Front Page Titles (by Subject) Another special Character of the Penal Laws. - Ireland: Social, Political, and Religious, vol. 1
Another special Character of the Penal Laws. - Gustave de Beaumont, Ireland: Social, Political, and Religious, vol. 1 
Ireland: Social, Political, and Religious, ed. W.C. Taylor (London: Richard Bentley, 1839). Vol. 1.
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- Ireland: Social, Political, and Religious. Vol. I: Historical Introduction.
- First Epoch.: From 1169 to 1535.
- Chapter I.
- Sect. I.—: Political Condition of Ireland In the Twelfth Century.
- Sect. II.—: The Still Recent Invasion of the Danes.
- Sect. III.—: Influence of the Court of Rome.
- Chapter II.
- Sect. I.—: Political Condition of the Irish an Obstacle to the Conquest.
- Sect. II.—: Second Obstacle to the Completion of the Conquest: the Relation of the Anglo-norman Conquerors to England, and of England to Them.
- Sect. III. —: Third Obstacle to the Conquest; the Condition Imposed On the Natives By the Conquerors.
- Second Epoch.: From 1535 to 1690.
- Chapter I.: Religious Wars.
- Sect. I.—: How, When England Became Protestant, It Must Have Desired That Ireland Should Become So Likewise.
- Sect. II.—: Of the Causes That Prevented Ireland From Becoming Protestant.
- Sect. III.—: How England Rendered Ireland Protestant—protestant Colonisation—elizabeth and James I.
- Sect. IV.—: Protestant Colonisation—charles I.
- Sect. V.—: Civil War—the Republic—cromwell.
- Sect. VI.—: The Restoration of Charles II.
- Third Epoch,: From 1688 to 1755.
- Chapter I.: Legal Persecution.
- Chapter II.: The Penal Laws.
- Special Character of the Penal Laws.
- Another Special Character of the Penal Laws.
- Legal Persecution Was Not Restrained By the Limits of Law.
- Why Persecutions Continued When Religious Passion Ceased.
- Which of the Penal Laws Were Executed, and Which Not.
- The Whiteboys.
- Fourth Epoch,: From 1776 to 1829. Revival and Enfranchisement of Ireland.
- Chapter I.: Effects of American Independence On Ireland.
- Sect. I.—: First Reform of the Penal Laws, 1778.
- Sect. II.—: Second Effect of American Independence On Ireland, (1778 to 1779.) the Irish Volunteers.
- Sect. III.—: Independence of the Irish Parliament.
- Sect. IV.—: Legal Consequences of the Declaration of Irish Independence.
- Sect. V. 1782.—: Abolition of Certain Penal Laws. Consequences of the Declaration of Parliamentary Independence.
- Sect. VI.—: Continuation of the Volunteer Movement. Convention of 1783.
- Sect. VII.—: Corruption of the Irish Parliament.
- Sect. VIII.—: Is a Servile Parliament of Any Use?
- Chapter II.: The French Revolution—its Effects In Ireland.
- Sect. I.: 1789.
- Sect. II.—: Other Effects of the French Revolution. Abolition of Penal Laws.
- Sect. III.—: Other Consequences of the French Revolution.—re-action.
- Sect. IV.—: French Invasion of Ireland. Insurrection of 1798.
- Consequences of the Insurrection of 1798.— The Union.
- Constitutional and Political Effect of the Union.
- Chapter III.: Catholic Emancipation In 1829.
- First Part: Ireland, Social, Political, and Religious.
- Chapter I.: External Appearance of Ireland. Misery of Its Inhabitants.
- Chapter II.: A Bad Aristocracy Is the Primary Cause of All the Evils of Ireland.—the Faults of This Aristocracy Are, That It Is English and Protestant.
- Section I.: Civil Consequences.
- Section II.: Political Consequences.
- Subsection I.—: The State.
- Subsection II.: Influence of the Same Principle On the Institutions of the County.
- Subsection III.: Influence of the Same Principle In the Municipal Corporations.
- Subsection IV.—: Influence of the Same Principle On the Parish.
- Section III.: Religious Consequences.
Another special Character of the Penal Laws.
We have seen how all these laws were linked together, and formed a complete whole: still it would be a mistake to regard them as a rational system, all at the same time conceived, deliberated, and decreed. No; these laws came piece by piece, one after the other, without order, method, or visible connexion. Some openly sin against logic, such as that of 1692, which excluded Catholics from parliament, and left them the elective franchise; that is to say, disputed the ends, and left the means. This anomaly lasted until 1727, when the Catholics were deprived of their right of voting at elections.
Moreover, the law which established uniformity on one point, presented in itself a remarkable dissimilarity to all the rest. Thus, preceding laws excluded Catholics from parliament and public employments; they even recognised all sorts of rights, provided they gave any sign of conformity to Protestantism: in this last law, on the contrary, the exclusion is direct and straightforward; the last law declares in express terms, “No Papist shall be permitted to exercise the elective franchise.” In the first case, the exercise of civil rights was subjected to a condition morally impossible; in the second, a direct and absolute prohibition was enacted against the Catholics.
Were I asked the cause of these different forms in laws which so constantly and uniformly tended to a common end, I should say that this irrational form belongs to the English character, which always proceeds by precedents instead of principles, by facts instead of theories; and that the logic at bottom belongs to the passions by which the legislators were then animated. I do not know if in the annals of English legislation there could be found a series of acts presenting so much harmony of spirit, and at the same time united together by no apparent chain. The English or the Anglo-Irish legislator, whilst persecuting the Catholics, did not proclaim the principle of persecution, because he never recognised it in any way; he did not organise the general system on rules solemnly established, because this is not his mode of action. But he was animated by an ardent hate of the Catholics, the more solid as it was supported by his interests; indefatigable in advising, because it was always heard with favour; unequal in its movements, but always operating; and this hatred, which reigned despotically over the legislator’s soul, did not cease during sixty years to inspire all his actions.
In the operations of a long passion, there is always an instructive logic, which can with difficulty be traced in the more regular combinations of reason and genius.