Front Page Titles (by Subject) Appendix I: Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Principles, with Variants and Notes - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume III - Principles of Political Economy Part II
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Appendix I: Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Principles, with Variants and Notes - John Stuart Mill, The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume III - Principles of Political Economy Part II 
The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume III - The Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy (Books III-V and Appendices), ed. John M. Robson, Introduction by V.W. Bladen (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965).
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Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Principles, with Variants and Notes
mill, like most nineteenth-century authors, is very cavalier in his approach to sources, seldom identifying them with sufficient care, and very frequently quoting them inaccurately and without indicating omissions.1 This Appendix is intended to help correct these deficiencies, and also to serve as an index of names and titles (which are consequently omitted in the Index proper). The material is arranged in alphabetical order, with an entry for each author and work quoted or referred to in the Principles and Appendices A-H.
The entries take the following form:
1. Identification: author, title, etc., in the usual bibliographic form.
2. A list of the places in the Principles where the author or work is quoted, and a separate list of the places where there is reference only.
3. Notes (if required) giving information about JSM’s use of the source, and any other relevant information.
4. A list of substantive variants between the Principles and the source, in this form: Page and line reference to the Principles. Reading in the Principles] Reading in the source (page reference in the source).
The list of substantive variants also attempts to place quoted remarks in their contexts by giving the beginnings and endings of sentences. Omissions of two sentences or less are given in full; only the length of other omissions is given. Following the page reference to the source, cross-references to substantive variants within editions (i.e., those recorded in footnotes to the present text) are given, where applicable. (These help identify places where inaccuracies may be blamed on the printer.) Only surnames are given in cases of simple reference.
Aeschylus. Referred to: 16
Alfieri. Referred to: 310n
Ampère. Referred to: 42
Anderson, James.An Enquiry into the Nature of the Corn-Laws; with a View to the New Corn-Bill proposed for Scotland. Edinburgh: Mundell, 1777.
referred to: 419
Anon. “Australia,” The Times, 14 Dec., 1864, 4.
referred to: 1090-1
Anon. “Co-operative Manufacturing Companies,” Rochdale Observer, 26 May, 1860, 3.
Anon. “Foreign Intelligence: France,” The Times, 24 November, 1864, 9.
785.n6 operatives stand] operatives still stand (9)
785.n7 who have also] who also (9)
Anon. “Trade and Finance,” Daily News, 18 Apr., 1864, 4.
referred to: 1047
note: The Daily News correctly reads “Loyd” not “Lloyd”.
Anon. Unheaded article, Le Siècle, 29 Dec., 1847, 2.
referred to: 437
note: JSM reduces to round numbers, and uses the figures for the Départment de la Seine rather than those for Paris. The article gives the population of Paris in 1846 as 1,053,907; that of the Département de la Seine in 1846 as 1,356,907, in 1841 as 1,181,425, in 1836 as 1,106,000, and in 1832 as 935,000.
Anon. Unheaded leading articles, Daily News, 1 Dec., 1864, 4, and 3 Dec., 1864, 4.
referred to: 1042
Aristophanes. Referred to: 16
Aristotle. Referred to: 969
Arkwright. Referred to: 96, 189, 344
Ashworth, Henry.A Tour in the United States, Cuba, and Canada. London: Bennett and Pitman, .
referred to: 1086-7, 1089-91, 1093
Attwood. Referred to: 563-4
Babbage, Charles.On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 3rd ed. London: Knight, 1832 .
quoted: 106, 111, 111n-113n, 124-6, 128-9, 131-2, 770, 1008-10 referred to: 1012
note: Babbage’s text is broken into numbered sections, with other (not subsidiary) numbers as required: JSM ignores these. In the passages he quotes, they occur at 126.17, 132.8, 132.16, 132.24, 1008.24, 1008.34, 1009.18, 1010.1 (twice), 1010.26, 1010.34 (twice). Italics and quotation marks distinguishing ‘doctoring,’ ‘single-press,’ ‘double-press,’ and ‘warp-lace’ are ignored.
111.7 At] To such an extent is this confidence in character carried in England, that, at (219)
111.n5.112.n2 The cost . . . contracts] [in italics] (134)
112.n10 customers. The] customers. [paragraph] The (135)
112.n12-13 Government . . . themselves] [in italics] (135)
112.n24 it by] it with (135)
113.n6 articles,] article; (136) [see 140n]
124.6 it is] is (202) [see 124d-d]
125.13 process.] process; in this view of the subject, therefore, the division of labour will diminish the price of production. (171)
131.20 person] servant (214) [see 131b-b]
132.8 When] Where (215) [see 132c-c]
132.15-16 order. [paragraph] Pursuing] order. One of the first results will be, that the looms can be driven by the engine nearly twice as fast as before: and as each man, when relieved from bodily labour, can attend to two looms, one workman can now make almost as much cloth as four. This increase of producing power is, however, greater than that which really took place at first; the velocity of some of the parts of the loom being limited by the strength of the thread, and the quickness with which it commences its motion: but an improvement was soon made, by which the motion commenced slowly, and gradually acquired greater velocity than it was safe to give it at once; and the speed was thus increased from 100 to about 120 strokes per minute. [paragraph] Pursuing (215-6)
770.25 “the] Some approach to this system is already practised in several trades: the mode of conducting the Cornish mines has already been alluded to; the payment to the crew of whaling ships is governed by this principle; the (259)
770.29 required] injured (259)
1008.10-14 “the . . . required.”] [as in 770.25 and 770.29 above]
1008.19-23 1st. That . . . course.] [except for ordinals, in italics with paragraph breaks at 1st. and 2d.] (253-4)
1009.1 their class] their own class (254)
1009.24 Suppose] Let us suppose (255)
1009.42-1010.1 undertaking. [paragraph] “The] [one paragraph omitted] (256-7)
1010.2 direct] direct (257)
1010.8 to improvement] to its improvement (257)
1010.21 evidently] evidently (258)
1010.25 between] between (258)
1010.33-4 existing. [paragraph] “A] existing. [paragraph] It is possible that the present laws relating to partnerships might interfere with factories so conducted. If this interference could not be obviated by confining their purchases under the proposed system to ready money, it would be desirable to consider what changes in the law would be necessary to its existence:—and this furnishes another reason for entering into the question of limited partnerships. [paragraph] A (258)
Barham. Referred to: 770, 1007
Bastiat, Frédéric. “Considérations sur le métayage,” Journal des Économistes, 2e Série, XIII (Feb., 1846), 225-39.
quoted: I, 299n-300n
300.n3 fait bien] fait également bien (236)
300.n7 redoutable. C’est] redoutable. [paragraph] C’est (236)
300.n9 salariat] salariat (236)
300.n14 opére] opère (237)
— Harmonies économiques. Paris: Guillaumin, 1850.
referred to: 424
Beaumont. Referred to: 329, 995
Bentham, Jeremy. Referred to: 220, 392, 809, 811, 862, 883
— “Letters on Usury.” [Defence of Usury. London, 1816.] Referred to: 923
Béranger, Charles. “La liberté et le monopole,” La République, 1 Jan., 1851, 2.
446.n4 “La consommation] [paragraph] Or, tandis que la consommation de la viande de boucherie diminuait ainsi, un fait opposé se produisait dans la consommation des autres denrées: celle du (2)
446.n10 presque] près de (2)
446.n11 fr. C’est] fr. [paragraph] C’est (2)
446.n24—447.1 1835 . . . Nous] 1835, pour l’habitant de la banlieue, tandis que de 1812 à 1847, la consommation individuelle des habitans de Paris a diminué de 10 kilog. Si la boucherie eût été libre à Paris, il est impossible de douter que la consommation parisienne ne se fût développée dans des proportions égales à celle de la banlieue. [paragraph] Nous (2)
447.n5 constaté. Nous] constaté. [paragraph] Nous (2)
447.6-7 1835 . . . L’accroissement] 1835; mais ceux que nous avons cités suffisent amplement pour démontrer que la cherté de la viande et la diminution relative de la consommation n’ont point d’autres causes que la constitution de boucherie en monopole. L’accroissement (2)
447.n7-8 corréspond] correspond (2)
Bertin, Amédée, and Maupillé, Léon.Notice historique et statistique sur la Baronie, la Ville et l’Arrondissement de Fougères. Rennes: Marteville and Lefas, 1846.
quoted: 450 referred to: 450-1
note: JSM draws broadly from pp. 350-414.
450.26-30 “It . . . period.”] [translated from:] C’est seulement depuis la paix que l’agriculture a fait quelques progrès dans l’arrondissement de Fougères: à partir de 1815, le mouvement d’amélioration de son agriculture a toujours été de plus en plus rapide. On peut dire que si, de 1815 à 1825 ce mouvement a été comme 1, il a été comme 3 de 1825 à 1835, et qu’il est comme 6 depuis 1835. (352)
Beslay. Referred to: 774n, 1017
Blacker, William.Prize Essay, Addressed to the Agricultural Committee of the Royal Dublin Society. On the Management of Landed Property in Ireland; the Consolidation of Small Farms, Employment of the Poor, Etc. Etc. Dublin: Curry, 1834.
144.17 plough and] plough or (23n)
144.18-19 if . . . house] if . . . house (23n)
144.21-2 subject . . . The] subject, and I think it will not appear extraordinary, that such should be the case, to any one who reflects that the (23n)
144.23 farmer. He] farmer in this country. He (23n)
144.26 acres.” After . . . adds, “Besides] acres. Add to this, he must appear himself, and have his family also to appear in a superior rank, and his farm must not only enable him to pay his rent, and yield him the support he requires, but it must also be chargeable with the interest of the large capital which is necessary to its cultivation; besides (23n)
144.30 children. And] children; and (23n)
144.33 difference.”] difference perfectly. (24n)
Blackstone, Sir William.Commentaries on the Laws of England. Vol. II. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1766.
note: JSM gives no indication of edition.
893.9 “for] Children grew disobedient when they knew they could not be set aside: farmers were ousted of their leases made by tenants in tail; for (116)
893.10 cover] colour (116)
893.10 disinherited;”] disinherited: creditors were defrauded of their debts; for, if the tenant in tail could have charged his estate with their payment, he might also have defeated his issue, by mortgaging it for as much as it was worth: innumerable latent entails were produced to deprive purchasers of the lands they had fairly bought; of suits in consequence of which our antient books are full: and treasons were encouraged; as estates-tail were not liable to forfeiture, longer than for the tenant’s life. (116)
Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis. Referred to: 203, 210, 775, 783n
— Organisation du travail. Paris: Société de l’industrie fraternelle, 1839.
referred to: 1012.n4
Briggs, Henry (Messrs.) Referred to: 774-5, 903
note: JSM is evidently citing the prospectus of the Company’s reconstitution in 1865. No such prospectus has been located.
Bright. Referred to: 1032n
Brown. Referred to: 1091
Browne. Referred to: 287, 295n
Buchez. Referred to: 1028
Byron. Referred to: 392
Cabet, Étienne. Referred to: 203
— Voyage en Icarie, Roman philosophique et social. 2nd ed. Paris: Mallet, 1842.
referred to: 1028
Cairnes, John E. “Capital and Currency,” North British Review, XXVIII (Feb., 1858), 191-230.
referred to: 1058, 1059, 1067
— “Co-operation in the Slate Quarries of North Wales,” Macmillan’s Magazine, XI (Jan., 1865), 181-190; reprinted in Essays in Political Economy, Theoretical and Applied. London: Macmillan, 1873, 166-186.
referred to: 1089
— “The Cause of the Inequalities in the Pressure of the Income Tax,” Economist, XIX (4 May, 1861), 481-3.
referred to: 1050
note: The date of Cairnes’ article is supplied by JSM in pencil.
— “Fragments on Ireland,” in Political Essays. London: Macmillan, 1873, 147.
referred to: 1084
— “Ireland,” Edinburgh Review, CXIX (Jan., 1864), 279-304.
referred to: 1057
— Personal communication to JSM.
quoted: 332n-333n, 334-6, 1038-95
Campbell. Referred to: 885
Carey, Henry Charles. “Commercial Associations of France and England,” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine, XII (May, 1845), 403-20; ibid. (June, 1845), 499-520.
quoted: 899-900, 902-3, 905-6, 906 referred to: 904, 919-21, 1056
note: Carey is translating from Charles Coquelin, “Des Sociétés Commerciales en France et en Angleterre,” Revue des Deux Mondes, n.s. III (Aug., 1843), 397-437. Carey adds “Remarks and Notes.”
899.30 “While] Thus, while (514)
899.31 even that] that even (514)
900.2 case. Again] case. [paragraph] Again (514)
900.4-5 Even his confidential clerk] His confidential clerk, even, (514)
900.14 information. Thus] information. [paragraph] Thus (514)
900.33 placed. . . . Our] placed; and thus are the parties doubly deceived. Our (515)
900.35 possible] possible (515)
902.6 “Suppose] Would the reader see the action of a limited partnership in its most rigorous form, let him suppose (412)
902.7 to carry] to enable him to carry (412)
902.11-13 certainly;” . . . “Neither] certainly! for who would call in a third person to take part in the management of a business, the secret of which belonged exclusively to himself? What advantage, indeed, would result from the unlimited liability of the partners, where there was no reciprocity? Neither (412)
902.14 anonyme,” or any other form of joint-stock company, “in] anonyme, or chartered company, in (412)
902.18 right. Cases] right. [paragraph] Cases (412)
905.1 “nowhere] No where (517)
905.4 these] those (517)
905.11 Every district] Every little district (517)
905.13 neighbourhood,] neighborhood,* [footnote:] *In the banking laws of both Massachusetts and Rhode Island, there are provisions in relation to a liability of the shareholders for the payment of their notes, in case of bankruptcy; but they are of such a character as to be of scarcely any importance, whatever. It is nearly impossible that they should ever become operative, and consequently they do little injury. (517)
905.18 institutions.] [footnote containing list of types of shareholders in New England small companies omitted] (517-18)
905.21 through] throughout (518)
905.26 economy. Charitable] economy. All are, therefore, interested in the success of the concern; the consequence of which is, that the manufactures of New England are gradually superseding those of Great Britain, in the markets of the world. Charitable (518)
905.34 world.] [4-paragraph footnote omitted] (518)
— Essay on the Rate of Wages: with an examination of the causes of the differences in the condition of the labouring population throughout the world. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Blanchard, 1835.
946.10 warp.] warp! (195)
946.16 fortune, reputation] future reputation (195)
946.18 shag] shag (195)
946.20 mohair. I] mohair. [paragraph] I (195)
— The Past, the Present, and the Future. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1848.
427.n4 We find the settler] If we find him
427.n5 requiring] requring [sic]
427.n8 increase. . . . . When] increase: then will the theory we have offered be confirmed by practice: American practice at least. If, however, we can thence follow him into Mexico, and through South America; into Britain, and through France, Germany, Italy, Greece and Egypt, into Asia and Australia, and show that such has been his invariable course of action, then may it be believed that when
427.n9 soils. With] soils: that with (25)
427.n12 them.”] them; and that with this change there is a steady diminution in the proportion of the population required for producing the means of subsistence, and as steady an increase in the proportion that may apply themselves to producing the other comforts, conveniences and luxuries of life. (25)
— Principles of Political Economy. Part the First: of the laws of the production and distribution of wealth. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Blanchard, 1837.
referred to: 424c-c
— Principles of Social Science. 3 vols. London: Trübner, 1858.
referred to: 919-21, 1056
Chalmers, Thomas. Referred to: 67n, 75-7, 418, 570-1, 576, 697, 725, 735-6, 741, 841.
— On Political Economy in connexion with the Moral State and Moral Prospects of Society. 2nd ed. Glasgow: Collins, 1832.
note: JSM does not indicate edition. Chalmers’ Chapter iii is “On the Increase and Limit of Capital.”
referred to: 735
Charlevoix. Referred to: 166-7
Châteauvieux, Jacob Frédéric Lullin de.Italy, its Agriculture, &c. From the French of Mons. Châteauvieux, being Letters written by him in Italy, in the years 1812 & 1813. Trans. Edward Rigby. Norwich: Hunter, 1819.
quoted: 303-4, 304-5, 305, 306, 306-7 referred to: 298, 435, 443
note: The letters are presumably addressed to Charles Pictet.
303.14 “an extent] This farm, like all others in Lombardy, displays an extent (19)
303.15 rarely] scarcely (19) [see 302d-d]
303.16 “affords] [paragraph] This is a perfect model of all the farm-houses in Lombardy, with nearly their dimensions, and should be that of every one in Europe; for it is a plan which affords (20)
303.19 “exhibits a] To secure the purpose of cleanliness, the dung of the cattle is thrown on the outside of the court, which exhibits, among its symmetrical columns, a (20)
303.24 “the] [paragraph] The (25)
303.24 great.”] great in Piedmont; and this country, in whose limited extent a considerable space is occupied by mountains, supplies, in corn and cattle, the riviere of Genoa, Nice, and as far as the port of Toulon. (25)
303.26 plough works] plough thus works (27)
303.27 season. . . . Nothing] season. You have, yourself, some years ago, so well described the excellent Piedmont plough, and the skill with which the active laborers manage it, that it would be superfluous to repeat it here. I cannot, however, avoid mentioning to you the method they have acquired of executing, with a single plough, all the work necessary for putting in the grain and earthing up the plants, for which, in England, so many implements have been invented. Nothing (27-8)
303.34 grain. . . . . In] grain. [paragraph] [5-sentence omission] It will be obvious, that in (30-1)
304.10 amphitheatre. The] amphitheatre. [paragraph] The (73)
304.11 other. . . . . They] other; they are built of brick, and in a justness of proportion, and with an elegance of form unknown in our country. They consist of only one story, which has often but a single door and two windows in the front. They (74)
304.15 vines. . . . . . Before] vines, so that during the summer it is difficult to determine whether they are green pavilions, or houses for winter. [paragraph] Before (74)
304.17 flowers. . . . . These] flowers, and placed on one side of the head. [10-sentence omission] [paragraph] These (74-6)
304.23-4 vine. . . . . These] vine, the branches of which are twined round, in various directions. [paragraph] These (76)
304.24 arrayed] arranged (76) [see 304f-f]
304.25 oxen] them (76) [see 304g-g]
304.27 farms . . . . . Almost] farms. The oxen come from the neighbourhood of Rome and the maremmes. They are of the Hungarian breed, extremely well kept, and covered with embroidered white linen and red ornaments. [paragraph] Almost (76)
305.3 which] that (78) [see 305h-h]
305.4 small. I] small. [paragraph] I (79)
305.30 fifteen to twenty pence] thirty to forty sous (75) [not quoted directly]
306.3-4 society. The] society. [paragraph] The (295)
306.10 hills: gradual] hills. Gradual (295)
306.13 interested. Thus] interested. [paragraph] Thus (296)
306.16 labour] labors (296) [see 306j-j]
Cherbuliez, Antoine Élisée. “Des associations ouvrières,” Journal des Économistes, 2e Série, XXVIII (Nov., 1860), 161-95.
quoted: 779n-780n, 782n-783n
779.n15 et aucun] ni aucun (168)
779.n21 très onéreuses. En] très-onéreuses. [paragraph] En (168)
779.n27 maximum.” [paragraph] “La] [4-paragraph omission] (168-9)
780.n2-3 francs. [paragraph] “L’association] [4-sentence omission] (170)
782.n35 344,240] 344,210 (170)
782.n36 46,000] 16,000 (170)
Chevalier, Michel.Lettres sur l’organisation du travail, ou études sur les principales causes de la misère et sur les moyens proposés pour y remédier. Paris: Capelle, 1848.
quoted: 772n, 1012
note: 772n is identical with Appendix D, 1012; therefore the entry is not duplicated.
772.n4 l’avantage du] l’avantage qui résulte du (298)
— “Rapport verbal sur un ouvrage de M. Armand Husson, intitulé: Les Consommations de Paris,” Journal des Économistes, 2e Série, XI (July, 1856), 121-7.
note: Chevalier heads the extract: “En résumé, chaque Parisien absorbe annuellement en denrées animales un poids total de 95 kilog. 561 grammes, savoir:” (124)
Clément, A. Recherches sur les causes de l’indigence. Paris: Guillaumin, 1846.
290.n4 “Les] Pour démontrer combien les évaluations au moyen desquelles on prétend prouver que l’accroissement de l’indigence suit les progrès industriels méritent peu d’attention, il suffit de leur opposer un fait incontestable et reconnu de tous: l’industrie a fait en France, pendant les quarante dernières années, plus de progrès qu’à aucune autre époque, et les (84)
290.n5 les] le (84)
290.n7 siècle. . . . On] siècle. [paragraph] Ce fait ne peut être traduit en chiffres, mais il prouve évidemment le contraire de ce que l’on a voulu établir par les données statistiques dont il s’agit, et comme on (84-5)
290.n7 appuyer] l’appuyer (85)
290.n8 [ce fait [JSM’s addition] (85)]]
290.n9 comparées. . . . S’il] comparées, il est assurément beaucoup plus concluant que des évaluations fondées, en grande partie, sur l’imagination de leurs auteurs.* [footnote:] *S’il (85, 85n)
290.n11 nous-mêmes] nous-même (85n)
290.n13 exact, M.] exact, déjà cité, M. (85n)
290.n17 “la] On peut raisonnablement conclure, des observations que nous avons présentées, que la (118)
290.18 journaliers;”] journaliers, doit être attribuée, en partie, au fractionnement des vastes propriétés territoriales qui existaient à cette epoque. (118)
290.n23-4 parure. . . . . . Les] parure. On doit s’applaudir, sans doute, de ce que les (164)
290.n24-6 Lyon,” . . . “ne] Lyon, par exemple, ne (164)
290.n27 haillons.”] haillons; mais peut-être eût-il mieux valu, dans leur intérêt, que le développement de leurs besoins ne se portât pas aussi exclusivement sur cet objet; des vêtements propres, mais simples, et composés de ces étoffes grossières et durables dont se revêtent encore les travailleurs de nos campagnes, auraient assuré leur bien-être, sous ce rapport, aussi bien et mieux que ne peuvent le faire les habits d’un prix élevé et de peu de durée dont ils font trop généralement usage. (164)
Cobbett. Referred to: 576
Cochut. Referred to: 777
Comte. Referred to: 1041
Conner, William.A Letter to the Right Honourable the Earl of Devon, Chairman of the Land Commission, on the Rackrent System of Ireland: showing its Cause, its Evils, and its Remedy. Dublin: Machen, 1843.
referred to: 328n
note: This pamphlet and the two following are bound in JSM’s own collection of Conner’s pamphlets on the Irish Land Question, now in the Goldsmith’s Library, University of London. In the Pierpont Morgan MS, the footnote listing Conner’s writings (II.ii.lv) includes a cancelled title, “The Cane laid to the root of Irish oppression,” which may have been cancelled because of its oddness: the correct title is The Axe Laid to the Root of Irish Oppression.
— The True Political Economy of Ireland: or Rack-rent the one great cause of all her evils: with its remedy. Being a speech delivered at a meeting of the Farming and Laboring Classes, at Inch, in the Queen’s County. Dublin: Wakeman, 1835.
referred to: 328n
— Two Letters to the Editor of the Times, on the Rackrent Oppression of Ireland, its Source—its Evils—and its Remedy, in reply to the Times Commissioner, with prefatory strictures on public men and parties in Ireland, showing their perfidy to the People. Also, on Lord Lincoln’s three Bills, showing their unfairness and utter futility. Dublin: Machen, 1846.
quoted: 328, 994
Considerant, Victor Prosper.Le socialisme devant le vieux monde, ou, le vivant devant les morts. Paris: Librairie Phalanstérienne, 1848.
referred to: 1028, 1031
Conway, Derwent.See Inglis, Henry David.
Cooper, William. “Report from Rochdale. Free Speech and the Wholesale Society,” The Co-operator, LVII (Nov., 1864), 89-90.
789.n19 to an educational] to educational (89)
Coquelin, Charles. Referred to: 899-900, 902-4, 905n. See also Carey, Henry Charles, “Commercial Associations of France and England.”
Corry. Referred to: 113n
Croker, J. W. “Agriculture in France,” Quarterly Review, LXXIX (Dec., 1846), 202-38.
quoted: 433, 436 referred to: 433n, 438
433.14 “in] The law has no limits—though the land has; and in (217)
433.14 Napoleon will] Napoleon—still in all its power and vigour—will (217)
436.34-5 “on . . . inheritance,”] But however that may be, it is obvious that under the unremitting action of the law, the ten thousand 690l. incomes of one generation must become in the next (on . . . inheritance), thirty thousand of 230l.; and although there is at work an antagonist process of reconstruction or accumulation by marriage, purchase, and collateral inheritance, it is altogether inadequate to stem the dispersing torrent. (212)
438.7 & 8 600,000] In the ten years from 1826 to 1835 the Côtes Foncières exhibit an increase of 60,000 properties. (212)
Cunin-Gridaine. Referred to: 445
Daily News. See Anon., “Trade and Finance”; and Anon., Unheaded leading articles, Daily News.
Darblay. Referred to: 774n
Defournaux. Referred to: 772n-773n
De L’Isle Brock. Referred to: 272-3
De Persigny, F. “Rapport au Prince Président de la République Française,” Le Moniteur Universel, CLV, 14 May, 731.
referred to: 437n
De Quincey, Thomas.The Logic of Political Economy. Edinburgh: Blackwood and Sons, 1844.
quoted: 462-4, 474 referred to: 456-7, 466, 468
462.7 “Any] Indeed, it is evident to common sense, that any (13)
462.10 secondly, even] secondly, that even (13)
462.17 not] not (14)
462.24 “Walk] Thus, by way of illustration, walk (24)
462.26 the ninety-nine] ninety-nine (24) [see 462a-a]
462.26 cases out] cases (24)
463.11 for the] for a (25)
463.11 come. One] come: one (25) [see 463b-b]
463.21 guineas] [18-sentence footnote omitted] (25-7)
463.36 under a] under the (28)
474.6 cheaper. Silk] cheaper: silk (230) [see 474g-g]
474.18 stationary? . . . . Offer] stationary? The articles and the manufacturing interests are past counting which conform to the case here stated; viz. which are so interorganized with other articles or other interests, that apart from that relation—standing upon their own separate footing—they cannot be diminished in price through any means or any motive depending upon the extension of sale. Offer (231)
474.22 whose habits and] whose rank, habits, and (231)
474.24 Oxford.”] Oxford, or the separate costume for Cantabs. (231)
Descartes. Referred to: 1072
Destutt-Tracy. Referred to: 302
Devon, William Courtenay, Earl of. “Report from Her Majesty’s Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of the Law and Practice in Respect to the Occupation of Land in Ireland,” Parliamentary Papers, 1845, XIX-XXII.
quoted: 318, 330n-1n, 992-3, 997-1000 referred to: 992n, 993, 994n, 997, 999
note: for specific passages, see Griffith, R., Hurley, J., and Robinson, Colonel. See also Kennedy, J. P.
Doubleday. Referred to: 155n-156n
Duncan. Quoted: 902n (see Fane)
Dunning, T. J. Trades’ Unions and Strikes: their Philosophy and Intention. London: Dunning, 1860.
referred to: 934n
Dunoyer, Charles B. De la liberté du travail ou simple exposé des conditions dans lesquelles les forces humaines s’exercent avec le plus de puissance. Vol. II. Paris: Guillaumin, 1845.
quoted: 111y, 945-6 referred to: 35, 948n
note: the passage referred to in 948n occurs in Dunoyer, Vol. III, Book ix, Chapter iv.
945.13 etc.] etc.* [footnote:] *V. dans Chaptal, t. II, p. 250 à 280, le détail des règlements aux-quels étaient assujétis une multitude de métiers.
945.34 galères] galères* [footnote:] *Dulaure, Hist. de Paris, t. IV, p. 443.
Dupont. Referred to: 773n, 1015-16
Duveyrier. Referred to: 1011
Elizabeth I (of England). Referred to: 233n, 955n
Elliott, J. H. Credit the Life of Commerce: being a defence of the British Merchant against the unjust and demoralizing tendency of the recent alterations in the Laws of Debtor and Creditor; with an outline of remedial measures. London: Madden and Malcolm, 1845.
quoted: 908-9, 910
908.28-9 it. Excessive] it. It is asserted by a gentleman, one of the able officers of the latter court, whose business it is, as an official assignee, to investigate the cases that come before it, that a case of bankruptcy, arising from misfortune,—unavoidable misfortune,—is extremely rare. By far the great majority arise from excessive (49)
908.29 speculation] speculations (49)
908.31 speculation] speculations (49)
909.3 innocent] [in italics] (49)
909.10 neglecting] neglected (49)
909.11 and means] and facile means (49)
909.16 “fifty-two] “The New Court has been open upwards of eighteen months, during which period fifty-two (49) [see 509x-x]
909.16 care. It] care. To the best of my judgment, not one of them can be attributed to what may be termed general distress. It (49)
909.31 not one-fourth] [in italics] (50)
910.4 alone.”] alone; but it is possible that if further examination were made, some delinquency could be made out against that one. (51)
Ellis, William. “Employment of Machinery,” Westminster Review, V (Jan., 1826), 101-30.
referred to: 736n
Escher, Albert G. “Evidence of Employers of Labourers on the Influence of Training and Education on the Value of Workmen, and on the Comparative Eligibility of Educated and Uneducated Workmen for Employment,” in “Report to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, from the Poor Law Commissioners, on the Training of Pauper Children,” House of Lords Sessional Papers, 1841, XXXIII, 15-21.
quoted: 108, 108d-d, 109-110, 110
note: Escher’s answers were in response to questions probably put by the Secretary to the Poor Law Commission, Edwin Chadwick. JSM omits these questions, which read:
108.13 The] [paragraph] What are the more particular natural characteristics of the several classes of workmen?—The (16)
108.19 As] [paragraph] What, however, do you find to be the differences of acquirements imparted by specific training and education?—As (16)
108.34 JSM here omits one question and its answer. (16)
108.36 The] [paragraph] But is the superior general usefulness of the Saxon, or workman of superior education, accompanied by any distinction of superiority as to moral habits?—Decidedly so. The (16)
109.10 Whilst] [paragraph] In respect to order and docility what have you found to be the rank of your English workmen?—Whilst (19)
In the following places JSM departs in substance from his source:
108.14 , in a power] [not in Source] (16) [see 108e-e]
108.30 else; and] else; he will understand only his steam-engine, and (16)
108.33 work] works (16)
109.3 kind; they have] kind; they are more refined themselves, and they have (17)
Euripides. Referred to: 16
Fane, Robert George Cecil.Bankruptcy Reform: in a series of Letters addressed to Sir Robert Peel, Bart. Letters IV. V. VI. VII. London: Sweet, 1838.
note: Fane uses numbered sections drawn from his source; JSM omits these numbers at the following places: 912.n7, 912.n11, 912.n13, 912.n14, 912.n17, 912.n19, 912.n22, 912.n29, 912.n31, 912.n41.
912.n8 in the investigation of his affairs] [in italics] (44)
912.n9 shall be] shall be* [footnote:] *There seems to be some distinction between the cases provided for by clause 587; and that distinction seems to be expressed in the French, by the words “sera poursuivi,” applied to the first class of cases, and “pourra être poursuivi” applied to the second, which I understand to be, the one imperative and the other permissive. I have translated the first “shall be,” and the second “may be.” (44)
912.n11 in a] in his (44) [see 912n]
912.n19 may] may* [same footnote as in 912.n9 above] (44)
912.n22 time limited] limited time (45)
912.n26-8 [JSM’s information drawn from Fane’s translation of Section 592 (p. 45) and Section 596 (pp. 46-7)]
912.n29 expenses and] expenses or (45)
912.n41 may] may* [footnote:] *See note, p. 44. [i.e., 912.n9] (46)
912.n46-7 [JSM’s note]
— “Report from the Select Committee on the Law of Partnership; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index,” Parliamentary Papers, 1851, XVIII, 66-113.
quoted: 896, 896n, 897, 902n referred to: 899n
note: JSM omits the question numbers in the ellipsis at 896.n5, and at 896.n9. The “competent authorities” cited at 897.4 would appear to be H. Bellenden Ker, in his “Reply to Queries, Appendix 5,” in the above Report (and see Parliamentary Papers, 1851, XLIV, 165-7). In 899.n1, the reference is to the evidence of E. W. Field (pp. 145-50) and John Duncan (pp. 151-8).
896.n5 out. . . . Very] [ellipsis indicates omission of 3 questions and answers, and also:] I have no doubt that the difficulty of getting judicial decisions in partnership disputes does operate to prevent persons from engaging in partnership; but still I do not think that is the thing which prevents them, because I believe that very (86)
896.n10 it or not, I] it I (86)
896.n16 therefore is] is therefore (87)
897.4 “mass of confusion,”] After years of discussion, reports, committees, &c., that mass of confusion the Joint Stock Companies Act was passed. (167)
897.4-5 “never was such an infliction”] Never was such an infliction on parties entering into partnership as these Acts; and yet the registrar and his staff go on putting, in my opinion, the most absurd construction, on the inconsistent and contrarient clauses of these Acts, whilst one would have thought it would have been the duty of the head of the office, long before this, to have furnished such information as would have led to a reasonable and plain law. (167)
902.n9 the risk] their risk (155) [see 902n]
Fauche. Referred to: 287, 295n
Faucher, Léon.Recherches sur l’or et sur l’argent considérés comme étalons de valeur (Paris: Librairie de Paulin, 1843).
referred to: 1067
Fawcett, Henry. “Strikes, their Tendencies and Remedies,” Westminster Review, n.s. XVIII (July, 1860), 1-23.
referred to: 932-3
note: the relevant passages are on 5ff.
Feugueray, H. L’association ouvrière, industrielle et agricole. Paris: Havard, 1851.
quoted: 776, 776-9, 783n, 784, 784h-h, 795
note: from 777.22 to 778.17, Feugueray is quoting from M. Cochut: JSM does not indicate this quotation.
776.30 l’eau. . . . C’est] l’eau; il fallait ainsi volontairement se faire une condition de vie très-inférieure à celle qu’on aurait pu se procurer comme simple salarié, et que pis est, il fallait souvent faire partager ces souffrances à des femmes, à des enfants, qui semblaient avoir le droit de se plaindre d’être sacrifiés par leurs maris, par leurs pères! [paragraph] C’est à ce prix, c’est (112)
777.13 refusa] refusa* [footnote:] *Je dois reconnaître qu’au dernier moment les délégués finirent par consentir à une diminution; ils abaissèrent leur demande à 197,000 francs d’abord, et enfin à 140,000 francs. Mais ces concessions arrivèrent trop tard, quand la démission de plusieurs des membres de la commission avait enlevé à l’affaire toute chance de succès. (114)
777.17 fabrique] fabrication (114)
778.39 sociétaires. L’association] sociétaires. [paragraph] L’association (116)
778.n4 débuts: une] débuts. Une (116)
784.13 “les] Certes, les (37)
795.9 “La] Mais depuis, en y réfléchissant davantage, j’en suis venu à mieux comprendre que si la concurrence a beaucoup de puissance pour le mal, elle n’a pas moins de fécondité pour le bien, surtout en ce qui concerne le développement des facultés individuelles et le succès des innovations; et d’autre part, en étudiant plus profondément le problème de la misère, j’ai vu de plus en plus clairement que la (90)
795.12-15 Si . . . innovations.”] [see entry above; JSM has rearranged the text]
Fitzroy. Referred to: 766n, 1035
Fourier. Referred to: 1028, 1031
Fox. Referred to: 1028
Fritob. Referred to: 248n
Fullarton, John.On the Regulation of Currencies; being an Examination of the Principles, on which it is proposed to restrict, within certain fixed limits, the Future Issues on Credit of the Bank of England, and of the other Banking Establishments throughout the Country, 2nd ed. London: Murray, 1845.
quoted: 516-17, 551-2, 662, 671-2, 674-7, 678p-preferred to: 661, 662-4, 670n, 684, 1071-2
516.9 “it rises] In August, the currency is found to be uniformly lowest; it rises (88)
516.12 taxes,” and . . . loans. “Those] taxes.* These [footnote:] *See ‘Report of the Commons’ Committee of 1841,’ pp. 5 and 59. (88)
516.16 payments have] payments which I have mentioned have (88)
516.16-17 superfluous” currency . . . million, “as] superfluous half-million as (88)
516.18 disappears.”] disappears, and that on the mere cessation of the demand, without the slightest effort on the part of the banks. (89)
662.1 “the amount] I am not more disposed than most men to place implicit reliance on the testimony of parties who have personal interests depending on the question at issue; but it is impossible, I think, for any man, with the least pretensions to candour, to peruse the great mass of evidence furnished to the several Committees of the House of Commons by the intelligent body of country bankers, without attaching some faith to their unanimous and consistent assurances, sustained, too, as those assurances are, by all the collateral facts and probabilities of the case, that the amount (85)
662.4 their] those (86)
662.5 prescribes] prescribe (86)
662.8 source.”] source.* [JSM omits a long footnote of evidence] (86)
671.17 “it] Then certainly, if the Bank complies with those applications, it (106)
671.35 market] markets (107)
671.39 exactly] precisely (107) [see 671d-d]
674.22 population.* [JSM’s footnote] (72)
675.2 authorities,] authorities,* [footnote:] *See Sir William Clay’s ‘Remarks,’ &c., p. 25. (72)
675.11 demands. That] demands. The purpose of banks, according to the excellent aphorism of Adam Smith, is not to supply the trader “with the whole or even any considerable part of the capital with which he trades, but that part of it only which he would otherwise be obliged to keep by him unemployed, and in ready money, for answering occasional demands.”* That [footnote:] *See Mr. M‘Culloch’s edition of ‘The Wealth of Nations,’ vol. ii. p. 49, 50. (73)
675.16-17 derangements] derangement (73)
675.17 proofs:” among others, “the] proofs. Among the examples most frequently referred to is the circumstance remarked by Lord King, that the displacement and expulsion of the entire metallic circulation of France by the assignats had been accomplished without producing, as he affirms, any sensible effect on the state of prices in the neighbouring kingdoms. So much uncertainty, however, hangs over the facts connected with this extraordinary operation, and there are such strong grounds for supposing, that by far the larger portion of the specie, which disappeared during the reign of the assignats, was not exported, but buried and concealed on the spot, that the case, perhaps, is scarcely one on which we can build any very confident argument. A much more conclusive inference may be drawn from the (73-4)
675.24 currency. . . . There] currency. Lord Ashburton estimated, in 1819, that little less than a hundred millions sterling would be required, for the completion of the various projects of monetary reform at that period in progress.* And though this, probably, was an exaggerated view of the case, there [footnote:] *See ‘Report of the Lords’ Committee of 1819, on the Bank of England,’ p. 102. (74)
675.39 imagine,” says Mr. Fullarton, “that] imagine, from the manner in which these gentlemen treat the question, that (139)
676.4 hoard] hoard (140)
676.8 experience what] experience, as I have already observed, what (140)
676.11 hoards? Let] [½ page omitted] (140)
676.11-12 think how] think, then, how (140)
676.20-4 lender?” If . . . borrowers? “And] lender? And (141)
676.27-8 advantage? . . . . [paragraph] “To] [elision indicates omission of one paragraph; see 676l-l] (141)
676.28 [1844 [JSM’s addition] (141)]]
676.33 beyond] below (141)
678.n10 object, therefore,” says Mr. Fullarton, “which] object therefore, as it seems to me, which (137)
678.n12 exchange] exchanges (137)
Furnivall. Referred to: 1032-7
Gardener’s Chronicle. See “Irish Landlord, An.”
Gisquet. Referred to: 773n-774n, 1016
Gladstone. Referred to: 809n, 815n, 871, 1044, 1062, 1073, 1093n
Godley, John Robert.Letters from America. London: Murray, 1844.
Göschen, George. “Seven Per Cent,” Edinburgh Review, CXXI (Jan., 1865), 223-51.
referred to: 652n
Gray, John.Lectures on the Nature and Use of Money. Delivered before the members of the “Edinburgh Philosophical Institution” during the months of February and March, 1848. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1848.
562.n24 “can] Because, as no one valuable thing can (250)
562.n25 as . . . together:”] as . . . together, whenever the commodities to be measured are increased faster than—the modes of using it remaining the same—the measure itself, prices must fall, and production will stop. (250)
563.n4 “increased . . . together?”] [as above] (250)
Griffith, R. “Return of the Probable Extent of Waste Lands in each County in Ireland, furnished by R. Griffith, esq., C.E., and General Valuation Commissioner,” No. VII in “Papers referred to in this Report,” Parliamentary Papers, 1845, XIX, 48-53 [Devon Report].
referred to: 997-8
Grote, George.History of Greece. Vol. IV. London, 1862, 11-12 (i.e., Chap. xliv).
referred to: 1045
Guilhaud de Lavergne.See Lavergne.
Hardenberg. Referred to: 329, 995
Hardinge. Referred to: 1075
Hargreaves. Referred to: 96
Harrison. Referred to: 1029-30
Hasselquist. Referred to: 1023
Hazard. Referred to: 1089-90, 1092
Head. Referred to: 272
Henri IV (of France). Referred to: 275, 296n, 1004
Henry II (of England). Referred to: 578
Hill. Referred to: 272
Historisch- geographisch- statistisches Gemälde der Schweiz. Erstes Heft. Knonau, Gerold Meyer von. “Der Kanton Zürich.” St. Gallen: Huber, 1834.
quoted: 258n, 393 referred to: 690-1
— Zwölftes Heft. Im-Thurn, Edward. “Der Kanton Schaffhausen.” St. Gallen: Huber, 1840.
quoted: 278n referred to: 258n
— Siebenzehntes Heft. Pupikofer, J. A. “Der Kanton Thürgau.” St. Gallen: Huber, 1837.
quoted: 259n referred to: 258n
258.n [the expression is on 80, but the discussion continues onto 81]
259.n2 mehrere] mehre (72)
278.n1 übermenschliche] übermenschichen (53)
393.12-15 It is . . . machinery.] [the translated passage is introduced by von Knonau as follows:]
Die Lichtseite der zürcherischen Fabrikation schildert ein ebenso erfahrner als beredter Sprecher des zürcherischen Handelstandes, Herr Stiftsamtmann Ernst, so: [the passage reads:] “Der zürcherische Arbeiter ist heute Fabrikant, morgen wieder Landbauer und mit den Jahreszeiten wechselt in beständigem Kreislaufe seine Beschäftigung. Hand in Hand schreiten Industrie und Landwirthschaft in unzertrennlichem Bunde vorwärts, und in dieser Vereinigung der beiden nährenden Beschäftigungen mag wohl das Geheimniss zu finden seyn, wie der unscheinbare und ungelehrte schweizerische Fabrikant neben jenen ausgedehnten, mit grossen ökonomischen und den noch wichtigern intellektuellen Mitteln ausgestatteten Anstalten noch immer concurrirt [sic] und seinen Wohlstand mehrt. Auch in denjenigen Gegenden des Kantons, wo die Fabrikation am weitesten sich ausgedehnt hat, gehören nur ein Siebentheil aller Haushaltungen ihr allein an, vier Siebentheile aber verbinden Fabrikation und Landwirthschaft mit einander. Der Vorzug dieser häuslichen oder Familienfabrikation besteht hauptsächlich darin, dass sie alle andere Beschäftigungen zulässt oder vielmehr, dass sie zum Theil nur als Nebenverdienst betrachtet werden kann. Im Winter ist in den Wohnungen der Fabrikarbeiter alles mit dem sogenannten Handverdienste beschäftigt, die Erwachsenen weben, die Kleinen und die Betagten spulen, sowie aber der Frühling erwacht, verlassen diejenigen, welchen die ersten Feldgeschäfte obliegen, die Stube, manches Weberschiffchen ruht und nach und nach folgt bei der vermehrten Feldarbeit eines dem andern, bis am Ende in der Ernte und den sogeheissenen grossen Werken alle Hände die landwirthschaftlichen Werkzeuge ergriffen haben, bei ungünstiger Witterung aber oder in jeder sonst freien Stunde wird die Arbeit in der Stube fortgesetzt, und wenn dann die unfreundliche Jahreszeit wieder heranrückt, kehren in gleicher Reihenfolge die Hausbewohner zu der innern Beschäftigung zurück, bis sich zuletzt alle wieder dabei versammelt haben.” (105)
393.n2-3 The cotton . . . population;] [derived by JSM from the following passage:] Das Ergebnis dieser Angaben zeigt, dass sich mit der Verarbeitung der Baumwolle und mit dem Handeln derselben 23,000 Menschen im Kanton Zürich oder beinahe der zehnte Theil seiner ganzen Bevölkerung beschäftigen und dafür mit 1,600,000 Gulden jährlichen Einkommens belohnt werden. (108)
393.n3-5 and they . . . England.] [derived by JSM from the following passage:] Nach statistischen Angaben soll die Bevölkerung Frankreichs im Durchschnitte für jedes Individuum jährlich 1 Pfund 12 Loth Baumwolle consumiren, England 1 Pfund 20 Loth für jeden Bewohner. Die grosse Wohlfeilheit der Zeuge macht, dass jeder Einwohner des Kantons Zürich 1¼ Pfund (ungefähr 9 bis 10 Pariserstab) gebraucht. (109-10)
Holyoake, George Jacob.Self-help by the People. History of Co-operation in Rochdale. London: Holyoake and Co., .
quoted: 786-9, 788n, 794n referred to: 790-1, 1032
787.11 1852] 1855 (33)
787.16 members] member (33)
787.26 been opened. In] have been lately opened. A members’ meeting can no longer be held at the Store Rooms. 1,600 members make a public meeting, and the business meetings of the Society are held in the public hall of the town. In (35)
787.31-5 “Every . . . business. One . . . library.] One . . . library. Every . . . business. (37) [i.e., JSM has reversed the order of the passages]
787.36-8 club.” . . . “The] club, and the (49)
787.36 “free] The quarterly meeting passed a resolution that the News-room should be free (49n)
788.2 free. From] free. In their News-room, conveniently and well fitted up, a member may read, if he has the time, twelve hours a day, also free. [paragraph] From (50)
788.5 mutual instruction] mutual and other instruction (50)
788.10 kind. The] kind. It is now spoken of as ‘the Society’s New Mill in Weir Street, near the Commissioners’ Rooms.’ The (37)
788.20 persons. . . . .”] [ellipsis indicates 5-sentence omission] (37)
788.25 hosiery] hosiery,* [footnote:] *In 1855 the drapery stock was ordered to be insured with the Globe for £1000. (37)
788.29 and cheerful] and crowds of cheerful (38)
788.n2 brilliancy] brilliance (38)
788.n6 other. . . . . These] other; and Toad Lane on Saturday night, while as gay as the Lowther Arcade in London, is ten times more moral. These (38)
789.n6-8 (Last . . . duty.)] [in footnote, without parentheses] (39)
789.n17 these.] these.* [footnote:] *The Arbitrators . . . as in 789.n25-6 . . . quarrels. The peaceableness of the Co-operators amounts to what elsewhere would be termed ‘contempt of court.’ (39) [i.e., JSM transposes the sentence from Holyoake’s footnote]
789.n20-1 The . . . quarrels.] [see 789.n22 above] (39)
790.n14 They . . . chicanery. [JSM’s italics] (39)
Howitt, William.The Rural and Domestic Life of Germany: with characteristic sketches of its cities and scenery, collected in a general tour, and during a residence in the country in the years 1840, 41 and 42. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1842.
quoted: 263-4, 328-9
263.11 among] amongst (40.) [see 263b]
263.12 multitude. . . . . . The] multitude; and wherever you go, instead of the great halls, the vast parks, and the broad lands of the nobility and gentry, as in England, you see the perpetual evidences of an agrarian system. The exceptions to this, which I shall afterwards point out, are the exceptions, they are not the rule. The (40)
263.17 themselves. . . . . . The] [ellipsis indicates 6-sentence omission] (41)
263.19 trees, commonly] trees, as we have seen commonly (41)
263.19 heavy] hung (41)
263.25 greater. The] greater. [paragraph] The (41)
263.27 time. . . . . . They] time. You never witness that scene of stir and hurry that you often do in England; that shouting to one another and running, where the need of dispatch rouses all the life and energy of the English character. They (41-2)
262.32 purposeless. . . . . . The] purposeless, and at once the terror and the victim of the capitalists. The (42)
262.34 in the] in his (42)
262.35 neighbours; no man] neighbours; he is content with his black bread, because his labour has at once created it and sweetened it to his taste, and because no proud man (42)
264.2 one.”] one; and he knows that when he dies, he shall not be buried between the vile boards of a pauper’s coffin, threatening to fall asunder before they reach the grave, nor be consigned to the knife of the surgeon; but his children will lay him by his fathers, and plant the rose, the carnation, and the cross on his grave—Zum Andenken des frommen Vaters—to the memory of the good father—and will live the same active and independent life, on his native soil, or seek it in America or Australia. (42)
264.4 of the] of that (44)
264.6 do. They] do. Of their in-door employments we shall speak elsewhere. They (44)
264.12 depths] depth (44) [see 264c-c]
264.13 you will] you (44) [see 264d-d]
264.26 buckwheat] [3-sentence footnote omitted] (50)
264.31 of] off (50) [see 264e-e]
264.33 anew: their] anew. Their (50)
264.35 after; their] after. Their (50)
264.36 when] where (51) [see 264f-f]
Hubbard, John C. “Report from the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, ix-xx.
note: Hubbard, Chairman of the Select Committee, prepared “a Draft of Report,” or “proposed Report,” which was amended. The passage JSM quotes is followed by this sentence: “This estimate of the relative savings of the two classes is avowedly an arbitrary one, but the concession which it involves agrees with the average result of the scientific computations of Dr. Farr, and receives the approval of Mr. John Stuart Mill.” (xiv) JSM omits the Section No. (“44.”), and the subsidiary letters (“b,” “c,” and “d”).
817.n11-12 property are] property (or, as they are briefly called, spontaneous incomes) are (xiv)
Huber, Victor Aimé.Die gewerblichen und wirtschaftlichen Genossenschaften der arbeitenden Klassen in England, Frankreich und Deutschland. Tübingen: Laupp, 1860.
referred to: 782n-783n (quoted by Cherbuliez)
Hume, David. “Essay on Money,” in Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, II. Edinburgh, 1752.
referred to: 511, 564-5
Hurly, John. “Evidence taken before the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Occupation of Land in Ireland,” Parliamentary Papers, 1845, XX, 850-4 [Devon Report].
Im-Thurn, Edward. See Historisch- geographisch- statistisches Gemälde der Schweiz.
Inglis, Henry David. “Conway, Derwent.”Switzerland, the Southof France, and the Pyreness, in 1830. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Constable, 1831.
quoted: 256-7, 257-8 referred to: 273
256.23 vines. . . . It] vines. But there are other and better evidences of the industry of the Zurichers, than merely seeing them late and early at work. It (33)
257.6 two, or three] two and four (33)
257.12 not] nor (33) [see 257c-c]
257.15 powder; every] powder. Every (33)
257.18 thing] twig (33) [see 257d-d]
257.23 possessions. . . . Generally] possessions. If a peasant owns from eight to fifteen cows, and land sufficient for their support, as well as for growing what is consumed in his own family, he is esteemed in good circumstances. He consumes whatever part of the produce of his dairy is needed at home; and he sells the surplus, chiefly the cheese, which he keeps till the arrival of the travelling merchant, who buys it for exportation. Generally (110)
257.26 wine. Flax is] [7-sentence omission] In enumerating the articles which the Grison of the Engadine is supplied with from his own property, I omitted to mention flax, which is (111) [see 257e]
257.29 tailor. The] tailor: the latter vocation is invariably exercised by the females of the house. [paragraph] [14-sentence omission] The (111-13)
257.31 devise. There] [33 pages omitted] (113-46)
257.34 an ear of rye will ripen, there it is to be found] rye will succeed, there it is cultivated (146)
258.2 attempted. In] [jump backwards of 37 pages] (146-109)
“Irish Landlord, An,” “Twenty-five Years’ Work in Ireland,” The Gardener’s Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 3 Dec., 1864, 1162-4.
referred to: 1077, 1078n, 1081, 1088
Isabella (of Castille). Referred to: 955n
Jacob. Referred to: 248
Johnson, Samuel. Referred to: 889
note: reference not located, but Louis Guilhaud de Lavergne says, in a work quoted by JSM (Economie rurale, p. 32): “L’avantage du droit d’aînesse, disait ironiquement en Angleterre le docteur Johnson, c’est qu’il ne fait qu’un sot par famille.”
Jones, Rev. Richard.An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, and on the Sources of Taxation. London: Murray, 1831.
quoted: 247-8, 249, 283 referred to: 302, 305, 311
248.11 England.] England.* [footnote:] Schmalz, Vol. II, p. 103. (50)
248.20 of] for (51) [see 248k-k]
283.7 kind, are] kind, whatever may be the form of their rents, are (146)
283.9 restraint. The] restraint. The causes of this peculiarity we shall have hereafter to point out. The (146)
283.11 territory, very] territory, whatever be the form of their rents, very (146)
283.14-15 disposition] disposition* [footnote:]* The actual disposition of the population to increase with extreme rapidity shews that these apprehensions are far from fanciful. See Jacob’s Second Report. (68)
283.17 or more] or of more (68) [see 283b]
283.17 people.] people, and if the too great subdivision of their allotments is not guarded against in time, they will probably, in the course of a very few generations, be more miserable than their ancestors were as serfs, and will certainly be more hopeless and helpless in their misery, since they will have no landlord to resort to. (68)
Jonnès, Moreau de. Referred to: 288n
Joyce, Arthur J. “The Progress of Mechanical Invention,” Edinburgh Review, LXXXIX (Jan., 1849), 47-83.
Jusseraud. Referred to: 147n
Kay, Joseph.The Social Condition of the People in England and Europe; Shewing the Results of the Primary Schools, and of the Division of Landed Property, in Foreign Countries. Vol. I. London: Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans, 1850.
quoted: 260n, 264-6, 266-7, 286, 286n, 348
260.n1 [Kay does not “quote” from Reichensperger, but summarizes] (I, 126)
260.n9 Germany, &c., in] Germany, and the district of Siegenshen, in (I, 126)
265.23 land, there] land, which they formerly held as the Irish hold their little leaseholds, viz., from and at the will of owners of great estates, there (I, 138)
265.38 seen. The] seen. The little plots of land belonging to the peasantry lie side by side, undivided by hedge or ditch or any other kind of separation. The (I, 139)
266.3 portions. All] portions; and this very rivalry tends to improve all the more the system of tillage and the value of the crops. [paragraph] All (I, 139)
266.20 gross] gross (I, 114)
266.23 net] net (I, 114)
266.23 latter. . . . He] [ellipsis indicates 2-page omission] (I, 114-16)
266.24 of the land] of land (I, 116)
266.31-2 as . . . prosperous] as . . . prosperous (I, 117)
266.34 gross] gross (I, 117)
266.35 net] net (I, 117)
266.37 a great proprietor] great proprietors (I, 117)
267.6-7 (Grundsatz . . . Landwirthschaft)] [in footnote] (I, 117)
267.9 tenants. . . . This] [ellipsis indicates omission of 1 sentence quoted from Thaer] (I, 117-18)
267.11 farms.” . . . “The] farms. [paragraph] But whether the net produce of the land cultivated by peasant proprietors be greater than its net produce when cultivated by great proprietors, or not, all accounts agree in showing that the cultivation and productiveness of the land has very much improved, and is in a state [of] progressive improvement, wherever trade in land has been rendered free, and wherever the peasants have been able to acquire. [paragraph] The (I, 118)
286.4 thirty. . . . Nor] [ellipsis indicates omission of 2 sentences quoted below, 348.18-26, q.v.] (I, 68)
286.10 evening] evenings (I, 68)
286.25 “Wherever . . . population.”] [in Kay this passage appears between two quotations from this part of JSM’s Principles (which appeared in earlier editions in the next section)] (I, 90)
286.28 upon undue] upon the undue (I, 90)
286.n12-13 we . . . proprietors] [in capitals in Source] (I, 266)
348.18-26 [see 286.4 above]
348.18 “So] Indeed, so (I, 68)
348.26 years.”] years; but I mention them rather as symptoms, than as causes of the prudence and self-denial of the peasantry. (I, 68)
Kemmeter. Referred to: 150n
Kennedy, J. P. Digest of Evidence taken before Her Majesty’s Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of the Law and Practice in respect to the Occupation of Land In Ireland. Part I, II. Dublin: Thorn, 1847-8.
note: J. P. Kennedy was Secretary to Lord Devon’s Commission. See also Devon, Lord.
quoted: 315n, 330f, 998n, 999
315.n1 “It] In the north of Ireland this system is pretty generally either authorized or connived at by the landlord; and it (I, 1)
315.n4-5 rent.”—Digest . . . adds, “the] rent; and the (I, 1)
315.n8 is in] is, therefore, in (I, 2)
315.n10 “The present] They [the landlords] do not perceive that the present (I, 2)
315.n11 copyhold.”] copyhold, which must decline in value to the proprietor in proportion as the practice becomes confirmed, because the sum required by the outgoing tenant must regulate ultimately the balance of gross produce which will be left to meet the payment of rent. (I, 2-3)
315.n12 there, if] there, however, if (I, 319)
315.n12 ejected] evicted (I, 319)
315.n14—316.n1 “The disorganized] They [the landlords] do not perceive that the disorganized (I, 3)
316.n2 tenant-right.”] tenant-right, or that an established practice not only may, but must, erect itself finally into law; and any one who will take the pains to analyze this growing practice will soon perceive how inevitable that consequence must be in the present case, unless the practice itself be superseded by a substitute that shall put the whole question on a sound, equitable, and invigorating basis. (I, 4)
330.n4 “The] [paragraph] The (I, 570)
330.n9-10 cottier.” . . . “Here] [the two passages are contiguous in Source, with no indication of where the compiler’s remarks begin]
998.n6 “There are] Taking this basis for our calculating, and referring to Appendix, No. 95(2) (see page 564), we find that there are (I, 399)
998.n10 them.” It is shown by calculation, “that] them. [paragraph] In the same table, No. 95(2), page 564, the calculation is put forward, showing that (I, 399)
998.n19-20 “and that] And the evidence leads to the conviction, that this result can be obtained not only without any permanent loss, but with a very large permanent gain; as it appears that 3,755,000 acres of waste land, not now giving a gross produce exceeding, on the average, 4s. per acre, may be made to yield a gross produce of £6. per acre, being a total increase from £751,000 to £22,530,000, and that (I, 565)
Kingsley. Referred to: 1032
Knonau, Gerold Meyer von. See Historisch- geographisch- statistisches Gemälde der Schweiz.
Labruyère. Referred to: 442
Laing, Samuel (the elder).Journal of a Residence in Norway, during the Years 1834, 1835, and 1836; made with a view to inquire into the moral and political economy of that country, and the condition of its inhabitants.
quoted: 260d, 281c, 285
260.n25-6 cultivators. . . . Good] [ellipsis indicates 4-sentence omission] (37)
260.n30-1 It . . . condition] [no italics] (37)
260.n36 have only] only have (37)
260.n38 the smallest] the very smallest (38)
281.n10 restraint] self-restraint (21)
285.30 of the] of (19) [see 285i-i]
285.35 as another] as at another (19) [see 285j]
— Notes of a Traveller, on the Social and Political State of France, Prussia, Switzerland, Italy, and other parts of Europe, during the Present Century. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1842.
quoted: 105r-r, 261-2, 261n-262n, 284, 364-5
261.16 Frith] Firth (299) [see 261e-e]
261.29 than] as (299) [see 261f-f]
261.36 terms] returns (300) [see 261g-g]
262.n4-5 cheese. One] cheese; and if the man comes from Gruyere, all that he makes is called Gruyere cheese, although made far from Gruyere. One (352)
284.18 husbandry” under small properties. “The] husbandry under this social construction. The 46)
364.37 and maize] or maize (457)
365.3 or the inclination] or inclination (457)
— Observations on the Social and Political State of the European People in 1848 and 1849; being the Second Series of the Notes of a Traveller. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1850.
Laing, Samuel (the younger).Atlas Prize Essay. National Distress; its Causes and Remedies. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844.
quoted: 769-70, 1007-8 referred to: 1089
note: 1009-10 in Appendix D is the same as 769-70
770.11 Barham,] Barham,* [footnote:] *Report of Children’s Employment Commission in Mines and Colleries [sic], Appendix, pp. 758, 759. (40) [see 770.n4-5]
770.17 terms.’ . . . With] terms. The tributor, likewise, entertains a hope—often realised if he is a good miner—that some fortunate contracts will put him on a parity as to station with the wealthier individuals near him, who have for the most part, at no remote period, occupied some of the lower steps of the ladder on which he himself stands. [paragraph] With (40-1) [in Source, the quotation which JSM ends at terms is not closed; in the British Museum copy a diagonal pencil line is drawn after terms]
770.20 houses;’] houses,”* [footnote:] *Report of Children’s Employment Commission in Mines and Collieries, Appendix, p. 753.
770.21 saving] savings’ (41) [cf. 770c-cand 1008 savings]
770.22 miners.’ ”] miners;”* [footnote:]* Ibid. p. 753. [text:] and, finally, that they are, as a class, “a religious people, leading habitually excellent and religious lives, and giving conclusive evidence of the real influence of the great doctrines of revelation on their hearts, by their equanimity under suffering and privation, and in calmness and resignation when death is known to be inevitable.”* [footnote:] *Ibid. p. 760.
Landi. Referred to: 307n
Lavergne, Louis Gabriel Léonce Guilhaud de. Referred to: 262n, 289
— “Dénombrement de la population de 1856,” Journal des Économistes, 2e Série, XIII (Feb., 1857), 225-33.
referred to: 437
— Économie rurale de la France depuis 1789. 2nd ed. Paris: Guillaumin, 1861.
quoted: 152, 290n-291n, 293, 436, 442 referred to: 435, 437
152.17-23 “We . . . attained.”] [translated from:] Il ne nous a pas fallu moins de soixante-dix ans pour défricher deux millions d’hectares de landes, supprimer la moitié de nos jachères, doubler nos produits ruraux, accroître la population de 30 pour 100, le salaire de 100 pour 100, la rente de 150 pour 100. A ce compte, il nous faudrait encore trois quarts de siècle pour arriver au point où en est aujourd’hui l’Angleterre. (59)
291.n10 doublé . . . Cette] doublé. Ce genre de progrès marchait aussi vite avant 1789, car Arthur Young dit que, vingt-cinq ans seulement avant son voyage, le salaire moyen n’était que de seize sols par jour, et qu’il avait par conséquent monté de 20 pour 100 dans cet intervalle. [paragraph] Cette (57-8)
293.17-23 “In . . . best.”] [translated from:] Sur quelques points, dans les environs de Paris, par exemple, où les avantages de la grande culture deviennent manifestes, l’étendue des fermes tend à s’accroître. On voit plusieurs fermes se réunir pour n’en former qu’une et des fermiers s’arrondir en louant des parcelles à des propriétaires différents. Ailleurs les fermes trop grandes tendent à se diviser comme les trop grandes propriétés. La culture va d’elle-même à l’organisation qui lui convient le mieux. (455)
436.n1 pp. 23 and 51.] [the figure of one-third is quoted on p. 23 from ArthurYoung, and queried as being high for 1789. On p. 51 it is Lavergne’s own figure, applied to the current situation]
436.11-14 “enjoy . . . wealth.”] [translated from:] Ceux-là jouissent quelquefois d’une aisance véritable. Leurs biens se divisent par des héritages, mais beaucoup d’entre eux ne cessent d’acheter, et, en fin de compte, ils tendent plus à s’élever qu’à descendre dans l’échelle de la richesse. (451)
436.21 “car] Suivant toute apparence, ces évaluations sont aujourd’hui plutôt audessus qu’au-dessous de la vérité, car (454)
442.27—443.4 “Thanks . . . capital.”] [translated from:] Grâce à cette meilleure division du sol, qui permet de consacrer 6 millions d’hectares de plus à la nourriture des animaux, et par conséquent à la production des fumiers; grâce à des marnages, des irrigations, des assainissements, des labours mieux faits, le rendement de toutes les cultures s’est élevé. Le froment, qui ne donnait en moyenne que 8 hectolitres à l’hectare, semence déduite, en a donné 12, et comme en même temps l’étendue semée s’est accrue, la production totale a plus que doublé. Le même fait s’est présenté pour le bétail, qui, recevant deux fois plus d’aliments, a grandi à la fois en nombre et en qualité, de manière à doubler ses produits; les cultures industrielles se sont développées, la soie et le colza ont quintuplé, le sucre indigène a pris naissance, la récolte en vin a doublé. Il n’y a pas jusqu’au bois qui, mieux défendu contre la dent des animaux, mieux exploité en vue des nouveaux débouchés, n’ait augmenté ses revenus annuels, mais trop souvent aux dépens du capital. (52-3)
— Essai sur l’économie rurale de l’Angleterre, de l’Écosse et de l’Irlande. 3rd ed. Paris: Guillaumin, 1858.
quoted: 280 referred to: 448, 1075n
280.3-14 “In . . . Paris?” [translated from:] Transportons-nous, au contraire, dans les grasses plaines de la Flandre, sur les bords du Rhin, de la Garonne, de la Charente, du Rhône; nous y retrouvons la petite culture, mais bien autrement riche et productive. Toutes les pratiques qui peuvent féconder la terre et multiplier les effets du travail y sont connues des plus petits cultivateurs et employées par eux, quelles que soient les avances qu’elles supposent. Sous leurs mains, des engrais abondants, recueillis à grands frais, renouvellent et accroissent incessamment la fertilité du sol, malgré l’activité de la production; les races de bestiaux sont supérieures, les récoltes magnifiques. Ici c’est le tabac, le lin, le colza, la garance, la betterave, ailleurs la vigne, l’olivier, le prunier, le mûrier, qui demandent pour prodiguer leurs trésors, un peuple de travailleurs industrieux. N’est-ce pas aussi à la petite culture qu’on doit la plupart des produits maraîchers obtenus à force d’argent autour de Paris? (127)
Leatham. Referred to: 550n
Le Brun. Referred to: 274
Leclaire, Edmé-Jean. “M. Leclaire of Paris,” Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal, n.s. IV (Sept., 1845), 193-6.
quoted: 770-2, 1011-14 referred to: 773-4, 1010, 1016-17
note: 1011-12 in Appendix D is the same as 771-2. In 771.9-18, JSM is quoting the reviewer in Chambers’s; in 771.21-772.3, he is quoting Leclaire in translation from Chambers’s. Leclaire’s pamphlet is entitled: Des améliorations qu’il serait possible d’apporter dans le sort des ouvriers peintres en bâtiments, suivies des règlements d’administration et de répartition des bénéfices que produit le travail.
771.11 arrangement] arrangements (193) [see 771e-e]
771.17 in, his] in, then, he says, notwithstanding the stability which he had introduced into his establishment, and notwithstanding the attachment and zeal of many of his workmen, his (193)
771.21 “will] ‘Under the present system,’ says he, in his pamphlet of 1842, ‘a master tradesman has to endure not only the disquiet arising from bad debts and the failure of persons he may be connected with in business—losses from these causes, especially from the latter, are always trifling when the tradesman is possessed of prudence—but what to him is an incessant cause of torment, is the losses which arise from the misconduct of the workmen in his service. We have no fear of being accused of exaggeration when we say that he will (193-4)
771.23 capable of] able for (194)
771.26 livelihood. If] [4 sentences omitted; the next sentence begins:] Accordingly, if (194)
771.32 anxiety. This] anxiety. [paragraph] This (194)
1011.20-1 arrangements] arrangements (193) [see 771.11 above]
Legoyt, A. “Recensement de la population de la France en 1846 et du mouvement de la population en Europe,” Journal des Économistes, 2e Série, XVII (May, 1847), 169-94.
quoted: 288n, 289n
note: the tables on 288n and 289n are translated by JSM.
289.n18 34.39] 34,49 (176) [see 289n]
Leroux. Referred to: 1028
Longfield, Mountifort. “Address by the President, Hon. Judge Longfield, at the Opening of the Eighteenth Session,” Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland, IV, Part 24 (January, 1865), 129-46; “Appendix to the foregoing Address,” ibid., 146-54.
referred to: 333, 1040, 1042, 1057, 1073-4, 1079-80
Louis XI (of France). Referred to: 296n, 1004
Louis XII (of France). Referred to: 296n, 1004
Louis XIV (of France). Referred to: 441, 442n, 945
Louis-Philippe (of France). Referred to: 445, 449
Lyell, Charles.Travels in North America with Geological Observations on the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia. 2 vols. London: Murray, 1845.
quoted: 226n referred to: 175n
McCulloch, John Ramsay. Referred to: 45, 267, 283, 752, 818n, 838, 890n
— A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical, of the Various Countries, Places, and Principal Natural Objects in the World. 2 vols. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1841.
quoted: 267, 445-6
445.41 “France] The truth is that France (I, 855)
446.2 imported;” and in 1822 the duty “was] imported; and had the duty been allowed to continue at this reasonable rate it could not have been justly objected to. But in 1822 the duty of 3 fr. was (I,855-6)
446.3 francs,] fr.! (I, 856)
446.4 importation.”] importation of cattle, and been productive of many mischievous results. (I,856)
— The Principles of Political Economy: with some inquiries respecting their application, and a sketch of the rise and progress of the science. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Tait, 1843.
quoted: 302, 889-90
302.3 “Wherever] The practice of letting lands by proportional rents, or, as it is there termed, on the métayer principle, is very general on the continent; and wherever (471)
302.5 poverty.”] [3-sentence footnote omitted] (471)
889.33 station] situation (264)
— On the Succession to Property Vacant by Death. London, 1848.
referred to: 890n
— A Treatise on the Principles and Practical Influence of Taxation and the Funding System. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1845.
859.n12-13 increase. . . . In] [ellipsis indicates omission of 3 paragraphs and a footnote] (227-9)
859.n13 freehold, the duty is] freehold the stamp on the lease was the same as on the release, so that the duty was and still is (279)
859.n14 while on the] while in the (279)
859.n16 notice. It] notice [paragraph] It (279)
859.n17 this conveyance] this double (or doubly-stamped) conveyance (279)
859.n18 and the] and it is important to observe that the (279)
859.n21 “eighty times] The rate of the ad valorem duty, therefore, is 80 times (280)
859.n25 stamp duties in] stamp-duties, therefore, in (276)
860.n1 “it] And such being the case, it (281)
McDonnell. Referred to: 1074
Macgregor. Referred to: 236n
MacMicking, Robert.Recollections of Manilla and the Philippines, during 1848, 1849, and 1850. London: Bentley, 1851.
note: JSM spells his name “McMicking”.
Maine, Henry James Sumner.Ancient Law: its Connection with the Early History of Society, and its Relation to Modern Ideas. London: Murray, 1861.
referred to: 219n
Malthus, Thomas Robert. Referred to: 67n, 154, 155n, 156n, 158, 162, 345, 346, 353, 359, 370, 570, 576, 581, 753
— An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is Regulated. London: Murray, 1815.
referred to: 419
— Principles of Political Economy considered with a view to their Practical Application. London: 1820.
343.n17 “a] And the result was, that, instead of an increase of population exclusively, a considerable portion of their increased real wages was expended in a (253-4)
Mason, William Shaw.A Statistical Account or Parochial Survey of Ireland. Dublin: Cumming, 1814ff.
referred to: 1076
Maupillé, Léon. See Bertin, Amédée.
Mazarin. Referred to: 441n—442n
Meyer von Knonau, Gerold. See Historisch- geographisch- statistisches Gemälde der Schweiz.
Michelet, J. Le peuple. Paris: Hachette, Paulin, 1846.
quoted: 279n, 296n, 441n—442n, 1004
note: 1004 in Appendix C is the same as 296.n5-24.
279.n21 apperçoit] aperçoit (2)
296.n5 Aux] [paragraph] Cette grande histoire, si peu connue, offre ce caractère singulier: aux (5)
296.n9 terre. Ces] [3-sentence paragraph omitted] (5-6)
296.n18 sol,] sol*, [footnote:] *Voir Froumenteau: Secret des finances de France (1581), Preuves, surtout p. 397-8.
296.n20 brulée] brûlée (6)
441.n8 journaliers. . . . Je] journaliers. Par quels incroyables efforts purent-ils, à travers les guerres et les banqueroutes du grand roi, du régent, garder ou reprendre les terres que nous avons vues plus haut se trouver dans leur mains au dix-huitième siècle, c’est ce qu’on ne peut s’expliquer. [paragraph] Je (8)
442.n2-3 , réimprimé . . . Economistes] [drawn from an omitted 4-sentence footnote to Boisguillebert] (8)
Mill, Harriet. Referred to: 1026-37
Mill, James.Commerce Defended. An Answer to the arguments by which Mr. Spence, Mr. Cobbett, and others, have attempted to prove that Commerce is not a Source of National Wealth. London: Baldwin, 1808.
referred to: 576
— Elements of Political Economy. 3rd ed. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1826.
quoted: 589-90 referred to: 27b, 28n, 818n
589.26 “It] If the cloth and the corn, each of which required 100 days’ labour in Poland, required each 150 days’ labour in England, it (120)
590.15-16 “If,” . . . “while] If, on the other hand, while (121)
— The History of British India. Vol. III. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1817.
Mill, John Stuart.Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy. London: Parker, 1844.
quoted: 589-90, 596-9, 632n-634n, 851-4, 855-6 referred to: 49n, 701, 589n
note: the full collation of these passages will be found in Vol. IV of this edition, Essays on Economics and Society.
589.6 “it] It (2)
596.28 the other] another (7)
596.29 than the] than, it is self-evident, the (7)
596.32 “Suppose that] Suppose, for example, that (6)
597.7 of cloth] of broad cloth (7)
597.15 20. The] 20. [paragraph] The (8)
597.18 exchange] exchangeable (10)
597.21 at. Let] at. [paragraph] Let (10)
597.40 exchange] exchangeable (10)
598.6 suppositions] supposition (11)
598.7 has] had (11) [see 598b-b]
598.15 this] that (11) [see 598c-c]
598.16 would] could (11)
598.34 for one another] for another [sic] (12) [altered to correct reading in 2nd ed. (1874) of Essays]
598.36 without further alteration] as they are (12)
598.38 exchange] exchangeable (12)
598.41 articles] article (12)
599.17 exchange] exchangeable (13)
599.33 that] one (13)
599.40 be a] be in a (14) [see 599d]
632.n7 yard.] yard.* [footnote:] *The figures used are of course arbitrary, having no reference to any existing prices. (14)
633.n14 diminish. As] diminish. Although the increased exportation of cloth takes place at a lower price, and the diminished importation of linen at a higher, yet the total money value of the exportation would probably increase, that of the importation diminish. As (15)
634.n6 gainers. They] gainers. If they do not choose to increase their consumption of cloth, this does not prevent them from being gainers. They (17) [as in the previous entry, the omitted sentence ends with the same word as the previous sentence; both may be copying errors]
851.1 exports, we may, in] exports, for instance, we may, under (21)
851.9 “suppose] Suppose (21)
851.15 before. Or] before. It may diminish it in such a ratio, that the money value of the quantity consumed will be exactly the same as before. Or (22) [see note to 634.n6 above]
851.25 in some] under some (22)
851.35 total value] total money value (22)
851.35 would] will (22) [see 851b-b]
852.9 while] which [sic] (23) [altered in ink in JSM’s own copy of the Essays (Somerville College, Oxford) to the reading of the Principles, which is reproduced in the 2nd ed. (1874) of the Essays]
852.10 the fall] consequent fall (23)
853.7 exports;] exports*: [7-sentence footnote omitted] (24-5)
853.15 “In any case, whatever] It is certain, however, that whatever (25)
853.18-19 exist.” . . . “We] exist. Moreover, the imposition of such a tax frequently will, and always may, expose a country to lose this branch of its trade altogether, or to carry it on with diminished advantage, in consequence of the competition of untaxed exporters from other countries, or of the domestic producers in the country to which it exports. Even on the most selfish principles, therefore, the benefit of such a tax is always extremely precarious. [paragraph] 5. We
854.19 appropriate] be almost sure of appropriating (27)
855.9 “into] With a view to practical legislation, therefore, duties on importation may be divided into (27)
855.11 not. The] not. [paragraph] The (28)
855.33 means which] means of gain which (28)
855.38 linen] cloth (29)
855.39 cloth] linen (29)
855.40 linen] cloth (29)
856.5-6 when . . . commodities] so long as any other kind of taxes on commodities are retained, as a source of revenue (29)
856.6 little objectionable] unobjectionable (29)
856.6 too] moreover (29)
856.12 the revenue duties] the duties (29)
856.13-14 corresponding revenue duties] corresponding duties (29)
856.14 those] these (29)
— “The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte,” Westminster Review, LXXXIII (Apr., 1865), 339-405, and “Later Speculations of Auguste Comte,” ibid., LXXXIV (July, 1865), 1-42; republished together as Auguste Comte and Positivism. London: Trübner, 1865.
referred to: 1041
— “Report from the Select Committee on Bank Acts; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
680.n1 “the double action of drains,”] Those who framed the Act [of 1844] do not seem to have adverted to what may be called the double action of drains. (179)
— Unheaded articles on French agriculture. Morning Chronicle, 11, 13, and 16 Jan., 1847, pp. 4,4,4.
note: The MS of this Appendix consists of pasted-up extracts from the articles in the Morning Chronicle, with introductory matter and linking passages added in ink (all on rectos), and notes added in ink (on versos); occasionally alterations are made in ink on the columns. In most cases, therefore, the Source and MS readings are the same (and are so recorded in the variant notes to this Appendix, 431-51 above); consequently, when there is a variant between the Source and the 7th edition, there is usually a variant recorded in the variant notes: the cross-references between these variants and the list below are indicated below in square brackets after the Source reading. The page reference of the Source is omitted, as it is always the same (i.e., 4).
The arrangement of materials in the MS is as follows:1 I: 433.1—434.5 In . . . France. ink (1v-2r); 434.6—438.7 The . . . increase of nearly [nearly cancelled in ink] news (2r-5r); 438.7-36 more than . . . diminished. ink (5r-6r); 438.37—439.17 It . . . subdivision. news (6r); 439.18-20 We . . . extraordinary ink [clipping cut at hyphen division of extra-/ordinary so ordinary cancelled in ink] (6r); 439.20-36 number . . . properties. news (6r); II: 439.37—442.11 We . . . favourable. news (7r-9r); 442.11-14 Compare . . . returns ink (9r); 442.14—444.24 of the rate . . . farming. news (9r-10r); III: 444.25—451.35 The . . . arrondisement.” news (11r-15r); 451.36-9 We . . . France. ink (16r).
The passages at I: 439.18-20 and III: 451.36-9, although written in ink, are similar to the newspaper text (see variants below). Mill added footnote indicators in ink where necessary, and the appropriate notes (to the 1st edition) on the verso opposite, except for 446n, which appeared in the text of the newspaper article; 442.13, the MS has a note to “now.”, which reads “Vide supra, p.” (evidently a reference to the passage also noted at 448n), not reproduced in the 1st or any later edition. The MS corrections of a typographical error and two errors in French accents in the Morning Chronicle are here silently accepted.
434.22 collectors’] collector’s
435.26 think as] think is as [see 435b]
435.29 acre. The] acre: the [see 435c-c]
435.39-40 acres—on that of] acres, of [see 435d-d]
436.1 only a third] much less than half [see 436e-e]
436.2 third] half [see 436f-f]
436.5-22 [see 436g-g]
436.26-7 that this] that it [see 436h-h]
437.17 increased] increases [see 437i-i]
438.1 had in 1846] has now [see 438k-k]
438.7-8 of more . . . Let] of nearly 60,000. Let [Quarterly Review also reads 60,000]
438.8 600,000] 60,000
438.9 300,000] 30,000
438.12 consulted . . . on,] turned a few pages back
438.13 cause sufficient] cause amply sufficient
438.13 considerable portion of this] much larger
438.37 It] But it [But cut off in MS clipping, and i altered to I in ink]
439.12 among those] among these [see 439m-m]
439.18 We . . . subject] Long as this article is, we cannot close it
439.25 against] against [see 439n-n]
439.32 not] not [see 439o-o]
439.33 poor] poor [altered in MS clipping to roman]
439.34 does] does [see 439p-p]
439.35 which some] which, also, some [altered in ink in MS clipping]
439.36 properties. We] properties. [paragraph] We need not trouble our readers any further with the Quarterly reviewer; but the state of French agriculture, and the social condition of France, as connected with it, are subjects on which we have much more to say; and we shall take an early opportunity of attempting to show what is really amiss in these matters, and to what causes it is imputable. [end of article]
439.37 have shown] showed on Monday [altered in ink in MS clipping]
440.1 best authorities] best living authorities [see 440q]
440.2 and from] and that from [see 440r]
440.5 represent them to be] would represent them [see 440s-s]
440.8-9 earth. [paragraph] We] [3-sentence omission] [cut out of MS clipping]
441.2-3 France. [paragraph] That] [4-sentence omission] [see 441t]
441.21 the general] the food and general [see 441u]
441n [not in Source]
442.11-13 Compare . . . now.] While now, “the classes of the population who have only their wages, and who for that reason are the most exposed to indigence, are much better provided with the requisites of food, lodging, and clothing than they were at the beginning of the century. The fact may be established by the testimony of all who have a personal recollection of the earlier of the two epochs. If there could be a doubt on the subject, it might be dissipated by consulting aged cultivators and workpeople, as I have myself done in various localities, without meeting with a single opposing testimony: we may also refer to the facts collected on the subject by an exact observer, M. Villermé.”—(From a recent work by an intelligent writer, “Recherches sur les Causes de l’Indigence, par A. Clément.”) [cf. 290n]
442.13 M. Rubichon’s] [paragraph] M. Rubichon’s
443.26 millions are held only by] millions only are held by [see 443w-w]
443.30-1 resident, a primitive relationship] resident; a sort of patriarchal relationship [altered in ink in MS clipping]
444.1 said by] said somewhere in these volumes, by [see 444x]
444.6 frugality] prudence [see 444y-y]
444.7-8 savings, . . . purpose, are] savings are [see 444z-z]
444.21-2 the grande] la grande [see 444a-a]
444.22 it. But] it. The thing would soon be done if the love of industrial progress should ever supplant in the French mind the love of national glory, or if the desire of national glorification should take that direction. But [see 444b]
444.23 be little] be no [see 444c-c]
444.24 farming.] farming. [paragraph] In one article more we hope to dispose of the remainder of the subject. [end of article]
445.10 (five ounces) “of meat per] (quære five ounces) per [altered in ink in MS clipping]
445.29-30 little of it, the portion] little, the ration [see 445d-d]
445.39 butchers’] butcher’s
446n M‘Culloch’s . . . France.] [in text of MS clipping]
446.7-18 A third . . . excepted.] These causes are enough of themselves to account for a considerable part of the enhancement complained of. [see 446e-e]
447.9 were it not] but [see 447f-f]
447.10 communication] navigation [see 447g-g]
447.11 could formerly] can [see 447h-h]
447.17 double] doubled [see 447i-i]
447.17 so cheaply] so well or so cheaply [see 447j]
447.19 these causes] these three causes [see 447k]
447.20 another] a fourth [see 447l-l]
447.27—448.3 admitted . . . But] admitted; but [see 447m-m]
448.7 sheep. It] [16-sentence omission; partly quoted at 145n—147n from Passy, Des systèmes de culture] [cut out of MS clipping] [the note to sheep does not, of course, appear in the MS clipping]
448.7 diminish the number of cattle] diminish cattle [see 448o-o]
448.24 is, the] is, as before-mentioned, the [altered in ink in MS clipping]
449.6 most influential] first [see 449p-p]
449.18 the French] the present French [see 449q]
449.19 was] has been [see 449r-r]
449.20 having been] being [see 449s-s]
449.21 had] have [see 449t-t]
449.22 had] have [see 449u-u]
449.24 occupied] now occupy [see 449v-v]
449.24 had] have [see 449w-w]
449.27 was] is [see 449y-y]
449.27 were] are [see 449z-z]
449.28 had] have [see 449a-a]
450.1 had] has [see 450b-b]
450.2 had] have [see 450c-c]
450.4 was] is [see 450d-d]
450.5 had] has [see 450e-e]
450.6 had] has [see 450f-f]
450.10 more] more and more [see 450g]
450.12 had] has [see 450h-h]
450.13 had] has [see 450i-i]
450.14 had] has [see 450j-j]
450.25 1845] 1846 [see 450k-k]
451.1-2 hectolitres . . . M. Bertin] hectolitres. At present M. Bertin [see 451l-landm-m]
451.2-3 16 . . . acre. The] 16. The [see 451n-n]
451.14 he says] he also says [altered in ink in MS clipping]
451.14 are also proprietors] are proprietors [altered in ink in MS clipping]
451.18 therefore] all [see 451o-o]
451.28 in “good] “in good [see 451p-p]
451.29 2¼] 2½ [altered in ink in MS clipping]
451.32 towns (or rather town), but] towns, but [altered in ink in MS clipping]
451.36 discussion;] article,
451.37 to enable our readers] and our readers will now be able
451.38-9 respecting . . . France.] on the consequences of the division of property. [end of article]
Mirabeau. Referred to: 442
Moniteur. See De Persigny.
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de.De l’esprit des loix ou du rapport que les loix doivent avoir avec la constitution de chaque gouvernement, les moeurs, le climat, la religion, le commerce, &c. à quoi l’auteur a ajouté des recherches nouvelles sur les loix romaines touchant les successions, sur les loix françoises, & sur les loix féodales. Geneva: Barillot, .
quoted: 501 referred to: 503
note: There is no indication which edition JSM used. Reference here is to the 1st edition.
501.19 “Il] Mais il (I,294)
Moorehouse. Referred to: 787
Moran. Referred to: 1086-8, 1090-1
Mounier, M. L. De l’agriculture en France, d’après les documents officiels. Avec des remarques par M. Rubichon. 2 vols. Paris: Guillaumin, 1846.
referred to: 433ff.
Muggeridge, Richard M. “Hand-Loom Weavers. Report of the Commissioners,” Parliamentary Papers, 1841, X.
381.22 lead] leads (38)
381.24 recreation. There] recreation. Beyond the necessity imposed upon him of yielding a given quantity of labour to produce a given amount of earnings, he has little, if any, control. In the proportion he is willing to sacrifice the one, he can dispense with the other, and idleness carries with it no punishment, beyond the restrictions of enjoyment which arise from its being unremunerated. There (38)
381.26 mulcted of his] mulct his (38)
Mushet, Robert.A Series of Tables, Exhibiting the Gain and Loss to the Fundholder, Arising from the Fluctuations in the Value of the Currency, from 1800 to 1821. 2nd ed., corrected. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1821.
referred to: 568
Nadaud. Referred to: 1034
Napoleon. Referred to: 627n
Newmarch, William. “Appendix, No. 39. Paper presented by Mr. Newmarch, 5 June 1857. Bills of Exchange (Inland Bills), England and Wales,” in “Report from the Select Committee on Bank Acts; together with the proceedings of the Committee, minutes of evidence, appendix and index,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.ii, 324-7.
referred to: 550
— See also Tooke, Thomas. History of Prices. Vols. V and VI.
Nicholls. Referred to: 996n
Niebuhr, B. G. The Life and Letters of Barthold George Niebuhr, with Essays on his Character and Influence, by the Chevalier Bunsen, and Professors Brandis and Loebell. 2 vols. London: Chapman and Hall, 1852.
Norman. Referred to: 665
Œdipus. Referred to: 445
Œrsted. Referred to: 42
Olmsted. Referred to: 247
Overstone (Loyd). Referred to: 665
Owen. Referred to: 203, 775, 786
Papini. Referred to: 307n
Parennin. Referred to: 168
Parker. Referred to: 1029-30, 1032-7
Passy, Hippolyte Philbert. “Des changements survenus dans la situation agricole du Département de l’Eure depuis l’année 1800,” Journal des Économistes, I (Jan. [?], 1842), 44-66.
quoted: 292-3 referred to: 302n, 449, 450
293.1-16 “The . . . them.”] [translated from:] [paragraph] L’exemple du département de l’Eure atteste, au surplus, qu’il n’existe pas, comme quelques écrivains l’ont supposé, entre les formes de la propriété et celles de la culture des liens qui tendent invinciblement à les assimiler. Nulle part les mutations foncières n’y ont influé sensiblement sur la distribution des exploitations. S’il est ordinaire dans les communes à petites cultures que des terres appartenant à la même personne soient affermées à de nombreux locataires, il n’est pas rare non plus, dans les lieux où règne la grande culture, qu’un fermier se charge des terres de plusieurs propriétaires. Dans les plaines du Vexin surtout, beaucoup de cultivateurs actifs et riches ne se contentent pas d’une seule ferme; d’autres, aux terres du fairevaloir principal réunissent toutes celles du voisinage qu’ils peuvent louer, et se composent ainsi des exploitations parmi lesquelles il en est qui atteignent ou dépassent 200 hectares. Plus les domaines se démembrent, plus ces sortes d’arrangements se propagent; et comme ils satisfont à toutes les convenances, il est vraisemblable que le temps ne fera que les confirmer. (63)
— Des systèmes de culture et de leur influence sur l’économie sociale. Paris: Guillaumin, 1846.
quoted: 145n—147n, 151n referred to: 437n
145.n27 contesté. En] contesté. [paragraph] En (116)
146.n6 35,] 35*, [footnote:] *D’après les documents statistiques publiés par le ministre de l’intérieur, troisième publication officielle. Il faut dans ces sortes d’évaluation s’en tenir à mesurer les quantités de bétail par les surfaces cultivées, puisque ce sont celles-là seules dont les animaux entretiennent la fertilité. (117) [cf. next entry]
146.n6-8 énorme. (D’après . . . officielle.) Il] énorme. Il (117) [cf. previous entry]
146.n24-25 (D’après . . . i.)] [in footnote] (118)
147.n5 terres. Dans] terres. [paragraph] Dans (119)
147.n24 s’appercevra] s’apercevra (120)
Peel. Referred to: 567, 589n, 660, 857, 1031, 1069
Périer, Auguste Victor Laurent Casimir.Les sociétés de coopération: la consommation, la crédit, la production, l’amélioration morale et intellectuelle par l’association. Paris: Dentu, 1864.
referred to: 785n
Pheidias. Referred to: 16
Pim, Jonathan. Referred to: 1074, 1079, 1088, 1092-3
— On the Connection between the Condition of Tenant Farmers and the Laws respecting the Ownership and Transfer of Land in Ireland. Dublin, 1853.
referred to: 1074n
— The Land Question in Ireland. Dublin: 1867.
referred to: 1074n
Pitman. Referred to: 789n
Plato. Referred to: 969
Plummer, John. “Co-operation in Lancashire and Yorkshire,” Companion to the Almanac; or, Year-Book of General Information for 1862, bound with The British Almanac of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge for the Year of Our Lord 1862. London: Knight, [1863.]
quoted: 790 referred to: 785n-786n
Poor Laws. “Foreign Communications: Appendix F to the Report from Her Majesty’s Commissioners for inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws,” Parliamentary Papers, 1834, XXXIX.
quoted: 236n, 286, 286-7, 347-50, 347b
note: Nassau Senior’s “Preface,” is on pp. iii-cii; also published separately, Statement of the Provision for the Poor, and of the Condition of the Labouring Classes, in a Considerable Portion of America and Europe. Being the Preface to the Foreign Communications Contained in the Appendix to the Poor-Law Report. London: Fellowes, 1835. In the following places JSM omits page or section references from his Source: 236.n2, 236.n7, 236.n13, 236.n15, 236.n18, 347.13 (reference to p. 697, where the Norwegian Report is given at length), 347.18, 347.22, 348.3.
287.6 horse and] horse or (268)
287.8 Denmark. Indeed] Denmark. He purchases cheap (all present charges on the land taken into consideration), and his way of living being very economical. Indeed (268)
347.10 Thus] [paragraph] Thus (xxxix)
347.20 words] word (xxxix)
347.30 “The] But the (xxxiii) [the minister is Lord Erskine]
347.34 The] [paragraph] The (xxxiii)
Prescott, William H. History of the Conquest of Peru, with a Preliminary View of the Civilization of the Incas. 2 vols. London: Bentley, 1847.
referred to: 975
Proudhon. Referred to: 1027, 1031
Pupikofer, J. A. See Historisch- geographisch- statistisches Gemälde der Schweiz.
Quetelet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques.Sur l’homme et le développement de ses facultés, ou essai de physique sociale. Vol. I. Paris: Bachelier, 1835.
note: The table is translated by JSM, who omits the latter half of the table, drawn by Quetelet from Charles Dupin, Forces productives, which also includes figures for Prussia (as distinct from Rhenish Prussia) and Russia. (292)
Rae, John.Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy, Exposing the fallacies of the system of Free Trade, and of some other doctrines mentioned in the “Wealth of Nations.” Boston: Hilliard, Gray and Co., 1834.
quoted: 129, 162-3, 164-70, 869n-870n referred to: 918
129.19 “If] But, as a man can only do one thing at once, if (164)
129.20 many different] these several (164)
129.21 be idle] lie idle (164)
129.25 employment. The] [6-sentence omission] (164-5) [see 129i]
129.28 them.] them; being sooner exhausted they pass to a more quickly returning order. (165)
129.29-30 construction.] construction; the effective desire of accumulation carries them on to a class corresponding to its own strength. (165)
163.6 others, tend”] others, also tend (123)
163.17 train. For] train. [paragraph] For (123)
164.23—165.1 this state] it (131)
165.2 governed. . . . . . Besides] governed [ellipsis indicates 4-page omission] (131-5)
165.8 it.” [paragraph] For instance: “Upon] it. [paragraph] These deficiencies in the motives to exertion, and in the habits of action of the Indian, serve to account for the condition of the remnants of the tribes scattered over the North American continent, in situations where they are in contact with the white man. There is a general similarity throughout, that will, I believe, render an example, taken from one part of the continent, sufficiently illustrative of the state of the whole. [paragraph] Upon (136)
165.16 it in] in it (136)
166.6 to more] to much more (137)
166.14 Indian, succeeding] Indian again, succeeding (137)
166.26 dyers,” &c.] dyers, &c. (141)
166.37 hungry. . . .] [ellipsis indicates 1-page omission] (140-1)
166.38 These fathers, says Ulloa, have] “These fathers,” says Ulloa, “have (141)
167.2 lost.” “But] [3 sentences from Charlevoix omitted] (141)
167.3 superintendence,” says Charlevoix, “and] superintendence, and (141)
167.5 embarrassed. It] embarrassed. This proceeds from three defects, of which the Indians have not yet been corrected, their improvidence, indolence* and want of economy, so that, it [footnote:] *Indolence and improvidence are, in our system, reduced to one defect. Indolence is, the not laying out present labor to secure future abundance. Improvidence, the squandering present abundance, in disregard of future coming want. They both proceed from the predominance of the present over the future, the low strength of the effective desire of accumulation. (141)
167.6 reserve to themselves] reserve themselves (141)
167.8 life.”] life.” (141) [i.e., Rae’s quotation also ends here]
167.17 desire] strength (151)
167.22 fabrics.] fabrics.* [footnote:] *La Harp, Vol. 8. p. 289. Lettres édifiantes, Vol. X. p. 107.
167.23 year. A] year. [paragraph] A (152)
167.31 lands,] land, (152)
168.3 empire.] empire.* [footnote:] *Staunton, Vol. 2, p. 244. Ellis, p. 268 and 316; the best proof perhaps is in the premiums offered for their cultivation. See Lettres édifiantes, Vol. xi. p. 525. (152)
168.13-15 indeed, (who seems to have been one of the most intelligent of the Jesuits, and spent a long life among the Chinese of all classes,) asserts] [JSM interpolates the parenthesis, summarizing from Rae’s note to 153, the relevant part of which reads:] The father Parennin seems to have been one of the most intelligent of the Jesuits, and had the very best opportunities for observation, having spent a long life among the Chinese of all classes. His testimony is much more to be depended on, concerning such a fact, than that of passing travellers, whose cursory observations extend only to what may be seen on the exterior of the habitations.
168.21 they were] they are (153)
168.27 soil of the] soil of a variety of the (154)
168.42 forced] found (154)
169.3 rivers,] waters (154)
169.19 content to] content, as we say, to
869.n1 “Were] Thus, were (369)
869.n7 some commodity] some other commodity (370)
869.n9-10 of legislators. . . . . it] of the legislators of the distant countries, it (370)
869.n17—870.n1 of society] of women in the society (371)
870.n3 If [paragraph] If (371)
870.n10-11 them.” The net . . . “would] them. If we suppose the yearly expense of obtaining the pearls, and of collecting the duty on them, to amount to twenty thousand pounds, there would then remain to the legislator, a clear annual revenue from this source of eighty thousand pounds. This revenue would (371)
Rapp. Referred to: 202
Rathbone. Referred to: 1091
Rau, Karl Heinrich.Traité d’économie nationale. Trans. F. de Kemmeter, from the 3rd. ed. Brussels: Hauman, 1839.
quoted: 288n, 292 referred to: 150
292.21-7 “The . . . divided.”] [translated from:] L’habitude de ne pas diviser les propriétés, et l’opinion que cela est avantageux se sont tellement conservées en Flandre, qu’aujourd’hui encore, lorsqu’un paysan vient à mourir laissant plusieurs enfants, ceux-ci ne songent pas à se partager son patrimoine, bien qu’il ne soit ni majoratisé ou donné en fidéicommis; et ils préfèrent le vendre en bloc, et s’en partager le prix, parce qu’ils le considèrent comme un joyau qui perd de sa valeur lorsqu’il est divisé. Voy. Schwertz, Landwirthschaftliche Mittheilungen, I, 185. (334n)
— Ueber die Landwirthschaft der Rheinpfalz und insbesondere in der Heidelberger Gegend. Heidelberg: Winter, 1830.
quoted: 265, 291n referred to: 266
note: in George Grote’s copy of this work (University of London Library) the three passages quoted by Mill have pencil marks drawn beside them in the margin; that on pp. 15-6 has “Good farming” written beside it in a hand that could be JSM’s; that on p. 20 also has a penciled “X” beside it.
265.9-20 “The . . . harm.”] [translated from:] Die Unverdrossenheit der Landleute, die man das ganze Jahr und den ganzen Tag in Thaetigkeit sieht, und die darum nicht muessig gehen, weil sie die Arbeiten gut eintheilen, und zu jeder Zeit eine passende Beschaeftigung wissen, ist eben so anerkannt, als ihr Eifer in der Benutzung aller sich darbietenden Umstaende, in der Ergreifung des dargebotenen Neuen, woferne es sich nuetzlich erweisst, ja in der Ausspaehung neuer, vorteilhafterer Methoden gelobt werden muss. Leicht ueberzeugt man sich, dass der Bauer der hiesigen Gegend viel ueber sein Geschaeft nachgedacht hat, er weiss Gruende anzugeben fuer sein Verfahren, wenn sie auch nicht statthaft seyn sollten, er weiss die Zahlenverhaeltnisse so bestimmt mitzuteilen, als sie beim Mangel geordneter Aufzeichnung, im Gedaechtnis behalten werden koennen, er richtet sich in der Wahl der Fruechte nach den Preisen, er achtet auf allgemeine Zeiterscheinungen, von denen er Nutzen oder Schaden zu erkennen glaubt. (15-16)
291.n25 Sie] Die Kost kann auch auf 10 Kr. angeschlagen werden, da sie (20)
291.n25 heutigen] heutigens (20)
291.n27-30 “Such . . . increased.] [translated from:] Bekanntlich ist eine solche Erhoehung des Lohnes, die man nicht nach dem Geldbetrage, sondern nach der Menge von nothwendigen und nuetzlichen Guetern bemessen muss, welche der Arbeitsmann sich verschaffen kann, ein Zeichen, dass die vorhandene Capitalmasse sich vermehrt hat. (18)
Raumer, von. Referred to: 329, 995
Reichensperger. Referred to: 260n, 266
Remquet. Referred to: 779n
Revans, John.Evils of the State of Ireland: their Causes and their Remedy—a Poor Law. 2nd ed. London: Hatchard, 1837.
317.17 fairly be] be fairly (10)
317.23 is most] is the most (10)
317.25 paying; and consequently] paying; consequently (10) [see 317i-i]
318.19 defer ejectment.] defer what must sooner or later happen—ejectment. (11)
— A Per Centage Tax on Domestic Expenditure, to Supply the Whole of the Public Revenue: the Customs, Excise, Stamp, Legacy, Assess, Income, and all other Government Taxes, and Tax Establishments; together with the Coast Guard and Revenue Cruisers to be Abolished. London: Hatchard and Son, 1847.
referred to: 832-3
Rham, Rev. William Lewis.Outlines of Flemish Husbandry. In Burke, John L. (ed.) British Husbandry. Vol. III. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: Library of Useful Knowledge. London: Baldwin and Cradock, 1840.
quoted: 145n, 267-70 referred to: 279
145.n7 greater. After] [1-page omission] (59-60)
145.n11-12 greater. It] greater; an ordinary cow fed on young clover will give at three milkings, for the first three months after calving, from fifteen to eighteen quarts per day, which will produce 1¼ lb. of butter, that is nearly 9 lbs. of butter per week. Where the number of cows is great, the average is much less, because when there are only two or three cows, a deficiency in one of them is immediately noticed; the cow is got rid of, and a better one purchased. In a great number, there are always a few inferior cows, and a lower average is the consequence. It (60)
267.28 sands] sand (11) [see 267b-b]
267.29 sand] sands (11) [see 267c-c]
268.3-4 itself:” . . . “and] itself: but there is a heap of dung and compost forming. The urine of the cow is collected in a small tank, or perhaps in a cask sunk in the earth; and (11)
268.5 around. . . . If] [1½-page omission] (11-12)
268.6 pure] poor (12) [see 268d-d]
268.9 slight] certain (13) [see 268e-e]
268.17 plants. . . . After] [ellipsis indicates ⅔-page omission] (13)
268.17 After] [paragraph] After (13)
268.30 The] Speaking with great impartiality, we may safely assert, that notwithstanding this [comparative conservatism of Flemish farmers], the (3)
268.31 or a moderate soil] on a moderate scale (3) [see 268g-g]
269.1 peasant. But] peasant; but (3)
269.5 Flemings,”] Flemings; and a detailed account of the mode of cultivation, especially of light lands, in Flanders, cannot fail to be both interesting and instructive. (3)
269.10 “When] “Where (73)
269.14 family;” children soon beginning “to] family; and children, instead of being a burden, soon begin to (73)
269.21 Suppose] Supposing (73) [see 269i-i]
269.22-3 manage;” . . . “if] [1 page summarized] (73-4)
269.23 “if] [paragraph] If (74)
269.37-9 Land.” . . . “In] [½ page summarized] (75)
269.39 In] [paragraph] In (75)
270.1 ten] ten (75)
270.3 with] with a (75) [270f]
270.4 fifteen] fifteen (75)
270.5 cultivated. . . . Thus] [ellipsis indicates 6-page omission] (75-81)
270.5 Thus] [paragraph] Thus, (81)
270.8 paying a good rent] paying a good rent (81)
270.16 the] The (81) [follows directly from previous quotation]
270.28 Accordingly] [follows directly from previous quotation]
270.28 they are gradually acquiring capital] they are gradually acquiring capital (81)
270.30 by] by the (81) [see 270m]
Ricardo, David. Referred to: 80, 341, 392, 413, 426-8, 457, 472, 479, 589, 648, 727, 823, 1052, 1055n, 1056, 1094
— Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock: shewing the Inexpediency of Restrictions on Importation; with Remarks on Mr. Malthus’ Two Last Publications. London: Murray, 1815.
referred to: 419
— On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 3rd ed. London: Murray, 1821.
quoted: 477-8, 636
477.28 “In] [paragraph] If we look to a state of society in which greater improvements have been made, and in which arts and commerce flourish, we shall still find that commodities vary in value conformably with this principle: in (19)
478.26 and command] and consequently command (19)
— Ibid., in The Works of David Ricardo, Esq., M.P. with a Notice of the Life and Writings of the Author, by J. R. McCulloch. London: Murray, 1846, 230-1.
referred to: 1052, 1055
Richelieu. Referred to: 296n, 1004
Rigby. Referred to: 298n, 303n
Robinson, Colonel. “Appendix No. 18.3. Report, by Colonel Robinson, to the Directors of the Irish Waste Land Improvement Society, 25th February, 1845,” “in Appendix to Part II. of the Evidence taken before her Majesty’s Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of the Law and Practice in Respect to the Occupation of Land in Ireland,” Parliamentary Papers, 1845, XX, 84-8 [Devon Report].
quoted: 331n, 332n, 992-3
331.n11 industry] husbandry (84)
331.n16—332.n4 now . . . consist] [in italics] (84)
332.n1 tables] table (85) [see 332n]
332.n10 “occupants] Of the total number of tenants on the estates, nine-tenths have added greatly to the extent and value of their improvements and property since the publication of the tabular return in February last, the exceptions being some who are occupants (84)
332.n10-11 acres, a . . . improvements.”] acres, (a . . . improvements,) a few who have persisted in the injurious practice of working off their farms, and the remainder are new tenants very recently come into possession. (84)
992.21 thirty-one years lease] [not in italics] (84)
992.26-34 [as 331.n16—332.n4]
993.3 “who are [see 332.n10]
993.4-6 [as 332.n10-11]
Rochdale Equitable Pioneers’ Co-operative Society’s Almanack for 1861. Rochdale: Lawton, .
789.Titles of table. Amount of capital] Amount of Funds
Amount of cash sales in store (annual)] Business Done
Amount of profit (annual)] Profit Made
789.9.Year 1846. 86 [Members 80]]
£1,146.17.7 [Amount of cash sales £1146.17.1]]
£80.16.3½ [Amount of profit £80.16.6]]
789.10.Year 1847. £286.5.3½ [Amount of capital £286.15.3½]]
789.18.Year 1855. £3,106.8.4½ [Amount of profit £3106.8.4]]
Rochdale Observer. See Anon., “Co-operative Manufacturing Companies.”
Roland. Quoted: 945n (see Carey)
Rubichon, Maurice. Referred to: 433ff. (see Mounier, M. L.)
Say, Jean-Baptiste. Referred to: 45, 46, 59, 80, 466, 576, 1055n
— Cours complet d’économie politique pratique; ouvrage destiné a mettre sous les yeux des hommes d’état, des propriétaires fonciers et des capitalistes, des savans, des agriculteurs, des manufacturiers, des négocians, et en général de tous les citoyens, l’économie des sociétés. Vol. I. Paris: Rapilly, 1828.
quoted: 123, 123n
123.3-17 [in translating this passage, JSM omits a paragraph break at 123.10, “The influence. . . . ” (341)]
123.5 seventy operations] 70 opérations différentes (341) [see 123b]
123.n5 et d’ouvrières] et d’ouvriers ou d’ouvrières (340) [see 123n]
123.n9-11 presse; les] presse; les mêmes qui colorent le côté destiné à former le dos des cartes; les (340) [see 123n]
123.n13 s’occupent de] s’occupant à (340)
Schmalz, Theodor Anton Heinrich.Économie politique. Trans. Henri Jouffroy Fritob. 2 vols. Paris: Bertrant, 1826.
referred to: 248n
Schwerz. Referred to: 292n
Scott. Referred to: 392
Senior, Nassau William. Referred to: 347-8, 400, 620, 712, 1064
— “J. S. Mill on Political Economy,” Edinburgh Review, LXXXVIII (Oct., 1848), 293-339.
37.n7 result.”] result: and that the best definition of circulating capital, is to confine it to materials—and the best definition of fixed capital is to confine it to instruments. (314)
— An Outline of the Science of Political Economy London: Clowes, 1836.
referred to: 843-4, 846, 1043
— Three Lectures on the Cost of Obtaining Money, and on some effects of Private and Government Paper Money; Delivered before the University of Oxford, in Trinity Term, 1829. London: Murray, 1830.
referred to: 616
— Three Lectures on the Value of Money, Delivered before the University of Oxford, in 1829. [Unpublished.] London: Fellowes, 1840.
note: the “Advertisement” says: “I have allowed a few copies to be printed for private distribution” (3)
522.31 will] in that case would (21)
522.33 production: and] production. It is obvious that twice as much money would be required to effect every exchange, if a day’s labour could obtain from the washing places 34 grains of gold, as would be necessary if a day’s labour could obtain only 17. And (21)
522.34 money would] money wanted would (21)
— See also Poor Laws, “Preface to Foreign Communications.”
Shelley. Referred to: 392, 1030
Siècle. See Anon., Unheaded article, Le Siècle.
Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonardo Simonde de. Referred to: 67n, 371, 570, 574, 576, 741, 869, 922
—Études sur l’économie politique. Paris: Treuttel et Würtz, 1837.
quoted: 227n-228n, 254-6, 298-300, 306-11, 311n-312n
227.n1 Ce qui] Alors l’homme dompta la nature et renouvela entièrement sa face; alors on put reconnaître la différence entre la richesse que la terre peut produire et la pauvreté de ses dons naturels; mais aussi on put reconnaître que ce qui (165-6)
227.n1-2 travaux, qui] travaux, que ce qui (166)
254.31 laboureur. On] laboureur. Soit qu’on parcoure le riant Emmethal, ou qu’on s’enfonce dans les vallées les plus reculées du canton de Berne, on (172)
254.31 admiration ces] admiration, sans attendrissement, ces (172)
255.6 santé.] santé, ils frappent par cette beauté de traits qui devient le caractère d’une race, lorsque pendant plusieurs générations elle n’a souffert ni du vice ni du besoin. (173)
255.10 retrouve les] retrouve des (170)
255.23 l’aquéduc] l’aqueduc (171)
255.25 sur les] sur ses (171)
255.35 enchère. [paragraph] Le] enchère! [1⅓-page omission] Le (171-3)
298.7-19 “This . . . another.”] [translated from:] Cette convention est souvent l’objet d’un contrat, pour préciser certaines redevances et certains services auxquels le métayer s’oblige; cependant les différences entre les obligations de l’un et celles de l’autre sont minimes; l’usage règle également tous ces contrats; il supplée aux stipulations qui n’ont pas été exprimées, et le maître qui voudrait s’écarter de l’usage, qui exigerait plus que son voisin, qui prendrait pour base autre chose que le partage égal des récoltes, se rendrait tellement odieux, il serait tellement sûr de ne pouvoir trouver de métayer honnête homme, que le contrat de tous les métayers peut être considéré comme identique tout au moins dans chaque province, et qu’il ne donne jamais lieu à aucune compétition entre les paysans qui cherchent à se placer, à aucune offre de travailler la terre à meilleur prix que l’autre. (290)
306.36 lit. . . . La] lit: les fenêtres n’ont que des volets, elles sont sans vitres, mais il faut se souvenir aussi que l’hiver est sans frimas. La (295)
307.14 Tout] [paragraph] Tout (296)
307.17 d’étoupe] d’étoupes (296) [see 307k-k]
307.26-308.4 and 307n [JSM here rearranges Sismondi’s text, transferring “Cette épouse . . . 6 francs.” from Sismondi’s footnote (where JSM indicates an ellipsis, 307.n11), and “La dot . . . 600 francs.” from Sismondi’s footnote (where it forms a paragraph between “vie.” and “Les hommes”, 307.n13-4), and omitting at 308.2, one sentence (“francs. [paragraph] Toutes les épouses plus riches ont de plus la verte di seta, la grande robe de toilette, de soie, qu’elles ne portent que quatre ou cinq fois dans leur vie. [paragraph] La”) (297n-298n)
308.18-20 But . . . mixture.”] [translated and summarized from Sismondi:] Le paysan toscan est sobre, mais sa nourriture est saine et variée: sa base est un excellent pain de froment, brun, mais pur de son et de tout mélange. (305)
308.21 saison, il ne] saison, en effet, le laboureur a surtout besoin d’une nourriture chaude. Il ne (306)
308.21 fait que] fait alors que (306)
308.21 repas pour] repas par (306) [silent correction in text]
308.24 de feu] le feu (306)
308.36 nutritifs.] nutritifs*. [footnote:] *Les paysans de France, de Suisse et de Savoie, récoltent de même de l’huile de noix. S’il y avait de vrais paysans dans les îles Britanniques, ils cultiveraient les plantes oléagineuses pour en faire le même usage. (307)
308.37 et des] ou des (307)
309.3 cinquante] cinq cents (307)
309.22 “Le] Aussi le (292)
309.27-8 donner . . . Les] donner. Les collines du val de Nievole sont plantées d’oliviers, de vignes, de mûriers, de figuiers, d’arbres fruitiers de tout genre, et l’on cultive à leur pied le froment, plus encore pour entretenir la terre propre et meuble, que pour le profit que le blé peut rendre. Les (292)
309.36 une espace] un espace (292)
309.40 negliger] négliger (293)
310.6 couches de] couches du (293)
— Nouveaux principes d’économie politique, ou de la richesse dans ses rapports avec la population. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Paris: Delaunay, 1827.
quoted: 256n, 284-5, 299n, 311n, 348n-349n, 369
256.n4-5 il n’est pas] n’est-il pas (I,168)
284.33-285.15 “In . . . population.”] [translated from:] [paragraph] Dans les pays qui ont conservé l’exploitation patriarcale, la population s’accroît régulièrement et rapidement, jusqu’à ce qu’elle ait atteint ses limites naturelles: c’est-à-dire, que les héritages continuent à se diviser et à se subdiviser entre plusieurs fils, tant qu’avec une augmentation de travail, chaque famille peut tirer un égal revenu d’une moindre portion de terre. Le père qui possédait une vaste étendue de pâturages, les partage entre ses fils, pour que ceux-ci en fassent des champs et des prés; ces fils les partagent encore, pour exclure le système des jachères: chaque perfectionnement de la science rurale permet une nouvelle division de la propriété; mais il ne faut pas craindre que le propriétaire élève ses enfans pour en faire des mendians; il sait au juste l’héritage qu’il peut leur laisser; il sait que la loi le partagera également entre eux; il voit le terme où ce partage les ferait descendre du rang qu’il a occupé lui-même, et un juste orgueil de famille, qui se retrouve dans le paysan comme dans le gentilhomme, l’arrête avant qu’il appelle à la vie des enfans au sort desquels il ne pourrait pas pourvoir. S’ils naissent cependant, du moins ils ne se marient pas, ou ils choisissent eux-mêmes, entre plusieurs frères, celui qui continuera la famille. On ne voit point, dans les cantons suisses, les patrimoines des paysans se subdiviser jamais de manière à les faire descendre au-dessous d’une honnête aisance, quoique l’habitude du service étranger, en ouvrant aux enfans une carrière inconnue et incalculable, excite quelquefois une population surabondante. (I,170-1)
299.n4-8 “The . . . engagement.”] [translated from:] Le même malheur serait probablement arrivé au peuple de Toscane, si l’opinion publique ne protégeait le cultivateur; mais un propriétaire n’oserait imposer des conditions inusitées dans le pays, et, en changeant un métayer contre un autre, il ne change rien au contrat primitif. (I, 199-200)
311.n7 lui-même] le premier (I, 190)
349.n11 jurande. On] jurande. [paragraph] On (I, 425)
349.n17 sustenter] substanter (I, 425)
349.n21 lucratives. L’apprenti] lucratives. [paragraph] L’apprenti (I, 426)
349.n28 maître. [paragraph] “Il] [5-page omission] (I, 426-31)
349.n31 surabondante. D’après] surabondante. Il est de même certain que cette population existe aujourd’hui, et qu’elle est le résultat nécessaire de l’ordre actuel. [paragraph] D’après (I, 431)
369.16 point] pas (II, 296)
369.21 aussi doit-il] aussi, lorsqu’il ne peut point augmenter son revenu, doit-il (II, 296)
Slaney. Referred to: 786, 904n
Smith, Adam. Referred to: 4-5, 7, 29, 66, 116n, 127-8, 138-9, 162n, 349n, 405, 456, 465n, 472-3, 579-81, 592, 597, 642, 648, 733-4, 735, 753, 830, 833, 923, 1044
— An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. With a Commentary by the Author of “England and America” [E. G. Wakefield]. 4 vols. London: Knight, 1835-9.
quoted: 116-18, 122, 124-6, 300-1, 380-2, 383, 384, 385-92, 404, 733-4, 805-6, 924-5, 932 referred to: 349n, 1044
note: this is the only edition specifically cited by JSM, and so has been used for comparison throughout.
116.14 is “of two] [paragraph] Co-operation appears to be of two (I, 26)
116.18-9 Co-operation. [paragraph] The] co-operation. It will be seen presently, that, until men help each other in simple operations, they cannot well help each other in operations which consist of several parts. [paragraph] The (I, 26)
122.26 paper . . . . . I] paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them. I (I, 8) [JSM here has transposed part of the omitted passage; see 122.20-2 and 122a]
122.26 manufactory where] manufactory of this kind where (I, 8)
122.35 pins in a day] pins a day (I, 8)
122.38 day.”] day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eight hundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of a proper division and combination of their different operations. (I, 8-9)
124.13 “First, the ] first, to the (I, 12)
124.14 secondly, the] secondly, to the (I, 12)
124.15 lastly, the] lastly, to the (I, 12)
124.37 of certain] of those (I, 14)
125.19 “The advantage] Secondly, the advantage (I, 14)
300.15 “it could . . .] [paragraph] It could [7 sentences and a footnote omitted] (II, 21)
300.16 interest of] interest even of (II, 21)
300.16 this species] this last species (II, 21)
380.14 “from] partly from (I, 255)
380.17 others.”] others; and partly from the policy of Europe, which no where leaves things at perfect liberty. (I, 256)
380.26-381.11, 381.12-7 [JSM’s comments are here interspersed amongst direct and consecutive sentences from Source]
381.11 considered,”] considered, they are generally under-recompensed, as I shall endeavour to show by-and-by. (I, 257) [see 381b-b]
382.12 When the] Where the
382.16 wages. No] wages. Where common labourers earn four and five shillings a week, masons and bricklayers frequently earn seven and eight; where the former earn six, the latter often earn nine and ten, and where the former earn nine and ten, as in London, the latter commonly earn fifteen and eighteen. No (I, 261)
382.16-17 learn than that] learn that that [sic] (I, 261)
382.17 bricklayers. The] bricklayers. Chairmen in London, during the summer season, are said sometimes to be employed as bricklayers. The (I, 262)
382.19-20 employment. [paragraph] “When] employment. [7-sentence omission] [paragraph] When (I, 262)
382.20 of the employment] of employment (I, 262)
382.22 most skilled] most skilful (I, 263) [see 382e-e]
382.30 the arrival] the arrivals (I, 263) [see 382f-f]
382.35-6 earn about four times the wages of common labour in London. How] earn from six to ten shillings a day. Six shillings are about four times the wages of common labour in London, and in every particular trade, the lowest earnings may always be considered as those of the far greater number. How (I, 263)
382.36 soever these] soever those (I, 263.) [see 382g-g]
384.27 a small] a very small (I, 265)
384.29 done.”] done. The lottery of the law, therefore, is very far from being a perfectly fair lottery; and that, as well as many other liberal and honourable professions, is, in point of pecuniary gain, evidently under-recompensed. (I, 266) [see 384j]
385.3 to sea . . . .] to sea, than in the eagerness of those of better fashion to enter into what are called the liberal professions. [ellipsis indicates 2⅓-page omission] (I, 270-3)
385.3 The dangers] [paragraph] The dangers (I, 273)
385.8 prospect] prospects (I, 273)
385.20 “The] Fourthly, the (I, 264)
385.21 The] [paragraph] The (I, 264)
385.25 We] [paragraph] We (I, 264)
385.29 in society] in the society (I, 264)
389.20 than what] than than what [sic] (I, 307)
389.22-3 or a chaplain] or chaplain (I, 308) [see 389b-b]
389.28 marks] merks [ sic] (I, 308)
389.28 containing as] containing about as (I, 308)
390.6 year. This] year. There are journeyman shoe-makers in London who earn forty pounds a year, and there is scarce an industrious workman of any kind in that metropolis who does not earn more than twenty. This (I, 309)
390.6 sum does] sum indeed does (I, 309)
390.14 been either] either been (I, 309)
390.20-21 them.” [paragraph] “In] [1-paragraph omission] (I, 309-10)
390.21 law (?) and] law and (I, 310)
390.29 recompense. [paragraph] That] recompense, to the entire degradation of the now respectable professions of law and physic. [paragraph] That (I, 310)
390.35 as to] as commonly to (I, 311)
391.5 teacher bears] teachers bears (I, 311) [see 391d-d]
404.39 cheapest. Thirty] cheapest. He must have all the knowledge, in short, that is necessary for a great merchant, which nothing hinders him from being but the want of a sufficient capital. Thirty (I, 276)
733.12 profits] profit (I, 210)
734.38 cultivators] cultivation (I, 217)
734.38 situation.] situation, and less interest can be afforded for the stock which is so employed. (I, 217)
805.6 contribute to] contribute towards (IV, 215)
805.9 state. In] state. The expense of government to the individuals of a great nation is like the expense of management to the joint tenants of a great estate, who are all obliged to contribute in proportion to their respective interests in the estate. In (IV, 215)
805.10 taxation. [paragraph] “2. The] taxation. Every tax, it must be observed once for all, which falls finally upon one only of the three sorts of revenue above mentioned, is necessarily unequal, in so far as it does not affect the other two. In the following examination of different taxes I shall seldom take much further notice of this sort of inequality, but shall, in most cases, confine my observations to that inequality which is occasioned by a particular tax falling unequally upon that particular sort of private revenue which is affected by it. [paragraph] II. The (IV, 216)
805.19 even when] even where (IV, 216)
805.27 at a] at the (IV, 217)
806.3 to him] for him (IV, 217)
806.6 inconvenience] inconveniency (IV, 217)
806.14-16 Secondly . . . employment,] [JSM is summarizing the following:] Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business which might give maintenance and employment to great multitudes. While it obliges the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do so. (IV, 217-18)
806.19 derived] received (IV, 218)
806.20 smuggling. Fourthly] smuggling. But the penalties of smuggling must rise in proportion to the temptation. The law, contrary to all the ordinary principles of justice, first creates the temptation, and then punishes those who yield to it; and it commonly enhances the punishment too in proportion to the very circumstance which ought certainly to alleviate it, the temptation to commit the crime.* [footnote:] *See Sketches of the History of Man, page 474, et seq. [text:] Fourthly (IV, 218)
806.23 oppression:”] oppression; and though vexation is not, strictly speaking, expense, it is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it. It is in some one or other of these four different ways that taxes are frequently so much more burdensome to the people than they are beneficial to the sovereign. (IV, 218)
924.39 “prodigals and projectors”] Where the legal rate of interest, on the contrary, is fixed but a very little above the lowest market rate, sober people are universally preferred, as borrowers, to prodigals and projectors. (I, 408-9)
932.20 “the higgling of the market”] . . . it is not easy to find any accurate measure either of hardship or ingenuity. In exchanging indeed the different productions of different sorts of labour [employment] for one another, some allowance is commonly made for both. It is adjusted, however, not by any accurate measure, but by the higgling and bargaining of the market, according to that sort of rough equality which, though not exact, is sufficient for carrying on the business of common life. (I, 102) [Wakefield’s square bracket]
Smith, Goldwin. Referred to: 1075n
Sophocles. Referred to: 16
Spence. Referred to: 576
Spenser. Referred to: 1075n
Stein. Referred to: 329, 995
Stephenson. Referred to: 926
Taylor. Referred to: 1026n
Thackeray. Referred to: 997n
Thaer. Referred to: 267
Thiers, A. De la propriété. Paris: Paulin, L’Heureux et Cie, 1848.
referred to: 290n
Thom, Alexander.Thom’s Irish Almanac and Official Directory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the year 1863. Dublin: Thom, 1863.
referred to: 1074, 1084
Thornton, Henry.An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain. London: Hatchard, 1802.
531.24 manufacturers] manufactures (25)
531.27 question, giving] question (for we may assume a sufficient quantity to be usually circulating in the place): giving (25)
531.30 manufacturers] shopkeepers (25)
531.32 saved. Letters] saved; and the traders in question would of course be, on the whole, enabled to sell their article at a price proportionably lower than that which they would otherwise require. Letters (25)
532.35-6 country, and] country (a topic which shall not be here anticipated), and (30)
533.3-7 “Real . . . real.”] [in this paragraph Thornton cites a supposed opponent’s argument, and so uses quotation marks, which JSM ignores] (30)
533.17 only one] one only (31)
533.17-18 property. [paragraph] “In] property [paragraph] In the next place it is obvious, that the number of those bills which are given in consequence of sales of goods, and which, nevertheless, do not represent property, is liable to be encreased through the extension of the length of credit given on the sale of goods. If, for instance, we had supposed the credit given to be a credit of twelve months instead of six, 1,200l. instead of 600l. would have been the amount of the bills drawn on the occasion of the sale of goods; and 1,100l. would have been the amount of that part of these which would represent no property. [paragraph] In (31)
533.41 forms] form (32)
534.27 “They] But they (40)
534.29-30 giving him] giving to him (40)
534.37 to a bearer] to bearer (40) [see 534b-b]
534.37 demand. A] demand. It will, however, have circulated in consequence chiefly of the confidence placed by each receiver of it in the last indorser, his own correspondent in trade; whereas, the circulation of a bank note is owing rather to the circumstance of the name of the issuer being so well known as to give to it an universal credit. A (40)
534.40 kingdom.” [5-sentence footnote omitted] (40n-41n)
Thornton, William Thomas. Referred to: 365, 608
— Over-Population and its Remedy; or, an Inquiry into the Extent and Causes of the Distress Prevailing among the Labouring Classes of the British Islands, and into the means of Remedying it. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846.
quoted: 350, 997-1000
350.4 “are lodged] They are commonly hired by the half-year, for which period they are paid from 61.10s. to 91.10s., and are lodged (18)
350.7 farm. What . . . exist.”] farm. “What . . . exist. Intersected in every direction by ranges of almost inaccessible and barren mountains, the population is thinly dotted over the intervening valleys,” in due proportion to the facilities for cultivation and the opportunities for employment.* [footnote:] *Mr Voules’ Report on Westmoreland and Cumberland, in Appendix to Second Annual Report of Poor Law Commissioners. Messrs. Bailey and Culley’s Report on Northumberland, Cumberland, &c. (18-19)
997.n24 created. . . . There] created. “Many of them passed months in jail for that,” said the describers’ informant; “for it appears that certain gentlemen in the neighbourhood looked upon the titles of these new colonists with some jealousy, and would have been glad to depose them; but there were some better philosophers among the surrounding gentry, who advise that, instead of discouraging the settlers, it would be best to help them; and the consequence has been that there (430)
997.n26 & plenty*. Now [footnote:] *The facts mentioned are extracted by Mr Thornton from Mr Thackeray’s “Irish Sketch Book.”] and plenty.”* [paragraph] Now [footnote:] *Irish Sketch Book, vol. i. p. 46. (430)
997.n28-9 peasantry. . . . Mr Nicholls] peasantry, which is a large proportion as can well be supposed unable to procure a competent livelihood. [ellipsis indicates 4 further sentences omitted] (430-1)
997.n31 time.”] time.* [footnote:] Nicholl’s Three Reports on Irish Poor Laws, p. 18. (431)
999.1 is [large] capital] is capital (432) [i.e., JSM’s square brackets]
999.34 “The] It has been said that the (432)
999.35-7 them as . . . condition, (see Report of Land Occupation Commissioners), in] them “as . . . condition,*” in [footnote:] *See Report of Land Occupation Commissioners (433)
— A Plea for Peasant Proprietors; with the Outlines of a Plan for their Establishment in Ireland. London: Murray, 1848.
quoted: 272-3 referred to: 1081
272.7 “Not] We have already seen that in Guernsey, neither the partition of land nor the number of cultivators is such as to produce any injurious effect on the rest of the community, for not (99)
272.12 observer. ‘The happiest community,’ says Mr Hill,] observer.* “The happiest community,” says Mr Hill,† [footnotes:] *To the previous unanimity on this point, there is at length one exception. Mr. Macculloch, in his recent treatise on Succession to Property, p. 30, characteristically mistaking a mere inference of his own for an actual fact, asserts that the people of the Channel Islands “are for the most part exceedingly poor.” Any theory may be constructed when the necessary materials can be so easily created. †Mr Hill was formerly an inspector of schools in Scotland. His observations on Guernsey first appeared in the London Examiner, and were re-published in Tait’s Magazine for June, 1834. (99)
272.16 prevails.’] prevails.”* [footnote:] *Home Tour through various Parts of the United Kingdom. (100)
272.20 other] others (100) [see 272b-b]
272.22 labourers . . . Literally] [ellipsis indicates 8-sentence omission] (100-1)
272.24 labourer. . . . ‘Look] [ellipsis indicates omission of 13 sentences and a footnote] (101-2)
272.25 hovels] hovels (102)
272.26 peasantry.’ . . . Beggars] peasantry;” and, in truth, his contempt, however strange and impertinent it may sound to English ears, would be completely justified by the comparison. [ellipsis also indicates omission of 4 further sentences] (102-3)
272.27 unknown. . . . Pauperism] unknown, and their absence cannot be wholly accounted for by the interdict enacted against them; for in England, where their profession is equally illegal, not a day passes without our meeting several, whereas in the Channel Islands not one is ever seen. Pauperism (103)
272.28 mendicancy. The] [4-sentence omission] (103-4)
273.14 bushels.] [8-sentence footnote omitted] (9)
273.15 bushels. In] bushels, and, according to a statement resting on the same authority, the produce of the seed is “seldom less than twelve-fold, but if drilled, fourteen-fold, and if dibbled, sixteen, or even twenty-fold.”* In [footnote:] *Speech of Mr. E. Chadwick, at a meeting of the Farmers’ Club in the early part of 1847. (9-10)
273.16 Inglis] Inglis,* [footnote:] *Inglis’s Channel Islands, vol. i. p. 186. (10)
273.18 1833.] 1833.* [footnote:] *Guernsey and Jersey Magazine, vol. iii. p. 106. (10)
273.19-20 is . . . crop.”] “is . . . crop.” (10) [i.e., Thornton is quoting from Inglis]
273.23 4l.”] 4l., and in Switzerland the average rent seems to be 6l. per acre. (32)
Times. See Anon., “Australia”; and Anon., “Foreign Intelligence.”
Tooke, Thomas. Referred to: 549, 567, 661-4, 673, 678, 714
— Considerations on the State of the Currency. London: Murray, 1826.
referred to: 1061n, 1066, 1067n
— A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, from 1793 to 1837. 2 vols. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1838.
quoted: 466n referred to: 343n, 467n
— A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, from 1838 to 1847. 2 vols. [Vols. III and IV of the complete work.] London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1848.
quoted: 547 referred to: 1067
— and Newmarch, William.A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, during the Nine Years 1848-1856. 2 vols. [Vols. V and VI of the complete work.] London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1857.
referred to: 550n
466.n1 “The] It is perhaps superfluous to add, that no such strict rule [as Gregory King’s] can be deduced; at the same time, there is some ground for supposing that the estimate is not very wide of the truth, from observation of the repeated occurrence of the fact, that the (I, 12-13)
466.n4 supplies. If] [6-paragraph omission; see 466n] (I, 13-15)
466.n5-7 If there should be a deficiency of the crops amounting to one-third, without any surplus from a former year, and without any chance of relief by importation, the price might rise five, six, or even tenfold.”] But upon the principle here stated, the case would be widely different. In the event of a deficiency of one third of an average crop, a bushel of wheat might rise to 18s. and upwards.* [footnote:] *Considering the institutions of this country relative to the maintenance of the poor, if there should be a deficiency of the crops amounting to one-third, without any surplus from a former year, and withoutany chance of relief by importation, the price might rise five, six, or even tenfold. (I, 15)
547.3 “Applications] The figures are correctly given; and, viewed in connection with the facts, the great increase of private securities serves to illustrate an observation which I have more than once had occasion to make in reference to this subject: namely, that applications (IV, 125)
547.11 on the spot] on the spot (IV, 125)
547.22 them. It] them. The term speculation, in its obnoxious sense, is not, in such cases, applied to the transaction; and the parties engaged have the credit of superior sagacity. [paragraph] It (IV, 126)
— An Inquiry into the Currency Principle; the Connection of the Currency with Prices, and the Expediency of a Separation of Issue from Banking. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844.
quoted: 537, 547-50, 657-8
537.n4 “in] And some corroboration of the vastness of the amounts is afforded by a reference to the adjustments of the clearing house in London, which in (26-7)
547.33 “The] The truth is, that the (79)
547.36 of. . . .] of.* [footnote:] *See Appendix (B). (79) [i.e., Tooke refers to his own Appendix B, from which JSM quotes his next sentence, and the following long passage]
547.36 A] What I mean to say is, that a (136)
548.8 “Amongst] Among (137)
548.8 earlier] earliest (137) [see 548a-a]
548.22-3 Without . . . shape] [in italics] (137)
548.26 attention. In] attention. [paragraph] In (137)
548.32 realized, if] realised by sales, if (137)
657.40 or mining] or in mining (88)
658.3 subservient.”] subservient, is unfortunately but too true. (88)
658.4 coin, is] coin, might it not be his business then, as now, in consideration of his care and trouble in keeping the cash and answering the depositors’ drafts, to employ so much of the deposits as by experience he computes may not be immediately wanted by the depositors, in loans and discounts. How then can it be said that the issue of metallic money in ordinary circumstances yields no profit? And can it with truth be maintained that he cannot issue it in excess? Is (91)
658.9 depositors? In] depositors? Would not this be issuing metallic money in excess? In (91)
— “Report from the Committee of Secrecy on the Bank of England Charter; with the Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index,” Parliamentary Papers, 1831-2, VI, 269-304, 432-44.
661.26-7 “In . . . in every] I have never called in question the principle, that, cæteris paribus, an increase or diminution of Bank of England notes, if they were to be taken as indicative of the whole amount of circulation, would produce a tendency to a rise or fall of prices; I have only observed, as far as my researches have gone, that in point of fact, and historically, in every (441)
661.27 rise or fall] rise of prices or a fall (441)
661.27 or fall] or the fall (441)
661.31 or contraction] or a contraction (441)
— “Report from the Select Committee, to whom the Several Petitions Complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IV, 224-40, 287-98, 344-55.
referred to: 467n
note: Tooke is quoted with approval on this point, “Report,” 8-9.
Torrens, Robert. Referred to: 604n, 665, 1066
— The Economists Refuted; or, an Inquiry into the Nature and Extent of the Advantages derived from Trade. London: Oddy, 1808.
referred to: 589n
note: the reprint noted by JSM is in Torrens, Robert. The Principles and Practical Operation of Sir Robert Peel’s Act of 1844 Explained and Defended. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1857. Here Torrens claims his “right to be regarded as the original propounder of so much of the corrected theory of the nature and extent of the advantages derived from foreign trade as may be comprised in the view which [he] ventured to present to the public forty-nine years ago” (xvi). The work also includes “a critical examination of the chapter ‘On the Regulation of a Convertible Paper Currency’ ” (III, xxiv) in JSM’s Principles.
Turgot. Referred to: 302
Ulloa. Referred to: 166
Vauban. Referred to: 442
Villermé, Louis-René.Tableau de l’état physique et moral des ouvriers employés dans les manufactures de coton, de laine et de soie. 2 vols. Paris: Renouard, 1840.
referred to: 290n
Villiaumé, Nicolas.Nouveau traité d’économie politique. Vol. II. Paris: Guillaumin, 1857.
quoted: 772, 773n-774n, 779n-783n, 1015-20
note: Appendix to Vol. II of JSM’s Principles (4th ed. only; Appendix E in the present edition) is made up of quotations from this work, which were integrated into the text of the 5th edition. The following passages in the 7th ed. are the same as the passages in Appendix E which are given in parentheses: 773.n15—774.n13 (1015.9—1016.34), 772.19-25 (1017.8-14), 774.n14-19 (1017.15-20), 780.n10-781.n29 (1017.28—1019.16), 781.n31—782.n18 (1019.17—1020.15), 783.n4-10 (1020.16-22). Appendix E, 1016.35—1017.8, 1017.22-7 are not in the 7th ed.
772.19 “Quoiqu’il] Quant à M. Leclaire, quoiqu’il (82)
773.n34 recompense] récompense (80) [see 1016.12]
774.n13-14 semaines. . . . . [paragraph] M.] [JSM moves from p. 81 to p. 271]
780.n15 l’association] l’association* [footnote:] *En Octobre 1848. (88)
780.n33 réglement] règlement (88)
780.n34 en-deça] en deçà (89)
780.n37 désuetude] désuétude (89)
780.n41 Chavonne] Charonne (89)
781.n1 les] ses (89)
781.n2 resisté] résisté (89)
781.n3 suscités. Cette] suscités.
[paragraph] Cette (89)
781.n8 82,930] 82950 (89)
781.n15 169,831 55] 169851 55 (89)
781.n18 133] 135 (90)
781.n24 [total omitted 66752 65 (90)]]
781.n40-2 “Cette . . . capital.] [transferred from footnote to opérations. (781.n39)] (91)
782.n7 maladie. Chacun] maladie; chacun (92)
783.n4 l’habileté des] l’habileté du choix des (94)
783.n9 education] éducation (94)
1016.12 récompense] récompense [cf. 773.n34 above]
1018.4 l’election] l’élection (88)
1018.20 désuetude] désuétude (89)
1018.24 resisté] résisté (89)
1019.14 66,752 65] 66752 65 (90) [cf. 781.n24 above]
1020.16 l’habilité du choix des] [ibid.] (94) [cf. 783.n4 above]
1020.22 éducation] éducation (94) [cf. 783.n9 above]
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon. Referred to: 116-18, 120, 130n, 143, 149, 150, 325, 376, 735-6, 742-3, 921, 958-9, 965-6, 1044n, 1046, 1072, 1087. See also Smith, Adam.
Walker, George. “The Bank Charter Act. No. V.,” Aberdeen Herald, 26 April, 1856, p. 6.
note: the series appeared in six issues, 15, 22, 29 March, 12, 26 April, and 3 May, 1856.
682.14 of eighteen] of the eighteen (6)
682.17 eighteen. . . . . . The] eighteen. The drain of six millions would, if unchecked, reduce the reserve to two millions; and along with that reduction there would be a convulsion. On the other hand, if attempts are made to check the drain, they are accompanied by evils, though much less intense than those of a panic, but still evils—a contraction of credit and a fall of prices, and that at a time when credit was not inflated nor prices high. In short, the (6)
682.18 is, that] is this (and the illustration which we have given may be multiplied indefinitely), (6)
682.18-20 the proceedings . . . department] [in italics] (6)
682.26 as it may fail] [in italics] (6)
Watt. Referred to: 42, 189, 344
West, Edward.Essay on the Application of Capital to Land, with Observations shewing the Impolicy of any great restriction of the Importation of Corn, and that the Bounty of 1688 did not lower the Price of it. London: Underwood, 1815.
referred to: 419
Westbury. Referred to: 885n
Whately, Richard.Introductory Lectures on Political Economy. London: Fellowes, 1831.
referred to: 317n, 1043
Wordsworth, William.A Description of the Scenery of the Lakes in the North of England. 3rd ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1822.
253.n3 agriculturists, proprietors, for the most part, of the lands which they occupied and cultivated. The plough] Agriculturists, among whom the plough (63) [see 253n]
253.n6 neighbour.] [4-sentence footnote omitted] (64)
253.14 blood. . . . Corn] blood; —and venerable was the transition, when a curious traveller, descending from the heart of the mountains, had come to some ancient manorial residence in the more open parts of the Vales, which, through the rights attached to its proprietor, connected the almost visionary mountain Republic he had been contemplating with the substantial frame of society as existing in the laws and constitution of a mighty empire. [JSM skips backward 14 pages] Corn (65, 51)
253.15 vales sufficient] vales (through which no carriage-road had been made) sufficient (51)
253.15 family, no more. The] family, and no more: notwithstanding the union of several tenements, the possessions of each inhabitant still being small, in the same field was seen an intermixture of different crops; and the plough was interrupted by little rocks, mostly overgrown with wood, or by spongy places, which the tillers of the soil had neither leisure nor capital to convert into firm land. The (52)
Young, Arthur.Travels during the Years 1787, 1788, & 1789; undertaken more particularly with a view of ascertaining the cultivation, wealth, resources, and national prosperity of the Kingdom of France. 2nd ed. 2 vols. London: Richardson, 1794.
quoted: 274, 275, 298n, 301-2, 303-4, 305 referred to: 273, 276, 278, 283, 291n
note: JSM’s italics usually indicate small capitals in Source.
274.14 Rossendal,” (near Dunkirk) “where] Rossendal near the town, where (I, 88)
274.21 passed] pass (I, 51)
275.4-5 another. There] another. The men are all dressed with red caps, like the highlanders of Scotland. There (I, 56)
275.18 “are] The farms in the open country are generally large; but in the rich deep low vale of Flanders, they are (I, 322)
275.21 “is] I must, upon this, observe, that the whole Pays de Caux is (I, 325)
275.21 country, and farming] country; the properties usually small; and that farming (I, 325)
275.26 “Flanders] Maize is also an article of great consequence in the French husbandry; olives, silk, and lucerne are not to be forgotten; nor should we omit mentioning the fine pastures of Normandy, and every article of culture in the rich acquisitions of Flanders (I, 357)
275.27 Garonne, France] Garonne. In all this extent, and it is not small, France (I, 357)
275.27 own.”] own; and it is from well seconding the fertility of nature in these districts, and from a proper attention to the plants adapted to the soil, that there has arisen any equality in the resources of the two kingdoms; for, without this, France, with all the ample advantages she otherwise derives from nature, would be but a petty power on comparison with Great Britain. (I, 357)
275.28 “are] Flanders, part of Artois, the rich plain of Alsace, the banks of the Garonne, and a considerable part of Quercy, are (I, 364)
275.30 properties.”] properties; but this is not the place to examine that question, which is curious enough to demand a more particular discussion. (I, 364)
275.35 this is] this in (I, 364)
276.21 be well] well be (I, 412) [see 276g-g]
298.n4 these. In] these. In Berry some are at half, some one-third, some one-fourth produce. In (I, 403)
298.n7 cattle. At] cattle. Near Falaise, in Normandy, I found metayers, where they should least of all be looked for, on the farms which gentlemen keep in their own hands; the consequence there is, that every gentleman’s farm must be precisely the worst cultivated of all the neighbourhood:—this disgraceful circumstance needs no comment. At (I, 403)
298.n11 half. In] half. Produce sold for money divided. Butter and cheese used in the metayer’s family, to any amount, compounded for at 5s. a cow. In (I, 403)
301.19 “There] This subject may be easily dispatched; for there (I, 404)
301.27 wicked. . . . In] wicked. Among some gentlemen I personally knew, I was acquainted with one at Bagnere de Luchon, who was obliged to sell his estate, because he was unable to restock it, the sheep having all died of epidemical distempers; proceeding, doubtless, from the execrable methods of the metayers cramming them into stables as hot as stoves, on reeking dunghills; and then in the common custom of the kingdom, shutting every hole and crack that could let in air.—In (I, 405)
301.28 land, the] land, after running the hazard of such losses, fatal in many instances, the (I, 405)
301.32 found . . . . Wherever] [ellipsis indicates 2-paragraph omission] (II, 151-2)
301.35 “their] All this proves the extreme poverty, and even misery, of these little farmers; and shews, that their (II, 153)
302.1 their] there (II, 217)
303.2 “in] In (I, 404)
303.4 landlords,”] landlords; it is commonly computed that half the tenantry are deeply in debt to the proprietor, so that he is often obliged to turn them off with the loss of these debts, in order to save his land from running waste. (I, 404)
305.21 live] be (I, 156)
305.23 money to] money to enable him to (II, 156)
305.23 half. . . . . The] half; but they hire farms with very little money, which is the old story of France, &c.; and indeed poverty and miserable agriculture are the sure attendants upon this way of letting land. The (II, 156)
[1 ]See my remarks in the Textual Introduction, pp. lxxvi-lxxvii.
[1 ]The following abbreviations are used here: ink = material added in ink by JSM; news = pasted-in newspaper columns; I, II, III are JSM’s headings for the separate articles from the Morning Chronicle; the page references are to the present edition; the folio references are to MS Vol. III.