Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. IX.: Several Kinds of Slavery. - Complete Works, vol. 1 The Spirit of Laws
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CHAP. IX.: Several Kinds of Slavery. - Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, Complete Works, vol. 1 The Spirit of Laws 
The Complete Works of M. de Montesquieu (London: T. Evans, 1777), 4 vols. Vol. 1.
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Several Kinds of Slavery.
SLAVERY is of two kinds, real and personal. The real annexes the slave to the land, which Tacitus makes† the condition of slaves among the Germans. They were not employed in the family: a stated tribute of corn, cattle, or other moveables, paid to their master, was the whole of their servitude. And such a servitude still continues in Hungary, Bohemia, and several parts of Lower-Germany.
Personal slavery consists in domestic services, and relates more to the master’s person.
The worst degree of slavery is, when it is at once both real and personal, as that of the Helotes among the Lacedæmonians. They underwent the fatigues of the field, and suffered all manner of insults at home. This Helotism is contrary to the nature of things. Real slavery is to be found only among nations‡ remarkable for their simplicity of life; all family-business being done by the wives and children. Personal slavery is peculiar to voluptuous nations; luxury requiring the service of slaves in the house. But Helotism joins, in the same person, the slavery established by voluptuous nations, and that of the most simple.
[† ]De moribus Germanorum.
[‡ ]Tacitus, De morib. German. says, the master is not to be distinguished from the slave, by any delicacy of living.