Front Page Titles (by Subject) APPENDICES - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume V - Essays on Economics and Society Part II
Return to Title Page for The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume V - Essays on Economics and Society Part II
The Online Library of Liberty
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Search this Title:
APPENDICES - John Stuart Mill, The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume V - Essays on Economics and Society Part II 
The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume V - Essays on Economics and Society Part II, ed. John M. Robson, introduction by Lord Robbins (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967).
About Liberty Fund:
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.
The online edition of the Collected Works is published under licence from the copyright holder, The University of Toronto Press. ©2006 The University of Toronto Press. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or medium without the permission of The University of Toronto Press.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
McCulloch’s Discourse on Political Economy (1825)
Westminster Review, IV (July, 1825), 88-92. Unsigned; not republished. Original heading: “Art. VI. A Discourse on the Rise, Progress, Peculiar Objects, and Importance of Political Economy. By J. R. M’Culloch, Esq. Second Edition. pp. 117. Edinburgh [: Constable]. 1825.” Running head: “M’Culloch’s Discourse on Political Economy.” Not mentioned in JSM’s bibliography or Autobiography. Vol. IV of the Westminster is missing from the Mills’ set in Somerville College. Identified as partly by JSM in Alexander Bain, James Mill (London: Longmans, Green, 1882), 292, where a letter from James Mill to McCulloch (18/8/25) is cited, reading in part: “I suppose you have seen by this time the review of your Discourse in the Westminster? John expresses great dissatisfaction with the behaviour of the editors. The whole was the joint production of him and [William] Ellis: but they say that several important things were left out, and the article, by that and other editorial operations, disfigured.” (Cf. Edmund K. Blyth, Life of William Ellis [London: Kegan Paul, Trench, 1889], 35-6, 352.) There is no external evidence to indicate what part of this slight review is by JSM; if a guess is permissible, it seems likely that the sketch of the history of Political Economy is his.
if there is one sign of the times upon which more than any other we should be justified in resting our hopes of the future progression of the human race in the career of improvement, that sign undoubtedly is, the demand which is now manifesting itself on the part of the public for instruction in the science of Political Economy. It is unnecessary for us to bring forward any evidence to prove the existence of this demand—the fact is sufficiently notorious. It is equally notorious, that considerable respect is now paid by the more enlightened portion of our administration to the great principles of the science; that many members of the House of Commons are beginning to be familiar with the demonstrations by which those principles are established; and that those who have inherited the ignorance of their ancestors with their estates, have of late been obliged, however ungraciously, on many occasions, by the force of public opinion, to bow down to others who have less reverence for the errors of the past. And yet, surprising as it may appear, it is no less notorious, that up to the year 1818, the science of political economy was scarcely known or talked of beyond a small circle of philosophers, and that legislation, so far from being in conformity with its principles, was daily receding from them more and more.
At that time all the most important principles contained in the science had been clearly demonstrated, and the materiel for the formation of a regular system was collected. A long interval elapsed after the publication of the Wealth of Nations, in 1776, without any thing worth mentioning being contributed to the science. In 1798 appeared Malthus’s Essay upon the Principle of Population; in 1802, Mr. Say’s work;[*] in 1815, two Essays upon the Nature of Rent;[†] and in 1817, Mr. Ricardo’s profound work upon the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation; and finally, in 1821, Mr. Mill’s Elements of Political Economy.
The attention of those who wish to see an amelioration in the condition of the great mass of mankind ought henceforward to be mainly directed to the means of communicating to all that which is now known only to a few. The principal difficulty is overcome—the road to happiness is discovered—no groping, no perplexing research, no hopeless, thankless toil is required—all that remains to be done is, to remove the obstacles which conceal that road from the view of those who are less fortunate than ourselves. The perfectibility of the human species has long been looked upon as a fit subject of speculation for castle-builders and Utopians; and certainly the schemes by which it has frequently been thought that this perfectibility might be brought about, were well calculated to excite a smile even on the countenance of the most benevolent. On the other hand, political economists, as a class, have often been held up to hatred because their doctrines were considered as adverse to the scheme of perfectibility. This hatred has, however, been extremely ill-placed. For, waiving any opinion as to the scheme of perfectibility, and as to the possibility of attaching any very precise idea to the term, it must be allowed that political economists have shown in what manner the condition of mankind may be considerably improved. It must be allowed, moreover, that, previous to their inquiries, unknown causes existed, by which all plans for improvement were checked and counteracted. Not only have they pointed out these causes of evil, but, fearlessly braving the prejudices of the ignorant and vulgar, they have brought to light a remedy by which that evil may be averted. If, therefore, they are of opinion that the perfectibility of the species is a mere vision, although bright and fascinating to dwell upon, they have, at all events, produced a plan by which a large addition may almost immediately be made to human happiness, and which will ultimately raise the species to a state at least approaching to the perfectibility which has been aimed at.
The readiness with which all the late discoveries in economical science have been received and assented to, and the success which has attended all the attempts that have been made to diffuse a knowledge of them, hold out the strongest encouragement to those who have already devoted either time or talent for the purpose of imparting useful information, to persevere in their course, and to others to follow their example. Of all who have hitherto been engaged in this meritorious employment, there is no one who has distinguished himself more than the author of the Discourse which we have before us. Were it possible to trace any portion of the improvement in the public mind within these few years to the labours of particular individuals, we think that much might be traced to those of Mr. McCulloch. In him are united a profound knowledge of the principles of the science, a most uncommon degree of skill in illustrating and expounding them, a complete mastery of all the errors and sophisms which have heretofore prevailed, and of the arguments by which they are to be met, with an apostolic zeal in communicating his knowledge to others. What other qualities can be required to entitle a man to the character of a perfect teacher?
In the early part of last year a Lectureship upon Political Economy was founded for a limited number of years in honour of the late Mr. Ricardo; a manner of commemorating the virtues and talents of that great philosopher, as consonant to what it might be supposed would be his wishes, as it was creditable to the judgment of his friends and admirers. The well-known qualifications of Mr. McCulloch pointed him out to these gentlemen as the fittest person to fill the lecturer’s chair. Mr. McCulloch had already given some courses of lectures at his own private risk at Edinburgh; but doubts were entertained by many whether the public mind was yet ripe for such an institution. The success, however, which attended his first course far exceeded the most sanguine expectations of the most ardent friends of the science, and induced a number of public-spirited individuals to invite him to deliver a course of lectures in the city, in addition to the one which he was engaged to deliver as Ricardo lecturer.
The student who wishes to form an idea of what political economy really means, and to judge for himself whether the knowledge of the science would repay him for the time and application which he must necessarily sacrifice in order to obtain it, cannot do better than purchase this pamphlet. It does not contain more than 117 pages, and is written in a popular and pleasing style. In it he will find a general view of the principles on which the science is founded; the distinguishing features of the most celebrated theories that have been advanced to explain its various results; the distinction between it and politics; and some remarks illustrative of the utility of its study to all ranks and orders of the community.
Mr. McCulloch puts forth no pretensions to originality in this discourse. It was written evidently with a view to attract those who as yet are strangers to the science. In this he has more than succeeded. Whoever carefully peruses its contents cannot fail to be inspired with a wish to perfect himself in the science, since he will see the necessity of either ceasing to take a part in the discussion of public affairs, or of qualifying himself to discuss them philosophically. Our space will not permit us to indulge in many examples of the style and spirit of the work. We subjoin the following:
There is a peculiarity in the political and economical sciences which deserves to be noticed, inasmuch as it serves to show the superior necessity and importance of general instruction in their principles. The peculiarity in question originates in the circumstance of the politician or economist being extremely apt to be influenced by other considerations than a regard to the interests of truth and the public welfare. The cultivators of the mathematical and physical sciences, can very rarely have any motive to bias their judgments, or to induce them to conceal or pervert the truth. But such is not the case with those who discuss political or economical questions. Every abuse, and every vicious and unjust institution and regulation, operates as a bounty on the production of false theories; for, though injurious to the public, they are almost always productive of advantage to a greater or smaller number of individuals, who, to preserve this advantage, enlist a portion of the press into their service, and labour, by means of perverted and fallacious statements, to make the public believe that the abuse is really beneficial to them, and that they are interested in its support. These attempts to make the worse appear the better cause, or to make the most flagrant abuses be viewed as national benefits, have very often been attended with complete success. And there are plainly no means of obviating this evil, of correcting what is really disadvantageous in the influence of the press, and of preventing the public from being misled by the specious sophistry of those whose interest and object it is to delude them, except by making them generally acquainted with the elementary and fundamental truths of this science. . . . . . Ignorance is the impure and muddy fountain whence nine tenths of the vice, misery, and crime, to be found in the world are really derived. Make the body of the people once fully aware of the circumstances which really determine their condition, and you may be assured that an immense majority will endeavour to turn that knowledge to good account. If you once succeed in convincing a man that it is for his interest to abandon one line of conduct and follow another, the chances are ten to one that he will do so.
Petition on Free Trade (1841)
Morning Chronicle, 17 June, 1841, 6. Unsigned; not republished. Original heading: “Kensington. The following is the petition agreed to at the meeting held at Kensington on Tuesday evening.” Identified in JSM’s bibliography as “The Kensington Petition for free trade, agreed to at a public meeting held on the 15th June 1841, and printed in the Morning Chronicle of June 17th” (MacMinn, 53). No copy in Somerville College.
JSM wrote to Albany Fonblanque (17 June, 1841), saying in part: “The Kensington petition, printed in the Chronicle today, is of my writing, & I had a great share in getting up the public meeting, which, though in a very unpromising neighbourhood, was a very striking demonstration” (Earlier Letters, Collected Works, XIII, 478).
TO THE HONOURABLE THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
The humble petition of the inhabitants of Kensington and its vicinity, in public meeting assembled, sheweth,
That protecting duties, or, in other words, duties imposed on foreign commodities, not to raise a revenue, but to keep up the price of similar articles produced at home, are a tax on the whole community for the pecuniary profit of some class or classes, and are therefore an abuse of the power of legislation.
That the argument frequently urged in defence of such duties, namely, that they encourage production and favour the national industry, is in the opinion of your petitioners, not only unfounded, but the very reverse of the truth, inasmuch as employments which would not be carried on without an artificial high price, are by this very circumstance proved to be employments yielding of themselves a less return than that which the same amount of labour and capital would realise if left to take its natural course. A smaller production is by this means obtained through the sacrifice of a greater, and thus, in addition to what these restrictions take from one portion of the community to bestow upon another, they cause a further and commonly a still greater loss of national wealth, without benefit to any one.
That nevertheless former Parliaments, partly influenced by the class interests of their several members, and partly by mistaken views of public policy now exploded, have imposed protecting duties on almost every article of foreign produce or manufacture which could possibly come into competition with anything produced in our own country or its dependencies, thus throwing upon the public, in the increased price of the articles of their expenditure, burdens which, according to the calculations of the best practical authorities, exceed the amount of all the taxes which the people of this country pay to the state, while of this vast sum a very small portion alone reaches the coffers of the various classes of producers whom the legislature intended to benefit.
That of these burdens, the most revolting in its principle, the largest in its amount, and the severest in its pressure, is the tax on food, imposed by the present corn and provision laws.[*]
That a tax on food is the only tax from which no degree of abject poverty is an exemption, but which in its very nature falls heaviest upon the poorest class, nearly the whole of whose consumption consists of food.
That whatever makes the poor poorer, tends in the same proportion to render them ignorant and vicious, by depriving them of the opportunities and means of good education, while it strengthens and multiplies the temptations to which their condition exposes them. That the corn-laws, as producing these effects, are, in the view of your petitioners, opposed both to the first principles of morality and to the spirit of the Christian religion, as well as to the direct precepts of Scripture, which expressly declares,
“He that withholdeth corn, the people shall curse him; but blessing shall be upon the head of him that selleth it.”[†]
That, so far as your petitioners are able to observe, these evils originate for some time existed, in a considerable portion of the labouring classes, a deeply seated hostility to existing political institutions, and in the country generally a growing alienation among the different ranks of society, the causes of which, your petitioners humbly submit, demand the most serious consideration from your honourable house.
That, so far as your petitioners are able to observe, these evils originate in the persuasion openly entertained by large bodies of persons that the ruling principle in the government of this country is not the public good, but the particular interest of certain classes, who command a majority, both in the other house of Parliament and in your honourable house. Your petitioners respectfully express their conviction that nothing has so much contributed to give rise to this unfortunate impression, or has given so much colour of truth to it, as the existing commercial restrictions, and in particular the corn-laws. That by whatever arguments the supporters of those laws may justify themselves to their own minds, their reasons are not of a nature to be convincing or intelligible to persons whose small loaf is made smaller for no purpose apparent to them but that of still further enriching the rich. A bread tax for the supposed benefit of the landlords, and a people well affected to the state, are two things which, in the opinion of your petitioners, cannot easily co-exist.
That, entertaining these opinions, your petitioners have hailed with joy the announcement by her Majesty’s government of a general revision of the existing import duties, and the introduction into your honourable house of measures, by which some of the most oppressive of those duties, and particularly, the most oppressive of all, the corn-laws, are considerably relaxed.[*] That although in the article of food nothing but entire freedom from taxation would be satisfactory to your petitioners as a permanent arrangement; yet, as a means of transition, to prevent too sudden a shock to existing interests, your petitioners fully subscribe to the propriety of retaining, for the present, a moderate duty on imported corn. And your petitioners are strongly of opinion that the protection thus temporarily conceded should be in the shape of a fixed duty rather than of a sliding scale. Your petitioners can scarcely imagine any mode of regulating a great branch of commerce and industry more injurious to all parties than the present variable scale of duties, under which the home grower can never know what degree of protection he has to reckon upon, nor the importer what rate of duty he will be required to pay.
That although the measures recently promulgated by her Majesty’s government would have commanded, under any circumstances, the warmest support of your petitioners, they derive an additional recommendation from the particular time at which they are proposed, namely, when the approaching revision of the duties levied on our productions by several of our largest customers threatens us with retaliatory measures most ruinous to our foreign trade, while the state of our own revenue leaves us no option but either to lower the tariff, or impose new and onerous taxes upon the property or the already overburthened industry of the country.
Your petitioners, therefore, earnestly entreat your honourable house to give your most serious consideration to these various circumstances, and to adopt the measures recently submitted to you by her Majesty’s government with respect to the duties on imports, and especially on foreign corn.
And your petitioners will every pray.
Examination Paper in Political Economy Set by JSM (1872)
JSM’s interest in higher education for women led to his being asked to set examination papers in Political Economy for The College, Hitchin, later Girton College, Cambridge. The following paper is reproduced from JSM’s Letters, edited Hugh S. R. Elliot (London, 1910), II, 336-7, where it is dated 6 May, 1872.
1. What is the distinction between Productive and Unproductive Labour, and between Productive and Unproductive Consumption?
2. Does all Productive labour tend to increase the permanent wealth of the country?
3. State any causes, in general operation, which tend to increase the productive power of labour, and any which tend to diminish it.
4. Explain in what sense the value of a commodity depends on supply and demand, and in what sense on cost of production.
5. What cost of production is it which determines the exchange value of the products of agriculture?
6. A state of free trade being supposed, can a country permanently import a commodity from a place where its cost of production is greater than that at which it could be produced at home?
7. What are the effects, first on the national wealth, and secondly, on the wages of labour, of a large government expenditure? and does it make any difference what the expenditure is upon?
8. In what respect are the interest of the labouring classes and that of the employers of labour identical? and in what respects, if in any, opposed?
9. What is the meaning of depreciation of the currency? and what are the principal causes of such depreciation?
10. By what means can a currency be protected against depreciation?
11. What is meant by the terms, a favourable and an unfavourable exchange? and is there any well-grounded objection to that phraseology?
12. How far, and in what respects, is the discovery of new and rich deposits of the precious metals a benefit to the national wealth?
13. Mention the principal circumstances that tend to produce either a rise or a fall in the rent of land.
14. State what are the known modes in which the produce of land, or the proceeds of the sale of that produce, are shared among the different classes of persons connected with the land, and state briefly the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Land Tenure Reform Association: Public Lands and Commons Bill (1872)
JSM was in Avignon during the early part of 1872, when this sheet must have been distributed, and there is no evidence that he took part in its composition, though he would surely have approved it. No marks on Somerville College copy.
LAND TENURE REFORM ASSOCIATION
Chairman, Mr. J. Stuart Mill
Treasurer, Mr. P. A. Taylor, m.p. Hon. Secretary, Colonel T. A. Cowper
Offices:—9, Buckingham Street, Strand
PUBLIC LANDS AND COMMONS BILL
The Second Reading of the Public Lands and Commons Bill will be moved by Sir C. Dilke, on Wednesday, July 3rd. The Bill is brought in by Sir C. Dilke, Mr. Morrison and Mr. P. A. Taylor, and applies only to Public Lands, or Lands held by Corporations, Charities, &c. for public uses, to Commons and Rights of Way. It not only provides for the more economical administration of public lands, but contains provisions calculated largely to promote the social and material well being of the industrial classes.
The Bill provides for the appointment of overseers of all public lands, commons, and rights of way; the salaries of such overseers to be defrayed out of the proceeds of the lands under their charge. Their duties in regard to public lands will be to manage them in the most economical and efficient manner, to let such lands by public tender, and when tenders are equal, to give the preference to that in which the largest number of persons are interested, thus affording facilities for co-operative agriculture and co-operative building.
The duties of the overseers in regard to public commons and rights of way will be to make enquiries into the nature and extent of public rights, report the result to the Home Secretary, and mark the extent of such commons and rights of way upon maps of their several districts, thus permanently securing the rights of the public.
All earnest Land Reformers are therefore urged to support the Bill for the following reasons:—
The Executive Committee of the Land Tenure Reform Association trust that their friends in the various constituencies will use every effort in behalf of the Bill, especially by communicating with their parliamentary representatives, and by obtaining resolutions from associated bodies in its favor, which also should be forwarded to the local members.
Bibliographic Index of Persons and Works Cited in the Essays, with Variants and Notes
Mill, like most nineteenth-century authors, is very cavalier in his approach to sources, seldom identifying them with sufficient care, and frequently quoting them inaccurately. This Appendix is intended to help correct these deficiencies, and to serve as an index of names and titles (which are consequently omitted in the Index proper). Included also, at the end of the Appendix, are references to British statute law, which are entered in order of date under the heading “Statutes” (826), and references to parliamentary reports and evidence, which are entered in order of date under “Parliamentary Papers” (824). The material is arranged in alphabetical order, with an entry for each author and work quoted or referred to in the text proper and in Appendices A-D.
In cases of simple reference only surnames are given.
The entries take the following form:
1. Identification: author, title, etc., in the usual bibliographic form.
2. Notes (if required) giving information about JSM’s use of the source, indication if the work is in his library, and any other relevant information.
3. A list of the places where the author or work is quoted, and a separate list of the places where there is reference only. Those works which are reviewed are specially noted.
4. A list of substantive variants between JSM’s text and his source, in this form: Page and line reference to the present text. Reading in the present text] Reading in the source (page reference in the source).
The list of substantive variants also attempts to place quoted remarks in their contexts by giving the beginnings and endings of sentences. Omissions of two sentences or less are given in full; only the length of other omissions is given. In a few cases, following the page reference to the source, cross-references are given to footnoted variants in the present text. Translated material is given in the original language.
Acts. See Statutes.
Anon. “The Bank Charter,” Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine, I (June, 1832), 291-314.
note: the reference is in an editorial footnote.
referred to: 192n
Anon. “Mr. Thomas Tooke on the Currency Principle,” Examiner, 13 Apr., 1844, 226-7; and “Currency Crochets,” ibid., 27 Apr., 1844, 259-60.
referred to: 343n
Ansell, Charles. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 179-92.
referred to: 595
Aristotle. Referred to: 212
Attwood, Matthias. Referred to: 185
Attwood, Thomas. Referred to: 275. See also Mansell & Co’s Report.
— “Evidence taken before the Committee of Secrecy on the Bank of England Charter,” Parliamentary Papers, 1831-32, VI, 452-68.
note: Attwood’s “Evidence” is first cited on 185.
Arkwright. Referred to: 156-7
Aubin. Referred to: 378n
Babbage, Charles.On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 3rd ed. London: Knight, 1832 .
note: The reference is to JSM’s quotation from Babbage, in Principles of Political Economy, in Collected Works, III, 770.
referred to: 414
Bacon. Referred to: 328
Baer, Constantino.L’avere e l’imposta. Rome: Loescher, 1872.
Ball. Referred to: 500
Baring, Alexander. Referred to: 105-6
— Speeches in the House of Commons (10 and 13 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 189-95, 225-7, 229.
quoted: 118 referred to: 117-20
118.3 “stood] Let it be recollected that, in spite of all eloquent speeches, the house stood (225)
118.5 gentlemen] gent. [i.e., gentleman; i.e., Canning] (225)
118.5 He did] He (Mr. Baring) did (225)
118.8 country . . . . . If] [1½-column omission] (225-6)
Baring, Francis Thornhill. Referred to: 464, 500
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Baring, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 512, 517
Barnett. Referred to: 432
Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de.Le Barbier de Séville.
note: the phrase occurs in a speech by Basile, not by Figaro. No edition is cited.
206.10 Qui trompe-t-on ici? asks Figaro.] Basile, à part.—Qui diable est-ce donc qu’on trompe ici? Tout le monde est dans le secret. (III, xi)
Behrend. Referred to: 55, 56n, 67-8
note: no copy of Behrend’s Corn Circular has been located.
Bible. Referred to: 377
— Isaiah, 28:10-11.
note: cf. ibid., 28:13.
47.15 “line . . . precept;”] For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little: For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people.
— Luke, 15:11-32.
referred to: 751
— Proverbs, 11:26.
— I Thessalonians, 5:21.
457.9-10 “try . . . good”] Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.
Blackburn. Referred to: 500
Blackwood. Referred to: 678
Blake, William.Observations on the Effects Produced by the Expenditure of Government during the Restriction of Cash Payments. London: Murray, 1823.
note: the passages on 5-6 from Blake’s pp. 4-5 and 5-6 are contiguous, only the footnote (see 5.38 below) being omitted. The footnote quoted on 7 belongs to the end of the passage quoted in JSM’s footnote to the quotation.
quoted: 3-7, 11-12, 14-19, 22n
5.26 of the currency] of currency (4)
5.30 I] [no paragraph] I (4)
5.38 by it.] by it*. [footnote:] *I do not pretend to ascertain that due proportion. There is some ratio which ought to subsist between the total amount of the currency, and the total value of the commodities to be circulated by it. If that ratio be constant, the value of the currency will remain unaltered. (5n)
7.n8 At] [no paragraph] At (31)
7.n11 charges in] charges on (31) [printer’s error?]
7.n14-15 consumption.] consumption*. (31) [see my note above]
11.1 [paragraph] Mr. Ricardo] [no paragraph] Indeed Mr. Ricardo (26)
12.3 It is] I am quite at a loss how to reconcile such an exchange with the theory of Mr. Wheatley and Mr. Ricardo; for it is (29n)
12.15 impossible.] impossible. The contradiction arises from transferring that language to the currency which is only applicable to the bills. [end of note] (29n)
14.29 twenty] twenty-two (53)
15.14 The political . . . have endeavoured] This opinion of Adam Smith has been controverted by the political economists of the present day, who have endeavoured (58)
15.28 other.] other*. [footnote:] This argument has been most ably and adroitly conducted by Mr. Mill, in his Elements of Political Economy, and, granting that new tastes and new wants spring up with the new capital, appears to me unanswerable. (59n)
16.7 further] farther (60)
17.15 Whenever] Now, whenever (56)
— Observations on the Principles which Regulate the Course of Exchange; and on the Present Depreciated State of the Currency. London: Lloyd, 1810.
referred to: 188
Blanc, Jean-Joseph Louis. Referred to: 728, 739
— Organisation du travail. 4me ed. Brussels: Hauman, 1845.
note: no copy of the 4th ed., Paris, having been available, the edition cited above has been used. As the variant notes below show, the text cannot have been much altered. The passages which JSM actually translates are enclosed in square brackets.
quoted: 716-19, 727 referred to: 730
716.33-717.10 Competition . . . then?] [translated from:] [La concurrence est pour le peuple un système d’extermination.] [title of Part 1, chap ii] [paragraph] Le pauvre est-il un membre ou un ennemi de la société? Qu’on réponde.
Il trouve tout autour de lui le sol occupé.
Peut-il semer la terre pour son propre compte? Non, parce que le droit de premier occupant est devenu droit de propriété.
Peut-il cueillir les fruits que la main de Dieu a fait mûrir sur le passage des hommes? Non, parce que, de même que le sol, les fruits ont été appropriés.
Peut-il se livrer à la chasse ou à la pêche? Non, parce que cela constitue un droit que le gouvernement afferme.
Peut-il puiser de l’eau à une fontaine enclavée dans un champ? Non, parce que le propriétaire du champ est, en vertu du droit d’accession, propriétaire de la fontaine.
Peut-il, mourant de faim et de soif, tendre la main à la pitié de ses semblables? Non, parce qu’il y a des lois contre la mendicité.
Peut-il, épuisé de fatigue et manquant d’asile, s’endormir sur le pavé des rues? Non, parce qu’il y a des lois contre le vagabondage.
Peut-il, fuyant cette patrie homicide où tout lui est refusé, aller demander les moyens de vivre, loin des lieux où la vie lui a été donnée? Non, parce qu’il n’est permis de changer de contrée qu’à de certaines conditions, impossibles à remplir pour lui.
Que fera donc ce malheureux? Il vous dira: « J’ai des bras, j’ai une intelligence, j’ai de la force, j’ai de la jeunesse; prenez tout cela, et en échange donnez-moi un peu de pain. » C’est ce que] font et [disent] aujourd’hui [les prolétaires. Mais ici même vous pouvez répondre au pauvre : « Je n’ai pas de travail à vous donner. » Que voulez-vous qu’il fasse alors?] (41-2)
717.11-46 What . . . another.] [translated from:] [no paragraph] [Qu’est-ce que la concurrence relativement aux travailleurs? C’est le travail mis aux enchères. Un entrepreneur a besoin d’un ouvrier: trois se présentent. « Combien pour votre travail? — Trois francs: j’ai une femme et des enfants. — Bien. Et vous? — Deux francs et demi: je n’ai pas d’enfants, mais j’ai une femme. — A merveille. Et vous? — Deux francs me suffiront: je suis seul. — A vous donc la préférence. » C’en est fait: le marché est conclu! Que deviendront les deux prolétaires exclus? Ils se laisseront mourir de faim, il faut l’espérer. Mais s’ils allaient se faire voleurs? Ne craignez rien, nous avons des gendarmes. Et assassins? Nous avons le bourreau. Quant au plus heureux des trois, son triomphe n’est que provisoire. Vienne un quatrième travailleur assez robuste pour jeûner de deux jour l’un, la pente du rabais sera descendue jusqu’au bout: nouveau paria, nouvelle recrue pour le bagne, peut-être!
Dira-t-on que ces tristes résultats sont exagérés; qu’ils ne sont possibles, dans tous les cas, que lorsque l’emploi ne suffit pas aux bras qui veulent être employés? Je demanderai, à mon tour, si la concurrence porte par aventure en elle-même de quoi empêcher cette disproportion homicide? Si telle industrie manque de bras, qui m’assure que, dans cette immense confusion créée par une compétition universelle, telle autre n’en regorgera pas? Or, n’y eût-il, sur trente-quatre millions d’hommes, que vingt individus réduits à voler pour vivre, cela suffit pour la condamnation du principe.
Mais qui donc serait assez aveugle pour ne point voir que, sous l’empire de la concurrence illimitée, la baisse continue des salaires est un fait nécessairement général, et point du tout exceptionnel? La population a-t-elle des limites qu’il ne lui soit jamais donné de franchir? Nous est-il loisible de dire à l’industrie abandonnée aux caprices de l’égoïsme individuel, à cette industrie, mer si féconde en naufrages: « Tu n’iras pas plus loin? » La population s’accroît sans cesse: ordonnez donc à la mère du pauvre de devenir stérile, et blasphémez Dieu qui l’a rendue féconde; car, si vous ne le faites, la lice sera bientôt trop étroite pour les combattants. Une machine est inventée: ordonnez qu’on la brise, et criez anathème à la science; car, si vous ne le faites, les mille ouvriers que la machine nouvelle chasse de leur atelier iront frapper à la porte de l’atelier voisin et faire baisser le salaire de leurs compagnons. Baisse systématique des salaires, aboutissant à la suppression d’un certain nombre d’ouvriers, voilà l’inévitable effet de la concurrence illimitée. Elle n’est donc qu’un procédé industriel au moyen duquel les prolétaires sont forcés de s’exterminer les uns les autres.] (43-5)
717.47-718.17 If . . . folly.] [translated from:] [no paragraph] [S’il est un fait incontestable, c’est que l’accroissement de la population est beaucoup plus rapide dans la classe pauvre que dans la classe riche. D’après la statistique de la civilisation européenne, les naissances, à Paris, ne sont que du 1/32e de la population dans les quartiers les plus aisés; dans les autres, elles s’élèvent au 1/26e. Cette disproportion est un fait général, et M. de Sismondi, dans son ouvrage sur l’économie politique, l’a très-bien expliqué en l’attribuant à l’impossibilité où les journaliers se trouvent d’espérer et de prévoir. Celui-là seul peut mesurer le nombre de ses enfants à la quotité de son revenu qui se sent maître du lendemain; mais quiconque vit au jour le jour, subit le joug d’une fatalité mystérieuse à laquelle il voue sa race, parce qu’il y a été voué lui-même. Les hospices sont là, d’ailleurs, menaçant la société d’une véritable inondation de mendiants. Quel moyen d’échapper à un tel fléau? [3-sentence omission] Il est clair], cependant, [que toute société où la quantité des subsistances croît moins vite que le nombre des hommes est une société penchée sur l’abime. [2½ page omission]
La concurrence produit la misère: c’est un fait prouvé par des chiffres.
La misère est horriblement prolifique: c’est un fait prouvé par des chiffres.
La fécondité du pauvre jette dans la société des malheureux qui ont besoin de travailler et ne trouvent pas de travail: c’est un fait prouvé par des chiffres.
Arrivée là, une société n’à plus qu’à choisir entre tuer les pauvres ou les nourrir gratuitement: atrocité ou folie.] (85-9)
718.19-719.15 According . . . well.] [translated from:] [Le bon marché, voilà le grand mot dans lequel se résument, selon les économistes de l’école des Smith et des Say, tous les bienfaits de la concurrence illimitée. Mais pourquoi s’obstiner à n’envisager les résultats du bon marché que relativement au bénéfice momentané que le consommateur en retire? Le bon marché ne profite à ceux qui consomment qu’en jetant parmi ceux qui produisent les germes de la plus ruineuse anarchie. Le bon marché, c’est la massue avec laquelle les riches producteurs écrasent les producteurs peu aisés. Le bon marché, c’est le guetapens dans lequel les spéculateurs hardis font tomber les hommes laborieux. Le bon marché, c’est l’arrêt de mort du fabricant qui ne peut faire les avances d’une machine coûteuse que ses rivaux, plus riches, sont en état de se procurer. Le bon marché, c’est l’exécuteur des hautes œuvres du monopole; c’est la pompe aspirante de la moyenne industrie, du moyen commerce, de la moyenne propriété; c’est, en un mot, l’anéantissement de la bourgeoisie au profit de quelques oligarques industriels.
Serait-ce que le bon marché doive être maudit], considéré en lui-même [? Nul n’oserait soutenir une telle absurdité. Mais c’est le propre des mauvais principes de changer le bien en mal et de corrompre toute chose. Dans le système de la concurrence, le bon marché n’est qu’un bienfait provisoire et hypocrite. Il se maintient tant qu’il y a lutte: aussitôt que le plus riche a mis hors de combat tous ses rivaux, les prix remontent. La concurrence conduit au monopole: par la même raison, le bon marché conduit à l’exagération des prix. Ainsi, ce qui a été une arme de guerre parmi les producteurs, devient tôt ou tard pour les consommateurs] eux-mêmes [une cause de pauvreté. Que si à cette cause on ajoute toutes celles que nous avons déjà énumérées, et en première ligne l’accroissement désordonné de la population, il faudra bien reconnaître comme un fait né directement de la concurrence, l’appauvrissement de la masse des consommateurs.
Mais, d’un autre côté, cette concurrence, qui tend à tarir les sources de la consommation, pousse la production à une activité dévorante. La confusion produite par l’antagonisme universel dérobe à chaque producteur la connaissance du marché. Il faut qu’il compte sur le hasard pour l’écoulement de ses produits, qu’il enfante dans les ténèbres. Pourquoi se modérerait-il, surtout lorsqu’il lui est permis de rejeter ses pertes sur le salaire si éminemment élastique de l’ouvrier? Il n’est pas jusqu’à ceux qui produisent à perte qui ne continuent à produire, parce qu’ils ne veulent pas laisser périr la valeur de leurs machines,] de leurs outils, [de leurs matières premières,] de leurs constructions, [de ce qui leur reste encore de clientèle, et parce que l’industrie, sous l’empire du principe de concurrence, n’étant plus qu’un jeu de hasard, le joueur ne veut pas renoncer au bénéfice possible de quelque heureux coup de dé.
Donc, et nous ne saurions trop insister sur ce résultat, la concurrence force la production à s’accroître et la consommation à décroitre; donc elle va précisément contre le but de la science économique; donc elle est tout à la fois oppression et démence.] (90-3)
719.16-31 And . . . competition.] [translated from:] [Je n’ai rien dit, pour éviter les lieux communs et les vérités devenues déclamatoires à force d’être vraies, de l’effroyable pourriture morale que l’industrie, organisée ou plutôt désorganisée comme elle l’est aujourd’hui, a déposée au sein de la bourgeoisie. Tout est devenu vénal, et la concurrence a envahi jusqu’au domaine de la pensée.]
Ainsi, [les fabriques écrasant les métiers; les magasins somptueux absorbant les magasins modestes; l’artisan qui s’appartient remplacé par le journalier qui ne s’appartient pas; l’exploitation par le charrue dominant l’exploitation par la bêche, et faisant passer le champ du pauvre sous la suzeraineté honteuse de l’usurier; les faillites se multipliant; l’industrie transformée par l’extension mal réglée du crédit en un jeu où le gain de la partie n’est assuré à personne, pas même au fripon; et enfin, ce vaste désordre, si propre à éveiller] dans l’âme de chacun [la jalousie, la défiance, la haine, éteignant peu à peu toutes les aspirations généreuses] et tarissant toutes les sources [de la foi, du dévouement, de la poésie . . . voilà le hideux et trop véridique tableau des résultats produits par l’application du principe de concurrence.] (97-8)
Bright, Henry. Speech in the House of Commons (15 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 320.
quoted: 121-2 referred to: 123
122.28 “was] [paragraph] Mr. Bright was (320)
Brodrick, George Charles. “The Irish Land Question,” Recess Studies. Ed. Alexander Grant. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1870, 1-53.
referred to: 677
Brougham, Henry Peter. Referred to: 399
— Speech in the House of Commons (13 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 227-8.
118.24 “experience] He had observed that the opinion of the theorists went in favour of a paper circulation convertible into gold, it being supposed by them (and he confessed that experience (228)
118.25 this theory.] the same theory) that a paper payable in gold by law, on demand, could never exist in excess. (228)
— Speech on the Corn Laws, Hansard, 1 March, 1827, cols. 783-5.
referred to: 148
note: for details concerning this case, see University of London v. Yarrow, 1857 (I De Gex and Jones, 72).
referred to: 620-1
Buchanan, Walter. Referred to: 550
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 212-32.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Buchanan, a member of the Committee.
Burgess, Henry.A Letter to the Right Hon. George Canning, to explain in what manner the industry of the people, and the productions of the country, are connected with, and influenced by, internal bills of exchange, country bank notes and country bankers, Bank of England notes, and branch banks. London: Harvey and Darton, 1826.
referred to: 95n
— “Minutes of Evidence before the Committee of the Lords, (1826) on the Circulation of Promissory Notes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1826-27, VI, 558-61.
94.39-40 The . . . Lancashire] The . . . Lancashire (559)
94.40 all the] all (559)
94.40-1 is bills of exchange] is bills of exchange (559)
94.48-9 bills . . . exceeding] [not in italics] (559)
94.49 amounted to four-fifths] amounted to four fifths (559)
95.3-4 more . . . one] more . . . one (559)
95.4 bank] banker (559)
95.8 fifty] fifty (559)
95.10 these] those (559)
95.10 these] those (559)
95.11 in great] in a great (559)
95.11-12 are . . . notes ] [not in italics] (559)
Burke. Referred to: 115
Butler, Samuel.Hudibras. Ed. Zachary Grey. 2 vols. London: Bensley, 1801.
note: copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
206.18-19 Where . . . fly,] He could reduce all things to acts, / And knew their natures by abstracts; / Where entity and quiddity, / The ghosts of defunct bodies, fly; / Where truth in person does appear, / Like words congeal’s in northern air. (I, 19; Part I, Canto i, ll. 143-8)
Caird, James.The Irish Land Question. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1869.
Canning, George. Referred to: 118, 151
note: in Baring’s speech, quoted here, the reference to “the right hon. gent.” is to Canning.
— Speech in the House of Commons (13 Feb., 1826), quoted in the Morning Chronicle, 14 Feb., 1826, 3-4.
— Speech on the Corn Laws, Hansard, 1 March, 1827, cols. 758-75.
referred to: 144-5, 149-50
Carlyle, Thomas.Chartism. London: Fraser, 1840.
note: copy formerly in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 370
— Past and Present. London: Chapman and Hall, 1843.
note: copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College, inscribed: “To Mrs. Taylor / with kind regards. / T.C.”
quoted: 372, 379 referred to: 370
note: JSM attributes the phrase “a fair day’s wages for a fair day’s work” to “the operatives”, into whose mouths Carlyle puts it.
372.36 “a . . . work;”] “A fair day’s-wages for a fair day’s-work:” it is as just a demand as Governed men ever made of Governing. (24)
379.32-3 “cash . . . man;”] That ‘Laissez-faire,’ ‘Supply-and-demand,’ ‘Cash-payment for the sole nexus,’ and so forth, were not, are not, and will never be, a practicable Law of Union for a Society of Men. (44)
Cash Payments, Act to restrict. See 37 George III, cc. 45, 91.
Cave. Referred to: 550
Chadwick. Referred to: 627
Charles I (of England). Referred to: 481
Charles II (of England). Referred to: 401, 479-80
note: JSM quotes the same passage in both places. The Latin reads: “nihil tam absurde dici potest, quod non dicatur ab aliquo philosophorum” (2.58.119). There are many editions in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
quoted: 41, 344
Cleopatra. Referred to: 401
Clinton. Referred to: 185
Cobbett, William. Referred to: 185 See Mansell & Co’s. Report.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor.On the Constitution of the Church and State, According to the Idea of Each; with aids towards a right judgment on the late Catholic Bill. 2nd ed. London: Hurst, Chance, 1830.
note: this edition is in JSM’s library, Somerville College, as is the edition which adds the two Lay Sermons (London: Pickering, 1839).
referred to: 220-1
Combination Acts. See 6 George IV, c. 129.
Considérant, Victor Prosper.Destiné sociale. Vol. I. 3me ed. Paris: Librairie phalanstérienne, 1848.
note: JSM’s references appear to derive from the reissue (1848) of Vol. I, called the 2nd ed., which in fact reprints the 2nd ed. (1847). The variant notes below give the original from which JSM translates, with square brackets enclosing the passages actually quoted.
quoted: 719-27 referred to: 748n
719.36-8 In . . . revenue. . . . . The] [translated from:] [Nous avons d’abord l’armée qui prélève en France et dans tous les autres pays l’élite de la population en force et en santé, une grande quantité d’hommes de talent et d’intelligence, et une part considérable des revenus publics] : — le tout employé à ne rien faire de productif, en attendant que cela soit appliqué à détruire. [1-page omission] [paragraph] [see next variant] (35-6)
719.38-43 The . . . diminish. . . . . To] [translated from:] [paragraph] B) Disons encore que [la société actuelle fait éclore à son souffle impur d’innombrables légions de scissionnaires, êtres improductifs ou destructeurs: chevaliers d’industrie, prostituées, gens sans aveu, mendiants, prisonniers, filoux, brigands et autres scissionnaires dont le nombre tend moins que jamais à décroître.] [1-page omission] [see next variant] (36)
719.43-720.14 To . . . counter.] [translated from:] C) [Au tableau des opérations improductives que nécessite notre société, il faut ranger celles de la magistrature et du parquet, des cours et tribunaux, gendarmes, police, geôliers, bourreaux, etc., fonctions toutes indispensables aujourd’hui à la sûreté de la société;
D) Sont improductifs encore les oisifs, gens dits comme il faut, passant leur vie à ne rien faire,] lions et lionnes, tigres et panthères, [les flâneurs et les fainéants de tous les étages;
E) Sont improductives les légions fiscales de la douane, des contributions directes et indirectes, des octrois;] les receveurs, percepteurs, porteurs de contraintes, garnisaires, gabeloups, rats de cave, [toute cette immense armée qui surveille, verbalise et prend, mais qui ne crée pas;
F) Improductives les élucubrations des sophistes, philosophes, métaphysiciens, politiques, engagés dans des voies fausses, qui ne font pas avancer la science et ne produisent que des débats stériles ou des commotions; les verbiages des avocats, plaideurs, témoins, etc.
G) Improductives enfin les opérations du commerce, depuis celles des banquiers à la bourse jusqu’à celles de l’épicier derrière son comptoir.] (37)
720.19—721.13 Who . . . only.] [translated from:] [paragraph] Ce que j’annonce ici sera démontré sans réplique dans le cours de cet ouvrage: mais [qui déjà, avec un peu de bonne volonté et de réflexion, refuserait de comprendre combien l’incohérence, le désordre, la non-combinaison,] le défaut d’association, [le morcellement de l’industrie livrée aujourd’hui à l’action individuelle, dépourvue de toute organisation, dépourvue d’ensemble, sont des causes qui rétrécissent la puissance de la production, perdent ou gaspillent nos moyens d’action? Le désordre n’enfante-t-il pas la pauvreté, comme l’ordre et la bonne gestion enfantent la richesse? L’incohérence n’est-elle pas une cause de faiblesse, comme la combinaison une cause de force? Or, qui peut dire que l’industrie agricole, domestique, manufacturière, scientifique, artistique et les opérations commerciales, sont organisées aujourd’hui dans la Commune et dans l’État? Qui peut dire que tous les travaux qui s’exécutent dans ces domaines, sont subordonnés à des vues d’ensemble et de prévoyance; qu’ils sont conduits avec économie, ordre et entente? Oui peut dire encore que notre société a puissance de développer, par une bonne éducation, toutes les facultés que la nature a données à chacun de ses membres; d’employer chacun d’eux aux fonctions qu’il aimerait, qu’il saurait le mieux exercer, qu’il exercerait par conséquent avec le plus d’avantage pour lui et pour les autres? A-t-on seulement pensé à poser le problème des caractères, de l’emploi social et régulier des aptitudes naturelles et des vocations? Hélas, l’utopie des plus ardents philanthropes c’est d’apprendre à lire et à écrire à vingt-cinq millions de Français! Encore peut-on dans les circonstances actuelles les mettre au défi de réussir. [½-page footnote omitted]
N’est-ce pas une étrange chose aussi, et qui accuse bien haut, que ce spectacle d’une société où la terre n’est pas ou est mal cultivée, où l’homme est mal logé, mal vêtu;] où mille travaux urgents sont à faire, [et où des masses d’individus manquent à chaque instant de travail, et s’étiolent dans la misère ne pouvant en trouver? En vérité, en vérité, il faut bien reconnaître que si les nations sont pauvres et faméliques, ce n’est pas que la nature] et l’art [ne leur fournissent les moyens de créer d’immenses richesses, mais c’est qu’il y a anarchie et désordre dans l’emploi que nous faisons de ces éléments: autrement dit, c’est que la société est piteusement faite, et l’industrie non organisée.
Mais ce n’est pas tout, et vous n’aurez qu’une faible idée du mal, si vous ne réfléchissez pas qu’à tous ces vices qui tarissent la source des richesses et du bien-être, il faut ajouter encore la lutte, la discorde, la guerre sous mille noms et mille formes, que notre société fomente et entretient entre tous les individus qui la composent. Et toutes ces luttes, et toutes ces guerres correspondent à des oppositions radicales, à de profondes antinomies de tous les intérêts. Autant vous pourrez établir de classements et de catégories dans la nation, autant vous aurez d’oppositions d’intérêts, de guerres patentes ou latentes, à n’envisager même que le système industriel.] (38-40)
721.20-6 It . . . society.] [translated from:] [no paragraph] Or, [il est évident que l’intérêt du commerçant est en lutte avec celui du consommateur et du producteur. Le même objet qu’il a intérêt à vous vendre cher, qu’il vous vend cher, en effet, et dont il vante, outre mesure, la qualité, n’a-t-il pas eu intérêt à l’acheter à bon marché au producteur qui l’a créé?] ne l’a-t-il pas déprécié dans leurs transactions? — [Ainsi, l’intérêt du corps commercial, collectivement et individuellement envisagé, est en opposition avec celui du producteur et du consommateur, c’est-à-dire du corps social tout entier.] (43)
721.27—723.44 The . . . it.] [translated from:] [Le commerçant est un entremetteur qui met à profit l’anarchie générale, et la non organisation de l’industrie. Le commerçant achète les produits, il achète tout, il est propriétaire et détenteur de tout, de telle sorte que:
1° Il tient sous le joug la Production et la Consommation: puisque toutes deux sont obligées de lui demander, soit les produits à consommer en dernier terme, soit les produits bruts qui doivent être encore travaillés, les matières premières. Le Commerce, avec ses menées d’accaparement, de hausse et de baisse, ses opérations sans nombre et la propriété intermédiaire des objets, rançonne à droit et à gauche: il fait durement la loi à la Production et à la Consommation, dont il devrait n’être que le commis subalterne.
2° Il spolie le corps social par ses immenses bénéfices, — bénéfices prélevés sur le consommateur et le producteur, et tout-à-fait hors de proportion avec des services que le vingtième des agents qu’il emploie suffrait à rendre.
3° Il spolie le corps social par la distraction des forces productives, en enlevant aux travaux de création les dix-neuf vingtièmes de ses agents, qui sont de purs parasites. C’est-à-dire, qu’il ne spolie pas seulement en s’appropriant des valeurs sociales à doses exorbitantes, mais encore en diminuant considérablement l’énergie productive de l’atelier social. La très-grande majorité de ses agents reviendront aux fonctions productives aussitôt qu’une organisation commerciale rationnelle sera substituée à l’inextricable état de choses actuel.
4° Il spolie le corps social par la falsification des produits, falsification qui se pratique aujourd’hui avec une fureur poussée au-delà de toutes bornes. En effet, quand cent épiciers se sont établis dans une ville où il n’y en avait antérieurement que vingt, on ne consomme pas, pour autant, plus de denrées épicières dans cette ville. Voilà donc ces cent vertueux marchands obligés de s’arracher le profit que faisaient honnêtement les vingt premiers: la concurrence les force à se rattraper aux dépens de la consommation, soit par l’élévation des prix, ce qui arrive quelquefois; soit par la falsification des produits, ce qui arrive toujours. Dans un pareil état de choses il n’y a plus ni foi] ni loi. [Les denrées inférieures ou frelatées sont vendues comme denrées de bonne qualité toutes les fois que le chaland bénin n’est pas assez connaisseur pour y voir clair. Et quand elle a bien attrapé ledit chaland, la conscience mercantile se reconforte en se disant:— « Je fais mon prix, on est libre de prendre ou de ne pas prendre, je ne force personne à acheter. » — Les pertes dont la falsification et la mauvaise qualité des produits grèvent la consommation sont incalculables.
5° Il spolie le corps social par des engorgements, factices ou non, à la suite desquels d’immenses quantités de marchandises encombrées sur un point s’avarient et se détruisent faute d’écoulement. Écoutons Fourier: (Th. des quat. mouv., p. 334, 1re éd.)
« Le principe fondamental des systèmes commerciaux, le principe laissez une entière liberté aux marchands, leur accorde la propriété absolue des denrées sur lesquelles ils trafiquent; ils ont le droit de les enlever à la circulation, les cacher et même les brûler, comme a fait plus d’une fois la compagnie orientale d’Amsterdam, qui brûlait publiquement des magasins de canelle pour faire enchérir cette denrée: ce qu’elle faisait sur la canelle, elle l’aurait fait sur le blé, si elle n’eût craint d’être lapidée par le peuple, elle aurait brûlé une partie des blés pour vendre l’autre au quadruple de sa valeur. Eh! ne voit-on pas tous les jours, dans les ports, jeter à la mer des provisions de grains que le négociant a laissés pourrir pour avoir attendu trop long-temps une hausse; moi-même j’ai présidé, en qualité de commis, à ces infâmes opérations, et j’ai fait, un jour, jeter à la mer vingt mille quintaux de riz, qu’on aurait pu vendre avec un honnête bénéfice, si le détenteur eût été moins avide de gain. C’est le corps social qui supporte la perte de ces déperditions qu’on voit se renouveler chaque jour, à l’abri du principe philosophique: laissez faire les marchands. »
6° Le commerce spolie encore par les pertes, avaries, coulages,] etc., [qui proviennent de l’extrême dissémination des produits et denrées dans des millions de magasins de détail, et par la multiplicité et la complication des transports morcelés.
7° Il spolie le corps social par une usure sans limite et sans vergogne, une usure effrayante.] En effet, [le commerçant opère toujours avec un capital fictif, très-supérieur à son capital réel. Tel commerçant, avec un fonds de 30 mille francs, agit, en émettant des billets, par des revirements et des paiements successifs, sur un fonds de 100, 200, 300 mille fr.; il tire donc de ce capital qu’il n’a pas] [5-sentence footnote omitted] [des intérêts usuraires sans proportion avec ce qu’il possède véritablement.
8° Il spolie le corps social par des banqueroutes sans nombre: car les accidens journaliers de nos relations industrielles, les commotions politiques, les perturbations de toute espèce, amènent le jour où le négociant, qui a émis des billets au-delà de ses moyens, ne peut plus faire face à ses affaires; sa débàcle, frauduleuse ou non, porte de rudes coups à ses créanciers. La banqueroute des uns entraîne celle des autres, c’est un feu de file de banqueroutes, une dévastation. Et c’est toujours le producteur et le consommateur qui pâtissent, puisque le commerce, considéré en masse, ne crée pas les richesses et n’engage que des valeurs très-faibles par rapport à la richesse sociale qui passe tout entière entre ses mains. Aussi combien de fabriques sont écrasées sous ces contre-coups! combien de sources fecondes sont taries par ces menées et ces désastres!
Le producteur fournit les denrées; le consommateur, l’argent: le commerce, lui, fournit des billets non hypothéqués ou hypothéqués sur de faibles valeurs, sur un crédit imaginaire; et les membres du corps commercial ne sont pas solidaires et garants les uns pour les autres!—Voilà en peu de mots toute la théorie de la chose.
9° Il spolie le corps social, par l’indépendance et l’irresponsabilité qui lui permettent de n’acheter qu’aux époques où les producteurs, par obligation de se procurer des fonds pour payer les loyers et les avances de la production, sont forcés de vendre et se font entre eux concurrence. Quand les marchés sont très-pourvus et les produits à vil prix, le commerce achète. Puis, il opère la hausse, et par cette manœuvre bien simple il dépouille le producteur et le consommateur.
10° Il spolie le corps social par une considérable soustraction de capitaux, qui reviendront à l’industrie productive, quand le commerce jouera son rôle subordonné, ne sera plus qu’une agence opérant des transactions directes entre de grands centres de consommation, des Communes sociétaires, et des producteurs plus ou moins éloignés. Ainsi les capitaux engagés dans les spéculations du commerce,—quelque faibles qu’ils soient comparativement à l’immensité des richesses qui passent par ses mains,—n’en composent pas moins des sommes énormes, qui reviendraient féconder la production si la propriété intermédiaire des objets était enlevée au commerce, et la circulation des produits administrativement organisée. L’agiotage est la plus odieuse manifestation de ce vice.]
L’agiotage spolie le corps social, en détournant les capitaux pour les faire entrechoquer dans les tripotages de hausse et de baisse, qui fournissent d’énormes bénéfices aux joueurs les plus habiles. Dès-lors les cultures et les fabriques n’obtiennent qu’à un prix exorbitant les capitaux nécessaires à leur exploitation; et les entreprises utiles qui ne donnent qu’un bénéfice lent et pénible, sont dédaignées pour les jeux d’agiotage qui absorbent la majeure partie du numéraire.
(Th. des quat. mouv., p. 359, 1re éd.)
[11° Il spolie le corps social par l’accaparement:
Car l’enchérissement d’une matière accaparée est supporté ultérieurement par les consommateurs, et auparavant par les manufacturiers, qui, obligés de soutenir un atelier, font des sacrifices pécuniaires, fabriquent à petis bénéfices, soutiennent, dans l’espoir d’un meilleur avenir,] l’établissement sur lequel se fonde leur existence habituelle, [et ne réussissent que bien tard à établir cette hausse que l’accapareur leur a fait si promptement supporter. (Ibid.)]
L’accaparement est le plus odieux des crimes commerciaux, en ce qu’il attaque toujours la partie souffrante de l’industrie: s’il survient une pénurie de subsistances ou denrées quelconques, les accapareurs sont aux aguets pour aggraver le mal, s’emparer des approvisionnements existants, arrher ceux qui sont attendus, les distraire de la circulation, en doubler, tripler le prix par des menées qui exagèrent la rareté et répandent des craintes qu’on reconnaît trop tard pour illusoires. Ils font dans le corps industriel l’effet d’une bande de bourreaux qui irait sur le champ de bataille déchirer et agrandir les plaies des blessés.» (Quat. Mouv., p. 334.)
[Enfin, tous ces vices, et bien d’autres que je n’ai pas cités, se multiplient les uns par les autres dans l’extrême complication des filets mercantiles: car les produits ne passent pas qu’une fois dans les mains avides du Commerce; il en est qui entrent dans vingt et trente filières avant d’être livrés au consommateur. D’abord la matière brute passe par la griffe commerciale pour arriver au fabricant qui lui donne une première façon; puis elle retombe au Commerce; et revient à une fabrication qui lui donne une autre forme; et ainsi de suite, jusqu’aux dernières confections. Alors elle entre dans les grands comptoirs, qui vendent aux magasins en gros, qui vendent aux détaillants des villes, qui vendent aux bas détaillants et détaillants de village. Or, à chaque passage, le produit a laissé quelque chose dans les mains mercantiles.] (46-51)
723.45-724.3 [paragraph]. . . . One . . . transaction.] [translated from:] [Un de mes amis qui parcourait dernièrement les montagnes du Jura où il se fait,] comme on sait, [une quantité considérable de travaux sur métaux, eut occasion d’entrer chez un paysan qui fabriquait des pelles; il lui demanda le prix de ses pelles:— « Entendons-nous, » répondit le pauvre paysan, pas économiste du tout, mais homme de bon sens; « moi je les vends 16 sous au commerce, qui vous les fait payer 40 dans vos villes. Si vous trouviez moyen de mettre le fabricant en rapport direct avec le consommateur, vous les auriez à 28 sous, et nous y gagnerions 12 sous tous les deux. »] (Note de la première Édition.) (54n) [this is a footnote to the sentence after the last one quoted]
725.41-726.9 If . . . end!] [translated from:] [Si les producteurs de vins demandent l’abolition des douanes [½-page footnote omitted], et la liberté d’importation et d’exportation, cette liberté ruine les producteurs de blé, les fabricants de fer, de draps, de coton, et, il faut le dire encore,] puisque cela est, [les contrebandiers et les douaniers. S’il est de l’intérêt des consommateurs que des machines soient inventées qui produisent à moins de frais et baissent le prix des objets, ces machines cassent les bras à des milliers d’ouvriers qui ne savent, ni ne peuvent s’employer aussitôt à d’autres travaux. C’est encore là un des mille cercles vicieux de la Civilisation], qui demanderait un chapitre d’observations, d’analyse et de critique: [car il y a mille faits qui prouvent cumulativement que, dans le Régime social actuel, la production d’un bien entraîne toujours la production d’un mal avec elle.
Enfin, si vous descendez encore plus bas, si vous en venez aux détails vulgaires, vous trouvez que le tailleur, le cordonnier, le chapelier, ont intérêt à ce que les vêtements, les chaussures et les chapeaux soient promptement usés; que le vitrier a intérêt à la grêle et aux orages qui brisent les vitres; le maçon et l’architecte aux incendies. L’avocat s’enrichit aux procès, le médecin aux maladies, le marchand de vin à l’ivrognerie, la fille de joie à la débauche. Et quel malheur pour la magistrature, les gendarmes, les geôliers, comme pour les avocats, les avoués et toute la basoche, si les crimes, les délits et les procès venaient tout à coup à disparaître!] (59-60)
726.11-42 Add . . . abandoned.] [translated from:] [Ajoutez à tout cela que la Civilisation, qui sème de tout côté la division,] la zizanie [et la guerre, qui emploie une grande partie de ses forces à faire de grands travaux improductifs, ou à détruire; qui diminue considérablement encore la richesse générale par les frottements sans nombre et le désordre de son industrie; ajoutez à tout cela, dis-je, que cette forme sociale a pour caractère de produire la répugnance industrielle, le dégoût du travail.
Partout vous entendrez le travailleur, ouvrier ou fonctionnaire, maudire son sort et son occupation, soupirer après la retraite qui le délivrera enfin du supplice que sa position lui impose. C’est le grand, le fatal caractère de l’industrie civilisée, d’être répugnante, de n’avoir pour mobile pivotal que la peur de mourir de faim. Le travailleur civilisé est un véritable forçat. Tant que le travail productif ne sera pas organisé de manière à se conjuguer sur plaisir au lieu de se conjuguer sur peine, ennui et répugnance, il arrivera toujours que ceux qui pourront s’y soustraire l’éviteront. Ceux-là seuls se livreront au travail qui y seront contraints par le dénuement] et la misère, [sauf rares exceptions. Dèslors, les classes les plus nombreuses, les artisans de la richesse sociale, les créateurs actifs et directs du bien-être et du luxe seront toujours condamnés à côtoyer la misère et la faim; ils seront toujours inféodés à l’ignorance et à l’abrutissement; ils seront toujours ce vaste troupeau d’hommes de somme que nous voyons déformés, décimés par les maladies, et courbés, dans le grand atelier social, sur le sillon ou sur l’établi, pour préparer la nourriture raffinée et les somptueuses jouissances des classes supérieures et oisives.
Tant qu’on n’aura pas réalisé un procédé d’industrie attrayante, il sera vrai « qu’il faut beaucoup de pauvres pour qu’il y ait quelques riches; » aphorisme hideux et lâche, que vous entendez chaque jour passer, comme un axiome d’éternelle nécessité, sur les lèvres de gens qui se disent chrétiens ou philosophes! Il est très-facile de comprendre que l’oppression, la fourberie, l’indigence surtout, seront l’apanage permanent et fatal de toute société caractérisée par la répugnance industrielle, puisque alors c’est l’indigence seule qui peut] condamner et [forcer l’homme au travail; — et la preuve] péremptoire, [c’est que si tous les ouvriers, si tout le monde devenait riche subitement, les dix-neuf vingtièmes des travaux seraient abandonnés !!] (60-1)
727.3-7 This . . . them.] [translated from:] [Cette Féodalité,] avons-nous vu, [serait constituée dès que la plus grande partie des propriétés industrielles et territoriales de la nation appartiendrait à une minorité qui en absorberait tous les revenus, pendant que l’immense majorité, attachée aux bagnes manufacturiers et courbée à la glèbe, rongerait le salaire qu’on voudrait bien lui laisser.] (134)
Corn Laws, Bills. Most of the references are general, but see 3 George IV, c. 60; 7 & 8 George IV, c. 57; 9 George IV, c. 60; and 5 & 6 Victoria, Sess. 2, c. 14.
Coulson, Walter (?). “Silk Trade,” Parliamentary Review for 1826, 710-18.
note: in George Grote’s copy of this volume (University of London Library) the article is marginally identified in the Table of Contents as by “W. C.”; in the volume for 1825, a pasted-in sheet identifies Walter Coulson as author of the article on the Game Laws.
referred to: 258n
Cowper. Referred to: 764
Curteis, Edward Jeremiah. Speech in the House of Commons, 21 May, 1824, quoted in the Morning Chronicle, 22 May, 1824, 2.
Davenport, D. Speech in the House of Commons (15 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 319-20.
122.26 “called] He called (320)
122.27 bills.”] bills, and to look to themselves in time, before a perseverance in error brought ruin upon the country. (320)
Davison, John. “Evidence (brought from the Lords) Relative to Foreign Trade: (Silk and Wine Trade),” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, VII, 452-4.
note: JSM may be quoting from Moreau’s transcription (Rise and Progress, 16-7) of Davison’s evidence.
133.8 sea.”] sea; the duty is very heavy. (453)
De Quincey, Thomas.The Logic of Political Economy. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1844.
note: JSM quotes two of the passages cited below in his Principles: cf. 396-8 with Collected Works, III, 462, 462-3, and the variants below with ibid., 1107-8.
quoted: 393, 396-404
393.22-3 the laxity . . . science.] [not in italics] (iii)
393.23 science. If] science. For example, that one desperate enormity of vicious logic, which takes place in the ordinary application to price of the relation between supply and demand, has ruined more arguments dispersed through speeches, books, journals, than a long life could fully expose. Let us judge by analogy drawn from mathematics. If (iii-iv)
393.28 facts] parts (iv)
393.29 ruins . . . . . Such] ruins. That science, which now holds “acquaintance with the stars” by means of its inevitable and imperishable truth, would become as treacherous as Shakspeare’s “stairs of sand:” or, like the fantastic architecture which the winds are everlastingly pursuing in the Arabian desert, would exhibit phantom arrays of fleeting columns and fluctuating edifices, which, under the very breath that had created them, would be for ever collapsing into dust. Such (iv)
393.30 practical application] practical applications (iv)
395.34 “a] Here lies a (vii)
396.27 Epsilon and Omicron.] Epsilon and Omicron:— (14)
396.32 that?] [in italics] (14)
396.37 that] [in italics] (15)
397.2 “a] It is in the next step that a (15)
397.2 insurmountable . . . which] insurmountable. It is a difficulty which (16)
397.11 The] [no paragraph] The (23)
397.24-5 cases out of] cases of (24)
397.32 price. U] price: U (24)
397.34 reversed: you] reversed. You (24)
397.36 for the] for a (24)
397.46 guineas] [18-sentence footnote omitted] (25-7)
398.16 gradation] graduation (28)
398.30 Suppose] Now, suppose the case reversed: suppose (30)
398.30 become the] become suddenly the (30)
398.35 utmost height] [not in italics] (30)
398.35 height. The] [3-sentence omission] (30)
398.40 not] [in italics] (30)
399.9 People] [no paragraph] People (viii)
399.10 does] [in italics] (viii)
400.20 all the world] the whole world (127) [cf. 399.15]
400.23 Try] [no paragraph] Try (127)
400.30 the price] it (127)
401.8 “whilst] Consequently, whilst (ix)
401.8 natural price] “natural price” (ix)
401.9 market price] “market price” (ix)
401.10 supply and] Supply to (ix)
401.10 binomial,”] binomial. (ix)
401.29 sale of] sale in England of (61)
401.38 more] [in italics] (62)
401.39 why—] why? (62)
402.39 No] no (77)
402.43 as from] as (77)
403.12 rank . . . You] rank. Ricardo ought not to have overlooked a case so broad as this. You (84)
403.20 produced . . . producing] produced . . . producing (84)
404.4 “corn traitors”] And, on the other hand, by parity of reason, if, 1. through draining; 2. guano; 3. bone dust; 4. spade culture, &c., the agriculturists of this country should, (as probably they will, if not disturbed by corn traitors,) through the known antagonist movement to that of rent, translate the land of England within the next century to a higher key, so that No. 250 were to become equal in power with the present No. 210—and so regressively, No. 40 equal with the present No. 1—in that case all functions of capital (wages, rent, profit) would rise gradually and concurrently, though not equally. (245n)
404.4-5 “corn-law incendiaries”] The corn-law incendiaries here, as every where when they approach the facts or the principles of the question, betray an ignorance which could not be surpassed if the discussion were remitted to Ashantee or Negroland. (152)
404.15 Although] [no paragraph] To this next step, therefore, let us now proceed, after warning the reader that even Ricardo has not escaped the snare which is here spread for the understanding; and that, although (16)
404.17 yet errors] yet that errors (16)
404.21 happen that a] happen (as it has happened in the present case,) though a [sic] (16-7)
Descartes. Referred to: 212
Dilke. Referred to: 766
Disraeli. Referred to: 464, 500
Domitian. Referred to: 713
Drummond. Referred to: 198
Dufferin, Lord. See Blackwood.
Duveyrier, Charles.Lettres politiques. 2 vols. Paris: Amyot, 1843.
referred to: 382n
The Economist (London). Referred to: 432
Edinburgh Review. Referred to: 47
Eldon, Lord. See Scott, John.
Ellis, John. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Ellis, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 413-14 referred to: 406
Ellis, William. “McCulloch’s Discourse on Political Economy,” Westminster Review, IV (July, 1825), 88-92.
note: Ellis was co-author of this review, which is printed at 757-60.
referred to: 757
Estcourt, Thomas Henry Sotheron. Referred to: 464, 550
note: in the original headnote to the 1852 Committee, Estcourt is called Mr. Sotheron.
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 212-32.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Estcourt, a member of the Committee.
Euclid.Elements. Referred to: 35, 327
note: as the references are general, no edition is cited.
Evidence. See Parliamentary Papers.
Ewart, William. “Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Ewart, who is omitted from the list of members of the Committee.
quoted: 412, 414, 416-19 referred to: 406
Ferdinand VII (of Spain). Referred to: 49
Fergus. Referred to: 500
Fitch, Joshua Girling. “Educational Endowments,” Fraser’s Magazine, LXXIX (Jan., 1869), 1-15.
616.15 “estimate] [paragraph] Ere long it may be hoped that statesmen will try to estimate (11)
616.16 benevolence,” and to “see] benevolence; and will see (11)
616.18 charities,” but urges them “to] charities. When they do this, they will certainly be prepared to (11)
616.19 persons, make] persons, will make (11)
Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier de.Digression sur les Anciens et les Modernes, in Œuvres, Vol. IV. New edition. Paris: Libraires associés, 1766.
note: copy of this edition in JSM’s library, Somerville College; the quotation is indirect.
366.11-12 mankind . . . error.] Telle est notre condition, qu’il ne nous est point permis d’arriver tout d’un coup à rien de raisonnable sur quelque matière que ce soit; il faut avant cela que nous nous égarions long-temps, & que nous passions par diverses sortes d’erreurs & par divers degrés d’impertinences. (177)
Fourier, François Marie Charles. Referred to: 446, 727-8, 730, 737-8, 747, 748n
— Théorie des Quatre Mouvements et des destinées générales, Vol. I of Œuvres Complètes. 2nd ed. Paris: Bureaux de la Phalange, 1841.
note: JSM is following Considérant, who quotes from the 1st ed., which has not been consulted; therefore no variants are recorded.
Fox. Referred to: 115
Gladstone, John. “Evidence before the Committee of the Lords, (1826) on the Circulation of Promissory Notes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1826-27, VI, 511-20.
93.28 We] Do they [banking establishments] allow interest upon deposits?—Perhaps, if I was to state in detail the manner in which our business is conducted, it might save the trouble of putting further questions. We (511)
93.30 bills on London] [not in italics] (511)
93.31 these] those (511)
93.31 pay . . . bankers] [not in italics] (511)
93.31 receive from them] [not in italics] (511)
93.33 We have] Are you to be understood that the circulation of Lancashire is carried on by bills of exchange in part, with the exception of that part of the circulation which is destined to the payment of labourers wages and various expenses on merchandize?—Not altogether; we also have (513)
93.34 payment of duties] [not in italics] (513)
93.35 remittance] [not in italics] (513)
93.35-6 the . . . exchange] the . . . exchange (513)
93.37 charges of merchandize] [not in italics] (513)
93.37 duties, freights] [not in italics] (513)
93.37 items. I] items; for such purposes a house carrying on business to any extent may require 500l. or 1,000l. weekly. [paragraph] Have you any notion of the proportion of the circulation of Lancashire carried on by bills of exchange, and by Bank of England notes and cash?—I would not venture to give an opinion upon that subject; I think it is quite impossible to ascertain the extent of the one or the other, we have no means of doing so. I (513)
93.39 limited.] limited; but I would not venture an opinion upon the proportions, having no data on which I could correctly found it. (513)
Gladstone, William Ewart. Referred to: 550, 586
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 212-32.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Gladstone (Chancellor of the Exchequer), a member of the Committee.
Glyn. Referred to: 500
Gordon, R. Speech in the House of Commons (15 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 320.
123.1 “The] [paragraph] Mr. R. Gordon said, that the (320)
123.2 member.] member (Mr. Sykes).
123.3 assist the] assist the interests of the (320)
123.5 judge] best judges (320)
Gracchi. Referred to: 681.39
Graham. Referred to: 500
Greene, Thomas. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotation” is a question asked by Greene, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 414 referred to: 406
Greg, Samuel.Two Letters to Leonard Horner, Esq., on the Capabilities of the Factory System. London: Taylor and Walton, 1840.
381.27 which can] to (26)
381.28 benevolence from] benevolence (26)
381.37 “get rid of his aborigines.”] There were only three or four families at this time on the spot, and my first care was to get rid of these aborigines and start entirely de novo. (5)
381.37 “endeavoured] In doing this [collecting hands], I endeavoured (5)
381.38 we] I (5)
381.39 we] I (5)
381.40 home] [in italics] (6)
382.1 migratory] [in italics] (6)
Grenfell, Pascoe. Speech in the House of Commons (13 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 227.
118.14 it.] it (cheers). (227)
118.17 circulation.] circulation (cheers). (227)
Grey. Referred to: 432
Grosvenor. Referred to: 453n
Gurney, Hudson. Speech in the House of Commons (13 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 218.
quoted: 117 referred to: 114n
117.26 “could not help] He could not, he said, help (218)
Gurney, Samuel. “Evidence taken before the Committee of Secrecy on the Bank of England Charter,” Parliamentary Papers, 1831-32, VI, 249-69.
referred to: 351
Haldimand, William. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Expediency of the Bank Resuming Cash Payments,” Parliamentary Papers, 1819, III, 54-71.
85.36 “the Paris bankers,] The Paris bankers, therefore, (56)
85.39 advance] advantage (56)
Hale, William. “Evidence (brought from the Lords) Relative to Foreign Trade: (Silk and Wine Trade),” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, VII, 437-42.
note: JSM may be quoting from Moreau’s transcription (Rise and Progress, 15-6) of Hale’s evidence.
133.17 “I] Quite so; I (437)
133.21 now are] are now (437)
133.23 the kingdom] this kingdom (437)
Hancock, William Neilson.Impediments to the Prosperity of Ireland. London: Simms and McIntyre, 1850.
note: as JSM is quoting Hancock from Leslie, Land Systems, 52-3, the (extensive) variants are not recorded.
referred to: 683n
Hankey, Thomson. Referred to: 500
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Hankey, a member of the Committee.
Hays, John.Observations on the Existing Corn Laws. London: Richardson, 1824.
note: mentioned only in the title and at 63n.
Heathcote. Referred to: 550
Helps, Arthur.The Claims of Labour. An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the Employed. London: Pickering, 1844.
note: the quotations are not from “the introduction,” as JSM says, but from the first chapter.
365.12 “how] The inquiring historian will give these things [new modes of luxury, or new resources in art] their weight, but will, nevertheless, persevere in asking how (3)
362.12 are fed,] were fed, and (3)
362.13 corresponds] corresponded (3)
— Essays Written in the Intervals of Business. London: Pickering, 1841.
referred to: 380
— Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd. London: Wix, 1835.
reffered to: 380
Henley, Joseph Warner. Referred to: 464
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Henley, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 480-6, 492-4
Henry VIII (of England). Referred to: 484. See also 26 Henry VIII, c. 1.
Heygate, Frederick William. Referred to: 550
note: The “quotations” are questions asked by Heygate, a member of the Committee.
Heygate, William. Speech in the House of Commons (14 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 236.
117.23 “excepting] Excepting (236)
Hildyard, Robert Charles. Referred to: 500
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Hildyard, a member of the Committee.
Hobbes, Thomas.Leviathan, or the Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil, in The English Works of Thomas Hobbes, III. Ed. William Molesworth. London: Bohn, 1839.
note: the quotation at 715 is indirect. Copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
quoted: 715, 749
749.19 In] [no paragraph] In (113)
749.20 no use] nor use (113)
Horner, Francis. Referred to: 115, 117
Horner, Leonard. Referred to: 381
Horsman, Edward. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Horsman, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 478, 495-6
House Tax. See 14 & 15 Victoria, c. 36.
Howard, James.Continental Farming and Peasantry. London: Ridgway, 1870.
referred to: 685
Howitt, William.The Rural Life of England. 2 vols. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1838.
note: Howitt is quoting from his own article in Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine, Nov., 1835.
387.n33 “are] [paragraph] There are, in the outskirts of Nottingham, upwards of 5000 gardens, the bulk of which are (II, 305)
387.n42 cleared] cleaned (II, 307)
388.n1 cleaning] clearing (II, 307)
388.n6 windows . . . . . The] windows, good cellars for a deposit of choice wines, a kitchen, and all necessary apparatus, and a good pump to supply them with water. Many are very picturesque rustic huts, built with great taste, and hidden by tall hedges in a perfect little paradise of lawn and shrubbery—most delightful spots to go and read in of a summer day, or to take a dinner or tea in with a pleasant party of friends. Some of these places which belong to the substantial tradespeople have cost their occupiers from one to five hundred pounds, and the pleasure they take in them may be thence imagined; but many of the mechanics have very excellent summer-houses, and there they delight to go, and smoke a solitary pipe, as they look over the smiling face of their garden, or take a quiet stroll amongst their flowers: or to take a pipe with a friend; or to spend a Sunday afternoon, or a summer evening, with their families. The (II, 307-8)
388.n7-8 calculated . . . . . You] calculated—and then the health and the improved taste! You (II, 308)
388.n9 now carrying] now are carrying (II, 308)
388.n14 “What a contrast,” . . . “the] And then to think of the (II, 308) [cf. 388.n16 below]
388.n15 politics-loving] politics-brawling (II, 308)
388.n16 attraction.”] attraction,—to think of this, and then to see the variety of sources of a beautiful and healthful interest which they create for themselves here:—what a contrast!—what a most gratifying contrast! (II, 308)
388.n17 “seems] At Nottingham, as I have observed, the taste seems (II, 309)
388.n20 rent] rental (II, 310)
388.n21 are] they get (II, 310)
388.n21-2 fresh . . . . . These gardens let] fresh. [paragraph] There are, according to a personal examination made by myself, now, upwards of 5000 of these gardens, containing, as single gardens, 400 square yards each,—the general scale of a garden; though a good many are held as double, and even treble gardens. These let (II, 310)
388.n22 which,] but (II, 310)
388.n23 garden . . . . . Thus] garden, or a total of 6250l. [3-sentence omission] [paragraph] Thus, (II, 310)
388.n24 person] persons (II, 310)
Hubbard, John Gellibrand. Referred to: 550
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Hubbard, Chairman of the Committee.
quoted: 551-61, 595-7
— “Memorandum submitted by the Chairman, Appendix 1 to the Report from the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 315-17.
quoted: 584 referred to: 554-98 passim
584.20 those] these (284)
584.22 owners.”] owners; and I would add that I not only do not desire, but, on the contrary, condemn any proposition for treating incomes of this class differentially, in virtue of any artificial peculiarity in the tenure of the owners. (284)
Hume, David. Referred to: 184
Hume, Joseph. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 198-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Hume, Chairman of the Committee.
quoted: 464, 466-9, 471-6, 478-9, 486-92, 498
Huskisson, William. Referred to: 132
— The Question concerning the Depreciation of our Currency Stated and Examined. London: Murray, 1810.
referred to: 188
— Speech in the House of Commons (10 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 199-203.
referred to: 119
— Speech on Mr. Ellice’s Motion for a Select Committee on the State of the Silk Trade, Hansard, 23 February, 1826, cols. 763-809.
referred to: 139
Jacob, William. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture in the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX, 355-76.
Johnstone. Referred to: 500
Jones, Charles. See Mansell & Co’s Report
Jones, Richard.An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, and on the Sources of Taxation. London: Murray, 1831.
referred to: 394
Kettle. Referred to: 666
King, Peter. Referred to: 158-9
— Speech of the Right Hon. Lord King, in the House of Lords, on Tuesday, July 2, 1811, upon the Second Reading of Earl Stanhope’s Bill, respecting Guineas and Bank Notes. London: Ridgway, 1811.
referred to: 188
— Thoughts on the Restriction of Payments in Specie at the Banks of England and Ireland. London: Cadell and Davies, 1803.
referred to: 188
Knight, Charles.The Rights of Industry: Addressed to the Working-Men of the United Kingdom. London: Knight, 1831.
note: the quotation is not specific, so no variant is given, but see Knight, 56. The work appeared as part of The Working Man’s Companion (Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge).
Lansdowne, Marquess of. See Petty-Fitzmaurice.
Laveleye, Emile de. “The Land System of Belgium and Holland,” in Systems of Land Tenure in Various Countries. A Series of Essays published under the sanction of the Cobden Club. London: Macmillan, 1870, 228-78.
referred to: 684-5
Lavergne. Referred to: 684
Law. Referred to: 184
note: reference is to “Law’s Mississippi Scheme.”
Lawson, James Anthony.Five Lectures on Political Economy; delivered before the University of Dublin, in Michaelmas Term, 1843. London: Parker, 1844.
referred to: 449
Leclair, Edmé-Jean.Des améliorations qu’il serait possible d’apporter dans le sort des ouvriers peintres en bâtiments, suivies des règlements d’administration et de répartition des bénéfices que produit le travail. Paris: Bouchard-Huzard, n.d.
referred to: 415
— Répartition des bénéfices du travail en 1842.
note: no copy of this work has been consulted; JSM’s reference is from Duveyrier’s Lettres politiques, II, 258ff.
referred to: 382n-383n
Lesage, Alain-René.Gil Blas de Santillane.
note: as JSM mentions no edition, and there is none in Somerville College, none is specified.
referred to: 212
Leslie, Thomas Edward Cliffe. “The Land System of France,” in Systems of Land Tenure in Various Countries. A Series of Essays published under the sanction of the Cobden Club. London: Macmillan, 1870, 328-52.
referred to: 685
— Land Systems and Industrial Economy of Ireland, England, and Continental Countries. London: Longmans, Green, 1870.
quoted: 671, 673-4, 676-82, 683n-685n
671.13 A] [no paragraph] And in virtue of these terms, and a few others of like generality, a (89)
673.14 has been] has, however, been (123)
673.14-15 of eminence, . . . . that] of the eminence of Mr. Lowe, that (123)
673.21 one; and] one. And (124) see 673a-a]
673.32 makes] tends to make (124) [see 673b-b]
673.35 part . . . . . The] [ellipsis indicates 5-sentence omission, including quotations from JSM] (124-5)
673.35 The] And the (125)
673.45 deer-parks] deer forests (125) [see 673c-c]
674.2 both in] in both (126)
674.6 Wealth . . . classes.] [no paragraph] ‘The desire for wealth,’ in the same way (which is by no means, as already observed, the same thing with private interest, for wealth . . . classes*), is really a name for a multiplicity of wants, passions, and ideas, widely differing from each other, both in their nature and in their effects on production—as the accumulation of land differs from the hunger for bread—yet it stands for one identical and industrious principle with many considerable speakers and writers. [the footnote quotes from a speech by Lowe in the House of Commons, 14 March] (88-9)
674.15 He] [no paragraph] He (126)
674.16 like] be glad (126) [see 674d-d]
674.17 by farming] by his farming (126) [see 674e-e]
674.24 fact . . . . . that] fact previously mentioned that (126)
676.n1 The] [no paragraph] But the (41)
676.n2 his own] [no italics] (41)
676.n2 and] or (41) [printer’s error? See 676f-f]
676.n3 possession . . . . . The] possession; nor are his means augmented by the scarcity of labour. [46-page jump] Moreover, the (41, 87)
676.n5-8 all . . . . . Were . . . him? . . . If] all. [jump back to passage previously quoted] Were . . . him? [return to later passage] If (87, 41, 87)
676.n21 Although] It ought to be sufficiently clear to every professed economist that, although (97)
676.n23 do; . . . it] do; and that it (97)
676.12 “through] [paragraph] It is not meant that in every case the substitution of pasture for tillage is a change for the worse, for a good tillage farm should have a portion, if possible, in permanent grass properly supplied with manure; but that the total extent of cultivation, in place of decreasing ought to have largely increased, is not only agreed by the highest authorities on agriculture in the island, but shows itself in an actual diminution in cattle as well as of crops, through (64-5)
676.13 soil,”] soil. (65)
677.29 punctuality.] punctuality.* [footnote:] ‘Irish Land Question.’ By the Honourable George Charles Brodrick. ‘Recess Studies.’ (67n)
677.33 grass . . . waste] ‘grass . . . waste’ (67) [see 677g-g]
677.34 farms.] farms.† [footnote gives figures quoted from Brodrick] (67n-68n)
678.3 them.] them.* [footnote:] On this subject, as on many others which cannot be discussed with the same advantage in these pages, the reader is referred to the letters of Mr. Morris, Times Commissioner, on the ‘Irish Land Question’. (68n)
678.15 “there] There (18)
678.17 including] excluding (18)
678.18 agriculture] cultivation (18)
678.21 In] [no paragraph] In (39)
678.38-9 themselves.’ . . . . Other] themselves. The condition of the country here shows rapid amelioration.’ [paragraph] Other (39)
679.3 “a] Draw a (70)
679.5 south”] south, and the angle contained by those lines between the capital and the Atlantic—covering about three-fourths of an island which ought to be studded with cities, fine country towns, and smiling villages—does not include one large or flourishing city, and includes hardly a town or village whose trade and population have not decreased in the last twenty years. (70)
679.19 “exceeded] In the last quarter of the seventeenth century their number exceeded (164)
679.20-2 to . . . population.] ‘to . . . population.’* [footnote:] *Macaulay’s ‘History of England,’ chap. iii. (164)
679.24 The] [no paragraph] Now the (163)
679.26 dependence] independence (163) [see 679h-h]
679.30 essential respects] economical aspects (163) [see 679i-i]
679.36 Every] [paragraph] Thus every (174)
680.2 insecurity;] insecurity;* [footnote:] *Caird’s ‘English Agriculture,’ p. 505. (174n)
680.3 and that of the] and the (174)
680.5 above the] above that of the (174) [see 680j-jand previous variant]
680.7 had] has (174) [see 680k-k]
680.14 In] [paragraph] Paradoxical as it may be, especially in contrast with the progress of England in trade and manufactures, and the progressive rise of the cultivators of the soil in all other civilised countries, from the Southern States of America to Russia, it is strictly true, that the condition of the English rural population in every grade below the landed gentry has retrograded; and, in (162)
681.31 would] could (191) [see 681l-l]
681.36 of the population] of population (192) [see 681m]
681.37-8 accomplish . . . . . . And] accomplish, and what we want is a remedy which needs only an adequate reform of Parliament for its accomplishment. And (192)
681.39 model, . . . . . we] model—if the feudal model is set before us only as a warning—we (192)
682.4 To] There is one way to remedy the old and new evils together, and at once to purge our jurisprudence, and to emancipate land from its burdens and trammels—and that is to (198)
682.11-12 incumbrance; with the addition, of course, of assimilating the devolution of land, in case] incumbrance. [1-page omission] [paragraph] To complete the emancipation of land from artificial restrictions on its distribution and use out of the feudal line of descent, it is necessary to assimilate its devolution in the case (199-200)
683.n1 “About] [no paragraph] ‘About (52)
683.n2 Property] Prosperity (52) [see 683n-n]
684.n22 season] seasons (53)
684.n23 employment, and the] employment, the (53)
684.n25 Belfast] [no paragraph] Belfast (76)
684.n25 owes its] owes, as has been mentioned in a previous page, its (77)
684.n33 improvements.] improvements.* [footnote:] *See also on this subject the next article. (77)
684.n39 his contract] the contract (77) [see 684o-o]
685.n1 waste [?] it] waste, it (78)
685.n3 Once] [paragraph] Once (78)
685.n10 Here] [paragraph] Here (78)
685.n12-18 law . . . . It . . . root.] law. [3-sentence omission] ‘It . . . root.’ [Leslie is quoting from Maclagan’s The Irish Land Question, 24] (78-9)
685.n14 mill] such [printer’s error?] (79)
685.n15 county [Londonderry], ] county (79)
Lewis, George Cornewall. Referred to: 500
— “Evidence before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Lewis (Chancellor of the Exchequer), Chairman of the Committee.
Locke. Referred to: 184
Lowe, Robert. Referred to: 550, 592
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Lowe, a member of the Committee.
— Middle Class Education: Endowment or Free Trade. London: Bush, 1868.
referred to: 626
Loyd, Lewis. “Evidence before the Committee of the Lords, (1826) on the Circulation of Promissory Notes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1826-27, VI, 561-4.
93.41—94.1 nine . . . gold] It is difficult to answer that question [concerning the proportion of bills of exchange to gold and Bank of England notes in Lancashire] with any accuracy; I should say that they were at least nine parts out of ten; nine . . . gold (561)
94.2 still greater] [not in italics] (561)
94.2-3 proportion. [paragraph] The] proportion. [paragraph] You are in the habit of having deposit accounts with the manufacturers in Manchester, are you not?—Yes. [paragraph] The (562)
94.4 wages,] wages (562)
94.4 notes?] notes, are you not? (562)
94.6 account] accounts (562)
94.7-8 bills . . . London] [not in italics] (562)
94.15-6 repeated . . . wages] [not in italics] (562)
94.17 could . . . him] [not in italics] (562)
94.19-20 the . . . exchange] [not in italics] (562)
94.20-1 we . . . account ] [not in italics] (562)
94.25 it . . . endorsements] [not in italics] (562)
94.26 it . . . medium] [not in italics] (562)
94.26-7 The principal part] The principal part (562)
94.29 fifty . . . them] [not in italics] (562)
94.29 twice that number] [not in italics] (562)
94.29 number. I] number; I (562)
94.31-2 that? [paragraph] Again: “Do] [4 questions and answers omitted] (562)
Loyd, Samuel Jones. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 339-431.
referred to: 542
— Thoughts on the Separation of the Departments of the Bank of England. London: Richardson, 1844.
referred to: 344-7
Lusignan. Referred to: 432
Maberly. Referred to: 110
Macaulay, Thomas Babington.The History of England from the Accession of James II. 5 vols. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849-61.
note: JSM merely accepts Leslie’s reference, in Land Systems, 164, to Macaulay’s 3rd chapter in Vol. I.
referred to: 679
McCulloch, John Ramsay. Referred to: 32n, 260, 345
— “Corn Laws and Trade,” Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th Editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Edinburgh: Constable, 1824, III, 342-73.
referred to: 51
— A Discourse on the Rise, Progress, Peculiar Objects, and Importance, of Political Economy: containing an outline of a course of lectures on the principles and doctrines of that science. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Constable, 1825.
760.32 science . . . . . . ] science. Few can honestly say with the poet, Video meliora proboque deteriora sequor! (86) [Ovid, Metamorphoses, VII, 20-1]
— “Labour,” in Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. J. R. McCulloch. Edinburgh: Black, Tait, 1828, IV, 73-80.
referred to: 166n
— “Political Economy,” Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th Editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Edinburgh: Constable, 1824, VI, 216-78.
note: JSM is quoting McCulloch from Malthus’ review of this article; see Malthus, “Political Economy,” below, 38.21-4.
quoted: 38 referred to: 25, 40-2
— “Price of Foreign Corn—Abolition of the Corn-Laws,” Edinburgh Review, XLI (October, 1824), 55-78.
note: McCulloch is reviewing the 1st ed. of the work (Whitmore, A Letter . . . [London: Hatchard, 1822]) of which JSM is reviewing the 2nd ed. in “The Corn Laws,” 45-70 above.
quoted: 56 referred to: 53-4, 57-8, 68-9
56.11 port†] [JSM’s footnote] (61)
— The Principles of Political Economy: with a sketch of the rise and progress of the science. Edinburgh: Tait, 1825.
referred to: 280-2
— “Profits,” in Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edinburgh: Black, Tait, 1828, IV, 184ff.
referred to: 180
— “Value,” in Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. J. R. McCulloch. Edinburgh: Black, Tait, 1828, IV, pp. 81-100.
referred to: 164
Maine, Henry James Sumner.Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society, and its Relation to Modern Ideas. London: Murray, 1861.
note: copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 751
Makgill, George.Rent no Robbery: An Examination of some erroneous doctrines regarding property in land. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1851.
referred to: 452n-453n
Malthus, Thomas Robert. Referred to: 25-34, 36-42, 449, 728
note: the references from 25 to 42 are included, although the article being reviewed is by Malthus; references to “the Reviewer,” also Malthus, which are found on almost every page of this article, are excluded by the usual rule that references to authors within reviews are not given.
— Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society. With Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London: Johnson, 1798.
note: JSM mentions no specific edition, and there is no copy of the work in his library. He may have read the three-volume 5th ed. (London: Murray, 1817), the most recent prior to the first article here printed which mentions the work.
referred to: 35, 366-9, 758
— An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is Regulated. London: Murray, 1815.
referred to: 174, 179-80, 758
— The Measure of Value Stated and Illustrated with an Appreciation of it to the Alterations in the Value of the English Currency since 1790. London: Murray, 1823.
referred to: 28, 31
— “Political Economy,” Quarterly Review, XXX (January, 1824), 297-334.
quoted: 25-6, 29-35, 37-43
25.10 “new . . . economy”] Our chief object is to call the attention of the reader to some of the main principles which characterize what may be called the new . . . economy, as contradistinguished from that of Adam Smith. (305)
25.18-19 “altered . . . speculation”] They [the author’s school] seem to have proceeded upon a principle just the very reverse of the position above laid down by the author [political economy is a science “not of speculation, but of fact and experiment”], and to have altered . . . speculation; and not because they do not accord with facts and experience. (297-8)
26.5 “Adam . . . Malthus”] It has been our object in this Article to point out to the reader the main characteristic differences which distinguish the new school of Political Economy from that of Adam . . . Malthus. (331)
29.25 “The main . . . which] We now proceed to consider the main principles which (307)
29.26 economy, appear] economy. These appear (307)
31.17 at about] at above (310)
31.27 worth about] worth above (310)
32.7-10 “the quantity . . . circulating:”] Of some other articles of exchange, particularly coppice-wood and timber, the proportion of the value resolvable into profits is much larger; while it is universally allowed that the quantity . . . circulating. (310)
32.11 acknowledged] allowed (310) [cf. previous entry]
33.8 “that demand] That the demand (307)
33.9 influence on] effect upon (307)
35.10 “only] It is, however, only (315)
35.12-13 proportion . . . accumulated] [not in italics] (315)
35.18-19 “the proportion] Of all the truths which Mr. Ricardo has established, one of the most useful and important is, that profits are determined by the proportion (315)
35.19 goes to labour,] goes to labour. (315)
35.25-6 “greater . . . labour,”] On this important point the present treatise is silent;* but the prevailing opinion is, that it depends upon the greater . . . labour. [footnote:] *The author says, ‘The limits to which this Article has already extended prevent our entering into an investigation of the various circumstances which determine the market rate of wages.’ (p. 269.) (315)
35.30 “The] And it will be found that the (315)
37.20 “that] That (308)
38.19 “The] [no paragraph] The (321)
38.21-4 cause; to . . . fertility of . . . taxation.”] cause—” to . . . fertility in taxation.” (321) [In McCulloch the passage reads:] cause-to a diminution . . . advantage,resulting . . . fertility of . . . taxation. (269) [Malthus erroneously refers to p. 296]
39.6 “What] [paragraph] What (323)
39.8 obviously a] obviously and unquestionably a (323)
39.8 value of produce!] value of produce owing . . . [as in 39.9] (323)
39.9 capital!”] capital, which would necessarily occasion a different division of what was produced, and award a larger proportion of it to the labourer, and a smaller proportion of it to the capitalist. (323)
39.27 Innumerable] [no paragraph] But innumerable (325)
39.31 It] [no paragraph] As it is, it (324)
39.33 whom] which (325)
40.35 “and] Now, supposing this increase to have taken place, under the circumstances stated, in the funds specifically destined for the maintenance of labour, the necessary consequence would be, that, instead of an unusually great demand for labourers, there would be a diminished demand, and (326-7)
41.3 clear.”] clear, and it only remains to be considered whether it is confirmed by experience. (327)
41.20 “For] Now (329)
41.31 bare . . . . We] bare. All people have not been in London, and could not therefore personally contradict such an affirmation; but on account of its extreme improbability none would believe it, and in justification of this disbelief they would naturally say that, if it were true, they must have heard more of it. Now we (330)
43.15-16 “sweeping generalizations,” . . . “fatal to all clear explanation”] The sweeping generalizations which make no difference in the different parts of a work that co-operate to form a whole, appear to us, we confess, to be fatal to all clear explanation of the means by which the final result is attained. (306)
— Principles of Political Economy Considered with a View to Their Practical Application. London: Murray, 1820.
referred to: 28
Manners. Referred to: 383
Mansell & Co’s. Report of the Important Discussion held in Birmingham, August the 28th and 29th, 1832, between William Cobbett, Thomas Attwood, and Charles Jones, Esqrs. on the Question Whether it is best for the safety and welfare of the nation to attempt to relieve the existing distress “by an action on the Currency,” or by an “Equitable Adjustment” of the Taxes, Rents, Debts, Contracts, and Obligations, which now strangle the industry of the Country? 2nd ed. Birmingham: Mansell, 1832.
note: the 2nd ed. gives a fuller report than the 1st (extracted from the Birmingham Journal), Birmingham: Journal Office, 1832.
referred to: 185
Martineau, Harriet. “The Moral of Many Fables,” Illustrations of Political Economy, No. XXV. London: Fox, 1834.
228.9 “capitalists] As wages rise (without advantage to the labourer) in consequence of a rise in the value of food, capitalists (120)
228.10 Under] [paragraph] Under (120)
228.12-13 under . . . extinction] [not in italics] (120)
228.18 Productive ] [paragraph] Productive (3)
228.19 Many] [paragraph] Many (3)
228.20 this; many] this. Many (3)
228.21 All] [paragraph] All (3)
Mill, James. Referred to: 32n
— Elements of Political Economy. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821.
referred to: 16n, 758
— 2nd ed., 1824.
quoted: 33, 65-6 referred to: 32n
33.27-8 demand and suppy] [not in italics] (89)
66.5 In] [no paragraph] In (198)
— 3rd ed., 1826.
note: cf. JSM’s quotation of this passage, in slightly altered form, in his Principles of Political Economy, Collected Works, III, 589-90.
quoted: 234 referred to: 236
234.18 in importing] on importing (120)
234.28-9 labour. [paragraph] The] labour. If the exchange, however, was made in this manner, the whole of the advantage would be on the part of England; and Poland would gain nothing, paying as much for the cloth she received from England, as the cost of producing it for herself. [paragraph] But the (121)
234.32 cloth.” But “the] cloth. The (121) [style altered in present text]
— “The State of the Nation,” Westminster Review, VI (Oct., 1826), pp. 249-78.
note: identified as by JM in the copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 144n
Mill, John Stuart. “The Corn Laws,” Westminster Review, III (April 1825), 394-420.
note: i.e., that printed at 45-70 above.
referred to: 136, 144n
— “De Quincey’s Logic of Political Economy,” Westminster Review, XLIII (June, 1845), 319-31.
note: i.e., that printed at 391-404 above; page references below are to this edition.
641.42 “have] But for want of sufficiently careful habits of systematic thought, these new views have (394)
641.42 been promulgated] been too frequently promulgated (394)
642.2 developments] developments (394)
642.2 them;”] them; corollaries flowing from these fundamental principles, certain conditions of fact being supposed. (394)
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 780-91, 794-820.
note: i.e., that printed at 463-98 above.
referred to: 598
— Principles of Political Economy with Some of their Applications to Social Philosophy. Collected Works, II and III. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965.
note: for ease of reference, all notes specify the collated edition cited above, although, for example, the 1st ed. (1848) is referred to at 414. The quotation at 587, taken by Lowe presumably from the 4th ed. (1857), is repeated in part at 589 (again by Lowe); in its first appearance it contains a typographical error (“or all” for “on all”) which is silently corrected in the text.
quoted: 415, 587, 589, 635n referred to: 407, 414-16, 432, 452n, 465, 479, 486, 643
415.25 “the] Finally I must repeat my conviction, that the (III, 896)
415.27 receivers,] receivers of them, (III, 896)
415.27-8 not fit for indefinite duration.”] neither fit for, nor capable of, indefinite duration: and the possibility of changing this system for one of combination without dependence, and unity of interest instead of organized hostility, depends altogether upon the future developments of the Partnership principle. (III, 896)
587.7 “The] [paragraph] The (815)
635.n4 it. . . . . . Demand] it. [ellipsis indicates 5-sentence omission] [paragraph] To recapitulate: demand (III, 475)
— “War Expenditure,” Westminster Review, II (July, 1824), 27-48.
note: i.e., that printed at 1-22 above.
referred to: 41
Milton, Lord. See Wentworth-Fitzwilliam.
Moreau, César.Rise and Progress of the Silk Trade in England, from the earliest period to the present time (Feby. 1826,) Founded on official Documents. London: Treuttel and Würtz, 1826.
note: although the article is ostensibly a review of Moreau, neither he nor his book is mentioned throughout; the evidence of Hale and Davison before the Lord’s Committee on Foreign Trade, and the Report of that Committee may, however, be quoted from Moreau’s transcription. (The edition is lithographed from a holograph.)
Morning Chronicle. See Curteis; Smith, Henry; “T.G.”
Morrison. Referred to: 766
Mundella. Referred to: 666
Napoleon I (of France). Referred to: 6, 10, 196
Navigation Acts. See 6 George IV, cc. 105, 109.
Nero. Referred to: 713
Newcastle, Fourth Duke of. See Clinton.
Newdegate, Charles. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Newdegate, a member of the Committee.
Newman, Francis William.Lectures on Political Economy. London: Chapman, 1851.
quoted: 443-7, 449-54, 456n, 457
443.37 “by] By (32)
443.38 or to] or his to (32)
444.1-2 pleases, but] pleases; and if the State, in order to avoid the evil of each man arming for the defence of his own, has taken on itself to defend Property from the attack of violence, then it must equally defend the rights of the Legatee or Heir, as the rights of the Testator while he lived. But that is no reason in itself, why the State should enforce the Testator’s desire to continue lord of his property even after he is dead. If he chooses to give it away and make another owner of it,—as completely owner of it as he was himself,—this is within his natural power and right. But (32)
444.2 limitations.”] limitations:—to say, “this property shall belong to my wife, only so long as she does not marry again; this shall belong to my son, on condition that he does not change his religion; these rents shall be paid to a certain religious house, as long as it continues to observe the statutes and recognize the creed which I now dictate to it; and in order to enforce this my will, I forbid the selling and using of this property:—only the yearly fruits, rents, produce of it shall be enjoyed and used; I therefore vest the nominal ownership in certain Trustees, who shall secure the beneficial use of it to those others whom I have named.” (32-3)
445.6 from the] from their (11)
445.7 would] could (11)
446.31 The] [no paragraph] The (12)
446.31-2 though, . . . nature,] though (. . . Nature) (12)
446.36-7 and, unless . . . respected,] and that (unless . . . respected) (12)
447.28 “it] In fact, it (153)
449.4 “when] My opinion is, that the Malthusian doctrine, when (107)
449.4 theory,” it is “undeniably] theory, is undeniably (107)
449.12 “it] [paragraph] First, it (109)
449.20 “it] [paragraph] But farther, it (111)
449.25-6 test,” . . . “is] test of the last, is (111)
449.28 portion] fraction (111)
450.22-3 improvement . . . . . . [paragraph] If] improvement.—Thus the occupants have a certain right in the land prior to Statute Law, which right ought to be confirmed by Law, when the time comes for enactments. [paragraph] If (134)
450.29 further] farther (135)
450.34 profit] Profit (135)
450.35-6 rent. . . . . . . [paragraph] Let] [2-paragraph omission] (135-7)
450.39 not . . . elsewhither?] [in italics] (137)
450.43 of the] for the (137)
450.44-5 the owner . . . soil] [in italics] (137)
450.48—451.1 yours.’ . . . . . . [paragraph] But] [3-sentence omission] (137)
451.8 might] may (138)
451.21 the owner of the soil] [in italics] (138)
451.24 exacted] enacted (138) [treated as printer’s error]
451.27 nothing] [in italics] (139)
451.39 Imagine] [no paragraph] Imagine (140)
451.40 , for the present,] for the present (140)
452.2-3 for water,] for the water; (141)
453.8 “disorganized”] [see variant at 454.8 below] (292)
453.8 “relapsing] Nearly the same [there is no fixed moral union] is true of all ranks in London: hence a selfishness which barely extends beyond the family circle is a prevalent type of character; and this is a precursor of dissolution in society, which is relapsing (292)
453.23 He] [no paragraph] He (291)
453.27 wishes . . . We] wishes. [3-sentence omission] [paragraph] We (292) [cf. 454.6-7 below]
454.5 market or] market and (292)
454.6-7 life. . . . Marriage, with . . . it,] life. [here follows the sentence partly quoted at 453.8 above; JSM then jumps back to the passage omitted at 453.27 above, which reads:] It is a specific duty of the Ruler to promote moral unions, and, with a view to them, to sanction permanent relations in various ways. Of these, that with which all civilization begins, is Marriage. To be without this, is to be lower than the lowest savages now known: yet, marvellous to say, this (with . . . it) (292) [see also 456.n3-5 below]
454.8 disorganized] [in italics] (292)
454.16 “labour-leases,”] Such injurious proceedings [as strikes] ought to excite the masters to inquire, whether there is not some way of inducing the best men to enter into engagements for a longer series of time;—which might be called Labour-leases.” (327)
454.30 before the Church] before the Church, (305)
456.n3-5 “permanent . . . known,”] [see 454.6-7 above] (292)
457.16-17 “the . . . patriotism;”] Here it seems clear enough what is the primary cause of the nation becoming as a heap of sand, viz., the loss of local patriotism, which has followed on the decay of local liberties by the development of centralization. (293)
Newton. Referred to: 212
Norman, George Warde.Remarks upon Some Prevalent Errors, with Respect to Currency and Banking, and Suggestions to the Legislature and the Public as to the Improvement of the Monetary System. London: Richardson, 1838.
referred to: 344-5
Northcote, Stafford Henry. Referred to: 550
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Northcote, a member of the Committee.
Overstone, Lord. See Loyd, Samuel Jones.
Owen, Robert. Referred to: 446, 728, 737-8
— The Book of the New Moral World, Containing the Rational System of Society, Founded on Demonstrable Facts, Developing theConstitution and Laws of Human Nature and of Society. [Part First.] London: Wilson, 1836. The Book of the New Moral World, explanatory of the Elements of the Science of Society or the Social State of Man. Part Second. London: Home Colonization Society, 1842.
note: the work was completed in seven parts, the last appearing in 1844. A copy of the work, “Complete in Seven Parts” (London: Watson, 1849), is in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
quoted: 724-5 referred to: 373
724.15 as gain] or gain (21) [printer’s error?]
724.21 individual] individuals (21)
724.27 and the] and (21)
724.29 easily] early (21) [printer’s error?]
724.37 amongst] among (21)
725.11-12 independence—to . . . business—] independence to . . . business, (22)
725.18-19 costing to] costing (22)
725.29-30 articles. . . . . [paragraph] The] articles. A moment’s reflection must now make it evident that the distribution of wealth under the present system of society, is most erroneous in principle and highly injurious in practice, to the producer, distributor, and consumer. [paragraph] The (22-3)
note: source not located.
Paley, William.The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. 15th ed. 2 vols. London: Faulder, 1804.
note: this is the edition in JSM’s library, Somerville College. The reference is to Vol. II, pp. 429 ff.
referred to: 474
Parliamentary History and Review; containing Reports of the Proceedings of the two Houses of Parliament during the Session of 1825:—6 Geo. IV. With Critical Remarks on the Principal Measures of the Session. 2 vols. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826.
referred to: 106, 122
Parliamentary History and Review; containing Reports of the Proceedings of the two Houses of Parliament during the Session of 1826:—7 Geo. IV. With Critical Remarks on the Principal Measures of the Session. 2 vols. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826. See Baring, Alexander; Bright; Brougham; Coulson; Davenport; Gordon; Grenfell; Gurney, Hudson; Heygate, William; Huskisson; Parnell; Peel, Robert; Smith, John; Tierney; Wilson, Thomas.
Parliamentary Papers. See 824.
Parnell, Henry Brooke. Speech in the House of Commons 14 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 235-6.
quoted: 109 referred to: 119n
109.18 “a] A (236)
109.19 which,” . . . “a] which, under similar circumstances, a (236)
Parsons. Referred to: 678
Pasta. Referred to: 281, 285-6
Peel, Frederick. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Peel, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 412-13 referred to: 406
Peel, Robert. Referred to: 344-7, 356-7, 359n, 507, 530, 592, 607, 702. See also: 59 George III, c. 49; 5 & 6 Victoria, c. 35; and 7 & 8 Victoria, c. 32.
— Speech in the House of Commons (13 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 213-6.
120.2 “It] He was of opinion, that if it were adopted, it (214)
120.6 silver.] silver (hear, hear). (214)
Pestalozzi. Referred to: 215
Petty-Fitzmaurice. Referred to: 110-11
Pitt. Referred to: 115, 121, 474, 479, 486, 591. See also: 38 George III, c. 60; 39 George III, c. 13.
Plato,Gorgias. Referred to: 312
note: the reference is to 463b. JSM renders the passage containing the terms thus: “Of this pursuit [Adulation] there are many other branches [besides rhetoric], and cookery is one, which is thought to be an art, but, in my opinion, is no art, but a skill, and routine.” “Notes on Some of the More Popular Dialogues of Plato, No. III. The Gorgias,” Monthly Repository, n.s. VIII (Oct., 1834), 700.
— Republic. Referred to: 741
note: the reference is primarily to 416ff.
Playfair, Lyon. “On the Declining Production of Human Food in Ireland,” Recess Studies. Ed. Alexander Grant. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1870, 241-60.
referred to: 676
Pollard-Urquhart, William. Referred to: 550
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Pollard-Urquhart, a member of the Committee.
Poor Laws. See 4 & 5 William IV, c. 76; and “Report from his Majesty’s Commissioners” (1834).
Portman. Referred to: 453n
Pressly, Charles. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 33-48.
referred to: 590, 597
Proudhon. Referred to: 651
Puller, Christopher William. Referred to: 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Puller, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 505, 542-7
Rendlesham, 1st Lord. See Thelusson, Peter Isaac.
Rendlesham, 4th Lord. See Thelusson, Frederick.
Reports. See Parliamentary Papers, 824.
Ricardo, David. Referred to: 10-11, 30, 37, 69, 115-16, 151n-152n, 172, 394, 398, 401, 447-8, 642, 759
— Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock: shewing the Inexpediency of Restrictions on Importation; withRemarks on Mr. Malthus’ Two Last Publications. London: Murray, 1815.
note: at 179 the reference (by McCulloch?) is erroneously to 1817.
referred to: 174, 179
— The High Price of Bullion, a Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes. London: Murray, 1810.
referred to: 188
— Observations on Some Passages in an Article in the Edinburgh Review, on the Depreciation of Paper Currency; also Suggestions for securing to the public a currency as invariable as gold, with a very moderate supply of that metal. Being the Appendix, to the Fourth Edition of “The High Price of Bullion,” &c. London: Murray, 1811.
referred to: 188
— On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 3rd ed. London: Murray, 1821.
note: the references at 393 and 758 are to the 1st ed. (London: Murray, 1817).
quoted: 31-2 referred to: 35, 152n, 174, 232-6, 241, 293-5, 297, 299, 393, 758
— Proposals for an Economical and Secure Currency; with observations on the profits of the Bank of England, as they regard the public and the proprietors of Bank stock. London: Murray, 1816.
referred to: 188
— Reply to Mr. Bosanquet’s Practical Observations on the Report of the Bullion Committee. London: Murray, 1811.
referred to: 188
Ricardo, John Lewis. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Ricardo, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 472, 474, 496-8
Robespierre. Referred to: 737
Roby. Referred to: 95
Roebuck, John Arthur. “Timber Trade,” Westminster Review, VII (Jan., 1827), 126-46.
referred to: 148
Rosse, Lord. See Parsons.
Rothschild, Nathan M. Referred to: 86, 184n
— “Evidence taken before the Committee of Secrecy on the Bank of England Charter,” Parliamentary Papers, 1831-32, VI, 381-93.
referred to: 351
Rothwell, Richard. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX, 87-9.
referred to: 19-20
Rous, John. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX, 178-80.
referred to: 19-20
Rousseau. Referred to: 211, 651-2
Russell. Referred to: 432
St. Athanasius. Referred to: 26
St. Augustine. Referred to: 26
St. Dominic. Referred to: 156
St. Jerome. Referred to: 26
Saint Just. Referred to: 737
Say, Jean-Baptiste.Traité d’économie politique, ou simple exposition de la manière dont se forment, se distribuent, et se consomment les richesses. 2 vols. Paris: Deterville, 1803.
note: JSM gives 1802 as the date of publication; a copy of the 4th ed. (2 vols., Paris: Deterville, 1819) in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 321, 758
Say, Léon. Referred to: 718
Scott, John. Referred to: 151
Scott, Walter [“Malachi Malagrowther”]. Thoughts on the Proposed Change of Currency, and other late alterations, as they affect, or are intended to affect, the Kingdom of Scotland. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1826.
referred to: 116
Senior, Nassau William. “Report—On the State of Agriculture,” Quarterly Review, XXV (July, 1821), 466-504.
referred to: 151n-152n
Shakespeare. Referred to: 401
Silk Act. See 5 George IV, c. 21.
Sismondi, Jean-Charles-Leonardo Simonde de.Nouveaux principes d’économie politique, ou de la richesse dans ses rapports avec la population. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Paris: Delaunay, 1827.
referred to: 718
Slaney, Robert Aglionby. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Slaney, Chairman of the Committee.
quoted: 407-16, 418-29 referred to: 406
Smith, Adam. Referred to: 25-7, 29-30, 32, 37, 149, 214-15, 395, 411, 718
— An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. With a Commentary by the Author of “England and America” [E. G. Wakefield]. 4 vols. London: Knight, 1835-9.
note: for ease of reference this edition (the one cited in JSM’s Principles) is used throughout, except at 27, where the 1st ed. is cited (2 vols. London: Strahan and Cadell, 1776), and 162-80, where the edition from which JSM’s article derives is used (ed. J. R. McCulloch. 4 vols. Edinburgh: Black, Tait, 1828). The references to this edition at 178/179 may be found in Wakefield’s edition at II, 4 and 39. The quotation at 300 is indirect. In Somerville College there are the 3-vol. 8th ed. (London, 1796), the 2-vol. edition ed. Rogers (Oxford, 1869), and a gift copy of McCulloch’s edition, Vol. I inscribed: “To John Mill Esq/This copy of the edition of a/work to the value of which/he has essentially contributed/is presented by his friend/the Editor”.
quoted: 164, 238, 293, 300, 657
referred to: 26-7, 163-4, 168-9, 174, 177-8, 179-80, 301, 312, 367, 758
164.4 “There] [paragraph] There (ed. McCulloch, I, 241; ed. Wakefield, II, 4)
164.5-6 demand . . . market] [not in italics] (ibid.)
164.6 market:”] market; and there are others for which it either may or may not be such as to afford this greater price. (ibid.)
238.18 “the higgling of the market”] In exchanging indeed the different productions of different sorts of labour [employment] for one another, some allowance is commonly made for both [hardship and ingenuity]. It is adjusted, however, not by any accurate measure, but by the higgling and bargaining of the market, according to that sort of rough equality which, though not exact, is sufficient for carrying on the business of common life. (I, 102) [1st square brackets Wakefield’s; 2nd mine]
293.3-4 “the . . . which has been paid for everything.”] Labour was the first price, the . . . that was paid for all things. (I, 101)
300.22-3 much will . . . it.] It may be laid down as a maxim, that wherever a great deal can be made by the use of money, a great deal will commonly be given for the use of it. . . . (I, 211)
657.37-8 “the higgling of the market”] [see variant at 238.18 above]
Smith, Henry. Speech at a public meeting (30 Jan., 1826), reported in the Morning Chronicle, 6 Feb., 1826, 3.
note: the quotation is indirect.
129.n3-4 that . . . manufacturer.] [paragraph] Mr. henry smith said, a duty of 100 per cent. would not protect the English manufacturer, and explained the circumstances connected with another Petition which had been drawn up, signed by a great many weavers, and sent to Sir Thomas Lethbridge for presentation. (3)
Smith, John. Speech in the House of Commons (15 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, p. 320.
109.15 “knew] [paragraph] Mr. John Smith could state of his own personal knowledge, that during the panic in the money-market last December, enormous sums had been paid for pecuniary loans; indeed, he knew (320)
109.16 paid.] paid (hear, hear). (320)
Smith, John Abel. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Smith, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 416-20, 422-8 referred to: 406
Smith, Martin Tucker. Referred to: 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Smith, a member of the Committee.
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Tract on the “claims of capital.” See Knight, Charles.
La Solidarité (Neuchâtel). Referred to: 709
Solly, Edward. “Evidence taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX, 315-19.
quoted: 54-5 referred to: 53, 56n
54.18 constantly] [not in italics] (316)
54.20 It . . . England] [not in italics] (316)
54.24-5 Even . . . here] [not in italics] (317)
55.9 They] I think, in the first instance, the price would be lowered; but that it would ultimately recover; because it would have the effect of raising the value of land, and the expense of cultivation on the continent, for they (317)
55.9 corn, for cattle] corn for cattle (317)
Southey, Robert. “Inquiry into the Poor Laws, &c.,” Quarterly Review, VIII (Dec., 1812), 319-56.
27.1-3 “a . . . ability;”] Adam Smith’s book is the code, or confession of faith of this system; a . . . ability, for fifty pages would have comprised its sum and substance as well as two Scotch quartos. (337)
27.3-4 “manufacturing animal,” . . . from him;] That book considers man as a manufacturing animal, a definition which escaped the ancients: it estimates his importance, not by the sum of goodness and of knowledge which he possesses, not by the virtues and charities which should flow towards him and emanate from him, not by the happiness of which he may be the source and centre, not by the duties to which he is called, not by the immortal destinies for which he is created; but by the gain which can be extracted from him, or of which he can be made the instrument. (337)
27.6-7 “plucked . . . virtues.”] Pluck the wings of his intellect, strip him of the down and plumage of his virtues, and behold in the brute, denuded, pitiable animal, the man of the manufacturing system! (337)
Spooner, Richard. Referred to: 500
—“Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i, 177-206.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Spooner, a member of the Committee.
Statutes. See 826.
Stein. Referred to: 752
Stewart, Dugald.Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. 3 vols. London: Strahan and Cadell, 1792.
referred to: 311
Stuart, James (“The Old Pretender”). Referred to: 210
Stuart, James. Referred to: 406
Swift, Jonathan.Gulliver’s Travels, in Works, XII. Ed. Walter Scott. Edinburgh: Constable, 1814.
note: JSM is quoting Thompson at 155. The two indirect quotations are from the same passage in Gulliver’s Travels, Voyage II, Chapter vii. This edition is the one in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
quoted: 155, 186
155.22-3 That the man who made two blades of grass grow where there was one before, was always held to be a public benefactor.] And, he [the King of Brobdingnag] gave it for his opinion, ‘That, whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together.’ (176)
Sykes. Referred to: 122
“T. G.” Letter to the Editor, Morning Chronicle, 28 Jan., 1826, 3.
134.n2 I] But I (3)
134.n2-3 myself for] myself to you for (3)
Taylor, Helen. “Preliminary Remarks” to “Chapters on Socialism.”
Taylor, Peter Alfred.
note: the Programme of the Land Tenure Reform Association (above, 687-95) was issued over the names of JSM, Taylor, and Andrew Reid.
referred to: 764
Thelusson, Frederick. Referred to: 119n
Thelusson, Peter Isaac. Referred to: 199. See also: 39 & 40 George III, c. 98
Thompson, Thomas Perronet.A Catechism on the Corn Laws: with a List of Fallacies and the Answers. 2nd ed. London: Ridgway, 1827.
note: the actual review of Thompson begins on 151; he is first mentioned on 149. JSM’s page references (and some variants) bear no relation to the 3rd ed. (London: Ridgway, 1827), the one he cites, but accurately reflect the 2nd ed. (cited above), which has therefore been used. Four of the “fallacies” on 156-7, however, do not appear in the 2nd ed.; they have been collated against the 3rd, although again the page references are not correct. Thompson (27) heads his questions “What is the answer to the fallacy”, and places the answers in parallel columns with the fallacies, which are numbered. The fallacies quoted by JSM from the 2nd ed., in the order quoted, are: 11, 14, 16, 18, 23, 28, 29, 34, 35, 37, 38, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 86, 89, 90, 99, 104, 105, 106, 107, 115, 124, 127, 128, 130, 132, 134, 120, 119, and 135-50 (the final one in the 2nd ed.). From the 3rd ed., between 134 and 120 of the 2nd (156-7 above), he quotes 135, 136, 138, and 139.
reviewed: 143-59 quoted: 152-8
153.18 If] [paragraph] If (33)
153.37-8 delusion. [paragraph] A] delusion.—This, therefore, may be called the halfpenny apiece fallacy. [paragraph] A (33)
154.7 The] [paragraph] The (34)
154.23 The] [paragraph] The (35)
155.2 The] [paragraph] If (44)
155.19 The] [paragraph] The (47)
155.39 removed.] [JSM omits the final paragraph of the answer] (49)
156.2 it.] [JSM omits the final paragraph of the answer] (51)
156.17 lie] lies (55) [treated as printer’s error]
156.21 The] [paragraph] The (55)
156.25 The] [paragraph] The (55)
— An Exposition of Fallacies on Rent, Tithes, &c. Containing an Examination of Mr. Ricardo’s Theory of Rent and of the arguments brought against the conclusion that tithes and taxes on the land are paid by the landlords, the doctrine of the impossibility of a general glut, and other propositions of the modern school. With an inquiry into the comparative consequences of taxes on agricultural and manufactured produce. Being in the form of a Review of the Third Edition of Mr. Mill’s Elements of Political Economy. London: Hatchard; Rivington, 1826.
note: JSM’s long footnote is in effect a review of Thompson’s work.
referred to: 151n-152n
Thornton, Henry.An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Credit of Great Britain. London: Hatchard, 1802.
note: copy of this work in JSM’s library, Somerville College, with George Grote’s bookplate.
quoted: 90-1 referred to: 188
91.6 kingdom.] kingdom*. [5-sentence footnote omitted] (40n-41n)
— Substance of Two Speeches in the Debate in the House of Commons, on the Report of the Bullion Committee, on the 7th and 14th of May, 1811. London: Hatchard, 1811.
referred to: 188
Thornton, William Thomas.On Labour: Its Wrongful Claims and Rightful Dues, its Actual Present and Possible Future. London: Macmillan, 1869.
quoted: 636, 638-40, 642n, 647-52, 657-8, 663, 665, 667-8
636.32 twenty shillings.] 20s.* [footnote:] *In point of fact, the fish are sold not by weight but by number—herrings usually by the hundred. On the beach at Brighton the price is sometimes as low as 1s. sometimes as high as 12s. the hundred—generally about 4s. or 5s. (48n)
636.36 price] sum (48)
638.6 Suppose] [no paragraph] Suppose (49)
638.34 When] [no paragraph] When (51)
639.19 Even] [no paragraph] Even (53)
639.22-3 price, before . . . remainder.”] price. (53)
639.32 “a truth of small significance”] [paragraph] But further, not only is the orthodox theory not true—not only would it be of little significance if true—it is not even by its propounders believed to be true, except on certain conditions; and of these conditions there is one which, as will now be shown, is scarcely ever present. (55)
639.41 “that] Hitherto it has been throughout assumed that (55)
640.3 Is] [no paragraph] Such has hitherto been throughout the assumption, but such is (55)
640.12 weaver] mercer (55) [printer’s error?]
640.22 all, and he] all: he (56)
642.n7 attain] obtain (69n) [printer’s error?]
647.24 Except] [no paragraph] But, except (111)
647.39 “that] [paragraph] The basis on which the theory rests is the assumption that (88)
647.40 labour,”] labour. (88)
647.42 Although] Nevertheless, and although (91)
649.13 on the earth] on earth (94)
649.20 be responsible] be held responsible (94)
649.n5 “than] It may be prudent, therefore, to explain that nothing can be further from their [these remarks’] purpose than (94)
649.n6 enormities . . . . . . To] enormities. No one can be readier than the present writer to exclaim, in the words of Mr. Taylor’s ‘Philip Van Artevelde,’—/Where is there on God’s earth that polity,/Which it is not by consequence converse/A treason against nature to uphold?/But to (94)
649.n19 precision; it] precision. It (95)
650.n10 means.”] means.* [1-page footnote, mentioning JSM by name, omitted] (95n-97n)
651.37 is supposed] is very gratuitously supposed (111)
652.31-2 “their . . . unappropriated;”] [see 648.43-4 above]
657.12 adjured,” . . . “not] adjured by them, in the name of political economy, not (260)
657.15 will] must (260)
657.21 end. If] end. Against such teaching, robust understandings of working men instinctively revolt. If (260)
658.30-1 “grovelling and sordid”] On the contrary, if anyone choose to stigmatise them [“all the views of Unionism”] as grovelling and sordid, I am not concerned to reply. (180)
663.16 Though,] [no paragraph] But though (289)
663.17 be clearly] be thus clearly (289)
665.35 “best their mates”] ‘Not besting one’s mates’ has by several unions been made the subject of special enactment. (328)
665.36 “in the master’s time”] Every reader may not have quite perceived what was meant when, a few sentences back, men were spoken of as not being allowed to sweat themselves if walking in their masters’ time. (330) [cf. Thornton, 328]
667.10 Sufficient] [no paragraph] Sufficient (333)
668.8 and a tangible] and tangible (335)
668.10 other . . . . The] [ellipsis indicates 5-sentence omission] (335-6)
668.16 co-operation . . . . But] co-operation. What ground there is for hoping that such alliance will eventually displace existing antagonism, will be considered in the remaining division of this treatise; but (336)
— Over-Population and its Remedy; or, an Inquiry into the Extent and Causes of the Distress Prevailing among the Labouring Classes of the British Islands, and into the means of Remedying it. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846.
note: copy formerly in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 633, 680
— A Plea for Peasant Proprietors; with the Outlines of a Plan for their Establishment in Ireland. London: Murray, 1848.
referred to: 633
Tierney, George. Speech in the House of Commons (17 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 358-60.
122.4 approved of] approved entirely of (259)
— Speech in the House of Commons (26 May, 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 311-15.
note: the quotation is indirect.
The Times. Referred to: 371n
Tite, William. Referred to: 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Tite, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 512-16, 523, 541
Tooke, Thomas. Referred to: 61, 545
— Considerations on the State of the Currency. 2nd ed. London: Murray, 1826.
quoted: 77, 92n referred to: 86, 109, 111, 302
77.9 these] those (45)
77.14 speculation . . . . . The impulse to a rise having been] speculation. [3-sentence omission] [paragraph] The impulse, therefore, to a rise being (45)
77.21 Cotton] [paragraph] Cotton (46)
77.23 wool,] wool*, [1-page footnote omitted] (46n-47n)
77.24 subject] subjects (47)
77.25 occasion.] occasion, as the event proved, though not in so great a degree as cotton. (47-8)
92.n2 “The ] [paragraph] The (48)
92.n8 of operators] of the operators (49)
92.n9 In] [paragraph] In (49)
92.n14 If] [paragraph] If (49)
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX, 224-40, 287-98, 344-55.
referred to: 56-7
— A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, from 1793 to 1837; preceded by a brief sketch of the state of the Corn Trade in the last two centuries. 2 vols. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1838.
note: the six volumes of the completed work are in JSM’s library, Somerville College.
referred to: 343
— A History of Prices, and of the State of the Circulation, in 1838 and 1839, with Remarks on the Corn Laws, and on some alterations proposed in our Banking System. Being a continuation of the History of Prices, from 1793 to 1837. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1840.
quoted: 350-1 referred to: 343
350.28 “That] [no paragraph] That (273)
350.30 not self-evident] [in italics] (273)
350.30 consistent with experience] [in italics] (273)
350.31 therefore necessarily] [in italics] (273)
350.41 private. As] private; as (274)
351.1 capital] capitals (274)
351.2 bullion. The] bullion; the (274)
— An Inquiry into the Currency Principle; the Connection of the Currency with Prices, and the Expediency of a Separation of Issuefrom Banking. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844.
quoted: 352, 357-61
352.10 “the] [paragraph] In a convertible state of the currency, given the actual and contingent supply of commodities, the greater or less demand will depend, not upon the total quantity of money in circulation, but upon the (71)
352.10 revenues of] revenues, valued in gold, of (71)
352.12 wages.”] wages, destined for current expenditure. (71)
357.21 “That] It is probable, however, that Mr. Bosanquet, in his theory of high prices as a consequence of a low rate of interest, may be under the influence of the same opinion as that of Mr. Gilbart and many others—that (81)
357.22 the stimulus] the stimulus (82)
357.23 be] he [i.e., Bosanquet] (82)
357.29 borrower. Such] borrower; such (82)
357.41 of.”] of.* [footnote:] *See Appendix (B). (79)
357.42 “A] [no paragraph] What I mean to say is, that a (136) [this passage is in “Appendix (B),” referred to in the variant above]
358.3 “But why should this purchasing power be] A power of purchase might thus doubtless be created; but why should it be (79) [this sentence immediately precedes that quoted at 357.39-41]
358.5-6 resale? The] resale? The truth is . . . idea of. The (79) [the omitted sentence is that quoted at 357.39-41]
358.n6 speculators] speculations [sic] (137)
358.n17 prempt] prompt (137) [treated as printer’s error]
358.n24 prempt] prompt (137) [treated as printer’s error]
358.n27-8 realised, if] realised by sales, if (137)
359.3 “That] 17. That (124) [this is the last of Tooke’s list of “Conclusions”]
360.6-9 “merchant, banker, or money dealer,” . . . “Could for . . . cause.] [paragraph] Although there is no modern experience of such a state of things, if any merchant, banker, or money-dealer were to have the case laid distinctly before them, could any of them for . . . cause? (109)
360.11 irrevocably] inexorably (109)
360.15-16 in sufficient time] [in italics] (110)
360.19 “And] [no paragraph] And (111)
360.21-2 system of issuing] system of union of issuing (111)
361.1 “the] [paragraph] Now, without attaching such exaggerated importance as Mr. Bosanquet and Mr. Gilbart, and some others who oppose the currency principle do, to the effects of great variations in the rate of interest, I am inclined to think, that excepting the convertibility of the paper and the solvency of banks, which are and ought to be within the province of the legislature most carefully to preserve, the (105-6)
361.1 banking system] system of banking (106)
361.2 another,” namely, “the] another, is the (106)
361.3 credit.”] credit incidental to one as compared with the other; and a careful consideration of the various plans which have been submitted to the public for carrying out the currency principle, has led to a confirmation of the opinion which I have before expressed, that under a complete separation of the functions of issue and banking, the transitions would be more abrupt and violent than under the existing system; unless, and upon this, in my opinion, the question hinges, the deposit or banking department were bound to hold a much larger reserve than seems to be contemplated by any of the plans which I have seen. (106)
— On the Bank Charter Act of 1844, its Principles and Operation; with Suggestions for an Improved Administration of the Bank of England. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1856.
note: copy in JSM’s library, Somerville College, inscribed “Mr. [?] Stuart Mill Esqr./With the sincere regards/of his friend/the Author”.
referred to: 501-2
— Thoughts and Details on the High and Low Prices of the Last Thirty Years. 4 parts. London: Murray, 1823.
referred to: 4-5, 13
— 2nd ed., 1824.
note: at 8 JSM is probably not quoting Tooke (see variants below); they may be using a common source.
quoted: 8, 21, 97n. referred to: 19-20, 74n
8. Table 34,954,845] 34,953,816
8. Table 34,566,571] 34,567,271
97.n7 “a great] I can recollect, moreover, that [in 1808-09] there was a great (73)
97.n9 credit,” is “an] credit, which is an (73)
Torrens, Robert. Referred to: 399-400
— The Budget. On Commercial and Colonial Policy. With an introduction in which the deductive method, as presented in Mr. Mill’s System of Logic, is applied to the solution of some controverted questions in political economy. London: Smith, Elder, 1844.
note: an earlier version was issued in parts, 1841-42.
referred to: 231
— An Inquiry into the Practical Working of the Proposed Arrangements for the Renewal of the Charter of the Bank of England, and the Regulation of the Currency: With a refutation of the fallacies advanced by Mr. Tooke. London: Smith, Elder, 1844.
quoted: 347, 353n, 360-1
347.28 “will] [paragraph] For the reasons set forth in the tract now submitted to the public, I am of opinion, that the proposed measures for the renewal of the Charter of the Bank of England, and for the regulation of the provincial banks of issue, are the most important and the most salutary, as regards the reform of our monetary system, which have been brought under the consideration of Parliament, since the Act of 1819, for the resumption of cash payments; that their adoption by the Legislature will preserve the circulating medium from any greater fluctuations than those which would take place were the currency exclusively metallic; and will (iv) [see next variant]
347.35 “the most] (iv) [see variants above and below]
347.36 has] have (iv) [see variant at 347.28]
347.38 payments.”] (iv) [see variant at 347.28]
347.40 “the reform] The agricultural classes will, as I have attempted to show, reap the largest proportional advantage from the steadiness imparted to the currency by the proposed reform (iv) [follows directly the sentence from which JSM has just quoted]
349.12-13 “cycles . . . depression,”] [see variants at 347.28-38 above. The second of these terms is also used by Tooke, Inquiry, 55]
353.n5-7 “consequently . . . 1,000,000l.,”] [paragraph] Under these circumstances, and so long as the banker did not advance his deposits in loans, or upon securities, the amount of checks which the inhabitants of Birmingham could draw upon the bank, in settling their pecuniary transactions with each other, could not exceed 1,000,000l., being the amount of their deposits; and, consequently, . . . 1,000,000l. (10)
360.38-9 “cycles . . . depression,”] [see variant at 349.12-13 above]
361.9 “can] He can (55)
361.9-10 publication,”] publication; because, in his “History of Prices,” he has a deposit and a book credit with the Bank of Fame, against which he can largely draw. (55)
Turgot. Referred to: 139, 211-12, 335
Turner. Referred to: 550
Vance, John. Referred to: 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Vance, a member of the Committee.
Vane. Referred to: 464
Vansittart. Referred to: 100
Vesey, Thomas. Referred to: 464
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Vesey, a member of the Committee.
Wakefield. Referred to: 394
Watt. Referred to: 157
Weguelin, Thomas Matthias. Referred to: 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Weguelin, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 523-8, 547
Wellesley. Referred to: 196
Wellington, Duke of. See Wellesley.
Wentworth-Fitzwilliam. Referred to: 159
West, Eward.Essay on the Application of Capital to Land, with Observations Shewing the Impolicy of any Great Restriction of the Importation of Corn, and that the Bounty of 1688 did not Lower the Price of It. London: Underwood, 1815.
referred to: 174, 179-80, 758
Westminster, Marquess of. See Grosvenor.
Whitmore, William Wolryche. Referred to: 159
— A Letter on the Present State and Future Prospects of Agriculture. Addressed to the Agriculturists of the County of Salop. 2nd. ed. London: Hatchard, 1823.
note: the footnote to 64 is Whitmore’s.
63.19 Granting] [no paragraph] Granting (58)
64.1 theirs.†—But] theirs*. [paragraph] But (59)
65.38 fairly be] be fairly (87)
— Substance of a Speech delivered in the House of Commons on the 28th April, 1825. London: Ridgway, 1825.
referred to: 70n
Wilson, James. Referred to: 464, 500
— “Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Wilson, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 477-9, 485-7
Wilson, Thomas. Speech in the House of Commons (23 Feb., 1826), quoted in Parliamentary History for 1826, 274-6.
Wood, Charles. Referred to: 464, 500
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Wood, a member of the Committee.
note: the “quotations” are questions asked by Wood, a member of the Committee.
quoted: 469, 474-80, 484, 487, 491, 495
Wool Act. See 5 George IV, c. 47.
“Report from the Select Committee on the High Price of Gold Bullion,” Parliamentary Papers, 1810, III, 1-232.
referred to: 188
“Minutes of Evidence Taken before the Select Committee on the Expediency of the Bank Resuming Cash Payments,” Parliamentary Papers, 1819, III. See Haldimand.
“Second Report (brought from the Lords) Relative to Foreign Trade: (Silk and Wine Trade),” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, VII, 423-7. See Davison; Hale.
note: JSM may be quoting from Moreau’s transcription (Rise and Progress, 13-4) of the Report.
133.28-9 almost entirely carried on by machinery] [not in italics] (425)
“Minutes of Evidence Taken before the Select Committee to whom the several Petitions complaining of the Depressed State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom, were Referred,” Parliamentary Papers, 1821, IX. See Jacob; Rothwell; Rous; Solly; Tooke.
“Minutes of Evidence before the Committee of the Lords, (1826) on the Circulation of Promissory Notes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1826-27, VI. See Burgess; Gladstone, John; Loyd, Lewis.
“Minutes of Evidence Taken before the Committee of Secrecy on the Bank of England Charter,” Parliamentary Papers, 1831-32, VI. See Attwood, Thomas; Gurney, Samuel; Rothschild.
“Report from his Majesty’s Commissioners for Inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws,” Parliamentary Papers, 1834, XXVII-XXXIX.
referred to: 227
“Reports from the Secret Committee on Commercial Distress,” Parliamentary Papers, 1847-8, VIII, i-ii.
referred to: 523
“Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Savings of the Middle and Working Classes,” Parliamentary Papers, 1850, XIX, 253-66. See Ellis, John; Ewart; Greene; Peel, Frederick; Slaney; Smith, John Abel.
“Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1852, IX, 284-95, 298-324. See Henley; Horsman; Hume, Joseph; Mill, John Stuart; Newdegate; Ricardo, John; Vesey; Wilson, James; Wood.
“Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.i. Referred to: 540. See also Baring, Francis; Hankey; Hildyard; Lewis; Lloyd, Samuel; Puller; Smith, Martin; Spooner; Tite; Vance; Weguelin; Wood.
“Appendix to the Report from the Select Committee on the Bank Acts,” Parliamentary Papers, 1857 (Sess. 2), X.ii, 1-370.
referred to: 503, 522, 531, 536
“Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 212-32. See Ansell; Buchanan; Estcourt; Gladstone, William; Heygate, Frederick; Hubbard; Lowe; Northcote; Pollard-Urquhart; Pressly.
“Income Tax Schedule,” in “Appendix 1 to the Report from the Select Committee on Income and Property Tax,” Parliamentary Papers, 1861, VII, 314.
referred to: 554
“Report of the Commission to inquire into the education given in Schools not comprised within Her Majesty’s two former commissions, bearing date respectively 30th June in the 22nd year, and 18th July, in the 25th year of Her Majesty’s reign.—Dated 28th December 1864.” Parliamentary Papers, 1867-68, XXVIII, i-xvii.
referred to: 624-9
26 Henry VIII, c. 1. An Acte concerning the kynges highness to be supreme head of the churche of Englande, and to have auctoritie to reforme and redresse all errours, heresies, and abuses in the same (1534).
referred to: 209n
I William & Mary, c. 20. An Act for a grant to their Majesties of an aid of twelve pence in the pound for one year, for the necessary defence of their realms (1688).
referred to: 480
2 George III, c. 10. An Act for raising by annuities, in manner therein mentioned, the sum of twelve millions, to be charged on the sinking fund; and for applying the surplus of certain duties on spirituous liquors, and also the monies arising from the duties on spirituous liquors, granted by an act of this session of parliament (1761).
referred to: 583
13 George III, c. 68. An Act to impower the Magistrates therein mentioned to settle and regulate the Wages of Persons employed in the Silk Manufacture within their respective Jurisdictions (1773).
referred to: 128
37 George III, cc. 45, 91. An Act for confirming and continuing, for a limited Time, the Restriction contained in the Minute of Council of the 26th February, 1797, on Payments of Cash by the Bank (3 May 1797); and An Act to continue, for a limited time, an Act, made in this present Session of Parliament, intituled, [as above] . . . , under certain Regulations and Restrictions (22 June, 1797).
referred to: 5-6, 184, 187-8
38 George III, c. 60. An Act for making perpetual, subject to redemption and purchase in the manner therein stated, the several sums of money now charged in Great Britain as a land tax for one year, from the 25th day of March 1798 (21 June, 1798).
referred to: 479-87
39 George III, c. 13. An Act to repeal the duties imposed by an act, made in the last session of parliament, for granting an aid and contribution for the prosecution of the war; and to make more effectual provision for the like purpose, by granting certain duties upon income, in lieu of the said duties (9 January, 1799).
referred to: 474, 479, 591
39 & 40 George III, c. 98. An Act to restrain all Trusts and Directions in Deeds or Wills, whereby the Profits or Produce of Real or Personal Estate shall be accumulated, and the beneficial Enjoyment thereof postponed beyond the Time therein limited (28 July, 1800).
note: known as the Thelusson Act.
referred to: 199
59 George III, c. 49. An Act to continue the Restrictions contained in several Acts on Payments in Cash by the Bank of England, until the 1st May 1823, and to provide for the gradual Resumption of such Payments; and to permit the Exportation of Gold and Silver (2 July, 1819).
note: JSM refers to the Act as “Peel’s Bill.”
referred to: 186, 347
3 George IV, c. 60. An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Importation of Corn (15 July, 1822).
note: also relevant are 55 George III, c. 26; 1 & 2 George IV, c. 87, and (for 143-59), 9 George IV, c. 60.
referred to: 47-70 passim, 87, 109, 134-6, 143-59 passim
5 George IV, c. 21. An Act to Reduce the Duties on Importation of Raw and Thrown Silk, and to Repeal the Prohibition on the Importation of Silk Manufactures, and to Grant Certain Duties Thereon (12 April, 1824).
referred to: 70, 127-8, 132, 134
5 George IV, c. 41. An Act to repeal certain Duties on Law Proceedings in the Courts in Great Britain and Ireland respectively; and for better protecting the Duties payable upon Stamped Vellum, Parchment, or Paper (28 May, 1824).
referred to: 70
5 George IV, c. 47. An Act to alter the Laws relating to the Duties on the Importation of Wool, and of Hare and Coney Skins (3 June, 1824).
referred to: 70
5 George IV, c. 95. An Act to repeal the Laws relative to the Combination of Workmen; and for other Purposes therein mentioned (21 June, 1824).
referred to: 128, 427
6 George IV, cc. 105, 109. An Act to repeal the several Laws relating to the Customs (5 July, 1825), and An Act for the Encouragement of British Shipping and Navigation (5 July, 1825).
referred to: 70
6 George IV, c. 129. An Act to repeal the Laws relating to the Combination of Workmen, and to make other Provisions in lieu thereof (6 July, 1825).
referred to: 70
7 George IV, c. 6. An Act to limit, and after a certain Period to prohibit, the issuing of Promissory Notes under a limited Sum in England (22 Mar., 1826).
referred to: 78
7 George IV, c. 46. An Act for the better regulating Copartnerships of certain Bankers in England (26 May, 1826).
note: the Act actually enabled banks with an unlimited number of partners to be established at a distance exceeding sixty-five miles from London.
referred to: 78-9, 105
7 & 8 George IV, c. 57. An Act to permit, until 1st May, 1828, certain Corn, Meal, and Flour to be entered for Home Consumption (2 July, 1827).
note: superseded by 9 George IV, c. 60, and 5 & 6 Victoria, Sess. 2, c. 14. The reference is to the discussion eventually leading to the Act.
referred to: 143. See also Brougham, “Speech”; Canning, “Speech” (1827).
9 George IV, c. 60. An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Importation of Corn (15 July, 1828).
note: repealed by 5 & 6 Victoria, Sess. 2, c. 14.
referred to: 762-3
10 George IV, c. 7. An Act for the Relief of His Majesty’s Roman Catholic Subjects (13 April, 1829).
referred to: 196, 369, 706
2 & 3 William IV, c. 45. An Act to amend the Representation of the People in England and Wales (7 June, 1832).
referred to: 191, 195, 369-70, 706
4 & 5 William IV, c. 76. An Act for the Amendment and better Administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales (14 August, 1834).
referred to: 371, 374, 437
2 & 3 Victoria, c. 37. An Act to amend, and extend until the First Day of January One thousand eight hundred and forty-two, the Provisions of an Act of the First Year of Her present Majesty for exempting certain Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes from the Operation of the Laws relating to Usury (29 July, 1839).
note: the laws repealed go back to 37 Henry VIII, c. 9 (1545); the Act of 1839 was extended from time to time, and then repealed by 17 & 18 Victoria, c. 90 (1854).
referred to: 422, 461, 531
5 & 6 Victoria, Sess. 2, c. 14. An Act to Amend the Laws for the Importation of Corn (29 April, 1842).
note: the reference at 763 is to the introduction of the measures leading to the Act.
referred to: 383-4, 763
5 & 6 Victoria, c. 35. An Act for granting to Her Majesty Duties on Profits arising from Property, Professions, Trades, and Offices, until the Sixth Day of April One thousand eight hundred and forty-five (22 June, 1842).
note: referred to as Peel’s Income Tax Act.
referred to: 465-98 passim, 592, 702
7 & 8 Victoria, c. 32. An Act to regulate the Issue of Bank Notes, and for giving to the Governor and Company of the Bank of England certain Privileges for a limited Period (19 July, 1844).
note: sometimes referred to by JSM as the “plan” or “measure” of Sir Robert Peel.
referred to: 343-61 passim, 501-47 passim, 607-8, 610
7 & 8 Victoria, c. 110. An Act for the Registration, Incorporation, and Regulation of Joint Stock Companies (5 September, 1844).
referred to: 407-29 passim
8 & 9 Victoria, c. 37. An Act to regulate the Issue of Bank Notes in Ireland, and to regulate the Repayment of certain Sums advanced by the Governor and Company of the Bank of Ireland for the Public Service (21 July, 1845).
referred to: 511
8 & 9 Victoria, c. 38. An Act to regulate the Issue of Bank Notes in Scotland (21 July, 1845).
referred to: 511
8 & 9 Victoria, c. 118. An Act to facilitate the Inclosure and Improvement of Commons and Lands held in common, the Exchange of Lands, and the Division of intermixed Lands; to provide Remedies for defective or incomplete Executions, and for the Nonexecution, of the Powers of general and local Inclosure Acts; and to provide for the Revival of such Powers in certain Cases (8 August, 1845).
referred to: 692
9 & 10 Victoria, c. 22. An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Importation of Corn (26 June, 1846).
referred to: 371, 384n
9 & 10 Victoria, c. 27. An Act to amend the Laws relating to Friendly Societies (3 July, 1846).
note: the references may also be to 13 & 14 Victoria, c. 115, which was not actually enacted until 15 Aug., 1850.
referred to: 408-9, 426
14 & 15 Victoria, c. 36. An Act to repeal the Duties payable on Dwelling Houses according to the Number of Windows or Lights, and to grant in lieu thereof other Duties on Inhabited Houses according to their annual Value (24 July, 1851).
referred to: 485, 489-90, 496-7
15 & 16 Victoria, c. 31. An Act to legalize the Formation of Industrial and Provident Societies (30 June, 1852).
referred to: 407n
17 & 18 Victoria, c. 81. An Act to make further Provision for the good Government and Extension of the University of Oxford, of the Colleges therein, and of the College of Saint Mary Winchester (7 August, 1854).
referred to: 214n
19 & 20 Victoria, c. 88. An Act to make further Provision for the good Government and Extension of the University of Cambridge, of the Colleges therein, and of the College of King Henry the Sixth at Eton (29 July, 1856).
referred to: 214n
23 Victoria, c. 14. An Act for granting to Her Majesty Duties on Profits arising from Property, Professions, Trades and Offices (3 April, 1860).
note: also relevant is 5 & 6 Victoria, c. 35.
referred to: 551-98 passim
30 & 31 Victoria, c. 102. An Act further to amend the Laws relating to the Representation of the People in England and Wales (15 August, 1867).
referred to: 689, 706-7
32 & 33 Victoria, c. 42. An Act to put an end to the Establishment of the Church of Ireland, and to make provision in respect of the Temporalities thereof, and in respect of the Royal College of Maynooth (26 July, 1869).
referred to: 615
33 & 34 Victoria, c. 46. An Act to amend the Law relating to the Occupation and Ownership of Land in Ireland (1 Aug., 1870).
referred to: 674
[[*] ]Say, Jean-Baptiste, Traité d’économie politique. 2 vols. Paris: Deterville, 1803.
[[†] ]Malthus, T. R. An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent. London: Murray, 1815; West, Edward. Essay on the Application of Capital to Land. London: Underwood, 1815.
[[*] ]See 9 George IV, c. 60.
[[†] ]Proverbs, 11:26.
[[*] ]See 5 & 6 Victoria, Sess. 2, c. 14.