SECTION XII.: Of the love and hatred of animals. - David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature 
A Treatise of Human Nature by David Hume, reprinted from the Original Edition in three volumes and edited, with an analytical index, by L.A. Selby-Bigge, M.A. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896).
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- Editor’s Preface.
- Book I: Of the Understanding
- Part I.: Of Ideas, Their Origin, Composition, Connexion, Abstraction, &c.
- Section I.: Of the Origin of Our Ideas.
- Section II.: Division of the Subject.
- Section III.: Of the Ideas of the Memory and Imagination.
- Section IV.: Of the Connexion Or Association of Ideas.
- Section V.: Of Relations.
- Section VI.: Of Modes and Substances.
- Section VII.: Of Abstract Ideas.
- Part II.: Of the Ideas of Space and Time.
- Section I.: Of the Infinite Divisibility of Our Ideas of Space and Time.
- Section II.: Of the Infinite Divisibility of Space and Time.
- Section III.: Of the Other Qualities of Our Ideas of Space and Time.
- Section IV.: Objections Answer’d.
- Section V.: The Same Subject Continu’d.
- Section VI.: Of the Idea of Existence, and of External Existence.
- Part III.: Of Knowledge and Probability.
- Section I.: Of Knowledge.
- Section II.: Of Probability; and of the Idea of Cause and Effect.
- Section III.: Why a Cause Is Always Necessary.
- Section IV.: Of the Component Parts of Our Reasonings Concerning Cause and Effect.
- Section. V.: Of the Impressions of the Senses and Memory.
- Section VI.: Of the Inference From the Impression to the Idea.
- Section VII.: Of the Nature of the Idea Or Belief.
- Section VIII.: Of the Causes of Belief.
- Section IX.: Of the Effects of Other Relations and Other Habits.
- Section X.: Of the Influence of Belief.
- Section XI.: Of the Probability of Chances.
- Section XII.: Of the Probability of Causes.
- Section XIII.: Of Unphilosophical Probability.
- Section XIV.: Of the Idea of Necessary Connexion.
- Section XV.: Rules By Which to Judge of Causes and Effects.
- Section XVI.: Of the Reason of Animals.
- Part IV.: Of the Sceptical and Other Systems of Philosophy.
- Section I.: Of Scepticism With Regard to Reason.
- Section II.: Of Scepticism With Regard to the Senses.
- Section III.: Of the Antient Philosophy.
- Section IV.: Of the Modern Philosophy.
- Section V.: Of the Immateriality of the Soul.
- Section VI.: Of Personal Identity.
- Section VII.: Conclusion of This Book.
- Book II: Of the Passions
- Part I.: Of Pride and Humility.
- Section I.: Division of the Subject.
- Section II.: Of Pride and Humility; Their Objects and Causes.
- Section III.: Whence These Objects and Causes Are Deriv’d.
- Section IV.: Of the Relations of Impressions and Ideas.
- Section V.: Of the Influence of These Relations On Pride and Humility.
- Section VI.: Limitations of This System.
- Section VII.: Of Vice and Virtue.
- Section VIII.: Of Beauty and Deformity.
- Section IX.: Of External Advantages and Disadvantages.
- Section X.: Of Property and Riches.
- Section XI.: Of the Love of Fame.
- Section XII.: Of the Pride and Humility of Animals.
- Part II.: Of Love and Hatred.
- Section I.: Of the Objects and Causes of Love and Hatred.
- Section II.: Experiments to Confirm This System.
- Section III.: Difficulties Solv’d.
- Section IV.: Of the Love of Relations.
- Section V.: Of Our Esteem For the Rich and Powerful.
- Section VI.: Of Benevolence and Anger.
- Section VII.: Of Compassion.
- Section VIII.: Of Malice and Envy.
- Section IX.: Of the Mixture of Benevolence and Anger With Compassion and Malice.
- Section X.: Of Respect and Contempt.
- Section XI.: Of the Amorous Passion, Or Love Betwixt the Sexes.
- Section XII.: Of the Love and Hatred of Animals.
- Part III.: Of the Will and Direct Passions.
- Section I.: Of Liberty and Necessity.
- Section II.: The Same Subject Continu’d.
- Section III.: Of the Influencing Motives of the Will.
- Section IV.: Of the Causes of the Violent Passions.
- Section V.: Of the Effects of Custom.
- Section VI.: Of the Influence of the Imagination On the Passions.
- Section VII.: Of Contiguity, and Distance In Space and Time.
- Section VIII.: The Same Subject Continu’d.
- Section IX.: Of the Direct Passions.
- Section X.: Of Curiosity, Or the Love of Truth.
- Book III: Of Morals
- Part I.: Of Virtue and Vice In General.
- Section I.: Moral Distinctions Not Deriv’d From Reason.
- Section II.: Moral Distinctions Deriv’d From a Moral Sense.
- Part II.: Of Justice and Injustice.
- Section I.: Justice, Whether a Natural Or Artificial Virtue?
- Section II.: Of the Origin of Justice and Property.
- Section III.: Of the Rules, Which Determine Property.
- Section IV.: Of the Transference of Property By Consent.
- Section V.: Of the Obligation of Promises.
- Section VI.: Some Farther Reflexions Concerning Justice and Injustice.
- Section VII.: Of the Origin of Government.
- Section VIII.: Of the Source of Allegiance.
- Section IX.: Of the Measures of Allegiance.
- Section X.: Of the Objects of Allegiance.
- Section XI.: Of the Laws of Nations.
- Section XII.: Of Chastity and Modesty.
- Part III.: Of the Other Virtues and Vices.
- Section I.: Of the Origin of the Natural Virtues and Vices.
- Section II.: Of Greatness of Mind.
- Section III.: Of Goodness and Benevolence.
- Section IV.: Of Natural Abilities.
- Section V.: Some Farther Reflexions Concerning the Natural Virtues.
- Section VI.: Conclusion of This Book.
Of the love and hatred of animals.
But to pass from the passions of love and hatred, and from their mixtures and compositions, as they appear in man, to the same affections, as they display themselves in brutes; we may observe, not only that love and hatred are common to the whole sensitive creation, but likewise that their causes, as above-explain’d, are of so simple a nature, that they may easily be suppos’d to operate on mere animals. There is no force of reflection or penetration requir’d. Every thing is conducted by springs and principles, which are not peculiar to man, or any one species of animals. The conclusion from this is obvious in favour of the foregoing system.
Love in animals, has not for its only object animals of the same species, but extends itself farther, and comprehends almost every sensible and thinking being. A dog naturally loves a man above his own species, and very commonly meets with a return of affection.
As animals are but little susceptible either of the pleasures or pains of the imagination, they can judge of objects only by the sensible good or evil, which they produce, and from that must regulate their affections towards them. Accordingly we find, that by benefits or injuries we produce their love or hatred; and that by feeding and cherishing any animal, we quickly acquire his affections; as by beating and abusing him we never fail to draw on us his enmity and ill-will.
Love in beasts is not caus’d so much by relation, as in our species; and that because their thoughts are not so active as to trace relations, except in very obvious instances. Yet ’tis easy to remark, that on some occasions it has a considerable influence upon them. Thus acquaintance, which has the same effect as relation, always produces love in animals either to men or to each other. For the same reason any likeness among them is the source of affection. An ox confin’d to a park with horses, will naturally join their company, if I may so speak, but always leaves it to enjoy that of his own species, where he has the choice of both.
The affection of parents to their young proceeds from a peculiar instinct in animals, as well as in our species.
’Tis evident, that sympathy, or the communication of passions, takes place among animals, no less than among men. Fear, anger, courage and other affections are frequently communicated from one animal to another, without their knowledge of that cause, which produc’d the original passion. Grief likewise is receiv’d by sympathy; and produces almost all the same consequences, and excites the same emotions as in our species. The howlings and lamentations of a dog produce a sensible concern in his fellows. And ’tis remarkable, that tho’ almost all animals use in play the same member, and nearly the same action as in fighting; a lion, a tyger, a cat their paws; an ox his horns; a dog his teeth; a horse his heels: Yet they most carefully avoid harming their companion, even tho’ they have nothing to fear from his resentment; which is an evident proof of the sense brutes have of each other’s pain and pleasure.
Every one has observ’d how much more dogs are animated when they hunt in a pack, than when they pursue their game apart; and ’tis evident this can proceed from nothing but from sympathy. ’Tis also well known to hunters, that this effect follows in a greater degree, and even in too great a degree, where two packs, that are strangers to each other, are join’d together. We might, perhaps, be at a loss to explain this phænomenon, if we had not experience of a similar in ourselves.
Envy and malice are passions very remarkable in animals. They are perhaps more common than pity; as requiring less effort of thought and imagination.
of the will and direct passions.