ..||349|
|20. .||35. .||i. ..||23|
|1. .||28–32.||i. ..||282|
|2. .||5. .||i.||323,338|
|2. .||29. .||i. ..||385|
|4. .||11. .||i. ..||440|
|4. .||11. .||iii. .||210|
|5. .||6,8. .||i. ..||329|
|5. .||12. .||i. ..||405|
|5. .||12,14.||iii. ..||244|
|5. .||10. .||i. ..||259|
|6. .||11.||i. ..||419|
|7. .||1. .||i. ..||405|
|9. .. ..||i.||349seq.|
|10. .||14,15.||ii. ..||402|
|11. .||32. .||i. ..||345|
|14. .||17,18.||ii. ..||72|
|15. .||20. .||ii. ..||273|
|1. .||1. .||ii. ..||104|
|2. .||14,15.||i. ..||314|
|5||11. .||ii.||. .323|
|7. .||14.||i. .||422|
|7. .||14. .||iii. .||18|
|9. .||1,2.||ii. ..||10|
|9. .||2. .||ii.||402,403|
|10. .||1,2. .||i. ..||425|
|10. .||16. .||ii. ..||98|
|10. .||20,21.||ii. .||70|
|10. .||25,27.||ii. ..||27|
|10. .||18. .||iii. ..||372|
|11. .. ..||ii. ..||264|
|12. .||4. .||i. ..||290|
|12. .||28. .||ii.||182,225|
|13. .||10,12.||iii. ..||269|
|14. .. ..||ii.||274–251|
|14. .||3. .||iii. ..||55|
|14. .||26. .||iii. ..||303|
|14. .||30. .||iii. ..||306|
|14. .. .||iii. ..||323|
|15. .||22. .||i. ..||413|
|15. .||21–26.||iii. ..||244|
|2. .||6. .||iii. ..||37|
|5. .||14,15.||i. ..||330|
|6. .. .||ii. .||344|
|6. .||1. .||i. ..||380|
|6. .||14–18.||ii. ..||339|
|11,.||13. .||iii. ..||173|
|4. .||22–31. .||i. .||433|
|2. .||8. .||i. ..||323|
|4. .||8–11.||ii. .||161|
|4. .||12,13.||iii. .||269|
|4. .||8–11.||iii. ..||315|
|2. .. .||13. ..||i. ..||401|
|1. .||17. .||ii. ..||274|
|3. .||12. .||i. ..||324|
|1. .||4–6.||i. ..||324|
|2. .,.||i. ..||305|
|2. .||3,4. .||ii.||427,468|
|3. .||15. .||ii. ..||323|
|1. .||19. .||i. ..||375|
|2. .||6. .||i. ..||331|
|2. .||6. .||iii. ..||259|
|4. .||6. .||ii. ..||399|
|4. .||10. .||i. ..||331|
|2. .||18–20.||iii. ..||262|
|2. .||25. .||i. ..||323|
|11. .||15. .||i. ..||371|
|2. .||1. .||i. ..||323|
|2. .||5. .||ii. ..||328|
|4. .||4,10,11||iii. ..||320|
|2. .||1,11.||iii. ..||263|
|3. .||4. .||i. ..||297|
|3. .||9. .||i. ..||382|
|1. .||6. .||ii. ..||339|
|2..||12. .||iii. ..||270|
|2. .||19. .||i.||385,389|
|2. .||18,19.||i. ..||263|
|2. .||2,9.||iii. ..||173|
|6. .||11. .||i. ..||332|
|11. .||3. .||iii. ..||321|
|13. .||8–11.||i. ..||376|
|14. .||6. .||iii. ..||322|
London; Reed and Pardon, Printers, Paternoster-row.
Vide Steven's History of the Scottish Church, Rotterdam, 8vo. 1833; Sumner's Memoirs of the Pilgrims at Leyden, Appendix, No. 1, page 24; Rev. A. S. Thelwell's Preface to the Heidelberg Catechism of the Reformed Religion, reprinted in London, 1851.
Vide Price's History of Nonconformity; Fletcher's History of Independency; Martyrs of Nonconformity in the Days of Queen Elizabeth, by the Anti-State-Church Association; and the Dutch Martyrology, by Hanserd Knollys Society.
Vide Fuller's Church History, book ix. page 168; Biographia Britannica, sub. Non.; Neal's Hist. Pur. vol. i. page 301, 8vo. Ed. 1822; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, vol. ii. page 366; Hanb. Hist. Mem. vol. i. chap. ii.; Ben. Underhill's Preface to Broadmead Records, by Hanserd Knollys Society. But especially Joseph Fletcher's History of Independency, vol. ii. pages 97–130; vol. iii. pages 41–44.
Vide Appendix, No. I. page 440, supra.
Vide vol. ii. page 59, note.
Vide vol. i. page 452, note; vol. iii. page 155, note; with pages 168, 169.
Vide Brook's Love of the Puritans, vol. ii. page 306; Life of Ainsworth, prefixed to his “Communion of Saints,” reprinted in Edinburgh, page 1789; Hanb. Hist. Memorials, vol. i. chaps, v., x., xvi., xviii.
Mr. Hanbury has directed the attention of the Editor to an interesting passage respecting Ainsworth, in Dr. Worthington's third letter to Mr. Hartlib, under date of June 11, 1660, included in a volume of “Miscellanies by Dr. John “Worthington, some time Master of Jesus College, Cambridge,” published in London, 1704:—
“There is another Author, whose remains are most worthy to be retrieved; I mean Mr. Ainsworth, whose excellent Annotations upon the Pentateuch, &c., sufficiently discover his great learning, and his most exact observation of the proper idioms of the holy text, with every iota and tittle of which he seems to be as much acquainted as any of the Masoreths of Tiberias. I have been told that there are these MSS. of his, viz. his Comment upon Hosea, Notes upon St. Matthew, and Notes upon the Epistle to the Hebrews; which latter he was the more prepared for, by reason of the former labours upon the Pentateuch; the Epistle to the Hebrews, being Moses unveiled. Mr. Cole, a bookseller at the Printing-press, in Cornhill, told me that he had once these MSS. in his keeping, and thought to have printed them; but that a kinsman, or a son, I do not so well remember, of Mr. Ainsworth's, at Amsterdam, and John Canne, could not well agree, either about the right of disposing the copy, or the price for the MSS. I have heard that Mr. Nye, or Mr. Jeffery, knew something of these MSS. If they could be recovered, so they be like the other printed works of the Author, it would be a good work indeed, and might be of singular use. Nay, if they be not throughout so completed as the Author intended, yet the whole is too good to be lost or embezzled. Perhaps you or Mr. Dury may be acquainted with the forementioned persons in England; or could by some understanding persons inquire of this business at Amsterdam. If the MSS. can be found, and may be purchased at a fit rate, there is no fear of being a loser; his other works have always sold well, and at a good price, and were bought by men of different persuasions from him: who did esteem him for his modesty and singular learning, and were much obliged to him for his skill in Jewish Antiquities, lighting their candle by his.
“This business, I think, is worthy of consideration.”
These works do not appear to have been recovered or published.
The controversy between Johnson and Ainsworth is referred to by Neal, Brook, Hanbury, Fletcher, Young in his Chronicles of the Pilgrims, Stuart in his Life of Ainsworth, and more fully by Clyfton, in his “Advertisement,” and Ainsworth, in his “Animadversion” on Clyfton's Advertisement.
Vide Bradford Dialogues in Young's Chronicles, page 453.
Vide reference to Mr. de Lescluse, page 127, supra.
“An Advertisement concerning a Book lately published by Christopher Lawne and others, against the exiled Church at Amsterdam, by Richard Clyfton, teacher of the same Church.” 1612.
Vide Ainsworth's Animadversion to Mr. Richard Clyfton, &c. pages 133–136.
vide vol. ii. pages 228, 236.
Vide vol. ii. Justif. of Separation, pages 141–144.
Vide vol. ii. page 237.
Vide vol. ii., Justification, &c., pages 228–230.
Vol. ii. page 236.
Major in minore.
Non convenit Dominum gloriari in servo suo, &c.
Vide Ainsworth's Animadversion, pages 111–117.
An Advertisement concerning a Book, &c., by Richard Clyfton. 1612. 4to. Amsterdam.
Young's Chronicles, page 455.
Vide Question 14 in Catechism, page 429, supra.
Vide Appendix ii., page 466, supra.
Vide vol. i., page 463.
Young's Chronicles, page 456.
Vide Bradford's History of the Plymouth Colony, in Young's Chronicles, pages 63–65.
Vide Prince's New England Chronology, part iv., sect. 1, pages 91–93. Cheever's Pilgrim Fathers, pages 160–164. Punchard's History of Congregationalism, pages 361–363.