Front Page Titles (by Subject) Speaking Truth to Power: The Miller of Sans-Souci - Collected Works of Bastiat. Vol. 2: The Law, The State, and Other Political Writings, 1843-1850
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Speaking Truth to Power: “The Miller of Sans-Souci” - Frédéric Bastiat, Collected Works of Bastiat. Vol. 2: The Law, The State, and Other Political Writings, 1843-1850 
The Collected Works of Frédéric Bastiat. Vol. 2: The Law, The State, and Other Political Writings, 1843-1850, Jacques de Guenin, General Editor. Translated from the French by Jane Willems and Michel Willems, with an introduction by Pascal Salin. Annotations and Glossaries by Jacques de Guenin, Jean-Claude Paul-Dejean, and David M. Hart. Translation Editor Dennis O’Keeffe. Academic Editor, David M. Hart (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2012).
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Speaking Truth to Power: “The Miller of Sans-Souci”
In his writings Bastiat makes many references to literary works in order to make his political and economic points. He oft en quoted the playwright Molière as well as the more contemporary poet and playwright François Andrieux (1759–1833). Andrieux had been a member of the liberal Girondin group during the Revolution before taking up a number of academic positions under Napoléon. Bastiat was particularly interested in Andrieux’s tale “The Miller of Sans-Souci,” which was read at a public meeting of the institute on 15 Germinal an 5 (4 April 1797).
The story is about a German who had the courage to speak the truth to power, namely, Frederick the Great. One might say that Bastiat is the Frenchman of his day who had the courage to speak some unpalatable truths to power, in his case the socialists and interventionists who had come to power during the revolution of 1848. Bastiat refers to this tale several times in his writings, and it is not hard to see why it became one of his favorite anecdotes.31
The liberal republican Andrieux depicts an entrepreneurial mill owner who is determined to keep his property when ordered to hand it over to the state in order to satisfy the whim of Frederick the Great, who wishes to expand the size of his palace. Not only does Frederick take the name of the mill, “Sans-Souci,” as the name for his palace, but he also wants to tear down the mill and its large rotating blades in order to have a clear view of the countryside. The mill owner refuses, saying that he does not want to sell the mill and the property to anybody, that his father is buried there, that his son was born there, and that the mill is as valuable to him as Potsdam is to the Prussian emperor.
Frederick slyly replies that if he wanted to he could seize the miller’s property, as he was the “master.” The resolute and fearless miller says to Frederick’s face, “You? Take my mill? Yes, (you might) if we didn’t have judges in Berlin.” Frederick smiles at the thought that his subjects really believed that justice existed under his reign and tells his courtiers to leave the miller alone. Andrieux concludes his tale with a reflection on the nature of the power of emperors, reminding his readers that the warrior Frederick had seized Silesia and put Europe to the torch: “These are the games princes play. They respect a miller but steal a province.”32
This story is quite similar to one related by St. Augustine in Book 4 of The City of God, where a pirate who had been seized and brought before Alexander the Great asks Alexander what is the real difference between a pirate and an emperor apart from the scale of their actions? The pirate asks the emperor, “What thou meanest by seizing the whole earth; but because I do it with a petty ship, I am called a robber, whilst thou who dost it with a great fleet art styled emperor.”33
Bastiat despised the teaching of classical Latin authors to the youth of France because such authors were slave owners and warriors and thus, in Bastiat’s mind, had the moral philosophy of plunderers and conquerors. However, Bastiat was never shy about quoting from more-contemporary authors like Andrieux, who had a more-relevant moral, political, or economic story to tell about individuals who courageously stood up to the state to protect their liberty and their property. Bastiat was one of those individuals who, in the extraordinary times in which he lived, did exactly this, until he lost both his voice and then his life.
David M. Hart
Glossary of Persons
Ali, Mehemet (1769–1849). Governor of Egypt who introduced reforms in Egypt in order to modernize the state along European lines. He nationalized the land, created a state monopoly in foreign trade and a network of war industries, and conscripted peasants to work in the cotton factories.
Antonelle, Pierre Antoine, marquis d’ (1747–1817). Journalist, politician, and president of the tribunal that judged and condemned Marie Antoinette.
Azara, Don Felix (1746–1811). Spanish explorer and geographer.
Azy, Paul Benoît d’ (1824–98). Deputy and metallurgical industrialist.
Babeuf, François (alias “Gracchus”) (1760–97). Radical author, minor state official, and agitator during the French Revolution. Babeuf’s ideas were an early form of communism (i.e., equality of ownership in all things, government distribution of goods and planning of the economy, equalization of salaries and wages, and a common state-sanctioned public education).
He adopted the alias “Gracchus” in honor of the brothers who attempted to introduce land-reform legislation in ancient Rome. Babeuf survived many intrigues and court cases before finally being convicted and executed for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals during the Directory. This movement was part of an uprising against the government’s attempt to end the system of large subsidies for the supply of food to the city of Paris. The subsidies enabled food to be sold at fixed, artificially low prices. (See also the entry for “Gracchi” in this glossary.)
Bacon, Sir Francis (1561–1626). English philosopher, statesman, and author. Bacon was trained as a lawyer but made a name for himself as one of the clearest exponents of the scientific method at the dawn of the scientific revolution in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. He argued that knowledge about the natural world could be best acquired through direct observation, experiment, and the testing of a hypothesis. His best-known works include The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620), and New Atlantis (1626).
Barbès, Armand (1809–70). Left-wing republican radical, follower of Babeuf, and friend of the socialist revolutionary Auguste Blanqui. Barbès was part of a plot in 1839 to overthrow Louis-Philippe during the July Monarchy. He was initially condemned to death, but the intervention of Victor Hugo changed the verdict to imprisonment. Barbès was released only as a result of the outbreak of the 1848 revolution. In May 1848, soon after his release, he was engaged in another plot against the government for which he was imprisoned. He was amnestied in 1854 and went into voluntary exile.
Basile. Character in Beaumarchais’ play (and later, Mozart’s opera) The Barber of Seville.
Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin, baron de (1732–99). French playwright. Beaumarchais was a watchmaker and a court musician before he turned to writing plays. He is best known for having dared to publish Voltaire and two antiaristocratic plays of his own—The Barber of Seville, or the Useless Precaution (1775), and The Marriage of Figaro or the Follies of a Day (1784). During the American Revolution he acted on behalf of the French crown to supply guns and other weapons to the American revolutionaries.
Beccaria, marquis de (Cesar Bonesana) (1738–94). Italian jurist and philosopher raised in France. His treatise on crimes and punishments, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), which stated the principle that the accused should be considered innocent until proven guilty, was translated into many languages.
Béranger, Pierre-Jean de (1780–1857). Béranger was a liberal poet and songwriter who rose to prominence during the Restoration period with his funny and clever criticisms of the monarchy and the church. His antics got him into trouble with the censors, who imprisoned him for brief periods in the 1820s. His material was much in demand in the singing societies, or “goguettes,” which sprang up during the Restoration and the July Monarchy as a way of circumventing the censorship laws and the bans on political parties.
After the appearance of his second volume of songs, in 1821, Béranger was tried and convicted and sentenced to three months’ imprisonment in Sainte-Pélagie, where he wrote the “La Liberté” (Liberty) in January 1822. Another bout of imprisonment (this time nine months in La Force) followed in 1828, when his fourth volume was published. Many of the figures who came to power after the July revolution of 1830 were friends or acquaintances of Béranger’s, and it was assumed he would be granted a sinecure in recognition of his critiques of the old monarchy. However, he refused all government appointments in a stinging poem that he wrote in late 1830 called “Le Refus” (The Refusal). In April 1848, at the age of sixty-eight, Béranger was overwhelmingly elected to the Constituent Assembly, in which he sat for a brief period before resigning.
Béranger mixed in liberal circles in the 1840s in Paris, when he joined Bastiat’s Free Trade Society and the Society of Political Economy. He was invited to attend the welcome dinner held by the latter to honor Bastiat’s arrival in Paris in May 1845 but was unable to attend.
Bérard, Auguste (1783–1859). Politician who started his political career in 1827. Liberal deputy during the restoration and July Monarchy. He was a constitutional monarchist who played an important role in the 1830 July revolution which brought Louis Philippe to power.
Billaud-Varennes, Jean (1756–1839). Member of the Convention and of the Committee of Public Safety, he was at first a supporter of Robespierre, then an opponent who contributed to his fall.
Billault, Adolphe (1805–63). Deputy, lawyer, and mayor of Nantes. Billault also served in other capacities, such as undersecretary of state for agriculture and commerce under Thiers in 1840. In 1848 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly but was not reelected in 1849. He became a strong supporter of Louis-Napoléon’s bid to become emperor and served as his minister of the interior. In his political and economic views he was a follower of Saint-Simon.
Blanc, Louis (1811–82). Journalist and historian who was active in the socialist movement. Blanc founded the journal La Revue du progrès and published therein articles that later became the influential pamphlet L’Organisation du travail (1839). During the 1848 revolution he became a member of the temporary government, promoted the National Workshops, and debated Adolphe Thiers on the merits of the right to work in Le Socialisme; droit au travail, réponse à M. Thiers (1848).
In 1847 Blanc began work on a multivolume history of the French Revolution, Histoire de la Révolution française, two volumes of which had appeared when the February revolution of 1848 broke out. A second edition of fifteen volumes appeared in 1878.
Blanqui, Jérôme Adolphe (1798–1854). Liberal economist and brother of the revolutionary socialist Auguste Blanqui. Jérôme Blanqui became director of the prestigious École supérieure de commerce de Paris and succeeded Jean-Baptiste Say to the chair of political economy at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. He was elected deputy representing the Gironde from 1846 to 1848. Among his many works on political economy and sociology are the Encyclopédie du commerçant (1839–41), Précis élementaire d’économie politique (1842), and Les Classes ouvrières en France (1848).
Bonaparte, Napoléon (1769–1821). French general, first consul of France (1799–1804), emperor of the French (1804–15). Although Napoléon’s conquests of Europe were ultimately unsuccessful (Spain 1808; Russia 1812; Waterloo, Belgium, 1815), he dramatically altered the face of Europe economically, politically, and legally (the Civil Code of 1804).
Many European countries suffered huge economic losses from Napoléon’s occupation and the looting of museums and churches. Napoléon introduced a new form of economic warfare, the “continental system” (1807), which was designed to cripple Britain by denying its goods access to the European market. It was partly in response to these and other measures that Jean-Baptiste Say wrote his Traité d’économie politique (1803). Politically, Napoléon introduced harsh censorship in order to stifle his liberal critics and weakened parliamentary institutions in order to rule in his own right. Benjamin Constant and Madame de Staël were two of his sharpest critics. See in particular the former’s Principes de politiques applicables à tous les gouvernements (1815). Constant also wrote a devastating critique of Napoléon’s militarism in De l’esprit de conquête et de l’usurpation, dans leurs rapports à la civilisation européen (1813).
Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne (1627–1704). Bishop of Meaux, historian, and tutor to the dauphin (son of Louis XIV). Bossuet was renowned for his oratory and classical writing style, which was used as a model for generations of French schoolchildren. In politics he was an intransigent Gallican Catholic, an opponent of Protestantism, and a supporter of the idea of the divine right of kings.
Bougainville, Louis Antoine de (1729–1814). French mathematician, navigator, and explorer. He directed an expedition around the world in 1766, related in his 1771 book Voyage autour du monde. He took part in the American War of Independence under Admiral de Grasse.
Bourbon, Louis Joseph de (1736–1818). Prince de Condé from 1740 to his death. He fled France after the fall of the Bastille in 1789 and formed an army of counterrevolutionary émigrés in the German city of Koblenz between 1791 and 1801, fighting first with the Austrians and then with the English. After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815 he returned to Paris, where he served in the royal household of Louis XVIII.
Boyer-Fonfrède, Henri (1788–1841). Liberal publicist, economic journalist, and supporter of the July Monarchy. He founded L’Indicateur and wrote Questions d’économie politique (1846).
Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre (1754–93). Member of the Girondin faction in the French Revolution and one of many Girondins who were executed during the Terror. (See also the entry for “Girondins” in the Glossary of Subjects and Terms.) Brissot studied law and became a writer and a journalist. He was active in a number of liberal reformist groups, such as the abolitionist organization the Société des amis des noirs (which he founded). During the Revolution he was elected to the Legislative Assembly and then the National Convention. He opposed the execution of the king.
Brutus, Lucius Junius (ca. 500 bc). Ancestor of Marcus Junius Brutus, who assassinated Julius Caesar. According to legend, Lucius led a revolt against the last king of Rome, Tarquinius, thus founding the republic of Rome. He was appointed one of the first consuls of Rome.
Brutus, Marcus Junius (ca. 85–42 bc). Roman senator who had been brought up on Stoic philosophy by his uncle, Cato the Younger. Brutus participated in the assassination of Julius Caesar and because of this was regarded by many in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as the model of the tyrannicide.
Buchanan, David (1779–1848). Journalist and economist. Buchanan edited and annotated an 1814 edition of Adam Smith’s Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Buchanan’s notes on Smith were included in the French translation of Smith’s Wealth of Nations published by Guillaumin in 1843.
Burke, Edmund (1729–97). English political philosopher whom many consider to have laid the foundations of modern conservative political thought. Although he supported the American colonies in the revolution against the British crown, he strongly opposed the French Revolution, the rise of unbridled democracy, and the growing corruption of government. Burke was a member of Parliament from 1765 to 1794 and served under Rockingham. His major works include The Sublime and the Beautiful (1757), Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), and Thoughts and Details on Scarcity (1795).
Cabet, Étienne (1788–1856). Lawyer and utopian socialist who coined the word “communism.” Between 1831 and 1834 he was a deputy in the Chamber, until he was forced into exile in Britain, where he came into contact with Robert Owen.
Cabet advocated a society in which the elected representatives controlled all property that was owned in common by the community. He promoted his views in a journal called Le Populaire and in a book about a fictitious communist community called Icarie, Voyage et aventures de lord William Carisdall en Icarie (1840). In 1848 Cabet left France in order to create such a community in Texas and then at Nauvoo, Illinois, but these efforts ended in failure. The naming of his utopian community after the figure from Greek mythology Icarus, who failed in his attempt to flee the island of Crete by flying with wax wings too close to the sun, was perhaps unfortunate.
Carlier, Pierre. Head of the Paris police in 1830 and 1848. Named prefect of police in 1849.
Carrier, Jean-Baptiste (1756–94). French revolutionary. One of the most bloodthirsty participants in the Terror, he was guillotined in December 1794.
Carteret, John, second earl of Granville (1690–1763). British ambassador to Sweden (1719), secretary of state (1721–24 and 1742–44), and lord president of the Privy Council (1751–63). Granville’s family owned one-eighth of the province of Carolina in America, which they lost during the American Revolution.
Catilina, Lucius (109–62 bc). Roman patrician. His conspiracy against the Senate was denounced by Cicero.
Cavaignac, Eugène (1802–57). General, deputy, minister of war, head of the executive. He crushed the workers’ uprising of June 1848. He was a candidate in the presidential election of 10 December but obtained only 1,448,000 votes against 5,434,000 for Louis-Napoléon.
Charencey, Charles de (1773–1838). An army officer who became a captain in the Royal Guard. He was also an elected deputy, 1822–30, and a member of the State Council, 1828–38.
Chateaubriand, François René, vicomte de (1768–1848). Novelist, philosopher, and supporter of Charles X. He was minister of foreign affairs from 28 December 1822 to 6 June 1824. A defender of freedom of the press and Greek independence, he refused to take the oath to King Louis-Philippe after 1830. He spent his retirement writing his Mémoires d’outretombe (1849–50).
Chevalier, Michel (1806–87). Liberal economist, alumnus of the École polytechnique, and minister of Napoléon III. Initially a Saint-Simonist, Chevalier was imprisoned for two years (1832–33). After a trip to the United States, he published Lettres sur l’Amérique du Nord (1836), Histoire et description des voies de communications aux États-Unis et des travaux d’art qui en dependent (1840–41), and Cours d’économie politique (1845–55). He was appointed to the chair of political economy at the Collège de France in 1840 and became a senator in 1860. He was an admirer of Bastiat and Cobden and played a decisive role in the free-trade treaty of 1860 between France and England (Chevalier was the signatory for France, while Cobden was the signatory for England).
Cobden, Richard (1804–65). Founder of the Anti–Corn Law League. Born in Sussex to a poor farmer’s family, Cobden was trained by an uncle to become a clerk in his warehouse. At twenty-one, he became a traveling salesman and was so successful that he was able to acquire his own business, a factory making printed cloth. Thanks to his vision of the market and his sense of organization, his company became very prosperous. Nevertheless, at the age of thirty, he left the management of the company to his brother in order to travel. He wrote some remarkable articles in which he defended two great causes: pacifism, in the form of nonintervention in foreign affairs, and free exchange.
From 1839, he devoted himself exclusively to the Anti–Corn Law League and was elected as member of Parliament for Stockport in 1841. Toward the end of the 1850s, he was asked by the government to negotiate a free-trade treaty with France. His French counterpart was Michel Chevalier, a minister of Napoléon III and a friend and admirer of Bastiat. The treaty (the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty) was signed by Cobden and Chevalier in 1860.
Comte, Charles (1782–1837). Lawyer, liberal critic of Napoléon and then of the restored monarchy, son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Say. One of the leading liberal theorists before the 1848 revolution, he founded, with Charles Dunoyer, the journal Le Censeur in 1814 and Le Censeur européen in 1817 and was prosecuted many times for challenging the press censorship laws and criticizing the government. He encountered the ideas of Say in 1817 and discussed them at length in Le Censeur européen. After having spent some time in prison he escaped to Switzerland, where he was offered the Chair of Natural Law at the University of Lausanne before he was obliged to move to England. In 1826 he published the first part of his magnum opus, the four-volume Traité de législation, which very much influenced the thought of Bastiat, and in 1834 he published the second part, Traité de la propriété. Comte was secretary of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques and was elected a deputy representing La Sarthe after the 1830 revolution.
Condé, prince de. (See the entry for “Bourbon, Louis Joseph de,” in this glossary.)
Condillac, Étienne Bonnot, abbé de (1714–80). Priest, philosopher, economist, and member of the Académie française. Condillac was an advocate of the ideas of John Locke and a friend of the encyclopedist Denis Diderot. In his Traité des sensations (1754), Condillac claims that all attributes of the mind, such as judgment, reason, and even will, derive from sensations. His book Le Commerce et le gouvernement, considérés relativement l’un à l’autre (1776) appeared in the same year as Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations.
Considérant, Victor Prosper (1808–93). Follower of the socialist Fourier and advocate of the “right to work,” a movement to which Bastiat was greatly opposed. Considérant was author of Principes du socialisme: Manifeste de la démocratie au XIXe siècle (1847) and Théorie du droit de propriété et du droit au travail (1845).
Coquelin, Charles (1802–52). One of the leading figures in the political economy movement (Les Économistes) in Paris before his untimely death. Coquelin was selected by the publisher Guillaumin to edit the prestigious and voluminous Dictionnaire de l’économie politique (1852) because of his erudition and near-photographic memory. He also wrote dozens of articles for the Dictionnaire. Coquelin was very active in the free-trade movement, becoming secretary of the Association pour la liberté des échanges, writing articles for Bastiat’s journal Le Libre-échange, and later taking over the editor’s role when Bastiat had to resign because of ill health. Coquelin also wrote dozens of articles and book reviews for Le Journal des économistes. During the Revolution of 1848 Coquelin was active in forming a debating club, Le Club de la liberté du travail (The Club for Free Labor), which took on the socialists before the club was violently broken up by opponents. Coquelin, along with Bastiat, Fonteyraud, Garnier, and Molinari, started a small revolutionary magazine, Jacques Bonhomme, which was written to appeal to ordinary people. Unfortunately it lasted only a few weeks in June before it, too, was forced to close. Coquelin wrote about transport, the linen industry, the law governing corporations, money, credit, and banking (especially free banking, of which he was probably the first serious advocate).
Corneille, Pierre (1606–84). Playwright who, along with Molière and Racine, helped define French classical tragedy in the seventeenth century. In some of his tragedies, such as Horace (1640), he exalted the virtues of idealized Roman heroes.
Cornelia Africana (190–100 bc). Daughter of Scipio Africanus and mother of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Gaius Sempronius Gracchus.
Cornier, Paul-Louis (1772–1825). Author of pamphlets in which he harassed the government of Louis XVIII, who ruled 1814–24.
Crassus, Marcus Licinius (115–53 bc). Wealthy Roman consul and member of the first triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar.
Crémieux, Adolphe (1796–1880). Lawyer active in freemason and Jewish circles. He was appointed minister of justice in the new republican government, which formed after the revolution of 1848. Crémieux was first elected deputy in 1841 and served until his resignation in 1850 because of his opposition to Louis-Napoléon. He did not return to politics until the 1870 revolution, when he again served as minister of justice.
Curiace. Character in Corneille’s play Horace.
Decius, Gaius Messius Quintus (201–51). Emperor of Rome. Decius was notorious for attempting to increase the power of the Roman state by strengthening the military and, most significantly, for persecuting Christians by forcing them to sacrifice to Roman deities.
Destutt de Tracy, Antoine (1754–1836). One of the leading intellectuals of the 1790s and early 1800s and a member of the ideologues (a philosophical movement not unlike the objectivists, who professed that the origin of ideas was material, not spiritual). In his writings on Montesquieu, Tracy defended the institutions of the American republic, and in his writings on political economy he defended laissez-faire. During the French Revolution he joined the third estate and renounced his aristocratic title. During the Terror he was arrested and nearly executed. Tracy continued agitating for liberal reforms as a senator during Napoléon’s regime. One of his most influential works was the four-volume Éléments d’idéologie (first published in 1801–15) (Tracy coined the term ideology). Volume four of Éléments d’idéologie, titled Traité de la volunté, was translated by Thomas Jefferson and appeared in English under the title Treatise of Political Economy in 1817. It was then republished in France in 1823 under the same title, Traité d’économie politique. Tracy also wrote Commentaire sur l’ésprit des lois (1819), which Thomas Jefferson translated and brought to the United States.
Diodorus (Diodorus Siculus) (first century bc). Greek historian who wrote a universal history of the Greeks from the early tribes of Hellas to Alexander the Great and the rise of Julius Caesar.
Dunoyer, Barthélémy-Pierre-Joseph-Charles (1786–1862). Dunoyer was a journalist; an academic (a professor of political economy); a politician; the author of numerous works on politics, political economy, and history; a founding member of the Société d’économie politique (1842); and a key figure in the French classical liberal movement of the first half of the nineteenth century, along with Jean-Baptiste Say, Benjamin Constant, Charles Comte, Augustin Thierry, and Alexis de Tocqueville. He collaborated with Comte on the journals Le Censeur and Le Censeur européen during the end of the Napoleonic empire and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. Dunoyer (and Comte) combined the political liberalism of Constant (constitutional limits on the power of the state, representative government); the economic liberalism of Say (laissez-faire, free trade); and the sociological approach to history of Thierry, Constant, and Say (class analysis and a theory of historical evolution of society through stages culminating in the laissez-faire market society of “industry”). His major works include L’Industrie et la morale considérées dans leurs rapports avec la liberté (1825), Nouveau traité d’économie sociale (1830), and his three-volume magnum opus De la liberté du travail (1845). After the revolution of 1830 Dunoyer was appointed a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, worked as a government official (he was prefect of L’Allier and La Somme), and eventually became a member of the Council of State in 1837. He resigned his government posts in protest against the coup d’état of Louis-Napoléon in 1851. He died while writing a critique of the authoritarian Second Empire; the work was completed and published by his son Anatole in 1864.
Dupin, Charles (1784–1873). Liberal deputy. Dupin was also an alumnus of the École polytechnique, a naval engineer, and a professor of mechanics at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, where he taught courses for working people. He is one of the founders of mathematical economics and the statistical office (Bureau de France).
Enfantin, Barthélemy Prosper (1796–1864). Wine merchant, banker, and manager of the Paris–Lyon railroad. In the early 1840s he was appointed to the Scientific Commission of Algeria, which looked into matters concerning the French colonization of that country. His earliest political activity was to join the nationalist and liberal secret society, the Carbonari (the “charcoal burners”), which included La Fayette and Lord Byron among its members. Enfantin came into contact with the ideas of Saint-Simon and, with Olinde Rodrigues and Bazard, founded the utopian socialist school of the Saint-Simonians, which advocated a form of socialism in which industrial society would be managed by an elite of scientists and engineers. By the time of the July revolution their “doctrine” had become a veritable “religion,” with Enfantin as one of its “high priests.” (See also the entry for “Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de,” in this glossary.)
Erskine, Thomas, first baron Erskine (1750–1823). Lawyer and Whig member of Parliament who served as lord chancellor of Great Britain 1806–7. He made a name for himself in the 1780s and 1790s by defending radical authors such as Thomas Paine against charges of libel.
Estrada, Antonio Florez (1769–1853). Spanish jurist, economist, and liberal constitutionalist politician. His best-known work is a Tratado de economica politica (1828). Upon Bastiat’s death in 1850 Estrada was elected a corresponding member of the Institute to fill Bastiat’s vacancy.
Falloux du Coudray, Frédéric Alfred Pierre, vicomte de (1811–86). Deputy, minister of education (20 December 1848 to 31 October 1849), and author of a law on freedom of education.
Faucher, Léon (1803–54). Journalist, writer, deputy for the Marne, and twice appointed minister of the interior. Faucher became an active journalist during the July Monarchy, writing for Le Constitutionnel and Le Courrier français. He was one of the editors of La Revue des deux mondes and Le Journal des économistes. Faucher was appointed to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques in 1849 and was active in the Association pour la liberté des échanges. He wrote on prison reform, gold and silver currency, socialism, and taxation. One of his better-known works is Études sur l’Angleterre (1856).
Fénelon (François de Salignac de la Motte-Fénelon) (1651–1715). Archbishop of Cambrai and tutor to the young duke of Burgundy, the grandson of Louis XIV. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (which had granted toleration for Protestants in France), Fénelon was one of several high-ranking clergy sent to convert recalcitrant Protestants to Catholicism. He wrote a collection called Dialogue des morts et fables (1700), and Les Aventures de Télémaque (1699), which was a thinly veiled satire of the reign of Louis XIV and a critique of the notion of the divine right of kings.
Figaro. Character in Beaumarchais’ play The Barber of Seville and later in his play The Marriage of Figaro (both later became operas by Rossini and Mozart, respectively).
Fontenay, Roger-Anne-Paul-Gabriel de (1809–91). Member of the Société d’économie politique and an ally of Bastiat in their debates in the Société on the nature of rent. Fontenay worked with Prosper Paillottet in editing the Œeuvres complètes of Bastiat and was a regular contributor to Le Journal des économistes right up to his death. In a work published soon after Bastiat’s death in 1850, Du revenu foncier (1854), Fontenay decribes himself and Bastiat as forming a distinct “French school of political economy,” tracing its roots back to Jean-Baptiste Say and including Antoine Destutt de Tracy, Charles Comte, and especially Charles Dunoyer, in contrast with the “English school” of Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. The main difference between the two schools was on the issue of rent from land: Bastiat and Fontenay denied that there was any special “gift of nature” that made up the rents from land, instead arguing that all returns on investments (whether capital, interest, or rent) were the result of services provided by producers to consumers.
Fonteyraud, Henri Alcide (1822–49). Fonteyraud was born in Mauritius and became professor of history, geography, and political economy at the École supérieure de commerce de Paris. He was a member of the Société d’économie politique and one of the founders of the Association pour la liberté des échanges. Because of his knowledge of English he went to England in 1845 to study at first hand the progress of the Anti–Corn Law League. During the revolution of 1848, he campaigned against socialist ideas with his activity in the Club de la liberté du travail and, along with Bastiat, Coquelin, and Molinari, by writing and handing out in the streets of Paris copies of the broadside pamphlet Jacques Bonhomme. Sadly, he died very young during the cholera epidemic of 1849. He wrote articles in La Revue britannique and Le Journal des économistes, and he edited and annotated the works of Ricardo in the multivolume Collection des principaux économistes. His collected works were published posthumously as Mélanges d’économie politique, edited by J. Garnier (1853).
Fould, Achille (1800–1867). Banker and deputy who represented the département s of Les Hautes-Pyrénées in 1842 and La Seine in 1849. He was close to Louis-Napoléon, lending him money before he became emperor, and then serving as minister of finance, first during the Second Republic and then under the Second Empire (1849–67). Fould was an important part of the imperial household, serving as an adviser to the emperor, especially on economic matters. He was an ardent free trader but was close to the Saint–Simonians on matters of banking. (For the Saint-Simonians, see the entry for “Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de,” in this glossary.)
Fourier, François-Marie Charles (1772–1837). Socialist and founder of the phalansterian school (Fourierism). Fourierism consisted of a utopian, communistic system for the reorganization of society. The population was to be grouped in “phalansteries” of about eighteen hundred persons, who would live together as one family and hold property in common. Fourier’s main works include Le Nouveau monde industriel et sociétaire (1829) and La Fausse industrie morcelée répugnante et mensongère et l’antidote, l’industrie naturelle, combinée, attrayante, véridique donnant quadruple produit (1835–36). Many of Fourier’s ideas appeared in his journal Phalanstère, ou la réforme industrielle, which ran from 1832 to 1834.
Fox, Charles James (1749–1806). Leading Whig political leader in the last decades of the eighteenth century in England. He supported parliamentary reform, civil and religious liberty, the American and French revolutions, and the abolition of slavery. He had a very public split with Edmund Burke over Britain’s war against the French Republic, with Fox advocating a negotiated peace and settlement. Fox expressed his strong criticism at the loss of civil liberties in Britain as a result of the war against the French Republic, for example, the suspension of habeas corpus in 1794. In one of his last major speeches in the House of Commons shortly before his death he spoke in support of the bill to abolish the slave trade.
Fox, Henry, Lord Holland (1705–74). Whig member of Parliament, Secretaty of War (1746–55), and father of Charles James Fox.
Frayssinous, Denis-Antoine-Luc, comte de (1765–1841). Strong defender of the Catholic Church in France until he was forced into retirement by Napoléon’s arrest of the pope and his conquest of Rome in 1809. He returned to Paris with the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy after 1815, serving as court preacher to King Louis XVIII. During the restoration he was made a bishop, elected to the Académie française, and created a peer of France. With the coming to power of King Charles X in 1824, Frayssinous became minister of education and religious worship (1824–28). After the July revolution of 1830 he retired to Rome. He was noted for his work Les vrais principes de l’église gallicane sur le gouvernement ecclésiastique (1818), written in support of the French state’s concordat with the pope (1817).
Fulchiron, Jean-Claude (1774–1859). Poet and dramatist before becoming a deputy representing the Rhône. He was first elected to office in 1831 during the July Monarchy and served in the Chamber of Deputies until he was made a peer in 1845. His best-known work is his three-volume set of books about his travels in Italy, Voyages dans l’Italie méridionale (1840–42).
Garnier, Joseph (1813–81). Professor, journalist, politician, and activist for free trade and peace. He arrived in Paris in 1830 and came under the influence of Adolphe Blanqui, who introduced him to economics and who eventually became his father-in-law.
Garnier was a pupil, professor, and then director of the École supérieure de commerce de Paris, before being appointed the first professor of political economy at the École des ponts et chaussées in 1846. Garnier played a central role in the burgeoning free-market school of thought in the 1840s in Paris. He was one of the founders of the Association pour la liberté des échanges and the chief editor of its journal, Libre-échange; he was active in the Congrès de la paix; he was one of the founders, along with Guillaumin, of Le Journal des économistes, of which he became chief editor in 1846; he was one of the founders of the Société d’économie politique and was its perpetual secretary; and he was one of the founders of the 1848 liberal broadsheet Jacques Bonhomme.
Garnier was acknowledged for his considerable achievements by being nominated to join the Académie des sciences morales et politiques in 1873 and to become a senator in 1876. He was the author of numerous books and articles, among which are Introduction à l’étude de l’économie politique (1843); Richard Cobden, les ligueurs et la ligue (1846); and Congrès des amis de la paix universelle réunis à Paris en 1849 (1850). He edited Malthus’s Essai sur le principe de population (1845); Du principe de population (1857); and Traité d’économie politique sociale ou industrielle (1863).
Gauguier, Joseph (1793–1865). Soldier in Napoléon’s army, an industrialist, and deputy (1831–42). He unsuccessfully proposed parliamentary reform in 1832 and 1834.
Genovesi, Antonio (1712–69). Italian priest, philosopher, and economist. He was appointed to the first chair of political economy at the University of Naples in 1754 and was a supporter of free trade. His main book in economics is Lezzioni di commercio e di economica civile (1705).
Girardin, Saint-Marc (1801–73). Literary critic, professor of French poetry at the Sorbonne, and deputy. He served as a councillor of state and was minister of education in 1848.
Goudchaux, Michel (1797–1862). Banker and opponent of the July Monarchy, during which time he was the chief financial writer for the opposition journal Le National. After the 1848 revolution he was elected deputy representing the département of La Seine in the National Assembly. He also served as minister of finance in General Cavaignac’s government, where he fought with Thiers over tax policy in the finance committee. Goudchaux’s political career came to an end in 1849, when he was not elected to the Legislative Assembly. During the Second Empire Goudchaux raised money to help republicans who had been proscribed by Napoléon III.
Gracchi. Tiberius Gracchus (162–133 bc) and Gaius Gracchus (154–121 bc). Brothers and Roman patricians who both held the office of tribune at different times. They attempted to introduce significant land reform in ancient Rome. In response to an economic crisis they proposed to limit the size of the land holdings of aristocratic owners and distribute parcels of land to the poor. They failed to achieve this and were crushed by force. They have been seen by socialists as precursors of the modern socialist movement. Babeuf even adopted the pseudonym “Gracchus” in homage to them.
Guillaumin, Gilbert-Urbain (1801–64). French editor and founder of his own publishing firm in 1835. (For a fuller account of Guillaumin’s life, see “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 404–5.)
Guizot, François (1787–1874). Academic and politician. Guizot served as minister of the interior, then minister of education (1832–37), ambassador to England in 1840, foreign minister, and prime minister, becoming in practice the leader of the government from 1840 to 1848. He was born to a Protestant family in Nîmes, and his father was guillotined during the Terror. As a law student in Paris the young Guizot was a vocal opponent of the Napoleonic empire. After the restoration of the monarchy, Guizot was part of the Doctrinaires, a group of conservative and moderate liberals. He was professor of history at the Sorbonne from 1812 to 1830, publishing Essai sur l’histoire de France (1824), Histoire de la Révolution d’Angleterre (1826–27), Histoire générale de la civilisation en Europe (1828), and Histoire de la civilisation en France (1829–32).
He was elected deputy in 1829 and became very active in French politics after the 1830 revolution, supporting constitutional monarchy and a limited franchise. During his political life, he promoted peace abroad and liberal conservatism at home, but his regime, weakened by corruption and economic difficulties, collapsed with the monarchy in 1848. He retired to Normandy to spend the rest of his days writing history and his memoirs such as Histoire parlementaire de France (1863–64) and Histoire des origines du gouvernement représentif en Europe (1851).
Harrington, James (1611–77). Leading English republican political theorist of the seventeenth century. His views on voting by ballot and the rotation of office were considered radical in his day. Harrington’s work was influential in the eighteenth century as Jefferson and the founding fathers discovered in his writings on an independent gentry and the right to bear arms a useful antidote to the claims of the British monarchy. His most famous work is The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).
Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65–8 bc). One of the leading Latin poets during the rule of Augustus. He was the son of a freed slave and served in the army of Brutus (one of the assassins of Caesar), but was reduced to poverty when his family farm was confiscated. His poetry, especially his odes, had enormous influence in the Renaissance, on Shakespeare, and in the eighteenth century. A well-known line from one of his odes is “dulce et decorum est pro patria mori” (how sweet and fitting it is to die for one’s country).
Hugo, Victor (1802–89). Poet, novelist, dramatist, and politician who wrote some of the most important literary works of nineteenth-century France. His works include the novels Les Misérables (1862) and The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831). Hugo was a conservative Catholic in his youth but had become more liberal minded by the time he was elected deputy (1848–50). During the 1848 revolution, he became a republican and a free thinker, which contributed to his forced exile after the coup d’état of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (2 December 1851). Hugo went into exile in Jersey and then Guernsey, where he remained until the 1870 revolution. He could have returned to France after an amnesty in 1859 but chose to remain in Guernsey, realizing that if he returned he would have to temper his criticisms of the emperor. Soon after his return to Paris he was elected to the National Assembly and then the Senate.
Hume, Joseph (1777–1855). Member of Parliament elected in 1812. Leader of the liberal reformists, he played a major role in the repeal of laws forbidding machinery export and emigration and in the emancipation of Catholics.
Hus, Jan (1370–1415). Czech Catholic priest and dean of the Prague faculty of theology. A follower of Luther, he was an ardent supporter of church reform. He was burned as a heretic.
Huskisson, William (1770–1830). British member of Parliament who served from 1796 to 1830. He rose to the post of secretary to the treasury 1804–9 and later president of the Board of Trade (1823–27). Huskisson introduced a number of liberal reforms, including the reformation of the Navigation Act, a reduction in duties on manufactured goods, and the repeal of some quarantine duties. As president of the Board of Trade he played an important role in persuading British merchants to support a policy of free trade.
Lacaze, Joseph Bernard (1798–1874). Lawyer who studied and practiced in the United States before returning to France. He was elected deputy for the Hautes-Pyrénées (1848–51) where he voted with the right. He was a senator in the Second Empire.
Laffite, Jacques (1767–1844). Banker and entrepreneur, born in Bayonne. He was elected deputy in 1816 and was prime minister from 1831 until March 1832. He was a friend of the Bastiat family.
Lamartine, Alphonse de (1790–1869). Poet and statesman. As an immensely popular romantic poet, he used his talent to promote liberal ideas. He was a member of the provisional government and minister of foreign affairs in June 1848. After he lost the presidential elections of December 1848 against Louis-Napoléon, he retired from political life and went back to writing.
Lamennais, Félicité, abbé de (1782–1854). Priest, deputy, and journalist. Known for his four-volume Essai sur l’indifférence en matière de religion (1821–23), he was a strong critic of the Gallican Church and an ardent defender of the pope.
La Sagra, Ramon (1798–1871). La Sagra studied natural history and became the director of the Botanical Gardens in Cuba. He became interested in political economy in 1840 when he lectured at the Ateneo de Madrid. La Sagra was an advocate of the ideas of Proudhon, supporting his idea of a people’s bank with a book called Banque du peuple (1849).
Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre (1790–1874). Lawyer, deputy (1841–49), owner of the newspaper La Réforme, minister of the interior of the provisional government of February 1848, and then member of the executive commission. He had to yield his powers to General Cavaignac in June 1848. In 1849 he organized a demonstration against the foreign policy of Louis-Napoléon, the new president of the Republic. He was exiled and came back to France only in 1870.
Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, Louis-Michel (1760–93). Deputy to the Constituent Assembly, of which he became the president in 1790. A nobleman sharing revolutionary ideas, he was assassinated for having voted for the death of Louis XVI.
Leroux, Pierre (1798–1871). Prominent member of the Saint-Simonian group of socialists and founder of Le Globe, a review of the Saint-Simonists. Like Bastiat, he was a journalist during the 1840s and was elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848 and to the Legislative Assembly in 1849. The most developed exposition of his ideas can be found in De l’humanité (1840) and also in De la ploutocratie, ou, Du gouvernement des riches (1848).
Louis-Philippe, duc d’Orléans (1773–1850). Last French king during the July Monarchy (1830–48), abdicating on 24 February 1848. He served in the French army before going into exile in 1793. His exile lasted until 1815, when he was able to return to France under the restoration of the monarchy (King Louis XVIII was his cousin). During his exile he visited Switzerland, Scandinavia, the United States, and Cuba before settling in England. When the July revolution overthrew King Charles X in 1830, Louis-Philippe was proclaimed the new “king of the French.” Initially, he enjoyed considerable support from the middle class for his liberal policies, but he became increasingly conservative and was ousted in the February 1848 revolution.
Luscinus, Gaius Fabricius. Elected consul 282 bc–278 bc
Lycurgus of Sparta (8th century bc). Mythical Greek legislator to whom were attributed the severe laws of Sparta. These laws enshrined the virtues of martial order, simplicity of family and personal life, and shared communal living. His counterpart in Athens was Solon. (See the entry for “Solon” in this glossary.) In the eighteenth century it was common among social theorists to regard Athens and Sparta as polar opposites, with Athens representing commerce and the rule of law and Sparta representing war and authoritarianism.
Mably, Gabriel Bonnot, abbé de (1709–95). Elder brother of Condillac and an enormously popular writer on political, legal, and economic matters in his own right. He trained as a Jesuit and briefly entered religious orders. Mably was an admirer of Plato and Sparta, both, in his opinion, models for political and economic institutions. In economics, Mably was an advocate for ending private property and for the redistribution of property by the state in order to achieve equal ownership for all; thus he may be considered an early communist thinker. Mably was best known for his work Entretiens de Phocion, sur le rapport de la morale avec la politique (1763); and the Observations sur le gouvernement et les lois des États-unis d’Amérique (1784).
Maret, Hugues-Bernard, duc de Bassano (1763–1839). Served as an ambassador during the Revolution and was minister of foreign affairs under Napoléon.
McCulloch, John Ramsay (1789–1864). Leader of the Ricardian school following the death of Ricardo. He was a pioneer in the collection of economic statistics and was the first professor of political economy at the University of London in 1828. He wrote The Principles of Political Economy: With a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the Science.
Melun, Armand, vicomte de (1807–77). Politician, philanthropist, and Catholic social reformer. He was elected deputy in 1843 and took up the cause of improving the social condition of workers by founding the Société d’économie charitable and the journal Les Annales de la charité (1847). Although he was instrumental in establishing private charities for his cause, he also was an active proponent of state intervention, because only the state, in his view, “was in a position to reach all miseries.”
Mentor. Tutor of Telemachus.
Mimerel de Roubaix, Pierre (1786–1872). Textile manufacturer and politician who was a vigorous advocate of protectionism. He was elected deputy in 1849; appointed by Napoléon III to the Advisory Council and to the General Council of Agriculture, Industry, and Trade; and named senator in 1852. He founded the protariff Association for the Defense of Domestic Industry, whose journal was Le Moniteur industriel. He also headed a businessmen’s association called the Mimerel Committee, which was a focus for Bastiat’s criticisms of protectionism. It was the Mimerel Committee that called for the firing of free-market professors of political economy and for the abolition of their chairs. The committee later moderated its demands and called for the equal teaching of protectionist and free-trade views.
Minos. Son of Zeus and Europa and the king of Crete in Greek mythology. After his death he became a judge of the dead in Hades and is sometimes depicted serving this function in later literary works, such as those by Virgil and Dante.
Mirabeau, Gabriel Honoré Riqueti, comte de (1749–91). Eldest son of the economist Victor Riqueti. He was a soldier as well as a diplomat, journalist, and author who spent time in prison or in exile. During the French Revolution he became a noted orator and was elected to the Estates General in 1789 representing Aix and Marseilles. In his political views he was an advocate of constitutional monarchy along the lines of Great Britain. He is noted for his Essai sur le despotisme (1776) and several works on banking and foreign exchange.
Molé, Louis Mathieu, comte de (1781–1855). Former prefect and minister of justice under Napoléon and under Louis XVIII. Rallying to Louis-Philippe, he was head of the government and minister of foreign affairs in 1836. Accused by some deputies of being little more than a spokesman for the king, he resigned in 1839 and led a moderate opposition against Guizot. A deputy in 1848 and 1849, he quit political life after the coup of 1851.
Molinari, Gustave de (1819–1912). Born in Belgium but spent most of his working life in Paris, where he became the leading representative of the laissez-faire school of classical liberalism in France in the second half of the nineteenth century. His liberalism was based on the theory of natural rights (especially the right to property and individual liberty), and he advocated complete laissez-faire in economic policy and an ultraminimal state in politics. In the 1840s he joined the Société d’économie politique and was active in the Association pour la liberté des échanges. During the 1848 revolution he vigorously opposed the rise of socialism and published shortly thereafter two rigorous defenses of individual liberty in which he pushed to its ultimate limits his opposition to all state intervention in the economy, including the state’s monopoly of security. During the 1850s he contributed a number of significant articles on free trade, peace, colonization, and slavery to the Dictionnaire de l’économie politique (1852–53) before going into exile in his native Belgium to escape the authoritarian regime of Napoléon III. He became a professor of political economy at the Musée royale de l’industrie belge and published a significant treatise on political economy (Cours d’économie politique, 1855) and a number of articles opposing state education. In the 1860s Molinari returned to Paris to work on Le Journal des debats, becoming editor from 1871 to 1876. Toward the end of his long life, Molinari was appointed editor of the leading journal of political economy in France, Le Journal des économistes (1881–1909). Molinari’s more important works include Les Soirées de la rue Saint-Lazare (1849), L’Évolution économique du dixneuvième siècle: Théorie du progrès (1880), and L’Évolution politique et la Révolution (1884).
Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de (1533–92). One of the best-known and most-admired writers of the Renaissance. His Essays (first published in 1580) were a thoughtful meditation on human nature in the form of personal anecdotes infused with deep philosophical reflections. Montaigne was brought up with Latin as his first language and went on to study law, serving in the Bordeaux parliament from 1557 to 1570 and then as mayor of Bordeaux from 1581 to 1585. He was a close friend of Étienne de la Boétie, who wrote Discours de la servitude volontaire (1576), in which he explores why the majority too oft en willingly capitulates to the demands of a tiny ruling minority. In the religious controversies of his day Montaigne was a moderate Catholic.
Montalembert, Charles Forbes, comte de (1810–70). French publicist and historian. Montalembert was born and educated in England before moving to France. In 1830 he joined forces with Lamennais to write for the journal L’Avenir and to promote liberal Catholicism, but he split with Lamennais after 1834; when the pope condemned liberal Catholicism, Montalembert chose to submit to the will of the pope on this issue. He supported a free, Catholic alternative to the state monopoly of education and was arrested and fined for his activities. During the 1848 revolution he was elected to the Constituent Assembly as a moderate republican. He is known for his work Des devoirs des catholiques sur la question de la liberté de l’enseignement (1843).
Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de (1689–1755). One of the most influential legal theorists and political philosophers of the eighteenth century. He trained as a lawyer and practiced in Bordeaux before going to Paris, where he attended an important enlightened salon. His ideas about the separation of powers and checks on the power of the executive had a profound impact on the architects of the American constitution. His most influential works are L’Esprit des lois (1748), Les Lettres persanes (1721), and Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (1732).
More, Sir Thomas (1478–1535). English lawyer, privy councillor, and speaker of the House of Parliament before he ran afoul of the Anglican Church by refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as the sole head of the church. He was beheaded for refusing to compromise his Catholic beliefs. He is famous for his political work Utopia (1516), in which there was no private property, widespread use of slaves, and an internal passport required for travel. See also “Classical Liberal vs Socialist Utopias,” in “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 412–13.
Morelly (ca. 1717–78). Novelist and political philosopher. In his Code de la nature, ou le véritable esprit des lois, de tout temps négligé ou méconnu (1755), he advocated a form of utopianism in which society was ruled by an enlightened despot, private property had been abolished, and marriage and police were no longer required in a state of absolute equality. He influenced the thinking of Babeuf, Saint-Simon, and Marx.
Morin, Étienne-François-Théodore (b. 1814). Textile manufacturer and the elected representative for the département of La Drôme in the Constituent Assembly in 1848 and then in the Legislative Assembly in 1849. He published many works on jurisprudence and political economy, being best known for his Essai sur l’organisation du travail et l’avenir des classes laborieuses (1845). Morin was a staunch defender of freedom of association for both manufacturers and the workers. He believed that such association would promote both their interests, provided that no one used any coercion or violence.
Mortimer-Ternaux, Louis (1808–72). Jurist and member of the Council of State, a French institution giving advice on draft bills and acting as a court of final appeal on administrative matters. He was a deputy from 1842 until Louis-Napoléon’s coup d’état in 1857.
Nadaud, Martin (1815–98). Stonemason and follower of the socialist Étienne Cabet. He was elected deputy in 1849, during the 1848 revolution, but fled to Britain after Louis-Napoléon’s coup d’état of 2 December 1851. Nadaud was again elected deputy as a moderate republican in 1876 during the Third Republic.
Necker, Jacques (1732–1804). Swiss-born banker and politician who served as the minister of finance under Louis XVI just before the French Revolution broke out. His private financial activities were intertwined with the French state when he served as a director of the monopolistic French East India Company and made loans to the French state. In 1775 he wrote a critique of Turgot’s free-trade policies in L’Essai sur la législation et le commerce des grains. In 1776 he was appointed director general of French finances until his dismissal in 1781. He served again in this position from 1788 to 1790. As minister of finance he tried to reform the French taxation system by broadening its base and removing some of its worst inequalities. Needless to say, in this he largely failed. His daughter, Germaine Necker (de Staël), became a famous novelist and historian of the French Revolution.
North, Frederick, second earl of Guilford (1732–93). Member of Parliament, 1754 to 1790; chancellor of the exchequer, 1767 to 1782; and prime minister during most of the period of the American War of Independence.
Numa Pompilius (ca. 715–672 bc). Legendary king of Rome. Inspired by the nymph Egeria, he organized Roman religious institutions.
Odier, Antoine (1766–1853). Swiss-born banker and textile manufacturer who came to Paris to play a part in the French Revolution, siding with the liberal Girondin group. He was president of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, deputy (1827–34), and eventually a peer of France (1837). Bastiat crossed swords with him because of his membership in the protectionist Association for the Defense of Domestic Industry.
Owen, Robert (1771–1858). Successful manufacturer, philanthropist, and socialist theoretician. He made his fortune with a cotton mill in New Lanark in Manchester. The reforms he introduced in his factory became the model for creating “villages of cooperation,” which culminated in the establishment of a model community, New Harmony, in Indiana, in 1824. Owen spent his own money in order to improve the fate of his workers and based his model community on the ideas of mutual cooperation, community of property, consumer cooperatives, and trade unions. His best-known works are A New View of Society (1813) and Report to the County of Lanark of a Plan for Relieving Public Distress (1821).
Paillottet, Prosper (1804–78). Editor of Les Œuvres complètes de Frédéric Bastiat and friend of Bastiat’s. See also “Bastiat’s Editor and Executor, Prosper Paillottet (1804–78),” in “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 405–7.
Parisis, Pierre Louis (1795–1865). Bishop of Langres and deputy. After 1850, he became a member of the Conseil Supérieur de l’Instruction.
Pascal, Blaise (1623–62). French mathematician and philosopher whose best-known work, Pensées, appeared only after his death.
Passy, Frédéric (1822–1912). Nephew of Hippolyte Passy, who was cofounder of the Société d’ économie politique (1842) and wrote numerous articles in Le Journal des économistes. Frédéric was a supporter of free trade and the ideas of Richard Cobden and Bastiat. Passy was a cabinet minister and then professor of political economy at Montpellier. He wrote an introduction to one of the Guillaumin editions of the works of Bastiat. He was active in the French peace movement and helped found the Ligue internationale et permanente de la paix. For his efforts he received the first Nobel Peace Prize (1901, with Henri Dunant, one of the founders of the Red Cross). He wrote many books on economics and peace, including Notice biographique sur Frédéric Bastiat (1857) and Pour la paix: notes et documents (1909).
Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850). Served as Home Secretary under the Duke of Wellington (1822–27) and was prime minister twice (1834–35, 1841–46). He is best known for creating the Metropolitan Police Force in London, the Factory Act of 1844 which regulated the working hours of women and children in the factories, and the repeal of the Corn Laws in May 1846. The latter inspired Bastiat to lobby for similar economic reforms in France.
Pelham-Holles, Thomas, first duke of Newcastle (1693–1768). Secretary of state from 1724 to 1754 and prime minister from 1754 to 1756 and 1757 to 1762. His brother, Henry Pelham (1696–1754), was a member of Parliament and succeeded Walpole as chancellor of the exchequer in 1743.
PÉtetin, Anselme (1807–73). Moderate republican lawyer, journalist, and director of the Imperial (or Royal) Press 1850–60. He was appointed the Prefect of Haute-Savoiè in 1860.
Pitt, William (the Elder), first earl of Chatham (1708–78). Whig member of Parliament from 1735 to 1766, leader of the House of Commons from 1756 to 1761, prime minister from 1766 to 1768, and earl of Chatham from 1766 to 1778. He was a popular figure for his propriety in managing funds when he was paymaster of the armed forces and for prosecuting the war against Spain and France during the Seven Years’ War. He successfully conducted a two-front war on the continent, seized several French colonies in Africa and the Carribean, and defeated the French in North America. Despite the French defeat, Britain was left with significant debt, which had repercussions later during the War of Independence in the American colonies.
Pitt, William (the Younger) (1759–1806). Son of William Pitt the Elder. He became a member of Parliament in 1781, chancellor of the exchequer in 1782, and prime minister from 1783 to 1801 and from 1804 to 1806. Pitt was a Tory and a strong opponent of the French Revolution.
Proudhon, Pierre Joseph (1809–65). Political theorist, considered to be the father of anarchism. Proudhon spent many years as a printer and published many pamphlets on social and economic issues, oft en running afoul of the censors. He was elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848 representing La Seine. In 1848 he became editor in chief of a number of periodicals, such as Le Peuple and La Voix du peuple, which got him into trouble again with the censors and for which he spent three years in prison, between 1849 and 1852. He is best known for Qu’estce que la propriété? Ou recherches sur le principe du droit et du gouvernement (1841), Système des contradictions économiques (1846), and several articles published in LeJournal des économistes. His controversy with Bastiat on the subject appears in the form of letters between Bastiat and Proudhon (OC, vol. 5, p. 94, “Gratuité du crédit”).
Pulteney, William (1684–1764). A Whig member of Parliament who served as secretary of war 1714–17; was made a peer, the Earl of Bath, in 1742; and was a member of the “Patriot Whigs” who opposed Walpole.
Rabaut de Saint-Étienne, Jean-Paul (1743–93). Son and grandson of a minister. He actively defended the rights of non-Catholics. A member of the Girondins, he was guillotined in 1793.
Raynal, Guillaume-Thomas-François, abbé (1713–96). Enlightened historian who wrote on the Dutch Stadholderate and the English Parliament. His most famous work was the eight-volume Histoire philosophique et politique, des établissements et du commerce des européens dans les deux Indes (1770), which went through some thirty editions by 1789, was put on the Index in 1774, and was publicly burned. The book was found objectionable because of its treatment of religion and colonialism and its advocacy of the popular right to consent to taxation and to revolt, among other things. Its sometimes incendiary treatment of the slave trade became canonical in the debate over abolition of slavery, which it did much to spur.
Riancey, Henri Leon Camusat de (1816–70). Lawyer and journalist. He became a deputy in 1849. He defended Catholic and legitimist causes.
Ricardo, David (1772–1823). English political economist born in London of Dutch-Jewish parents. He joined his father’s stockbroking business and made a considerable fortune on the London Stock Exchange. In 1799 he read Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) and developed an interest in economic theory. He met James Mill and the Philosophic Radicals in 1807, was elected to Parliament in 1819, and was active politically in trying to widen the franchise and to abolish the restrictive Corn Laws. He wrote a number of works, including The High Price of Bullion (1810), on the bullion controvery, and his treatise On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817).
Robespierre, Maximilien de (1758–94). Lawyer and one of the best-known figures of the French Revolution. Robespierre represented Arras in the Estates General before entering the National Convention in 1792. He was an active member of the Société des amis de la constitution (Society of Friends of the Constitution) (the Jacobin Club) and became leader of the Montagnard faction. He was a fierce opponent of the liberal Gironde faction, and in his position as leader of the Committee of Public Safety (1793) he had arrested and executed many members of this group during the Terror. Robespierre was also active in introducing a new civic religion, the Cult of Reason and the Supreme Being, to replace traditional religion. Eventually the Terror turned on its own supporters and Robespierre was himself executed in July 1794. In his political thinking, Robespierre was strongly influenced by the writings of Rousseau, and in 1793 he supported a new declaration of the rights of man that subordinated private property to the needs of “social utility.”
Rollin, Charles (1661–1741). Professor of history and literature and eventually president (recteur) of the University of Paris. He was also the author of treatises on literature and a defender of classical studies.
Rossi, Pellegrino (1787–1848). Italianborn professor of law and political economy, poet, and in his final days diplomat for the French government. Rossi lived in Geneva, Paris, and Rome. He moved to Switzerland after the defeat of Napoléon, where he met Germaine de Staël and the duc de Broglie. He founded with Sismondi and Etienne Dumont the Annales de législation et de jurisprudence. After the death of Jean-Baptiste Say, Rossi was appointed professor of political economy at the Collège de France in 1833, and in 1836 he became a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. In 1847 he was appointed ambassador of France to the Vatican but was assassinated in 1848 in Rome. He wrote Cours d’économie politique (1840) and numerous articles in Le Journal des économistes.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78). Swiss philosopher and novelist who was an important figure in the Enlightenment. In his novels and discourses he claimed that civilization had weakened the natural liberty of mankind and that a truly free society would be the expression of the “general will” of all members of that society. He influenced later thinkers on both ends of the political spectrum. He is best known for his book Du contrat social (The Social Contract)(1761); he was also the author of, among other works, the autobiographical Les Confessions (1783) and the novels Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761) and Émile, ou l’education (1762).
Rumilly, Louis Gauthier de (1792–1884). Lawyer and deputy (1830–34 and 1837–40). He unsuccessfully presented a project for parliamentary reform in 1840.
Russell, Lord John (1792–1878). Member of Parliament, leader of the Whigs, and several times a minister. He served as prime minister from 1846 to 1852 and from 1865 to 1866.
Saint-Cricq, Pierre Laurent Barthélemy, comte de (1772–1854). Protectionist who was made director general of customs in 1815, president of the Trade Council, and then minister of trade and colonies in 1828.
Saint-Hilaire, Jules Barthélemy (1805–95). Businessman, journalist, deputy, and professor of ancient philosophy. Saint-Hilaire became interested in politics in the late 1820s in order to oppose the conservative reign of King Charles X (1824–30). He wrote articles for a number of newspapers and journals, such as Le Globe, Le National, and Le Courrier français. He was elected to the Constituent Assembly after the outbreak of the 1848 revolution and served as a deputy until he resigned soon after the coup d’état of Louis-Napoléon in 1851. He renounced politics and turned to ancient philosophy, becoming professor of Greek and Latin philosophy at the Collège de France, spending much of the rest of his life translating Aristotle.
Saint-Just, Louis Antoine de (1767–94). Close friend and colleague of Robespierre. Saint-Just suffered the same fate as Robespierre, execution by guillotine in July 1794. He served in the National Guard and was elected to the Legislative Assembly (but denied his seat because of his young age), and then to the Convention, where he joined the Montagnard faction. Saint-Just became a member of the Committee of Public Safety in 1793 and was active in military affairs on the committee’s behalf. He was much influenced by Rousseau and supported the creation of an austere and egalitarian republic.
Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de (1760–1825). Writer and social reformer. Saint-Simon came from a distinguished aristocratic family and initially planned a career in the military. He served under George Washington during the American Revolution. When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, he renounced his noble status and took the simple name of Henri Saint-Simon.
Between 1817 and 1822 Saint-Simon wrote a number of books that laid the foundation for his theory of “industry” (see “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 409–10), by which he meant that the old regime of war, privilege, and monopoly would gradually be replaced by peace and a new elite of creators, producers, and industrialists.
His disciples, such as Auguste Comte and Olinde Rodrigues, carried on his work with the Saint-Simonian school of thought. Saint-Simon’s views developed in parallel to the more-liberal ideas about “industry” espoused by Augustin Thierry, Charles Comte, and Charles Dunoyer during the same period (see the entries for “Comte, Charles,” and “Dunoyer, Charles,” in this glossary). What distinguished the two schools of thought was that Saint-Simonians advocated rule by a technocratic elite and state-supported “industry,” which verged on being a form of socialism, while the liberal school around Comte and Dunoyer advocated a completely free market without any state intervention whatsoever, which would thus allow the entrepreneurial and “industrial” classes to rise to a predominant position without coercion. Saint-Simon’s best-known works include Réorganisation de la société européenne (1814), L’Industrie (1817), L’Organisateur (1819), and Du système industriel (1821).
Say, Jean-Baptiste (1767–1832). Leading French political economist in the first third of the nineteenth century. Before becoming an academic political economist quite late in life, Say apprenticed in a commercial office, working for a life insurance company; he also worked as a journalist, soldier, politician, cotton manufacturer, and writer. During the revolution he worked on the journal of the ideologues, La Décade philosophique, littéraire et politique, for which he wrote articles on political economy from 1794 to 1799.
In 1814 he was asked by the government to travel to England on a fact-finding mission to discover the secret of English economic growth and to report on the impact of the revolutionary wars on the British economy. His book De l’Angleterre et des Anglais (1815) was the result. After the defeat of Napoléon and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, Say was appointed to teach economics in Paris, first at the Athénée, then as a chair in “industrial economics” at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, and finally as the first chair in political economy at the Collège de France.
Say is best known for his Traité d’économie politique (1803), which went through many editions (and revisions) during his lifetime. One of his last major works, the Cours complet d’économie politique pratique (1828–33), was an attempt to broaden the scope of political economy, away from the preoccupation with the production of wealth, by examining the moral, political, and sociological requirements of a free society and how they interrelated with the study of political economy. In 1823 Say published a second, unauthorized edition of the Cours with extensive notes criticizing Storch’s ideas on immaterial goods (many of which Bastiat was to take up in Economic Harmonies). Storch replied with an additional volume in 1824, Considérations sur la nature du revenu national.
Scialoja, Antonio (1817–77). Italian economist and professor of political economy at the University of Turin. He was imprisoned and exiled during the 1848 revolution. His major economic works were I principi della economia sociale esposti in ordine ideologico (1840); Trattato elementare dieconomia sociale (1848); and Lezioni di economia politica (1846–54). He also wrote many works on law. The first book was translated into French as Les Principes de l’économie exposé selon des idées (1844).
Scrope, George Poulett (1797–1876). Economist, member of Parliament, and fellow of the Royal Society. He was an opponent of the Malthusian theory of population, believing that agricultural production, if unhindered, would always outpace population growth; an advocate of free trade and of parliamentary reform; and an advocate of freer banking using paper currency but following the principles of the Scottish free-banking school. His major theoretical work was Principles of Political Economy (1833).
Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864). British economist who became a professor of political economy at Oxford University in 1826. In 1832 he was asked to investigate the condition of the poor and, with Edwin Chadwick, wrote the Poor Law Commissioners’ Report of 1834. In 1843 he was appointed a correspondent of the Institut de France. In 1847 he returned to Oxford University. During his life he wrote many articles for the review journals, such as the Quarterly Review, the Edinburgh Review, and the London Review. His books include Lectures on Political Economy (1826) and Outline of the Science of Political Economy (1834).
Serres, Olivier de (1539–1619). Pioneering French agronomist who is best known for introducing the growing of silk to France. His best-known work is Le Théâtre d’agriculture et mésnage des champs (1600).
Sheridan, Richard (1751–1816). Irish playwright and poet who enjoyed a successful career in the London theater. From 1780 to 1812, he was also a member of Parliament, where he gave many memorable speeches. His best-known work is the play The School for Scandal (1777).
Smith, Adam (1723–90). Leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and one of the founders of modern economic thought with his work The Wealth of Nations (1776). He studied at the University of Glasgow and had as one of his teachers the philosopher Francis Hutcheson. In the late 1740s Smith lectured at the University of Edinburgh on rhetoric, belles-lettres, and jurisprudence; those lectures are available to us because of detailed notes taken by one of his students. In 1751 he moved to Glasgow, where he was a professor of logic and then moral philosophy. His Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759, translated into French in 1774) was a product of this period of his life.
Between 1764 and 1766 he traveled to France as the tutor to the duke of Buccleuch. While in France Smith met many of the physiocrats and visited Voltaire in Geneva. As a result of a generous pension from the duke, Smith was able to retire to Kirkaldy to work on his magnum opus, The Wealth of Nations, which appeared in 1776 (French edition in 1788). Smith was appointed in 1778 as commissioner of customs and was based in Edinburgh, where he spent the remainder of his life. In 1843 an important French edition of the Wealth of Nations was published by Guillaumin with notes and commentary by leading French economists such as Blanqui, Garnier, Sismondi, and Say. The most complete edition of Smith’s works is the Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith, originally published by Oxford University Press (1960) and later by Liberty Fund in paperback (1982–87).
Sobrier, Marie Joseph (1825–54). A radical socialist revolutionary and journalist. He was a member of the Robespierre-inspired Society of the Rights of Man. During the 1848 revolution he edited a radical Montagnard journal La Commune de Paris between March and June 1848 with the assistance of George Sand and Eugène Sue. He was arrested and imprisoned for inciting riots in May 1848 and later pardoned by Napoléon III.
Solon (ca. 640–558 bc). Athenian political leader and legislator who contributed to the birth of Athenian democracy with his legendary constitutional and economic reforms.
Storch, Henri-Frédéric (1766–1835). Russian economist of German origin who was influenced by the writings of Adam Smith and Jean-Baptiste Say. He was noted for his work on the economics of unfree labor (particularly that of serfdom), the importance of moral (human) capital to national wealth, comparative banking, and the greater wealth-producing capacity of industry and commerce compared with agriculture. Storch studied at the universities of Jena and Heidelberg before returning to Russia, where he taught, worked in various positions in education and government administration, and became a corresponding member of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He was chosen to teach various members of the Russian royal family (tutor to the daughters of Tsar Paul I and then appointed by Alexander I to teach political economy to the grand dukes Nicholas and Michael). He became a state councillor in 1804 and head of the Academy’s statistical section. In 1828 he was promoted to the rank of private councillor and appointed vice president of the Academy of Sciences, offices that he held until his death. His major theoretical work was his six-volume Cours d’économie politique, ou exposition des principes qui déterminent la prospérité des nations (1815), which was based upon the lectures he gave the grand dukes.
Stuart, Prince Charles Edward (1720–88). Son of James III and the Stuart claimant to the throne after William of Orange came to power in 1688. Known as Bonnie Prince Charlie to his Scottish supporters, he attempted to gain the throne by stirring up a revolt in the Scottish highlands but was decisively beaten at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
Sudre, Alfred (1820–1902). Economist and political writer. He was author of Histoire du communisme ou Réfutation historique des utopies socialistes (1848), which was highly regarded by the reviewer in Le Journal des économistes.
Sue, Eugène (1804–57). Son of a surgeon in Napoléon’s army and himself a surgeon in the French navy. He served in Spain in 1823 and at the Battle of Navarino in 1828. Sue was active in the romantic and socialist movements and represented the city of Paris in the Assembly of 1850. He was forced into exile for his opposition to Louis-Napoléon. He wrote many novels on social questions and is best known for his ten-volume work, Le Juif errant (The Wandering Jew) (1844–45).
Tanneguy Duchâtel, Charles Marie, comte (1803–67). Member of the Doctrinaires (conservative liberals) during the July Monarchy. He served as minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1834–36), minister of finance (1836–37), and minister of the interior (1840–48). He was regarded as economically informed (tending toward Malthusianism) and sympathetic to liberal reform.
Telemachus. Mythological son of Odysseus and Penelope and a central character in Homer’s Odyssey.
Thiers, Adolphe (1797–1877). Lawyer, historian, politician, and journalist. While he was a lawyer he contributed articles to the liberal journal Le Constitutionel and published one of his most famous works, the ten-volume Histoire de la Révolution française (1823–27). He was instrumental in supporting Louis-Philippe in July 1830 and was the main opponent of Guizot. Thiers defended the idea of a constitutional monarchy in such journals as Le National.
After 1813 he became successively a deputy, undersecretary of state, minister of agriculture, and minister of the interior. He was briefly prime minister and minster of foreign affairs in 1836 and 1840, when he resisted democratization and promoted some restrictions on the freedom of the press. During the 1840s he worked on the twenty-volume Histoire du consulat et de l’empire, which appeared between 1845 and 1862. After the 1848 revolution and the creation of the Second Empire he was elected a deputy representing Rouen in the Constituent Assembly.
Thiers was a strong opponent of Napoléon III’s foreign policies. After Napoléon’s defeat Thiers was appointed head of the provisional government by the National Assembly and then became president of the Third Republic until 1873. Thiers wrote some essays on economic matters for Le Journal des économistes, but his protectionist sympathies did not endear him to the economists.
Tourret, Charles Gilbert (1795–1858). Moderate republican and minister of agriculture and commerce in Cavaignac’s government during the 1848 revolution. He sided with the socialists in the Assembly by supporting workers’ cooperatives and state loans to the unemployed. However, he voted with Bastiat and the other liberals against the right-to-work legislation.
Trismegistus (Hermes Trismegistus). Commonly considered to be some sort of combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth, both of whom were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures, although it is arguable if there ever was an actual figure called Hermes Trismegistus.
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques, baron de Laulne (1727–81). Economist of the physiocratic school, politician, reformist bureaucrat, and writer. During the mid-1750s Turgot came into contact with the physiocrats, such as Quesnay, du Pont de Nemours, and Vincent de Gournay (who was the free-market intendant for commerce). Turgot had two opportunities to put free-market reforms into practice: when he was appointed Intendant of Limoges in 1761–74; and when Louis XVI made him minister of finance between 1774 and 1776, at which time Turgot issued his six edicts to reduce regulations and taxation. His works include Éloge de Gournay (1759), Réflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses (1766), and Lettres sur la liberté du commerce des grains (1770).
Vatismenil, Antoine Lefebvre de (1789–1860). Lawyer, magistrate, and minister of public education in 1830 and deputy in 1849.
Vattel, Emer de (1714–67). One of the foremost theorists of natural law in the eighteenth century. His writings were widely read in the American colonies and had a profound impact on the thinking of the framers of the American constitution. His most famous work is The Law of Nations, or, Principles of the Law of Nature (1758).
Vaucanson, Jacques de (1709–82). French inventor who was famous for creating automata that could play musical instruments to entertain the nobility. He was best known for his machines “The Flute Player” and “The Duck.” Vaucanson turned his hand to more-practical subjects by trying to automate the weaving of silk.
Vidal, François (b. 1812). Vidal was the editor of La Démocratie pacifique, La Presse, and La Revue indépendante. His major work De la repartition des richesses, ou de la justice distributive en économie sociale (1846), on the redistribution of wealth, was reviewed critically by Bastiat in Le Journal des économistes (vol. 14, p. 248). Again in Le Journal des économistes (vol. 16, pp. 106ff.), Bastiat also replied to five letters by Vidal that originally appeared in La Presse. During the 1848 revolution Vidal was secretary of the Luxembourg Commission under Louis Blanc which managed the National Workshops and other matters related to state support for unemployed workers.
Villèle, Jean-Baptiste, comte de (1773–1854). Leader of the ultralegitimists during the Restoration. He was minister of finance in 1821 and prime minister from 1822 until his resignation in 1828. He was instrumental in getting passed in 1825 an Indemnification Law for nobles who had been dispossessed during the Revolution, and a Law of Sacrilege for affronts to the Church.
Villemain, Abel François (1790–1870). A prolific author and professor of French literature at the Sorbonne in 1816. He initially supported the Doctrinaires but became more liberal with his defense of freedom of the press during the government crackdown in the late 1820s. He supported the July revolution in 1830 and was appointed minister of education 1839–1844. He supported legislation which allowed the number of private schools to increase on condition that they submit to greater government regulation.
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) (1694–1778). One of the leading figures of the French Enlightenment. He first made a name for himself as a poet and playwright before turning to political philosophy, history, religious criticism, and other literary activities. He became notorious in the 1760s for his outspoken campaign against abuses by the Catholic Church and the use of state torture in the Calas Affair. Voltaire wrote a number of popular works, including Lettres philosophique (1734), in which he admired the economic and religious liberties of the English; his philosophic tale Candide (1759); his pathbreaking work of social history Le Siècle de Louis XIV (1751); his Traité sur la tolérance (1763); and the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), which contained his criticisms of religion and superstition.
Walpole, Robert, Earl of Oxford (1676–1745). Whig politician who served from 1701 (when he was first elected to Parliament) until his resignation in 1742. From 1721 to 1742 he was first lord of the treasury and prime minister. He narrowly escaped financial ruin when the South Sea Bubble collapsed in 1720, as a result of speculation in its stock. The company had assumed much of the British National Debt in return for lucrative trading monopolies in South America.
Whately, Richard (1787–1863). Archbishop of Dublin and professor of political economy at the University of Oxford, where he was an important member of Nassau Senior’s group. Whately wrote many works of theology before turning to political economy. He was an opponent of the Ricardian school and is considered to be an early adherent to the subjective theory of value. He published his Oxford lectures delivered in Easter Term 1831 as Introductory Lectures on Political Economy (1832). He also wrote a popular work designed to introduce young readers to ideas about money: Easy Lessons on Monetary Matters (1849).
Windham, William (1750–1810). Viceroy of Ireland and member of Parliament in 1784. He was also secretary of state for war under Pitt the Younger.
Wolowski, Louis (1810–76). Lawyer, politician, and economist of Polish origin. His interests lay in industrial and labor economics, free trade, and bimetallism. He was a member and the president of the Société d’économie politique. In 1848 he represented La Seine in the Constituent and Legislative assemblies, and during the 1848 revolution he was an ardent opponent of the socialist Louis Blanc and his plans for labor organization.
Glossary of Places
Adour. River flowing through the Landes. It permitted the transportation of goods from the Chalosse, the part of the département in which Bastiat lived, to the port of Bayonne, from which they could be exported. With time, sand deposits made navigation more and more difficult.
Armagnac. Region in southwest France, adjacent to the département of Landes. A major industry of Armagnac is grape growing and wine production, including the distilling of a brandy called “Armagnac.”
Chalosse. Part of the Landes département in which Bastiat had his home. It covers several counties.
Gironde. Département in the Aquitaine region in southwest France, immediately to the north of the département of Landes, on the Atlantic coast. The Gironde contains the port city of Bordeaux and is famous for its wines. Because a number of liberal-minded deputies were sent to Paris from this region during the French Revolution, they were given the name Girondins. (See also the entry for “Girondins” in the Glossary of Subjects and Terms.)
Landes. Département in the southwest of France, where Bastiat spent most of his life.
Mugron. A small town in the Landes overlooking the Adour River, where Bastiat lived from 1825 to 1845. At the time it was a significant commercial center, with a port on the Adour River and about two thousand inhabitants (fifteen hundred now). Today, Mugron has a street, a square, and a plaza named after Bastiat.
Saint-Sever. Major vine-growing district of the Landes.
Glossary of Subjects and Terms
Anti–Corn Law League (Corn League, or League). Founded in 1838 by Richard Cobden and John Bright in Manchester. The initial aim of the League was to repeal the law restricting the import of grain (Corn Laws), but it soon called for the unilateral ending of all agricultural and industrial restrictions on the free movement of goods between Britain and the rest of the world. For seven years they organized rallies, meetings, public lectures, and debates from one end of Britain to the other and managed to have proponents of free trade elected to Parliament. The Tory government resisted for many years but eventually yielded on 25 June 1846, when unilateral free trade became the law of Great Britain.
Association pour la liberté des échanges (Free Trade Association). Group founded in February 1846 in Bordeaux. Bastiat was the secretary of the Board, presided over by François d’Harcourt and having among its members Michel Chevalier, Auguste Blanqui, Joseph Garnier, Gustave de Molinari, and Horace Say.
Le Bien public. Journal founded by Lamartine at the end of 1843 “to serve as the organ of the serious but not radical opposition,” as he stated in his Récapitulation. Extrait du bien public (1844), which was taken from Le Bien public, 21 November 1844.
Collège de France. Institution created under François I in 1529 to deliver advanced teaching not yet available at the universities. It grants diplomas, chiefly in engineering.
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Public institution of higher education created by Abbé Grégoire in 1794. It is intended for people already engaged in professional life and grants diplomas, chiefly in engineering.
Constituent Assembly. After the overthrow of Louis Philippe on 24 February 1848, an election was held on 23 April to elect a Constituent Assembly which would draw up a new constitution. The election was by universal male suffrage and involved nearly eight million Frenchmen. Bastiat was successful in this election, representing the département of the Landes. A Constitution Committee of Twelve was appointed to draw up the constitution, which was approved 739 to 30 on 4 November 1848.
La Démocratie pacifique: Journal des intérêts des gouvernements et des peuples. Fourrierist journal, launched and edited by Victor Considérant. The journal advocated the creation of “harmonious communities.” It ran from 1843 to 1851.
Département. French administrative division. Départements are the equivalent of counties and enjoy a certain administrative autonomy.
Doctrinaires. Group of liberal constitutional monarchists who emerged during the restoration of the French monarchy, between 1815 and 1830. They included such people as Pierre Paul Royer-Collard, François Guizot, Élie Decazes, and Maine de Biran, and the journals in which they wrote included Le Constitutionnel and Le Journal des débats. The aim of the Doctrinaires was to steer a middle course between an outright return to the pre-1789 status quo (supported by the Legitimists) and a republic based on full adult suffrage (supported by the socialists and the radical liberals). The Doctrinaires supported King Louis XVIII, the constitution of 1814, and a severely restricted electorate of wealthy property owners and taxpayers who numbered barely one hundred thousand people. Their main principles were articulated by François Guizot in Du gouvernement représentatif et de l’état actuel de la France (1816).
Les Économistes (The Economists). Self-named group of liberal, free-trade political economists. Bastiat and his colleagues believed that, because their doctrine was founded on natural law and a scientific study of the way markets and economies worked in reality, there could be only one school of economics (just as there could be only one school of mechanics or optics). On the other hand, the opponents of free markets (such as the followers of Fourier, Robert Owen, Étienne Cabet, Louis Blanc, Pierre Proudhon, and Pierre Leroux) had as many schools of socialist thought as they could imagine different ways in which society might be restructured or reorganized according to their utopian visions.
February Revolution. See the entry for “Revolution of 1848” in this glossary.
Fourierism. See the entry for “Fourier, François-Marie Charles,” in the Glossary of Persons.
Fourierist. See the entry for “Fourier, François-Marie Charles,” in the Glossary of Persons.
General Council. Chamber in each French département that deliberates on subjects concerning that département. It has one representative per county (twenty-eight at the time for the Landes département, thirty-one today), elected for nine years (six years today). Its functions have varied over time. Bastiat was elected general councillor in 1833 for the county of Mugron, a post he held until his death. At that time, the Council deliberations had to be approved by the prefect.
General Council on Agriculture, Industry, and Trade. Created by a decree of 1 February 1850, the Council resulted from the merger of three councils (respectively agriculture, industry, and commerce) that were separate up to then. It had 236 members: 96 for agriculture, 59 for industry, 73 for commerce, and 8 for Algeria and the colonies. Its role was to enlighten the government on economic matters. The first session took place from 7 April to 11 May 1850 in the Luxembourg Palace and was opened by the president of the Republic.
Girondins. Group of liberal-minded and moderate republican deputies and their supporters within the Legislative Assembly (1791–92) and National Convention (1792–95) in the early phase of the French Revolution. They got their name from the fact that many of the deputies came from the Gironde region in southwest France, near the major port city of Bordeaux. An important meeting place for the Girondins, where they discussed their ideas and strategies, was the salon of Madame Roland (1754–93). Other members of the group included Jean Pierre Brissot, Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Charles Barbaroux, Thomas Paine, and the marquis de Condorcet.
In their bitter rivalry with other groups within the Jacobin group (in particular Robespierre and the Montagnard faction), they disputed the proper treatment and punishment of the deposed king, the war against Austria, and the other monarchical powers that threatened France with invasion, and how far the radical policies of the Revolution needed to be pushed. Eventually they lost out to the radical Jacobins around Robespierre, and many of them were imprisoned and executed during the Terror.
Jacobites. Supporters of James II, overthrown in 1688, of his son James III, and of his grandson Charles Edward. The 1688 revolution had organized the succession to the throne in such a way as to prevent any return of the Stuarts, that is, of a Catholic monarchy. Many Tories, though, were suspected of Jacobite sympathies.
Jacques Bonhomme. Short-lived biweekly paper in June 1848, written by Bastiat. See also “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 402–3.
Le Journal des débats. Journal founded in 1789 by the Bertin family and managed for almost forty years by Louis-François Bertin. The journal went through several title changes and after 1814 became Le Journal des débats politiques et littéraires. The journal likewise underwent several changes of political positions: it was against Napoléon during the First Empire; under the second restoration it became conservative rather than reactionary; and under Charles X it supported the liberal stance espoused by the Doctrinaires. It ceased publication in 1944.
Le Journal des économistes. Journal of the Société d’économie politique, which appeared from December 1841 until the fall of France in 1940. It was published by the firm of Guillaumin (1841–42), which also published the writings of most of the liberals of the period. Le Journal des économistes was the leading journal of the free-market economists (known as “les économistes”) in France in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was edited by Adolphe Blanqui (1842–43), Hippolyte Dussard (1843–45), Joseph Garnier (1845–55), Henri Baudrillart (1855–65), Joseph Garnier (1866–81), Gustave de Molinari (1881–1909), and Yves Guyot (from 1910). Bastiat published many articles in the journal, many of which were later published as pamphlets and books, and his works were all reviewed there. There are fifty-eight entries under Bastiat’s name in the table of contents of the journal for the period 1841 to 1865.
July Monarchy. See the entry for “Revolution of 1848” in this glossary.
July revolution. See the entry for “Revolution of 1848” in this glossary.
June Days. See the entry for “Revolution of 1848” in this glossary.
Mimerel Committee. See the entry for “Mimerel de Roubaix, Pierre,” in the Glossary of Persons.
Le Moniteur. See the entry for “Le Moniteur industriel” in this glossary.
Le Moniteur industriel. Periodical created in July 1835. It became the stronghold of protectionists and Bastiat’s bête noire.
Les Montagnards. See the entry for “La Montagne” in this glossary.
La Montagne (The Mountain). Comprising a group of deputies (Montagnards) favorable to a “democratic and social republic.” The Manifesto of the Montagnards, issued on 8 November 1848, presented the program of Ledru-Rollin and in general expressed the ideas of the Montagnards. The name comes from the first general assemblies of the revolution, in which the deputies professing these ideas sat in the highest part of the assembly, “the mountain.”
Le National. Liberal paper founded in 1830 by Adolphe Thiers to fight the ultrareactionary politics of the duc de Polignac (ultraroyalist politician who served in various capacities, such as prime minister, during the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy). Le National played a decisive role during the “three glorious days” and contributed to the success of Louis-Philippe. Its readership considerably exceeded the number of its subscribers (around three thousand).
Phalanstery. Self-sustaining community of the followers of the utopian socialist Charles Fourier. He envisaged that new communities of people would spring up in order to escape the injustices of free-market societies and industrialism. He called his new self-supporting communities “phalanxes,” which would consist of about sixteen hundred people who would live in a specially designed building called a “phalanstère,” or “phalanstery.” A number of communities modeled on his ideas were set up in North America—in Texas, Ohio, New Jersey, and New York. Fourier’s ideas had some influence in French politics during the revolution of 1848 through the activities of Victor Considérant and his “right to work” movement. See also the entry for “Fourier, François-Marie Charles,” in the Glossary of Persons.
Physiocrats. Group of French economists, bureaucrats, and legislators who came to prominence in the 1760s and included such figures as François Quesnay (1694–1774), Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–81), Mercier de la Rivière (1720–94), Vincent de Gournay (1712–59), Mirabeau (1715–89), and Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739–1817). They are best known for coining the expression “laissez-faire” as a summary statement of their policy prescriptions. (See also the discussion of laissez-faire in “Bastiat’s Political Writings: Anecdotes and Reflections,” pp. 408–9.)
As the word physiocracy suggests (the rule of nature or natural law), the physiocrats believed that natural laws governed the operation of economic events and that rulers should acknowledge this fact in their legislation. They further believed that agricultural production was the source of wealth and that all barriers to its expansion and improvement (such as internal tariffs, government regulation, and high taxes) should be removed. The strategy of the physiocrats was to educate others through their scholarly and journalistic writings as well as to influence monarchs to adopt rational economic policies via a process of so-called “enlightened despotism.” This strategy met with very mixed results, as Turgot’s failed effort to deregulate the French grain trade in the 1770s attests.
Le Populaire. Newspaper propagating the communist ideas of Étienne Cabet.
La Presse. Widely distributed daily newspaper, created in 1836 by journalist, businessman, and politician Émile de Girardin (1806–81). Girardin was one of the creators of the modern press and author of, among many works, the brochure Le socialisme et l’impôt (1849), in which he advocated a single tax on capital and revenue.
Republican calendar. New calendar adopted by the National Convention in October 1793 as part of a reorganization of all aspects of French society. The calendar would be based on months with three tenday weeks and a renaming of the days and months of the year. Thus 3 Nivôse Year III is 23 December 1794, and 23 Nivôse Year III is 12 January 1795. Many of the names of the months are quite poetic and have become associated with significant historical events: Brumaire, or “fog” (October–November); Nivôse, or “snowy” (December–January); Ventôse, or “windy” (February–March); Germinal, or “germination” (March–April); and Thermidor, or “summer heat” (July–August). The calendar was scrapped by Napoléon in 1805, soon after he became emperor.
Revolution of 1848 (also “February revolution”). Because France went through so many revolutions between 1789 and 1870, they are oft en distinguished by reference to the month in which they occurred. Thus we have the “July Monarchy” (of 1830), when the restored Bourbon monarchy of 1815 was overthrown in order to create a more liberal and constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe; the “February revolution” (of 1848), when the July Monarchy of Louis-Philippe was overthrown and the Second Republic was formed; the “June Days” (of 1848), when a rebellion by some workers in Paris who were protesting the closure of the government-subsidized National Workshops work-relief program was bloodily put down by General Cavaignac; the “18th Brumaire of Louis-Napoléon,” which refers to the coup d’état that brought Louis-Napoléon (Napoléon Bonaparte’s nephew) to power on 2 December 1851 and that ushered in the creation of the Second Empire—the phrase was coined by Karl Marx and refers to another date, 18 Brumaire in the revolutionary calendar, or 9 November 1799, when Napoléon Bonaparte declared himself dictator in another coup d’état. Bastiat was an active participant in the 1848 revolution, being elected to the Constituent Assembly on 23 April 1848 and then to the Legislative Assembly on 13 May 1849.
La Revue britannique. Monthly review that was founded in 1825 by Sébastien-Louis Saulnier (1790–1835). Its full title read Revue britannique. Receuil international. Choix d’articles extraits des meilleurs écrits périodiquesda la Grande-Bretagne et de l’Amérique, complété sur des articles originaux. It contained many articles on economic matters, such as the article in the 6th series, vol. 1, published in 1846, which was an unattributed piece on “La ligue anglaise” (Anti–Corn Law League), which might have been by Bastiat. It ceased publication in 1901.
Right of inspection. See the entry for “Slavery” in this glossary.
Saint Cyr. Leading French military academy (École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr). It was founded by Napoléon in 1803 in order to train officer cadets. During Bastiat’s lifetime there was some contention over the school’s motto. During Napoléon’s rule (1803–15) the motto was “ils s’instruirent pour vaincre” (they study in order to win [or conquer]). The restored monarch, Louis XVIII, changed the motto to “ils s’instruirent pour la défense de la patrie” (they study in order to defend the country). After the 1848 revolution and during the Second Empire (1852–70) the original wording used by Napoléon was reinstated.
Saint-Simonists (or Saint-Simonians). See the entry for “Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy,” in the Glossary of Persons.
Slavery (slave trade, right of inspection). Slavery did not have a strong presence within France, but it played a major role in the French Caribbean colonies, such as Saint-Dominique (Haiti). Under the influence of the ideas of the French Revolution, slavery was abolished in 1794 and a number of freed blacks were elected to various French legislative bodies. Napoléon reintroduced slavery in 1802 and fought a bloody but unsuccessful war in order to prevent a free black republic from emerging in Haiti.
In 1807, under pressure from such abolitionists as William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, Britain passed an act that abolished the slave trade, much of which was carried in British vessels. The United States followed suit in 1808 with a similar ban. This had significant implications for the southern states of the United States and the French Caribbean, where slavery remained firmly in place. The British Navy patroled the oceans, insisting upon a “right of inspection” to look for slaves being carried from Africa to the Caribbean and to punish those involved in the trade as pirates. This policy was a serious bone of contention between Britain and France, as the latter viewed the British policy as interference in their sovereign right to engage in trade and shipping. Slavery was abolished in the British Caribbean in 1833, again in the French colonies during the 1848 revolution, and in the United States in 1865 (the Thirteenth Amendment).
Société d’agriculture, commerce, arts, et sciences du département des Landes (Society for Agriculture, Trade, Arts, and Sciences of the Département of the Landes). Founded in 1798, the society, of which Bastiat was a member, included landowners with large holdings and people from the liberal professions.
Société d’économie politique (Society of Political Economy). Refounded in late 1842 after a false start in early 1842 and had its first monthly meeting at a restaurant in November 1842. It was attended by Joseph Garnier, Adolphe Blaise, Eugène Daire, Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin, and a fifth member who soon dropped out because he was a supporter of tariffs. Its first president was Charles Dunoyer, who served from 1845 to 1862, and Joseph Garnier was made permanent secretary in 1849. Its membership in 1847 was about fifty and grew to about eighty at the end of 1849. It is not known when Bastiat joined the society, but he is first mentioned in the minutes for August 1846, when the society hosted a banquet in honor of Richard Cobden, and Bastiat was one of several members of the society to make a formal toast to “the past and present defenders of free trade in the House of Lords and the House of Commons.” A summary of its monthly meetings was published in Le Journal des économistes.
Tory. See the entry for “Whig and Tory.”
Whig and Tory. Before the establishment of modern, organized, ideologically based political parties in the nineteenth century, there were less-formal groups or alliances that associated for short-term political benefit. In the late seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries there emerged in Britain groupings called Whigs and Tories.
The Whigs emerged in the late seventeenth century during the struggle of the Protestants, constitutional monarchists, and landed interests to prevent a newly invigorated Catholic Stuart monarchy from gaining power in 1678–81. This group was led by the Earl of Shaftesbury. By the 1830s and 1840s the Whigs had adopted the policies of free trade, the abolition of slavery, and Catholic emancipation. The origin of the name is probably from a term of abuse and criticism coined by their opponents—a “whiggamor” is a Scottish Gaelic word for cattle drover.
The Tories originally supported the Catholic Scottish claimant to the English throne in 1680 but later became staunch defenders of the established Anglican Church and the interests of the court. They opposed all forms of religious dissent and extension of the suffrage. Their name, too, probably came from their opponents—tóraidhe is an Irish word that means “outlaw.”
Wine and Spirits Tax. The wine and spirits tax was eliminated by the revolutionary parliament of 1789 but progressively reinstated during the empire. It comprised four components: (1) a consumption tax (10 percent of the sale price); (2) a license fee paid by the vendor, depending on the number of inhabitants; (3) a tax on circulation, which depended on the département; and (4) an entry duty for the towns of more than four hundred inhabitants, depending on the sale price and the number of inhabitants. Being from a wine-producing region, Bastiat had always been preoccupied by such a law, which was very hard on the local farmers.
Zollverein. German customs union that emerged in 1834 when the southwestern German states of Baden and Württemberg joined the Prussian customs union. The Prussian state and its territories had created an internal customs union in 1818 following the economic turmoil of the Napoleonic wars and the increase in size of Prussian-controlled territory. It was based upon the relatively low Prussian customs rate, which meant that the expanded German customs union created a significant trading zone within the German-speaking part of Europe with a relatively low external tariffrate and the hope of increasing deregulation of trade within the trading zone.
Bibliographical Note on the Works Cited in This Volume
In the text, Bastiat cites or alludes to many literary, political, and economic works. We have listed these works with a full citation in the bibliography of primary sources. In the glossaries, if a work is cited, we have given only the title of the work and the date when it was first published, so that its historical context might be appreciated, for example, Rousseau, The Social Contract (1762); the bibliography, however, might cite a different edition, depending on the source or reason for the citation.
In the bibliography of primary sources, we have tried, if possible, to cite editions published during Bastiat’s lifetime that he might well have used. For example, the third edition of the complete works of Rousseau appeared in seventeen volumes in 1830–33: Œuvres complètes de J.-J. Rousseau, avec les notes de tous les commentateurs. The edition by Hiard of The Social Contract might have also been used by Bastiat: Du contrat social, ou principes du droit politique. Or, for example, a three-volume collected works of Maximilien Robespierre was published in the late 1830s as the French socialist movement was beginning to grow on the eve of the 1848 revolution. This is the edition Bastiat most likely had access to: Œuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, avec une notice historique et des notes, par le citoyen Laponneraye.
Bastiat was oft en quite cavalier in citing the sources he used, not providing page references let alone identifying the chapters. Where we have been able to locate the quotation, we have given the book number, chapter number, and the title of the chapter. Sometimes we have been able to locate the exact edition of a work Bastiat used, and in those instances, we have provided page numbers to that work.
If we have not been able to locate the exact edition of a work Bastiat used but have found the exact location of the quotation in a different (sometimes, modern) edition, we have cited and provided the page numbers to that work. For example, in the chapter “Baccalaureate and Socialism,” Bastiat quotes oft en from Rousseau. We have been able to locate many of those quotations, with page numbers, in a 1975 edition of Rousseau’s works, Du contrat social et autres œuvres politiques.
For background information about key concepts and biographical details of political figures and authors we have frequently consulted Le Dictionnaire de l’économie politique (1852–53). Bastiat was closely connected to the group of classical liberal political economists in Paris during the 1840s: he was a member of the Société d’économie politique (founded 1842); he wrote many articles for Le Journal des économistes (founded 1841); he published his books and pamphlets with the Guillaumin publishing house (which also published Le Journal des économistes and the Dictionnaire); he wrote two key articles for the Dictionnaire, “Abondance” (Wealth) and “Loi” (Law); and he was quoted in many other articles, most notably in the key article in the Dictionnaire, “L’État” (The State).
In some cases Bastiat does not quote an author or authors directly but paraphrases their ideas in his own words. For example, in a speech in the Chamber of Deputies he might refer to his socialist opponents as “they” and “quote” a number of their ideas in a paragraph in which he paraphrases their thoughts. In cases like this we have made no effort to track down and cite the source of each of these individual ideas or thoughts.
[31. ]See “Property and Plunder,” p. 159 in this volume.
[32. ]“The Miller and Sans-Souci” first appeared in Contes et opuscules en vers et en prose (1800) and was reprinted in Œuvres de François-Guillaume-Jean-Stanislas Andrieux, vol. 3, pp. 205–8.
[33. ]Augustine, City of God, bk. 4, ch. 4, in St. Augustin’s City of God and Christian Doctrine.