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chapter iii: The State of Gaul, after it was reduced into the Form of a Province by the Romans - Robert Molesworth, An Account of Denmark, With Francogallia and Some Considerations for the Promoting of Agriculture and Employing the Poor 
An Account of Denmark, With Francogallia and Some Considerations for the Promoting of Agriculture and Employing the Poor, Edited and with an Introduction by Justin Champion (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2011).
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The State of Gaul, after it was reduced into the Form of a Province by the Romans
’Tis very well known to all learned Men, that Gaul, after having been often attempted with various Success, during a ten Years War, and many Battles, was at last totally subdued by Caesar, and reduced into the Form of a Province. It was the Misfortune of this most valiant and warlike People, to submit at length to the Great Beast, as it is called in Scripture, with which however they so strove for Empire for eight hundred Years, (as Josephus informs us) that no Wars with any other Nation, so much terrified Rome. And Plutarch in his Lives of Marcellus and Camillus; Appian in his 2nd Book of the Civil Wars; Livius, lib. 8. & 10. have recorded, that the Romans were so afraid of the Gauls, that they made a Law, whereby all the Dispensations (formerly granted to Priests and old Men, from serving in their Armies) were made void, in Case of any Tumult or Danger arising from the Gauls: which Cicero takes notice of in his 2ndPhilippick,Caesar himself in his 6th Book, and after him Tacitus, lib. de moribus Germanorum, do testify, That there was a time wherein the Gauls excell’d the Germans in Valour, and carried the War into their Territories, settling Colonies (by reason of their great Multitudes of People) beyond the Rhine.
Now Tacitus in his Life of Agricola, attributes the Loss of this their so remarkable Valour, to the Loss of their Liberty; “Gallos in bellis floruisse accepimus, mox segnities [segnitia] cum otio intravit, amissa Virtute pariter ac Libertate.”54 And I hope the Reader will excuse me, if the Love of my Country makes me add that remarkable Testimony of the Valour of the Gauls, mentioned by Justin, lib. 24. “The Gauls (says he) finding their Multitudes to increase so fast, that their Lands could not afford them sufficient Sustenance, sent out Three hundred thousand Souls to seek for new Habitations. Part of these seated themselves in Italy; who both took and burnt the City of Rome. Another part penetrated as far as the Shores of Dalmatia, destroying infinite Numbers of the Barbarians, and settled themselves at last in Pannonia. A hardy bold and warlike Nation; who ventured next after Hercules, (to whom the like Attempt gave a Reputation of extraordinary Valour, and a Title to Immortality) to cross those almost inaccessible Rocks of the Alps, and Places scarce passable by Reason of the Cold: Where after having totally subdued the Pannonians they waged War with the bordering Provinces for many Years. And afterwards being encouraged by their Success, subdivided their Parties; when some took their Way to Graecia, some to Macedonia, destroying all before them with Fire and Sword. And so great was the Terror of the Name of the Gauls, that several Kings (not in the least threatened by them) of their own accord, purchased their Peace with large Sums of Money.” And in the following Book, he says, “So great was the Fruitfulness of the Gauls at that time, that like a Swarm they fill’d all Asia. So that none of the Eastern Kings either ventured to make War without a mercenary Army of Gauls, or fled for Refuge to other than the Gauls, when they were driven out of their Kingdoms.” And thus much may suffice concerning their warlike Praise and Fortitude, which (as Tacitus tells us) was quite gone, as soon as they lost their Liberty. Yet some Cities, or Commonwealths, (as Plinius, lib. 4. cap. 11. tells us) were permitted to continue free, after the Romans had reduced Gallia to the Form of a Province. Such were the Nervii, Ulbanesses, Suessiones and Leuci. Also some of the Confederates: and among these he reckons the Lingones, Rhemi, Carnutes and Aedui.
But we may easily learn from these Words of Critognatus the Arvernian, mentioned by Caesar, lib. 7. what the Condition was of those Commonwealths, which had the Misfortune to be reduced into the Form of a Province. “If (says he) you are ignorant after what manner far distant Nations are used by the Romans, you have no more to do, but to look at our neighbouring Gallia, now reduced into the Form of a Province: Which having its Laws and Customs chang’d, and being subjected to the Power of the Axes, is oppress’d with perpetual Slavery.”;
We are to understand, there were three kinds of Servitude, or Slavery. First, To have a Garrison of Soldiers imposed upon them, to keep them in Awe; yet such Provinces as seemed peaceable and quiet, had no great Armies maintained in them. For Josephus writes in his 2nd Book of the History of the Jews, “That in the Emperor Titus’s time, the Romans had but 1200 Soldiers in Garrison in all Gaul, although (says he) they had fought with the Romans for their Liberty, almost 800 Years, and had near as many Cities, as the Romans had Garrison-Soldiers.” A Second Sort of Servitude was, when any Province was made Tributary, and compelled to pay Taxes; and to that End were forced to endure a Number of Tax-gatherers, that is, Harpies and Leeches, which suck’d out the very Blood of the Provincials.55Eutropius tells us, in his 6th Book, That Caesar, as soon as he had subdued Gaul, impos’d a Tax upon it, by the Name of a Tribute, which amounted to H. S. Quadringenties:56 which is about a Million of our Crowns. A Third Sort of Servitude was, when the Provinces were not permitted to be govern’d by their own Laws; but had Magistrates and Judges, with full Power and Authority (cum imperio & securibus) over Life and Estate, sent them by the People of Rome. This Threefold Slavery not only our Gallia, but all the other Provinces, took most bitterly to heart; and therefore in Tiberius’s Reign, not long after Caesar ’s Conquest, Tacitus tells us, That the Cities of Gaul rebell’d, because of the Continuance of Taxes, the Extortions of Usurers, and Insolence of the Soldiery.57 And afterwards in Nero’s Reign, Suetonius writes, “That the Gauls being weary of his Tyranny, revolted. The World (says he) having for near 13 Years, endured such a Sort of Prince, at last shook him off: The Gauls beginning the Defection.” Now all Gallia was divided by the Romans into 16 Provinces, viz. Viennensis, Narbonensis prima, Narbonensis secunda, Aquitania prima, Aquitania secunda, Novempopulana, Alpes maritime, Belgica prima, Belgica secunda, Germania prima, Germania secunda, Lugdunensis prima, Lugdunensis secunda, Lugdunensis tertia, Maxima Sequanorunt, & Alpes Graecae, as Antoninus in his Itinerary, and Sextus Rufus, give an Account of them. But Ammianus Marcellinus treats of them more particularly, lib. 15.
But to return to what we were speaking of: ’Tis not to be imagined, how grievously, and with what Indignation, the Gauls bore the Insolencies and Plunderings of the Romans; nor how frequently they revolted upon that Account: and because they were not strong enough of themselves to shake off the Roman Tyranny, ’twas a common Custom with them, to hire German Auxiliaries. These were the first Beginnings of the Colonies of the Franks: For those Germans, whether they were beaten by the Romans, or (which is more likely) were bought off by them, began by little and little, to settle themselves in the Borders of Gallia. This gave occasion to Suetonius, in his Life of Augustus, to say, “He drove the Germans beyond the River Elb; but the Suevi and Sicambri (submitting themselves), he transplanted into Gallia, where he assign’d them Lands near the River Rhine.”; Also in his Life of Tiberius, “He brought (says he) forty thousand of those that had surrendered themselves in the German War, over into Gallia, and allotted them Settlements upon the Banks of the Rhine.”; Neither must we omit what Flavius Vopiscus records, concerning the Reign of Probus the Emperor; in whose time almost all Gallia, that is, sixty Cities, revolted from the Romans; and with common Consent, took up Arms for the Recovery of their Liberty: “Having done these things (says he) he march’d with a vast Army into Gaul, which after Posthumus’s Death was all in Commotion, and when Aurelianus was kill’d, was in a Manner possessed by the Germans; there he gain’d so many Victories, that he recover’d from the Barbarians sixty of the most noble Cities of Gallia: And whereas, they had overspread all Gallia without Controul, he slew near four hundred thousand of those that had seated themselves within the Roman Territories, and transplanted the Remainders of them beyond the Rivers Neckar, and Elb. But how cruel and inhuman the Domination of the Romans was in Gallia: How intolerable their Exactions were: What horrible and wicked Lives they led; and with how great Inveteracy and Bitterness they were hated upon that Account by the Gauls, (especially by the Christians) may best be learn’d from the Works of Salvianus, Bishop of Marseilles, which treat of Providence: Therefore ’tis incredible to tell, what Multitudes of Germans pour’d themselves into Gallia; the Gauls not only not hindering, but even favouring and calling them in. Latinus Pacatus, in his Speech to Theodosius, has this Passage; “From whence should I begin my Discourse, but from thy Mischiefs, O Gallia! who may’st justly challenge a Superiority in Sufferings, above all the Nations of the Earth, that have been vexed with this Plague?”58 Now ’tis most plain both from Sidonius Apollinaris, and especially from the above-mentioned Salvianus, in many Places of his Writings, that our Franks were a Part of those German Nations, who thus entered into Gallia.
[54. ]GS Franc. (p. 172) identify this as Agricola, chap. 11. “We accept the fact, that the Gauls distinguished themselves in warfare; but after a time indolence was the consequence of leisure, for they lost their manliness with their liberty” (Loeb translation, 188). Note that Hotman’s Latin has segnitia; Molesworth’s has segnities.
[55. ]GS Franc. identify this as a citation of Suetonius, Caesar 25 (Loeb 1:32).
[56. ]Forty million sesterces.
[57. ]GS Franc. identify this as Annals 3, 40 (Loeb 586).
[58. ]GS Franc. (p. 180) identify this as from Latini Pacati Depanii panegyricus Theo dosio Augusto dictus.