Front Page Titles (by Subject) 68-73.: Gregory VII Exercises Secular Authority. - A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age
68-73.: Gregory VII Exercises Secular Authority. - Oliver J. Thatcher, A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age 
A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age, ed. Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar Holmes McNeal (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1905).
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- I.: The Germans and the Empire to 1073
- 1.: Selections From the Germania of Tacitus, Ca. 100 Ad
- 2.: Procopius, Vandal War. (greek.)
- 3.: Procopius, Gothic War. (greek.)
- 4.: The Salic Law.
- 5.: Selections From the History of the Franks, By Gregory of Tours.
- 6.: The Coronation of Pippin, 751.
- 7.: Einhard’s Life of Karl the Great.
- 8.: The Imperial Coronation of Karl the Great, 800.
- 9.: General Capitulary About the Missi, 802.
- 10.: Selections From the Monk of St. Gall.
- 11.: Letter of Karl the Great to Baugulf, Abbot of Fulda, 787.
- 12.: Letter of Karl the Great In Regard to the Two Books of Sermons Prepared By Paul the Deacon, Ca. 790.
- 13.: Recognition of Karl By the Emperors At Constantinople, 812.
- 14.: Letter of Karl to Emperor Michael I, 813.
- 15.: Letter to Ludwig the Pious Concerning the Appearance of a Comet, 837.
- 16.: The Strassburg Oaths, 842.
- 17-18.: the Treaty of Verdun, 843.
- 17.: Annales Bertiniani.
- 18.: Regino.
- 19.: The Treaty of Meersen, 870.
- 20.: Invasions of Northmen At the End of the Ninth Century.
- 21.: Invasion of the Hungarians, Ca. 950.
- 22.: Dissolution of the Empire.
- 23.: The Coronation of Arnulf, 896.
- 24, 25.: Rise of the Tribal Duchies In Germany, Ca. 900.
- 24.: Saxony.
- 25.: Suabia.
- 26.: Henry I and the Saxon Cities, 919-36.
- 27.: The Election of Otto I, 936.
- 28.: Otto I and the Hungarians.
- 29.: The Imperial Coronation of Otto I, 962.
- 30-31.: the Acquisition of Burgundy By the Empire, 1018-1032.
- 30.: Thietmar of Merseburg.
- 31.: Wipo, Life of Conrad II.
- 32.: Henry Iii and the Eastern Frontier, 1040 to 1043.
- II.: The Papacy to the Accession of Gregory Vii, 1073
- 33.: Legislation Concerning the Election of Bishops, Fourth to the Ninth Century.
- 34.: The Pope Must Be Chosen From the Cardinal Clergy of Rome, 769.
- 35.: The Petrine Theory As Stated By Leo I, 440-61.
- 36.: The Emperor Gives the Pope Authority In Certain Secular Matters.
- 37.: The Emperor Has the Right to Confirm the Election of the Bishop of Rome, Ca. 650. a Letter From the Church At Rome to the Emperor At Constantinople, Asking Him to Confirm the Election of Their Bishop.
- 38.: A Letter From the Church At Rome to the Exarch At Ravenna, Asking Him to Confirm the Election of Their Bishop, Ca. 600.
- 39.: Gregory I Sends Missionaries to the English, 596.
- 40.: The Oath of Boniface to Pope Gregory Ii, 723.
- 41-42.: the Rebellion of the Popes Against the Emperor.
- 41.: Letter of Pope Gregory Ii to the Emperor, Leo Iii, 726 Or 727.
- 42.: Gregory Iii Excommunicates All Iconoclasts, 731 Ad
- 43.: The Pope, Gregory Iii, Asks Aid of the Franks Against the Lombards, 739. A Letter of Gregory Iii to Karl Martel.
- 44-46.: the Acquisition of Land By the Pope.
- 44.: Promise of Pippin to Pope Stephen Ii, 753-54.
- 45.: Donation of Pippin, 756.
- 46.: Promise of Charles to Adrian I, 774.
- 47.: Karl the Great Declares the Pope Has Only Spiritual Duties, 796. Letter of Karl to Leo III.
- 48.: Karl the Great Exercises Authority In Rome, 800.
- 49.: The Oath of Pope Leo Iii Before Karl the Great, 800.
- 50.: The Oath of the Romans to Ludwig the Pious and Lothar, 824.
- 51.: The Emperor Admits the Right of the Pope to Confer the Imperial Title. Passages From a Letter of Ludwig Ii, Emperor, to Basil, Emperor At Constantinople, 871.
- 52.: The Pope Enacts That Papal Elections Must Take Place In the Presence of the Emperor’s Representatives. Enactment of a Roman Synod Held By John Ix, 898.
- 53.: The Oath of Otto I to John Xii, 961.
- 54.: Otto I Confirms the Pope In the Possession of His Lands, 962.
- 55.: Leo Viii Grants the Emperor the Right to Choose the Pope and Invest All Bishops, 963.
- 56.: The Pope Confers the Royal Title. a Letter of Pope Sylvester Ii to Stephen of Hungary, 1000.
- 57.: The Emperor, Henry Iii, Deposes and Creates Popes, 1048.
- 58.: The Pope Becomes the Feudal Lord of Southern Italy and Sicily, 1059. The Oaths of Robert Guiscard to Pope Nicholas Ii, 1059.
- 59.: The Papal Election Decree of Nicholas Ii, 1059.
- III.: The Struggle Between the Empire and the Papacy, 1073-1250
- 60-64.: Prohibition of Simony, Marriage of the Clergy, and Lay Investiture, 1074-1123.
- 60.: Prohibition of Simony and of the Marriage of the Clergy, 1074 Ad
- 61.: Simony and Celibacy. the Roman Council, 1074.
- 62.: Celibacy of the Clergy. Gregory Vii, 1074.
- 63.: Action of the Ninth General Council In the Lateran Against the Marriage of the Clergy, 1123 Ad
- 64.: Prohibition of Lay Investiture, November 19, 1078.
- 65.: Dictatus Papæ, Ca. 1090.
- 66.: Letter of Gregory Vii to All the Faithful, Commending His Legates, 1074.
- 67.: Oath of the Patriarch of Aquileia to Gregory Vii, 1079 Ad
- 68-73.: Gregory Vii Exercises Secular Authority.
- 68.: The Oath of Fidelity Which Richard, Prince of Capua, Swore to Gregory Vii, 1073.
- 69.: Letter of Gregory Vii to the Princes Wishing to Reconquer Spain, 1073.
- 70.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Wratislav, Duke of Bohemia, 1073.
- 71.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Sancho, King of Aragon, 1074.
- 72.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Solomon, King of Hungary, 1074.
- 73.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Demetrius, King of the Russians, 1075.
- 74-81.: Conflict Between Henry Iv and Gregory VII.
- 74.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Henry Iv, December, 1075.
- 75.: The Deposition of Gregory Vii By Henry Iv, January 24, 1076.
- 76.: Letter of the Bishops to Gregory Vii, January 24, 1076.
- 77.: The First Deposition and Excommunication of Henry Iv By Gregory Vii, 1076.
- 78.: The Agreement At Oppenheim, October, 1076.
- 79.: Edict Annulling the Decrees Against Pope Gregory.
- 80.: Letter of Gregory Vii to the German Princes Concerning the Penance of Henry Iv At Canossa, Ca. January 28, 1077.
- 81.: The Oath of King Henry.
- 82.: Countess Matilda Gives All Her Lands to the Church, 1102.
- 83.: The First Privilege Which Paschal Ii Granted to Henry V, February 12, 1111.
- 84.: The Second Privilege Which Paschal Ii Granted to Henry V, April 12, 1111.
- 85-86.: Concordat of Worms, 1122.
- 85.: The Promise of Calixtus II.
- 86.: The Promise of Henry V.
- 87.: Election Notice, 1125.
- 88.: Anaclete Ii Gives Roger the Title of King of Sicily, 1130.
- 89.: The Coronation Oath of Lothar Ii, June 4, 1133.
- 90.: Innocent Ii Grants the Lands of the Countess Matilda As a Fief to Lothar Ii, 1133.
- 91.: Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux to Lothar Ii, 1134.
- 92.: Letter of Bernard to Conrad Iii, 1140.
- 93.: Letter of Conrad Iii to the Greek Emperor, John Comnenus, 1142.
- 94.: Letter of Wibald, Abbot of Stablo, to Eugene Iii, 1159.
- 95.: Letter of Frederick I to Eugene Iii, Announcing His Election, 1152.
- 96.: Answer of Eugene Iii, May 17, 1152.
- 97.: Treaty of Constance, 1153.
- 98.: The Stirrup Episode, 1155.
- 99.: Treaty Between Adrian Iv and William of Sicily, 1156.
- 100-102.: the Besançon Episode, 1157.
- 100.: Letter of Adrian Iv to Frederick, September 20, 1157.
- 101.: Manifesto of the Emperor, October, 1157.
- 102.: Letter of Adrian Iv to the Emperor, February, 1158.
- 103.: Definition of Regalia Or Crown Rights, Given At the Diet Held On the Roncalian Plain, 1158.
- 104.: Grounds For the Quarrel Between Adrian Iv and Frederick I. Letter of Eberhard, Bishop of Bamberg, to Eberhard, Archbishop of Salzburg, 1159.
- 105-107.: the Disputed Papal Election of 1159.
- 105.: Letter of Alexander Iii About His Election, 1159.
- 106.: Letter of Victor Iv to the German Princes, 1159.
- 107.: The Account of the Election As Given By Gerhoh of Reichersberg, Ca. 1160.
- 108.: The Preliminary Treaty of Anagni Between Alexander Iii and Frederick I, 1176.
- 109.: The Peace of Constance, January 25, 1183.
- 110.: The Formation of the Duchy of Austria, 1156.
- 111.: The Bishop of Würzburg Is Made a Duke, 1168.
- 112.: Decree of Gelnhausen, 1180.
- 113.: Papal Election Decree of Alexander Iii, 1179.
- 114-115.: Supremacy of the Papal Power.
- 114.: Innocent Iii to Acerbius, 1198.
- 115.: The Use of the Pallium. Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Trnova (in Bulgaria), 1201.
- 116-118.: the Punishment of Heretics.
- 116.: Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Auch In Gascony, 1198.
- 117.: Innocent Iii Commands All In Authority to Aid His Legates In Destroying Heresy, 1198.
- 118.: Confiscation of the Property of Heretics. Innocent Iii to the King of Aragon, 1206.
- 119.: Innocent Iii Commands the French Bishops to Punish Usury, 1198.
- 120.: Innocent Iii Forbids Violence to the Jews, 1199.
- 121.: Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Rouen, 1198.
- 122.: Innocent Iii to a Bishop, Forbidding Laymen to Demand Tithes of the Clergy, 1198.
- 123-125.: the Secular Power of Innocent III.
- 123.: The Prefect of Rome Takes the Oath of Fidelity to the Pope, 1198.
- 124.: John of Ceccano’s Oath of Fidelity to Innocent Iii, 1201.
- 125.: Innocent Iii Commands the Archbishop of Messina to Receive the Oaths of Bailiffs In Sicily, 1203.
- 126.: Innocent Iii Commands the English Barons to Pay Their Accustomed Scutage to King John, 1206.
- 127.: Innocent Iii to Peter of Aragon, 1211.
- 128.: Innocent Iii Grants the Title of King to the Duke of Bohemia, 1204.
- 129.: Innocent Iii Rebukes the English Barons For Resisting King John of England, 1216.
- 130.: Decision of Innocent Iii In Regard to the Disputed Election of Frederick Ii, Philip of Suabia, and Otto of Brunswick, 1201.
- 131.: Treaty Between Philip, King of Germany, and Philip Ii, King of France, 1198.
- 132.: Alliance Between Otto Iv and John of England, 1202.
- 133.: Concessions of Philip of Suabia to Innocent Iii, 1203.
- 134.: Promise of Frederick Ii to Innocent Iii, 1213.
- 135.: Promise of Frederick Ii to Resign Sicily After His Coronation As Emperor, 1216.
- 136.: Concessions of Frederick Ii to the Ecclesiastical Princes of Germany, 1220.
- 137.: Decision of the Diet Concerning the Granting of New Tolls and Mints, 1220.
- 138.: Frederick Ii Gives a Charter to the Patriarch of Aquileia, 1220.
- 139.: Statute of Frederick Ii In Favor of the Princes, 1231-2.
- 140-142.: Treaty of San Germano, 1230.
- 140.: The Preliminary Agreement.
- 141.: Papal Stipulations In the Peace of San Germano, 1230.
- 142.: Letter of Gregory Ix About the Emperor’s Visit to Him After the Peace of San Germano, 1230.
- 143-144.: the Final Struggle Between Gregory Ix and Frederick II.
- 143.: Papal Charges and Imperial Defence, 1238.
- 144.: The Excommunication of Frederick Ii, 1239.
- 145.: Current Stories About Frederick II.
- IV.: The Empire From 1250 to 1500
- 146.: Diet of Nürnberg, 1274.
- 147.: The German Princes Confirm Rudolf’s Surrender of All Imperial Claims In Italy, 1278-79.
- 148.: Revocation of Grants of Lands Belonging to the Imperial Domain, 1281.
- 149.: An Electoral “letter of Consent,” 1282.
- 150.: Letter of Rudolf to Edward I, King of England, Announcing His Intention of Investing His Sons With Austria, Etc., 1283.
- 151.: Decree Against Counterfeiters, 1285.
- 152.: The Beginning of the Swiss Confederation, 1290.
- 152 A.: Edict of Rudolf, Forbidding Judges of Servile Rank to Exercise Authority In Schwyz, 1291.
- 153.: Concessions of Adolf, Count of Nassau, to the Archbishop of Cologne In Return For His Vote, 1292.
- 154.: The Archbishop of Mainz Is Confirmed As Archchancellor of Germany, 1298.
- 155.: Declaration of the Election of Henry Vii, 1308.
- 156.: The Supplying of the Office of the Archchancellor of Italy, 1310.
- 157.: The Law “licet Juris” of the Diet of Frankfort, August 8, 1338.
- 158-159.: the Diet of Coblenz, 1338.
- 158.: Chronicle of Flanders. (french.)
- 159.: Chronicle of Henry Knyghton.
- 160.: The Golden Bull of Charles Iv, 1356.
- 160 a and 160 B.: the Acquisition of the Mark of Brandenburg By the Hohenzollern Family, 1411.
- 160 A.: the Cities of the Mark Make Complaints to Sigismund, 1411. ( German. )
- 160 B.: Sigismund Orders the People of the Mark to Receive Frederick of Hohenzollern As Their Governor, 1412. ( German. )
- V.: The Church From 1250 to 1500
- 161.: Bull of Nicholas Iii Condemning All Heretics, 1280.
- 162.: The Bull “clericis Laicos” of Boniface Viii, 1298.
- 163.: Boniface Viii Announces the Jubilee Year, 1300.
- 164.: The Bull “unam Sanctam” of Boniface Viii, 1302.
- 165.: Conclusions Drawn By Marsilius of Padua From His “defensor Pacis.”
- 166.: Condemnation of Marsilius of Padua. 1327.
- 167.: The Beginning of the Schism. the Manifesto of the Revolting Cardinals. Aug. 5, 1378.
- 168.: The University of Paris and the Schism, 1393.
- 169.: The Council of Pisa Declares It Is Competent to Try the Popes. 1409.
- 170.: An Oath of the Cardinals to Reform the Church. Council of Pisa, 1409.
- 171.: The Council of Constance Claims Supreme Authority, 1415.
- 172.: Reforms Demanded By the Council of Constance, 1417.
- 173.: Concerning General Councils. the Council of Constance, 39th Session, October 9, 1417.
- 174.: Pius Ii, By the Bull “execrabilis,” Condemns Appeals to a General Council, 1459.
- 175.: William Iii of Saxony Forbids Appeals to Foreign Courts, 1446.
- 176.: Papal Charter For the Establishment of the University of Avignon, 1303.
- 177.: Popular Dissatisfaction That the Church Had So Much Wealth, Ca. 1480.
- 178.: Complaints of the Germans Against the Pope, 1510.
- 179.: Abuses In the Sale of Indulgences, 1512.
- VI.: Feudalism
- 180.: Form For the Creation of an Antrustio By the King.
- 181.: Form For the Suspending of Lawsuits.
- 182.: Form For Commendation. Middle of Eighth Century.
- 183.: Form By Which the King Allows a Powerful Person to Undertake the Cases of a Poor Person.
- 184-188.: Dependent Tenure of Land.
- 184.: Form For the Gift of Land to a Church to Be Received Back By the Giver As a Benefice.
- 185.: Form For a Precarial Letter.
- 186.: Form of Precarial Letter.
- 187.: Form of Precarial Letter.
- 188.: Gift of Land to Be Received Back and Held In Perpetuity For a Fixed Rent.
- 189.: Treaty of Andelot, 587.
- 190-194.: Grants of Immunity.
- 190.: Precept of Chlothar Ii, 584-628.
- 191.: Grant of Immunity to a Monastery, 673.
- 192.: Form of a Grant of Immunity to a Monastery.
- 193.: Form By Which the King Granted Lands With Immunity to Secular Persons.
- 194.: Grant of Immunity to a Secular Person, 815.
- 195-196.: the Feudalizing of Public Offices.
- 195.: Edict of Chlothar Ii, 614.
- 196.: Capitulary of Kiersy, 877.
- 197-202.: the Military Obligation of the Holder of Land.
- 197.: Capitulary of Lestinnes, 743.
- 198.: Capitulary of Aquitaine, Pippin, 768.
- 199.: Capitulary of Heristal, 779.
- 200.: General Capitulary to the Missi, 802.
- 201.: Capitulary to the Missi, 806.
- 202.: Capitulary Concerning Various Matters, 807.
- 203-208.: Effect of the Carolingian Organization On the Growth of Feudalism.
- 203.: General Capitulary to the Missi, 805.
- 204.: Capitulary of 811.
- 205.: Capitulary of Worms, 829.
- 206.: Capitulary of Aachen, 801-813.
- 207.: Agreement of Lothar, Ludwig, and Charles, 847.
- 208.: Capitulary of Bologna, 811.
- 209.: Homage.
- 210.: Homage.
- 211.: Homage.
- 212.: Homage.
- 213.: Homage.
- 214.: Homage of Edward Iii of England to Philip V of France, 1329.
- 215.: Feudal Aids.
- 216.: Feudal Aids.
- 217.: Feudal Aids, Etc.
- 218-225.: Homages Paid By the Count of Champagne.
- 218.: Homage to the Duke of Burgundy, 1143.
- 219.: Homage to Philip Ii of France, 1198.
- 220.: Homage to the Duke of Burgundy, 1200.
- 221, 222.: Agreement Between Blanche of Champagne and Philip Ii, 1201.
- 221.: Letter of Blanche.
- 222.: Letter of the King.
- 223.: Homage to the Bishop of Langres, 1214.
- 224.: Homage to the Bishop of Châlons, 1214.
- 225.: Homage to the Abbot of St. Denis, 1226.
- 226.: List of the Fiefs of Champagne, About 1172.
- 227.: Sum of the Knights [who Owe Service to the Count of Champagne].
- 228.: Extent of the Lands of the County of Champagne and Brie, About 1215.
- 229, 230.: The Attempt of the King to Control the Feudal Nobles.
- 229.: The Feudal Law of Conrad Ii, 1037.
- 230.: The Feudal Law of Frederick I For Italy, 1158.
- VII.: Courts, Judicial Processes, and the Peace
- 231.: Sachsenspiegel.
- 232.: Frederic Ii Appoints a Justiciar and a Court Secretary, 1235. From the Peace of the Land Which Was Proclaimed At Mainz, 1235.
- 233.: Wenzel Creates a Commission to Arbitrate All Differences, 1389. From the Peace of Eger, 1398. (german.)
- 234-239.: Ordeals Or Judgments of God.
- 234.: Ordeal By Hot Water.
- 235.: Ordeal By Hot Iron.
- 236.: Ordeal By Cold Water.
- 237.: Ordeal By Cold Water.
- 238.: Ordeal By the Barley Bread.
- 239.: Ordeal By Bread and Cheese.
- 240-250.: Documents On the Peace of God, the Truce of God, and the Peace of the Land.
- 240.: Peace of God, Proclaimed In the Synod of Charroux, 989.
- 241.: Peace of God, Proclaimed By Guy of Anjou, Bishop of Puy, 990.
- 242.: Truce of God, Made For the Archbishopric of Arles, 1035-41.
- 243.: Truce of God For the Archbishoprics of Besancon and Vienne, Ca., 1041.
- 244.: Truce For the Bishopric of Terouanne, 1063.
- 245.: Peace of the Land Established By Henry Iv, 1103.
- 246.: Peace of the Land For Elsass, 1085-1103.
- 247.: Decree of Frederick I Concerning the Keeping of Peace, 1156.
- 248.: Peace of the Land Declared By Frederick I In Italy, 1158.
- 249.: The Perpetual Peace of the Land Proclaimed By Maximilian I, 1495. ( German. )
- 250.: The Establishment of a Supreme Court to Try Peace-breakers, 1495. ( German. )
- VIII.: Monasticism
- 251.: The Rule of St. Benedict. About 530.
- 252.: Oath of the Benedictines.
- 253.: Monk’s Vow.
- 254.: Monk’s Vow.
- 255.: Monk’s Vow.
- 256.: Monk’s Vow.
- 257.: The Written Profession of a Monk.
- 258.: The Ceremony of Receiving a Monk Into the Monastery.
- 259.: Offering of a Child to the Monastery.
- 260.: Offering of a Child to the Monastery.
- 261.: Commendatory Letter.
- 262.: Commendatory Letter.
- 263.: General Letter.
- 264.: Letter of Dismissal.
- 265.: The Regular Clergy. Prologue of the Rule of St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, For His Clergy, Ca. 744.
- 265 A.: Military-monkish Orders. the Origin of the Templars, 1119.
- 266.: Anastasius Iv Grants Privileges to the Knights of St. John (hospitallers), 1154.
- 267.: Innocent Iii Orders the Bishops of France to Guard Against Simony In the Monasteries, 1211.
- 268.: Innocent Iii Grants the Use of the Mitre to the Abbot of Marseilles, 1204.
- 269.: The Friars. the Rule of St. Francis, 1223.
- 270.: The Testament of St. Francis, 1220.
- 271.: Innocent Iv Grants the Friars Permission to Ride On Horseback When Travelling In the Service of the King of England, 1250.
- 272.: Alexander Iv Condemns the Attacks Made On the Friars Because of Their Idleness and Begging, 1256.
- 273.: John Xxii Condemns the Theses of John of Poilly In Which He Attacked the Friars, 1320.
- IX.: The Crusades
- 274.: The Meritorious Character of Martyrdom. Origen, Exhortation to Martyrdom, 235 Ad, Chaps. 30 and 50. (greek.)
- 275.: Origen, Commentary On Numbers, Homily X, 2. ( Greek. )
- 276.: Forgiveness of Sins For Those Who Die In Battle With the Heathen. Leo Iv (847-55) to the Army of the Franks.
- 277.: Indulgence For Fighting Heathen, 878.
- 278.: Gregory Vii Calls For a Crusade, 1074.
- 279.: The Speech of Urban Ii At the Council of Clermont, 1095. Fulcher of Chartres.
- 280.: The Council of Clermont, 1095. Robert the Monk.
- 281.: The Truce of God and Indulgence For Crusaders. the Council of Clermont, 1095.
- 282.: Rabble Bands of Crusaders. Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolimita.
- 283.: Peter the Hermit. Anonymi Gesta Francorum, 1097-99.
- 284.: Eugene Iii Announces a Crusade, December 1, 1145.
- 285.: The Third Crusade, 1189-90. From the Chronicle of Otto of St. Blasien.
- 286.: Innocent Iii Forbids the Venetians to Traffic With the Mohammedans, 1198.
- 287.: Papal Protection of Crusaders. Innocent Iii Takes the King of the Danes Under His Protection, 1210.
- 288.: Innocent Iii and the Lateran Council Announce a Crusade, 1215.
- X.: Social Classes and Cities In Germany
- 289.: Otto Iii Forbids the Unfree Classes to Attempt to Free Themselves, Ca. 1000.
- 290.: Henry I Frees a Serf, 926.
- 291.: Henry Iii Frees a Female Serf, 1050.
- 292.: The Recovery of Fugitive Serfs, 1224.
- 293.: The Rank of Children Born of Mixed Marriages Is Fixed, 1282.
- 294.: Frederick Ii Confers Nobility, About 1240.
- 295.: Charles Iv Confers Nobility On a Doctor of Both Laws, 1360.
- 296.: The Law of the Family of the Bishop of Worms, 1023.
- 297.: The Charter of the Ministerials of the Archbishop of Cologne, 1154.
- 298.: The Bishop of Hamburg Grants a Charter to Colonists, 1106.
- 299.: The Privilege of Frederick I For the Jews, 1157.
- 300.: The Bishop of Speyer Gives the Jews of His City a Charter, 1084.
- 301-325.: the Cities of Germany.
- 301.: Lothar Ii (855-69) Grants a Market to the Monastery of Prüm, 861.
- 302.: Otto I Grants a Market to an Archbishop, 965.
- 303.: Otto Iii Grants a Market to Count Bertold, 999.
- 304.: No One Shall Compel Merchants to Come to His Market, 1236.
- 305.: A Market-court Is Independent of the Local Court, 1218.
- 306.: Otto I Grants Jurisdiction Over a Town to the Abbots of New Corvey, 940.
- 307.: The Ban-mile, Or the Limits of the Bishop’s Authority, 1237.
- 308.: The Citizens of Cologne Expel Their Archbishop, 1074.
- 309.: The People of Cologne Rebel Against Their Archbishop, 1074.
- 310.: Confirmation of the Immediateness of the Citizens of Speyer, 1267.
- 311.: Summons Sent to an Imperial City to Attend a Diet, 1338.
- 312.: Municipal Freedom Is Given to the Town Called Ebenbuchholtz, 1201.
- 313.: The Extension of the Corporate Limits of the City of Brunswick, 1269.
- 314.: The Decision of a Diet About the Establishment of City Councils In Cathedral Towns, 1218.
- 315.: Frederick Ii Forbird the Municipal Freedom of the Towns and Annuls All City Charters, 1231-2.
- 316.: Breslau Adopts the Charter of Magdeburg, 1261. (german.)
- 317.: The Schoeffen of Magdeburg Give Decisions For Culm, 1338. (german.)
- 318.: The Establishment of the Rhine League, 1254.
- 319.: Peace Established By the Rhine League, 1254.
- 320.: Agreement Between Hamburg and Lübeck, Ca. 1230.
- 321.: Agreement For Mutual Protection Between Lübeck and Hamburg, 1241.
- 322.: Lübeck, Rostock, and Wismar Proscribe Pirates, 1259.
- 323.: Decrees of the Hanseatic League, 1260-64.
- 324.: Decrees of the Hanseatic League, 1265.
- 325.: Cologne Merchants Have a Gildhall In London, 1157.
- 1.: Large Collections; National
- 2.: Large Collections; Ecclesiastical and Papal
- 3.: Special Topics Selected Documents, Etc.
Gregory VII Exercises Secular Authority.
The Oath of Fidelity which Richard, Prince of Capua, Swore to Gregory VII, 1073.
Gregory VII, in accordance with his political pretensions, endeavored to compel all rulers of the Christian world to acknowledge his supremacy over them. He made the broadest claims to the proprietorship of all kingdoms, duchies, counties, etc., and tried to compel all rulers of every rank to take an oath of vassalage to him and to receive their lands from him as fiefs. Nos. 68-73 illustrate this feature of his policy.
I, Richard, by the grace of God and St. Peter prince of Capua, from this time forth will be faithful to the holy Roman church, to the apostolic see, and to you, pope Gregory. I will have no share in any plan or any deed to injure you in life or limb or to make you captive. Any plan which you may confide to me, wishing it to be kept secret, I will never divulge consciously to your injury. I will faithfully aid you and the holy Roman church to keep, acquire, and defend the regalia and the possessions of St. Peter against all men and I will assist you to hold the papacy and the lands of St. Peter in peace and honor. I will never attempt to attack, seize, or devastate any lands without the express permission of you or your successors, except such lands as you or your successors may have given to me. I promise to pay to the Roman church the legal tribute from the lands of St. Peter, which I hold or shall hold. I will surrender to your authority all the churches which are in my lands, with all their goods, and I will defend them in their fidelity to the holy Roman church. I will swear fidelity to king Henry whenever I shall be commanded to do so by you or your successors, always saving my fidelity to the holy Roman church. If you or any of your successors shall die before I do, I will support the better part of the cardinals and the clergy and the people of Rome in the election and establishment of a new pope to the honor of St. Peter. I will keep all the above promises to you and to the holy Roman church in good faith, and I will keep my oath of fidelity to your successors who shall be ordained popes, if they are willing to confirm the investiture which you have conferred upon me.
Letter of Gregory VII to the Princes Wishing to Reconquer Spain, 1073.
See introductory note to no. 68.
Gregory, pope elect, to all the princes desiring to go into Spain, perpetual greeting in the Lord Jesus Christ.
We suppose you know that the kingdom of Spain belonged of old to St. Peter, and that this right has never been lost, although the land has long been occupied by pagans. Therefore the ownership of this land inheres in the apostolic see alone, for whatever has come into the possession of the churches by the will of God, while it may be alienated from their use, may not by any lapse of time be separated from their ownership except by lawful grant. Count Evolus of Roceio, whose fame you must know, wishes to attack that land and rescue it from the heathen. Therefore we have granted him the possession of such territory as he may win from the pagans by his own efforts or with the aid of allies, on conditions agreed upon by us as the representative of St. Peter. You who join him in this undertaking should do so to the honor of St. Peter, that St. Peter may protect you from danger and reward your fidelity to him. But if any of you plan to attack that land independently with your own forces, you should do so in a spirit of devotion and with righteous motives. Beware lest after you have conquered the land you wrong St. Peter in the same way as the infidels do who now hold it. Unless you are prepared to recognize the rights of St. Peter by making an equitable agreement with us, we will forbid you by our apostolic authority to go thither, that your holy and universal mother, the church, may not suffer from her sons the same injuries which she now suffers from her enemies, to the loss not only of her property, but also of the devotion of her children. To this end we have sent to Spain our beloved son, Hugo, cardinal priest of the holy Roman church, and he will inform you more fully of our terms and conditions.
Letter of Gregory VII to Wratislav, Duke of Bohemia, 1073.
See introductory note to no. 68.
Gregory, etc., to Wratislav, etc. We give thanks to omnipotent God that you have been led by your devotion and reverence for the apostles Peter and Paul, princes of the apostles, to receive our legates with kindness and treat them with the graciousness which is becoming to your majesty. Receive the assurance of our good-will in return for this evidence of your fidelity. It has not been usual for papal legates to visit your land; this, however, is partly the fault of your forefathers, as well as of our predecessors, for the dukes of Bohemia should have requested the pope to send them legates. But some of your subjects have regarded our sending of legates as an innovation, and have treated them with contempt, forgetting the word of God: “He that receiveth you receiveth me” [Matt. 10:40]; “and he that despiseth you despiseth me” [Luke 10:16]. So in failing to show due reverence to our legates, they have not so much despised them, as they have despised the word of truth. . . .
Letter of Gregory VII to Sancho, King of Aragon, 1074.
See introductory note to no. 68.
Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Sancho, king of Aragon, greeting and apostolic benediction.
We received your gracious letter with great joy, because of the evidence which it contained of your fidelity to the princes of the apostles, Peter and Paul, and to the holy Roman church. But indeed even if we had not received your letter we should have been well aware of your fidelity through the report of our legates. By enforcing the observances of the Roman form of service in the churches of your kingdom you have shown that you are a true son of the Roman church and that you bear the same friendship to us that former kings of Spain have borne to the Roman pope. Be firm and constant in the faith and complete the good work which you have begun; then the blessed St. Peter, whom our Lord Jesus Christ has made ruler over the kingdoms of this world, will bring to pass the desires of your heart and will make you victorious over your enemies, because of the trust which you have placed in him. . . .
Letter of Gregory VII to Solomon, King of Hungary, 1074.
See introductory note to no. 68.
Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Solomon, king of Hungary, greeting and apostolic benediction.
Your letter was late in reaching us because of the delay of the messenger, but when it did come we were displeased with it because its terms were offensive to St. Peter. For the kingdom of Hungary, as you can learn from your own princes, belongs of right to the holy Roman church, having been offered and surrendered to St. Peter with all its rights and powers by the former king Stephen. And when the emperor Henry [II] of blessed memory, attacked the kingdom in the defense of the honor of St. Peter and captured the king, he forwarded to the grave of St. Peter the lance and crown, the insignia of kingship. But we hear that you have accepted the kingdom as a fief from the king of the Germans, thereby infringing the rights and the honor of St. Peter and acting in a manner incompatible with the virtue and character of a king. If you wish to have the favor of St. Peter and our good will, you must correct your faults; you know yourself that you cannot hope for justice, that, indeed, you cannot reign any length of time, unless you admit that you hold the sceptre of your kingdom from the pope and not from the king. As far as God shall give us strength, we will never through fear or affection or any personal consideration consent to the diminishing of the honor of him whom we serve. But if you are willing to mend your ways and act as a king should, you may easily win the love of your mother, the holy Roman church, and our friendship in Christ.
Letter of Gregory VII to Demetrius, King of the Russians, 1075.
See introductory note to no. 68.
Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Demetrius, king of the Russians, and to his wife, the queen, greeting and apostolic benediction.
Your son has visited us at Rome, and has asked that we invest him with the kingdom of the Russians in the name of St. Peter. He has given sufficient evidence of his fidelity to St. Peter, and has assured us that he is acting with your consent in making the petition. We have felt justified in granting his petition because of your consent and of the devotion which he has evidenced; therefore we have conferred upon him in the name of St. Peter the government of your kingdom. We pray that St. Peter may protect you and your kingdom and all your possessions by his intercession with God, that he may cause you to hold your kingdom in peace, glory, and honor, all your days, and that at the end of this life he may obtain for you an eternal glory with the King of Heaven. We shall always be ready to grant your request whenever you call upon us in any righteous cause. In regard to this matter of the investiture and other affairs not mentioned in this letter, we have sent you these legates, one of whom is a well-known and faithful friend of yours. Treat them kindly out of reverence for St. Peter, whose legates they are; listen to them and believe without hesitation whatever they may say on our behalf. Do not allow them to be hindered in the discharge of any of the duties with which we have intrusted them, but give them your faithful assistance. May omnipotent God illumine your soul and lead you through this temporal life to his eternal glory.