§ 34.: Arrests without a warrant.— - Christopher G. Tiedeman, A Treatise on State and Federal Control of Persons and Property in the United States considered from both a Civil and Criminal Standpoint, vol. 1 
A Treatise on State and Federal Control of Persons and Property in the United States considered from both a Civil and Criminal Standpoint (St. Louis: The F.H. Thomas Law Book Co., 1900). Vol. 1.
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- Preface to the Second Edition.
- State and Federal Control of Persons and Property. Vol. I.
- Chapter I.: Scope of the Government Control and Regulation of Personal Rights.
- § 1.: Police Power—defined and Explained.—
- § 2.: The Legal Limitations Upon Police Power.—
- § 3.: Construction of Constitutional Limitations.—
- § 4.: The Principal Constitutional Limitations.—
- § 5.: Table of Private Rights.—
- Chapter II.: Government Regulation of Personal Security.
- § 10.: Security to Life.—
- § 11.: Capital Punishment, When Cruel and Unusual.—
- § 12.: Security to Limb and Body—general Statement.—
- § 13.: Corporal Punishment—when a Cruel and Unusual Punishment.—
- § 14.: Personal Chastisement In Certain Relations.—
- § 15.: Battery In Self-defense.—
- § 16.: Abortion.—
- § 17.: Compulsory Submission to Surgical and Medical Treatment.—
- § 18.: Security to Health—legalized Nuisance.—
- § 19.: Security to Reputation—privileged Communications. 3 —
- § 20.: Privilege of Legislators.—
- § 21.: Privilege In Judicial Proceedings.—
- § 22.: Criticism of Officers and Candidates For Office.—
- § 23.: Publications Through the Press.—
- § 24.: Security to Reputation—malicious Prosecution.—
- § 25.: Advice of Counsel, How Far a Defense.—
- Chapter III.: Personal Liberty.
- § 26.: Personal Liberty—how Guaranteed.—
- Chapter IV.: Government Control of Criminal Classes.
- § 27.: The Effect of Crime On the Rights of the Criminal—power of State to Declare What Is a Crime.—
- § 28.: Due Process of Law.—
- § 29.: Bills of Attainder.—
- § 30.: Ex Post Facto Laws.—
- § 31.: Cruel and Unusual Punishment In Forfeiture of Personal Liberty and Rights of Property.—
- § 32.: Preliminary Confinement to Answer For a Crime—commitment of Witnesses.—
- § 33.: What Constitutes a Lawful Arrest.—
- § 34.: Arrests Without a Warrant.—
- § 35.: The Trial of the Accused.—
- § 36.: The Trial Must Be Speedy.—
- § 37.: Trials Must Be Public.—
- § 38.: Accused Entitled to Counsel.—
- § 39.: Indictment By Grand Jury Or By Information.—
- § 40.: The Plea of Defendant.—
- § 41.: Trial By Jury—legal Jeopardy.—
- § 42.: Right of Appeal.—
- § 43.: Imprisonment For Crime—hard Labor—control of Convicts In Prison.—
- § 43 A.: Convict Lease System.—
- Chapter V.: The Control of Dangerous Classes, Otherwise Than By Criminal Prosecution.
- § 44.: Confinement For Infectious and Contagious Diseases.—
- § 45.: The Confinement of the Insane.—
- § 46.: Control of the Insane In the Asylum.—
- § 47.: Punishment of the Criminal Insane.—
- § 48.: Confinement of Habitual Drunkards.—
- § 49.: Police Control of Vagrants.—
- § 50.: Police Regulation of Mendicancy.—
- § 51.: Police Supervision of Habitual Criminals.—
- § 52.: State Control of Minors.—
- Chapter VI.: Regulations of the Rights of Citizenship and Domicile.
- § 53.: Citizenship and Domicile Distinguished.—
- § 54.: Expatriation.—
- § 55.: Naturalization.—
- § 56.: Prohibition of Emigration.—
- § 57.: Compulsory Emigration.—
- § 58.: Prohibition of Immigration.—
- § 59.: The Public Duties of a Citizen.—
- Chapter VII.: State Regulation of Morality and Religion.
- § 60.: Crime and Vice Distinguished—their Relation to Police Power.—
- § 61.: Sumptuary Laws.—
- § 62.: Church and State—historical Synopsis.—
- § 63.: Police Regulation of Religion—constitutional Restrictions.—
- § 64.: State Control of Churches and Congregations.—
- § 65.: Religious Criticism and Blasphemy Distinguished.—
- § 66.: Permissible Limitations Upon Religious Worship.—
- § 67.: Religious Discrimination In Respect to Admissibility of Testimony.—
- § 68.: Sunday Laws.—
- Chapter VIII.: Freedom of Speech and Liberty of the Press.
- § 81.: Police Supervision Prohibited By the Constitutions.—
- Chapter IX.: Regulation of Trades and Occupations.
- § 85.: General Propositions.—
- § 86.: Prohibition As to Certain Classes.—
- § 87.: Police Regulation of Skilled Trades and Learned Professions.—
- § 88.: Regulation of Practice In the Learned Professions.—
- § 89.: Regulation of Sale of Certain Articles of Merchandise.—
- § 90.: Regulations to Prevent Fraud.—
- § 91.: Legal Tender and Regulation of Currency.—
- § 92.: Free Coinage of Silver and the Legal Tender Decisions.—
- § 93.: Legislative Restraint of Importations—protective Tariffs.—
- § 94.: Liberty of Contract, a Constitutional Right.—
- § 95.: Compulsory Formation of Business Relations—common Carriers and Innkeepers Exceptions to the Rule—theaters and Other Places of Amusement.—
- § 96.: Regulation of Prices and Charges.—
- § 97.: Later Cases On Regulating Prices and Charges—regulations Must Be Reasonable—what Is a Reasonable Regulation, a Judicial Question.—
- § 98.: Police Regulation of the Labor Contract.—
- § 99.: Regulation of Wages of Workmen—mode of Measuring Payment—compulsory Insurance and Membership In Benefit Societies—release From Liability For Injuries to Employees.—
- § 100.: Regulation of Wages of Workmen, Continued—time of Payment—medium of Payment—fines and Deductions For Imperfect Work—mechanics’ Lien and Exemption of Wages.—
- § 101.: Prohibition of Employment of Aliens—exportation of Laborers—importation of Alien Laborers Under Contract—chinese Labor—employers Compelling Workmen to Leave Unions.—
- § 102.: Regulating Hours of Labor.—
- § 103.: Regulations of Factories, Mines and Workshops—sweatshops. 1 —
- § 104.: Period of Hiring—breach Or Termination of Labor Contract—compulsory Performance of Labor Contract—requirement of Notice of Discharge—employers Required to Give Statement of Reasons For Discharge.—
- § 105.: Regulations of the Business of Insurance.—
- § 106.: Usury and Interest Laws.—
- § 107.: Prevention of Speculation.—
- § 108.: Prevention of Combinations In Restraint of Trade.—
- § 109.: A Combination to “corner” the Market.—
- § 109a.: Contracts Against Liability For Negligence Prohibited.—
- § 110.: Common Law Prohibition of Combinations In Restraint of Trade Restated.—
- § 111.: Industrial and Corporate Trusts, As Combinations In Restraint of Trade.—
- § 112.: Modern Statutory Legislation Against Trade Combinations, Virtual Monopolies, and Contracts In Restraint of Trade.—
- § 113.: Different Phases of the Application of Anti-trust Statutes—factor’s System—control of Patents—combinations Against Dishonest Debtors—agreements to Sell Only to Regular Dealers—combinations of Employers to Resist Combinations of Employees—departmen
- § 114.: Labor Combinations—trades Unions—strikes.—
- § 115.: Strikes, Continued, and Boycotts.—
- § 116.: Wagering Contracts Prohibited.—
- § 117.: Option Contracts, When Illegal.—
- § 118.: General Prohibition of Contracts On the Ground of Public Policy.—
- § 119.: Licenses.—
- § 120.: Prohibition of Occupations In General. 5 —
- § 121.: Prohibition of Trade In Vice—social Evil, Gambling, Horse-racing.—
- § 122.: Prohibition of Trades For the Prevention of Fraud—adulterations of Goods—harmful Or Dangerous Goods—prohibition of Sale of Oleomargarine.—
- § 123.: Prohibition of Ticket-brokerage—ticket-scalping Prohibited and Punished.—
- § 124.: Prohibition of Sale of Game Out of Season—prohibition of Export of Game.—
- § 125.: Prohibition of the Liquor Trade.—
- § 126.: Police Control of Employments In Respect to Locality. 3 —
- § 127.: Monopolies—general Propositions.—
- § 128.: Monopolies and Exclusive Franchises In the Cases of Railroads, Bridges, Ferries, Street Railways, Gas, Water, Lighting, Telephone and Telegraph Companies.—
- § 129.: Patents and Copyrights, How Far Monopolies.—
- § 130.: When Ordinary Occupations May Be Made Exclusive Monopolies—saloons—banking—insurance—peddling—building and Loan Associations—restriction of Certain Trades to Certain Localities—slaughterhouses—markets.—
- § 131.: National, State and Municipal Monopolies.—
Arrests without a warrant.—
Although it is the general rule of law that there can be no arrest without a warrant of the nature just described, yet there are cases in which the requirement of a warrant would so obstruct the effectual enforcement of the laws, that the ends of justice would be defeated. For public reasons, therefore, in a few cases, the personal security of the citizen is subjected to the further liability of being arrested by a police officer or private individual without a warrant. But the right thus to arrest without a warrant must be confined to the cases of strict public necessity. The cases are few in number and may be stated as follows:—
1. When a felony is being committed, an arrest may be made without warrant to prevent any further violation of the law.
2. When the felony has been committed, and the officer or private individual is justified, by the facts within his knowledge, in believing that the person arrested has committed the crime.
3. All breaches of the peace, in assaults and batteries, affrays, riots, etc., for the purpose of restoring order immediately.
4. The arrest of all disorderly and other persons who may be violating the ordinary police regulations for the preservation of public order and health, such as vagrants, gamblers, beggars, who are found violating the laws in the public thoroughfares.
The constitutional principle, that arrest without warrant is permissible only in cases of strict public necessity, is very clearly set forth in a case from the Michigan courts, which pronounces a statute of that State unconstitutional, in that it authorizes the recaption without warrant and imprisonment of a convict, who is charged with the violation of the conditions of his pardon. No public necessity required this summary arrest without warrant; and, consequently, his deprivation of liberty had not been procured by “due process of law.”
|SECTION||35.||The trial of the accused.|
|36.||Trial must be speedy.|
|37.||Trial must be public.|
|38.||Accused entitled to counsel.|
|39.||Indictment by grand jury or by information.|
|40.||The plea of defendant.|
|41.||Trial by jury—Legal jeopardy.|
Ruloff v. People, 45 N. Y. 213; Keenan v. State, 8 Wis. 132. But see Somerville v. Richards, 37 Mich. 299.
But the belief must be a reasonable one. If the facts within his knowledge do not warrant his belief in the guilt of the innocent person whom he has arrested, he will be liable in an action for false imprisonment. State v. Holmes, 48 N. H. 377; Holly v. Mix, 3 Wend. 350; Reuck v. McGregor, 32 N. J. 70; Commonwealth v. Deacon, 8 Serg. & R. 47; State v. Roane, 2 Dev. 58; Long v. State, 12 Ga. 233; Eames v. State, 6 Humph. 53. Less particularity, in respect to the reasonableness of the suspicions against an individual, is required of an officer who makes an arrest without warrant, than of a private person. The suspicions must be altogether groundless, in order to make the officer liable for the wrongful arrest. See Marsh v. Loader, 14 C. B. (n. s.) 535; Lawrence v. Hedger, 3 Taunt. 14; Rohan v. Sawin, 5 Cush. 281; Holley v. Mix, 3 Wend. 350; Burns v. Erben, 40 N. Y. 463; Dreunan v. People, 10 Mich. 169.
Philips v. Trull, 11 Johns. 477; Respublica v. Montgomery, 1 Yeates, 419; City Council v. Payne, 2 Nott & McCord, 475; Vandeveer v. Mattocks, 3 Ind. 479.
See Mitchell v. Lemon, 34 Md. 176, in which it was held that one may be arrested without a warrant, who was found violating the rules laid down by the city board of health for the preservation of the public health. In Burroughs v. Eastman, 101 Mich. 419, it was held that an ordinance did not contravene the constitutional requirement of “due process of law,” which authorized police officers to arrest without warrant persons who were violating any of the ordinances in their presence, even in those cases in which the offense committed did not amount to a breach of the peace. But see contra, State v. Hunter, 106 N. C. 796.
People v. Moore, 62 Mich. 496.