Front Page Titles (by Subject) AGRICULTURAL CORRESPONDENCE. - The Writings of George Washington, vol. XII (1790-1794)
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AGRICULTURAL CORRESPONDENCE. - George Washington, The Writings of George Washington, vol. XII (1790-1794) 
The Writings of George Washington, collected and edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford (New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1890). Vol. XII (1790-1794).
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Certainly, one of the most interesting characteristics of Washington was his intense love of the country and his eagerness in the pursuit of agriculture. In the early years of his life he was a thorough student of agricultural writings, and he made very full summaries in note-books of what he read. Tull’s and Duhamel’s Husbandry and The Farmer’s Compleat Guide were thus digested, and the MS. shows that this was done when he was still a youth. The absence, also, of any notes or comments, comparison of views, or records of his own experiments, points to a very early date for these note-books. Not only was he an excellent farmer, but a gardener as well; and the voluminous notes among his papers attest the zeal, and often the profit, with which he pursued his fancies.
This constituted but a very small part of his activity in agriculture, but it was probably the influence that made him one of the pioneers in modifying the culture in Virginia. During the colonial days, English interest had imposed upon Virginia and Maryland the culture of tobacco, and legislation had been called into action to create, as far as possible, a British monopoly in the commerce and marketing of that commodity. This was enormously profitable to English and Scotch factors, into whose hands the navigation and tariff laws of the mother country had turned the colonial trade, both export and import. Adam Smith noted that of the 96,000 hogsheads of tobacco annually imported into Great Britain from the colonies of Virginia and Maryland, only 14,000 hogsheads were consumed in that country, and the rest was sent to the markets of continental Europe. The prosperity of Glasgow was based upon this tobacco trade. There was a “Virginia walk” on the Royal Exchange, in London, where transactions in that commodity were conducted; and at the “Virginia Coffee House” the planters (when in England), ship captains, and factors would congregate and arrange for future operations. This compression of a very large trade into one channel was greatly to the profit of the British merchant, factor, and ship-owner, but ruinous to the planter. The latter sold his commodity in a monopoly market, at prices determined by those who were interested in keeping them low. He bought all the manufactured articles used on the the plantation, in the same market, not only at high prices, but under the risk of getting an indifferent article, made principally for the colonial market, and technically known as “colonials.” The lack of market towns in Virginia for the establishment of prices based upon the fluctuating conditions of crops, supply, etc., the infrequent opportunities for shipping and receiving goods, and the length of time that must elapse before an error could be rectified or complaint made, placed the planter in a very disadvantageous position, and practically at the mercy of the English agent. There are many proofs of this in the letters printed in the early volumes of this collection.
Nor were outside relations alone responsible. The tastes of the planters were extravagant, and their style of living inclined to lavishness of expense. But few of the plantations raised a sufficiency to cover even the necessary cost of keeping them in condition, and a partial failure of the crop would throw the planter into the hands of the usurer, and induce him to mortgage his tobacco crops years in advance; while a total failure meant ruin. That is to say, most of the planters were not only poor (except in land, which might almost be had for the asking), but they were continually becoming poorer, and estate after estate passed by foreclosure into the hands of factors, who had made advances to the planters. More than this, the land itself was deteriorating, because of the insistance upon taking crop after crop of tobacco from it—exhausting in itself—and without undertaking by intensive culture to restore the land to heart. The usual course of Virginia agriculture is accurately described by Washington in his letter to Arthur Young, November, 1787, vol. xi, p. 178, ante.
At a very early period Washington became convinced that tobacco was not a very profitable crop, and he began to look to the English writers on agriculture for some suggestions. If I may judge of the writing, etc., Tull’s Husbandry was the first systematic work on agriculture that he studied, and the important improvements suggested by that experimenter in drilling and horse and hand hoeing, were adopted by him. David Henry’s Complete English Farmer , Duhamel’s work based upon Tull’s, and Henry Home’s popular work, The Gentleman Farmer  exercised an influence in preparing for the better understanding of what ought to be done to improve his estate. In all these years before the Revolution he was experimenting in a small way, and had come to the conclusion that tobacco culture was to be practically abandoned, only sufficient quantity being raised each year to pay for what he imported from England.
The Revolution intervened and prevented his continuing his experiments at Mount Vernon, but greatly increased his knowledge of different cultures. For in the course of that contest he had abundant opportunity of noting what was the practice in the different Eastern and Middle States and the results, a fund of information to be used in later years. He was not only confirmed in his intention of abandoning the culture of tobacco as a staple, but he was convinced of the necessity of high farming if profit was the end. In New England and Pennsylvania he noted the importance of cattle and sheep to an estate, and in Pennsylvania and Delaware the milling industry attracted his notice. Grains, roots, and live stock, a succession or rotation of crops, and the value of flour as an article of export, may be said to sum up in a few words, the results of his observations. More important still was the realization that slave labor was far more costly and inefficient than free, that the cheapness of slave labor was disproved by economic reasons of the gravest weight. But saddled as he was with this quality of labor, and disapproving of it on moral as well as economic grounds, he saw no way of making a change without selling his negroes—a step he was unwilling to take.
Washington returned to Mount Vernon after the war better prepared to carry out a new plan of farming his estates than he was in 1775, and into this new plan he threw himself heart and soul, for he loved Mount Vernon and delighted in schemes for improving and beautifying it. From Europe he received many seeds and cuttings, and his friends at home and abroad were constant in supplying him with novelties, and in keeping him acquainted with what improvements in methods were being devised. He corresponded with Arthur Young, who had just begun to publish his Annals of Agriculture , and with Doctor James Anderson, whose journal, the Bee, never attained the reputation that the Annals justly gained. In closely written notebooks Washington jotted down what attracted his notice in the Annals, classifying his notes by articles, and particular attention being paid to grains and roots, courses of crops, and cattle. In Maryland, he watched with interest the experiments of John Beale Bordley, who was working upon the same lines, and was among the first to publish the results—A View of the Courses of Crops in England and Maryland .1 An elaborate record of his plowings, sowings, and crops extending from 1785 to 1789 is preserved, in which was noted every detail that could enable him to come to a conclusion on the best available system. First came a day-to-day record of what was done, as follows:—
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS.
April 7th, 1785.—Cut two or three rows of the wheat (Cape wheat) within six inches of the ground, it being near eighteen inches high, that which was first sown, and the blades of the whole singed with the frost.
8th.—Sowed oats to-day in drills at Muddy Hole with my barrel plough. Ground much too wet; some of it had been manured, but had been twice ploughed, then listed, then twice harrowed before sowing; which, had it not been for the frequent rains, would have put the ground in fine tilth. Ploughed up the turnip patch at home for orchard grass.
10th.—Began bricklaying to-day. Completed sowing, with twenty-four quarts of oats, thirty-eight rows at Muddy Hole ten feet apart, in the ground intended for corn.
11th.—Sowed twenty-six rows of barley in the same field at Muddy Hole in the same manner, with the drill plough, and with precisely the same workings the oats had adjoining thereto. This was done with twelve quarts of seed. After three ploughings and three harrowings, sowed millet in eleven rows three feet apart, opposite to the overseer’s house in the Neck. Perceived the last sowed oats at Dogue Run, and those sown in the Neck, were coming up.
12th.—Sowed sixteen acres of Siberian wheat, with eighteen quarts, in rows between corn, eight feet apart. This ground had been prepared in the following manner. 1. A single furrow; 2. another in the same to deepen it; 3. four furrows to throw the earth back into the two first, which made ridges of five furrows. These, being done some time ago, and the sowing retarded by frequent rains, had got hard; therefore, 4. before the seed was sown, these ridges were split again by running twice in the middle of them, both times in the same furrow; 5. after which the ridges were harrowed; and, 6. where the ground was lumpy, run a spiked roller with a harrow at the tail of it, which was found very efficacious in breaking the clods and pulverizing the earth, and would have done it perfectly, if there had not been too much moisture remaining from the late rains. After this, harrowing and rolling were necessary, the wheat was sown with the drill plough on the reduced ridges eight feet apart, as above mentioned, and harrowed in with the small harrow belonging to the plough. But it should have been observed, that, after the ridges were split by the middle double furrows, and before they were closed again by the harrow, a little manure was sprinkled in them.
At Dogue Run, listing the ground intended for Siberian wheat, barley, &c., a second time.
At Muddy Hole sewed with the drill plough two rows of the Albany pease between the corn rows, to see whether they would come to any thing for want of the support which they give one another when sown broad-cast. The same management given the ground as for oats and barley at this place.
13th.—Sowed oats in drills ten feet apart, between corn rows in the Neck, twenty-four rows, in the following manner. 1. A single furrow; 2. another and deep furrow in this; 3. four bouts to these; 4. ploughed again in the same manner; 5. a single furrow in the middle of these; 6. manure sprinkled in this furrow; 7. the great harrow over all these; and, 8. the seed sowed after the harrow with the drill or barrel plough, and harrowed in with the harrow at the tail of it. Note.—It should have been observed, that the field intended for experiments at this plantation is divided into three parts, by bouting rows running crosswise; and that manure, and the last single furrow, are (at least for the present) bestowed on the most westerly of those nearest the Barn.
14th.—Harrowed the ground at Muddy Hole, which had been twice ploughed, for Albany pease in broad-cast. At Dogue Run began to sow the remainder of the Siberian wheat, about fourteen quarts, which had been left at the Ferry; run deep furrows in the middle, and made five-feet ridges. Did the same for carrots in the same field on the west side next the meadow. Ordered a piece of ground, two acres, to be ploughed at the Ferry around the old corn-house, to be drilled with corn and potatoes between, each ten feet apart, row from row of the same kind. Sowed in the Neck, or rather planted, next to the eleven rows of millet, thirty-five rows of the rib-grass seeds, three feet apart and one foot asunder in the rows.
At the end of the season the pages of notes and observations (thirty-one folio pages closely written) were carefully indexed, and the results for each crop on each plantation were summarized, particular attention being paid to the dates of sowing, first appearance and gathering of the different crops, and finally were entered his “conclusions, drawn from the foregoing statement of facts,” of which a few extracts are given.
Clover. That it is not worth raising for the seed, to get which out is very troublesome.1
Corn. On rows 10 feet one way, and 18 Inches thick single stalks; will yield as much to the Acre in equal ground, as at 5 feet each way with two stalks in a hill; & that Potatoes, Carrots & Pease between the drilled Corn, if not exhaustive, which they are declared not to be, are nearly a clear profit, except in putting them in, and taking them from the ground—the same labor—which is necessary for the Corn, being sufficient for the other things. Corn ought, if practicable, to be planted by the 15th of May at furthest; by the 10th would be better—perhaps by the first preferable to either—In short as soon as the ground has acquired warmth enough to vegetate the plant, the grain ought to be put in. It should be kept clean and well worked in the early part of its growth—till it shoots and tassels at least; this when the sod is light may be done with the Hoe Harrow.—
The Corn blades to be pulled before the tops are cut & when there are two stalks in a hill laid between them untied, that they may cure quick and without moulding under the band.—
* * * * * *
Carts.—Should be well supplied with oxen, that by shifting them they may be always in good heart, & do the work well, without grain, or extra feed.—They should carry rails, or other materials for fencing to the spot where the fences are to be erected in the Winter (whilst the grd.—is froze) that they may not be interrupted in carting out dung in the Spring, before the last plowing is given to the land.
Flax. That which was sowed on the 28th of April was very good, but whether this was owing to the proper time of sowing, or the very moist weather that followed is not certain.
Farm-Pens.—To be made by the first, or at furthest the middle of November well covered with mud; and this spread over with broom straw or whatever is intended for litter of which a plentiful store should be laid up by the yard. After the middle of Novr. the Cattle ought never to go out of the Pens but to water, if it is not provided in them.—The dung by this management is more than an equivalent for the extra feed; little food being to be got in common Pastures after the middle of November,—when it is too late in the season (the nights being too long & cold) to confine them in open pens at night.—
An Acct. of the number and kind of Cattle to be taken at the times of putting them up in the fall, & turning them out to grass in the Spring.—
Fallows. As soon as the Corn is laid by and the Winter grain and seeds in the ground, the Plows shd. be breaking it up for Barley, Oats, Turnips, and other Spring & Summer Crops.—& as soon as these are in the ground should be plowed for Wheat, Rye, and Winter sowing; unless sowing on lay land is adopted and found to answer.—In a word the Plows should never stop when the ground is in order to be worked; for if they do, the business of a farm will never be carried on fully and to advantage. * * *
Meadows. To get them cut in due Season, & that Hay making may be over before harvest commences,—begin as soon as the head of the Timothy appears through the blade—and the clover as soon as it gets pretty fully into the blossom.—The Orchard grass will all be wanted for seed. * * *
Plowing.—This business should never stop.—For Spring and Summer Crops, the ground shd. be broke in the Fall & Winter;—and for Winter grain, in the Spring and Summer.—From the experience of this spring’s sowing as also from the fall’s sowing, on lay land (but the weather in the fall being uncommonly moist, might have occasioned the latter) it appears that the quicker the sowing and harrowings after it, follow the Plow the mellower & more crumbling the land works.—When much time intervenes between the Plowing & sowing, hard rains beat and high winds dry the ground in such a manner as to make it work rough and cloddy.—quære then.—Would it not be better, instead of plowing a whole field through (before the sowing commences) to lay it off by the furrows of a Plow into such squares, as that the Plowing, sowing, harrowing, and cross harrowing, may all be accomplished in 3 or 4 days—or at most not to exceed a week. This too wd. be a means of detecting idleness in, & keeping the Plowmen to their duty.—When Oats, or other grain is to be sown on a single plowing, the furrow ought to be narrow—when the ground is to be cross plowed, this is not so necessary.—It is always best when circumstances will admit not to plow when the ground is wet—but (when not bound together by the sward) when it will crumble as it is turned from the mould board.
* * * * * *
Wheat.—The earlier it is sown the better. The latter end of July is to be preferred to any sown after the middle of September. August is a good seed month.—If it is sown on lay land Plow (as has been mentioned under the article plowing) in no larger squares than may be compleated in a week, at farthest. Try the experimt. of sowing with a six foot barrel, and with grain dropped 6 Inches square,—to be harrowed in.—Water drains should be cut to let the Water pass of freely from all low places; otherwise those that would yield most wheat produce none at all. Begin to cut it, if circumstances will admit, as soon as the Milk is out of the grain,—and manage it as directed page 20. Where there is no Barn and the grain must be tred out, begin this operation before the Corn is gathered; for if it is delayed beyond it the Weather rarely admits of its being done to advantage—and where the fly is, it may be lost.
A Weekly allowance of Meat to the Negro Oversrs. is preferable to an Annual one—because the annual one is not taken care of but either profusely used, or stolen.—
By having the Corn & Rye, for the Negros and horses sent to the Mill from the several Plantations, and the weekly allowance for both delivered from thence, great saving will accrue and no embezzlement can well take place—because by this means no more will go throw the Mill than is allowed—and the Miller passing receipts for what is sent to the Mill, the remainder of the Crop which was measured and lofted must be accted. for by the Overseer—or the Doors may be locked and the keys taken away.
That this may be done with greater propriety leave no horses on the Plantations but those which work—and such horse Colts as are to be raised without grain; and
Raise no more Hogs on them than can be supported with the offal—and these only to the age of a year old when they may be bro’t to a place to be provided & properly constructed at the Mansion house to fat them for Bacon.
Such a record, kept for six years by an enthusiastic and very practical observer, would prove an invaluable guide and lead to a system of cultivation, in which the different uses of each field could be accurately laid down for years in advance, and every contingency provided for as far as care and intelligence could provide. And so long as Washington was in person superintending his estate, good results were obtained. A steady advance in product, more labor accomplished by the slaves, and a marked improvement in live stock, were the immediate issues; while the increasing diversity of crops and a milling industry promised in the near future to give a surplus over expenditure.
The election to the Presidency came when the new order was progressing, and made it necessary for Washington to entrust the care of his estate to the hands of agents, but acting under his specific directions. Not only did he draw up with great care a schedule of what was to be done, leaving it for the guidance of his agent, but each week he received a full report of what was done on the different properties, and each week he wrote with his own hand such additional instructions as might seem necessary. A failure to remit the report was to him a grievous fault, and his replies, often extending over sixteen closely written pages, would constitute, if complete, one of the most noticeable features of the man’s character. Two series of these letters have been preserved, one to Anthony Whiting, and the other to William Pearce, and from these, extending as they do from 1792 to 1797, I shall make such extracts as may illustrate their general nature. The letters to Pearce have been published by the Long Island Historical Society, under the editorship of Moncure D. Conway. That there may be a certain continuity, the general instructions given to his first agent, George Augustine Washington, and a specimen weekly report of the manager or agent, are inserted.
DIRECTIONS FOR GEORGE A. WASHINGTON.
31 March, 1789.
Having given very full and ample details of the intended crops, and my ideas of the modes of managing them at the several plantations, little, if these are observed, needs be added on this subject. But as the profit of every farm is greater or less, in proportion to the quantity of manure, which is made thereon, or can be obtained by keeping the fields in good condition, these two important requisites ought never to be lost sight of.
To effect the former, besides the ordinary means of farm-yards, cow-pens, sheep-folds, stables, &c., it would be of essential use, if a certain proportion of the force of each plantation could be appropriated, in the summer or early part of autumn, to the purpose of getting up mud to be ameliorated by the frosts of winter for the spring crops, which are to follow. And to accomplish the latter, the gullies in these fields, previous to their being sown with grain and grass-seeds, ought invariably to be filled up. By so doing, and a small sprinkling of manure thereon, they will acquire a green sward, and strength of soil sufficient to preserve them. These are the only means I know of, by which exhausted lands can be recovered, and an estate rescued from destruction.
Although a precise number of tobacco hills is by my general directions allotted to each plantation, yet my real intention is, that no more ground shall be appropriated to this crop, than what is either naturally very good (for which purpose small spots may be chosen), or what can be made strong by manure of some kind or other; for my object is to labor for profit, and therefore to regard quality, instead of quantity, there being, except in the article of manuring, no difference between attending a good plant and an indifferent one. But in any event, let the precise number of hills be ascertained, that an estimate may be formed of their yield to the thousand.
Being thoroughly convinced, from experience, that embezzlement and waste of crops (to say nothing of the various accidents to which they are liable by delays) are increased proportionably to the time they are suffered to remain on hand, my wish is as soon as circumstances will permit after the grain is harvested, that it may be got out of the straw, especially at the plantations where there are no barns, and either disposed of in proper deposits, or sold, if it is wheat, and the price is tolerable, after it has been converted into flour. When this work is set about as the sole, or as a serious business, it will be executed properly. But when a little is done now, and a little then, there is more waste, even if there should be no embezzlement, than can well be conceived.
One or two other matters I beg may be invariably attended to. The first is to begin harvest as soon as the grain can be cut with safety; and the next, to get it in the ground in due season. Wheat should be sown by the last of August; at any rate by the 10th of September; and other fall grain as soon after as possible. Spring grain and grass seeds should be sown as soon as the ground can possibly, with propriety, be prepared for their reception.
For such essential purposes as may absolutely require the aid of the ditchers, they may be taken from that work. At all other times they must proceed in the manner, which has been directed formerly; and in making the new roads from the Ferry to the Mill, and from the Tumbling Dam across the Neck, till it communicates with the Alexandria road, as has been pointed out on the spot. The ditch from the Ferry to the Mill along this road may be a common four-feet one. But from the Mill to the Tumbling Dam, and thence across to the head of the old field by Muddy-Hole fence, it must be five feet wide at top, but no deeper than the four-feet one, and the same width at bottom as the latter.
After the carpenters have given security to the old barn in the Neck, they must proceed to the completion of the new one at the Ferry, according to the plan and the explanations, which have been given. Gunner and Davis should get bricks made for this purpose; and if John Knowles could be spared (his work, not only with respect to time, but quantity and quality to be amply returned) to examine the bilged walls, and the security of them, but to level and lay the foundations of the other work, when the bricks are ready, it would be rendering me an essential service; and, as the work might be returned in proper season, would be no detriment to your building.
When the brick work is executed at the Ferry Barn, Gunner and Davis must repair to Dogue Run, and make bricks there; at the place and in the manner, which have been directed, that I may have no salmon bricks in that building.
Oyster shells should be bought, whenever they are offered for sale, if good and on reasonable terms.
Such moneys as you may receive for flour, barley, fish, as also for other things, which can be spared and sold; and for rents, the use of the jacks, &c.; and for book debts, which may be tried, though little is expected from the justice of those who have been long indulged; may be applied to the payment of workmen’s wages as they arise, Fairfax,1 and the taxes, and likewise to the payment of any just debts, which I may be owing in small sums, and have not been able to discharge previous to my leaving the State. The residue may await further orders.
As I shall want shingles, plank, nails, rum for harvest, scantling, and such like things, which would cost me money at another time, fish may be bartered for them. The scantling, if any is taken, must be such as will suit for the barn now about to be built, or that at Dogue Run, without waste and of good quality.
I find it is indispensably necessary, for two reasons, to save my own clover and timothy seed; first, because it is the only certain means of having it good and in due season; and, secondly, because I find it is a heavy article to purchase.
Save all the honey-locusts you can, of those which belong to me; if more could be obtained, the better. And, in the fall, plant them on the ditches where they are to remain, about six inches apart, one seed from another.
The seeds, which are on the case in my study, ought, without loss of time, to be sown and planted in my botanical garden, and proper memoranda kept of the times and places.
You will use your best endeavors to obtain the means for support of G. and L. Washington, who, I expect, will board, till something further can be decided on, with Dr. Craik; who must be requested to see that they are decently and properly provided with clothes from Mr. Porter’s store. He will give them a credit on my becoming answerable to him for the payment. And, as I know of no resource, that H. has for supplies but from me, Fanny will, from time to time, as occasion may require, have such things got for her, on my account, as she shall judge necessary. Mrs. Washington will, I expect, leave her tolerably well provided with common articles for the present.
My memorandum books, which will be left in my study, will inform you of the times and places, when, and where, different kinds of wheat, grass-seeds, &c., were sown. Let particular attention be paid to the quality and quantity of each sort, that a proper judgment of them may be formed. To do this, great care must be taken to prevent mixture of the several sorts, as they are so contiguous to each other.
The general superintendence of my affairs is all I require of you; for it is neither my desire nor wish, that you should become a drudge to it, or that you should refrain from any amusements or visitings, which may be agreeable, either to Fanny or yourself to make or receive. If Fairfax the farmer, and Thomas Green on each of whom I have endeavored to impress a proper sense of their duty, will act their part with propriety and fidelity, nothing more will be necessary for you to do, than would comport with amusement and that exercise which is conducive to health. Nor is it my wish, that you should live in too parsimonious a manner. Frugality and economy are undoubtedly commendable, and all that is required. Happily for this country, these virtues prevail more and more every day among all classes of citizens. I have heard of, and I have seen with pleasure, a remarkable change in the mode of living from what it was a year or two ago; and nothing but the event, which I dreaded would take place soon, has prevented my following the example. Indeed, necessity, if this had not happened, would have forced me into the measure, as my means are not adequate to the expense at which I have lived since my retirement to what is called private life. Sincerely wishing you health and happiness, I am ever your warm friend and affectionate uncle.
MANAGER’S WEEKLY REPORT.
Increase, 2 Calves and 2 Mules. Received from Mill, 22 bushels of Meal, and 29 bushels of Bran; from Ferry, 3 barrels of Corn. Stock, 11 head of Cattle, 4 Calves, 60 Sheep, 28 Lambs, 4 working Mares, 4 working Horses, 5 Colts, 4 Spring Colts, 2 Jacks, 2 old Jennies, 1 do. three years old, 1 do. two years old, 1 do. one year old. 15 Mules, 10 one year old, 2 spring do.; and 11 Mares.
N. B. There has been almost one day and part of another lost by rain this week.
Received from Mill 6 bushels of Meal, and 6 bushels of Rye Meal.—Stock, 37 head of cattle, 5 Calves, 30 Sheep, 8 working Horses, and 1 Mule.
Increase 2 Calves, and 5 Lambs.—Received from Mill, 12¼ bushels of Meal, sent do. 54 bushels of Corn. To Mansion-House 3 barrels of do. feed to Horses 1 barrel of do.—Stock, 83 head of Cattle, 5 Calves, 136 Sheep, 60 Lambs, 16 working Horses, and 2 Mules.
Increase, 2 Calves.—Received from Mill, 9¾ bushels of Meal, and 10 bushels of Rye Meal.—Stock, 83 head of Cattle, 5 Calves, 221 Sheep, 45 Lambs, 4 working Mares, 13 working Horses, and 1 Mule.
Received from Mill, 6¾ bushels of Meal.—Stock, 57 head of Cattle, 1 Calf, 124 Sheep, 9 working Horses, and 1 Mule.
[1 ]I find in a note-book of Washington’s a very full and careful summary of Bry Higgins on Calcareous Cements, dated 1784.
[1 ]In his summary of Duhamel he noted on Chapter VIII. of that work, on the culture of sainfoin: “Altho’ sainfoin seems to be a very desirable plant to cultivate, yet the difficulty of getting it to grow in this country renders it unnecessary to say anything upon this head here.”
[1 ]John Fairfax, one of his overseers.