Front Page Titles (by Subject) 18.: Regino. - A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age
18.: Regino. - Oliver J. Thatcher, A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age 
A Source Book for Mediaeval History. Selected Documents Illustrating the History of Europe in the Middle Age, ed. Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar Holmes McNeal (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1905).
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- I.: The Germans and the Empire to 1073
- 1.: Selections From the Germania of Tacitus, Ca. 100 Ad
- 2.: Procopius, Vandal War. (greek.)
- 3.: Procopius, Gothic War. (greek.)
- 4.: The Salic Law.
- 5.: Selections From the History of the Franks, By Gregory of Tours.
- 6.: The Coronation of Pippin, 751.
- 7.: Einhard’s Life of Karl the Great.
- 8.: The Imperial Coronation of Karl the Great, 800.
- 9.: General Capitulary About the Missi, 802.
- 10.: Selections From the Monk of St. Gall.
- 11.: Letter of Karl the Great to Baugulf, Abbot of Fulda, 787.
- 12.: Letter of Karl the Great In Regard to the Two Books of Sermons Prepared By Paul the Deacon, Ca. 790.
- 13.: Recognition of Karl By the Emperors At Constantinople, 812.
- 14.: Letter of Karl to Emperor Michael I, 813.
- 15.: Letter to Ludwig the Pious Concerning the Appearance of a Comet, 837.
- 16.: The Strassburg Oaths, 842.
- 17-18.: the Treaty of Verdun, 843.
- 17.: Annales Bertiniani.
- 18.: Regino.
- 19.: The Treaty of Meersen, 870.
- 20.: Invasions of Northmen At the End of the Ninth Century.
- 21.: Invasion of the Hungarians, Ca. 950.
- 22.: Dissolution of the Empire.
- 23.: The Coronation of Arnulf, 896.
- 24, 25.: Rise of the Tribal Duchies In Germany, Ca. 900.
- 24.: Saxony.
- 25.: Suabia.
- 26.: Henry I and the Saxon Cities, 919-36.
- 27.: The Election of Otto I, 936.
- 28.: Otto I and the Hungarians.
- 29.: The Imperial Coronation of Otto I, 962.
- 30-31.: the Acquisition of Burgundy By the Empire, 1018-1032.
- 30.: Thietmar of Merseburg.
- 31.: Wipo, Life of Conrad II.
- 32.: Henry Iii and the Eastern Frontier, 1040 to 1043.
- II.: The Papacy to the Accession of Gregory Vii, 1073
- 33.: Legislation Concerning the Election of Bishops, Fourth to the Ninth Century.
- 34.: The Pope Must Be Chosen From the Cardinal Clergy of Rome, 769.
- 35.: The Petrine Theory As Stated By Leo I, 440-61.
- 36.: The Emperor Gives the Pope Authority In Certain Secular Matters.
- 37.: The Emperor Has the Right to Confirm the Election of the Bishop of Rome, Ca. 650. a Letter From the Church At Rome to the Emperor At Constantinople, Asking Him to Confirm the Election of Their Bishop.
- 38.: A Letter From the Church At Rome to the Exarch At Ravenna, Asking Him to Confirm the Election of Their Bishop, Ca. 600.
- 39.: Gregory I Sends Missionaries to the English, 596.
- 40.: The Oath of Boniface to Pope Gregory Ii, 723.
- 41-42.: the Rebellion of the Popes Against the Emperor.
- 41.: Letter of Pope Gregory Ii to the Emperor, Leo Iii, 726 Or 727.
- 42.: Gregory Iii Excommunicates All Iconoclasts, 731 Ad
- 43.: The Pope, Gregory Iii, Asks Aid of the Franks Against the Lombards, 739. A Letter of Gregory Iii to Karl Martel.
- 44-46.: the Acquisition of Land By the Pope.
- 44.: Promise of Pippin to Pope Stephen Ii, 753-54.
- 45.: Donation of Pippin, 756.
- 46.: Promise of Charles to Adrian I, 774.
- 47.: Karl the Great Declares the Pope Has Only Spiritual Duties, 796. Letter of Karl to Leo III.
- 48.: Karl the Great Exercises Authority In Rome, 800.
- 49.: The Oath of Pope Leo Iii Before Karl the Great, 800.
- 50.: The Oath of the Romans to Ludwig the Pious and Lothar, 824.
- 51.: The Emperor Admits the Right of the Pope to Confer the Imperial Title. Passages From a Letter of Ludwig Ii, Emperor, to Basil, Emperor At Constantinople, 871.
- 52.: The Pope Enacts That Papal Elections Must Take Place In the Presence of the Emperor’s Representatives. Enactment of a Roman Synod Held By John Ix, 898.
- 53.: The Oath of Otto I to John Xii, 961.
- 54.: Otto I Confirms the Pope In the Possession of His Lands, 962.
- 55.: Leo Viii Grants the Emperor the Right to Choose the Pope and Invest All Bishops, 963.
- 56.: The Pope Confers the Royal Title. a Letter of Pope Sylvester Ii to Stephen of Hungary, 1000.
- 57.: The Emperor, Henry Iii, Deposes and Creates Popes, 1048.
- 58.: The Pope Becomes the Feudal Lord of Southern Italy and Sicily, 1059. The Oaths of Robert Guiscard to Pope Nicholas Ii, 1059.
- 59.: The Papal Election Decree of Nicholas Ii, 1059.
- III.: The Struggle Between the Empire and the Papacy, 1073-1250
- 60-64.: Prohibition of Simony, Marriage of the Clergy, and Lay Investiture, 1074-1123.
- 60.: Prohibition of Simony and of the Marriage of the Clergy, 1074 Ad
- 61.: Simony and Celibacy. the Roman Council, 1074.
- 62.: Celibacy of the Clergy. Gregory Vii, 1074.
- 63.: Action of the Ninth General Council In the Lateran Against the Marriage of the Clergy, 1123 Ad
- 64.: Prohibition of Lay Investiture, November 19, 1078.
- 65.: Dictatus Papæ, Ca. 1090.
- 66.: Letter of Gregory Vii to All the Faithful, Commending His Legates, 1074.
- 67.: Oath of the Patriarch of Aquileia to Gregory Vii, 1079 Ad
- 68-73.: Gregory Vii Exercises Secular Authority.
- 68.: The Oath of Fidelity Which Richard, Prince of Capua, Swore to Gregory Vii, 1073.
- 69.: Letter of Gregory Vii to the Princes Wishing to Reconquer Spain, 1073.
- 70.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Wratislav, Duke of Bohemia, 1073.
- 71.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Sancho, King of Aragon, 1074.
- 72.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Solomon, King of Hungary, 1074.
- 73.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Demetrius, King of the Russians, 1075.
- 74-81.: Conflict Between Henry Iv and Gregory VII.
- 74.: Letter of Gregory Vii to Henry Iv, December, 1075.
- 75.: The Deposition of Gregory Vii By Henry Iv, January 24, 1076.
- 76.: Letter of the Bishops to Gregory Vii, January 24, 1076.
- 77.: The First Deposition and Excommunication of Henry Iv By Gregory Vii, 1076.
- 78.: The Agreement At Oppenheim, October, 1076.
- 79.: Edict Annulling the Decrees Against Pope Gregory.
- 80.: Letter of Gregory Vii to the German Princes Concerning the Penance of Henry Iv At Canossa, Ca. January 28, 1077.
- 81.: The Oath of King Henry.
- 82.: Countess Matilda Gives All Her Lands to the Church, 1102.
- 83.: The First Privilege Which Paschal Ii Granted to Henry V, February 12, 1111.
- 84.: The Second Privilege Which Paschal Ii Granted to Henry V, April 12, 1111.
- 85-86.: Concordat of Worms, 1122.
- 85.: The Promise of Calixtus II.
- 86.: The Promise of Henry V.
- 87.: Election Notice, 1125.
- 88.: Anaclete Ii Gives Roger the Title of King of Sicily, 1130.
- 89.: The Coronation Oath of Lothar Ii, June 4, 1133.
- 90.: Innocent Ii Grants the Lands of the Countess Matilda As a Fief to Lothar Ii, 1133.
- 91.: Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux to Lothar Ii, 1134.
- 92.: Letter of Bernard to Conrad Iii, 1140.
- 93.: Letter of Conrad Iii to the Greek Emperor, John Comnenus, 1142.
- 94.: Letter of Wibald, Abbot of Stablo, to Eugene Iii, 1159.
- 95.: Letter of Frederick I to Eugene Iii, Announcing His Election, 1152.
- 96.: Answer of Eugene Iii, May 17, 1152.
- 97.: Treaty of Constance, 1153.
- 98.: The Stirrup Episode, 1155.
- 99.: Treaty Between Adrian Iv and William of Sicily, 1156.
- 100-102.: the Besançon Episode, 1157.
- 100.: Letter of Adrian Iv to Frederick, September 20, 1157.
- 101.: Manifesto of the Emperor, October, 1157.
- 102.: Letter of Adrian Iv to the Emperor, February, 1158.
- 103.: Definition of Regalia Or Crown Rights, Given At the Diet Held On the Roncalian Plain, 1158.
- 104.: Grounds For the Quarrel Between Adrian Iv and Frederick I. Letter of Eberhard, Bishop of Bamberg, to Eberhard, Archbishop of Salzburg, 1159.
- 105-107.: the Disputed Papal Election of 1159.
- 105.: Letter of Alexander Iii About His Election, 1159.
- 106.: Letter of Victor Iv to the German Princes, 1159.
- 107.: The Account of the Election As Given By Gerhoh of Reichersberg, Ca. 1160.
- 108.: The Preliminary Treaty of Anagni Between Alexander Iii and Frederick I, 1176.
- 109.: The Peace of Constance, January 25, 1183.
- 110.: The Formation of the Duchy of Austria, 1156.
- 111.: The Bishop of Würzburg Is Made a Duke, 1168.
- 112.: Decree of Gelnhausen, 1180.
- 113.: Papal Election Decree of Alexander Iii, 1179.
- 114-115.: Supremacy of the Papal Power.
- 114.: Innocent Iii to Acerbius, 1198.
- 115.: The Use of the Pallium. Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Trnova (in Bulgaria), 1201.
- 116-118.: the Punishment of Heretics.
- 116.: Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Auch In Gascony, 1198.
- 117.: Innocent Iii Commands All In Authority to Aid His Legates In Destroying Heresy, 1198.
- 118.: Confiscation of the Property of Heretics. Innocent Iii to the King of Aragon, 1206.
- 119.: Innocent Iii Commands the French Bishops to Punish Usury, 1198.
- 120.: Innocent Iii Forbids Violence to the Jews, 1199.
- 121.: Innocent Iii to the Archbishop of Rouen, 1198.
- 122.: Innocent Iii to a Bishop, Forbidding Laymen to Demand Tithes of the Clergy, 1198.
- 123-125.: the Secular Power of Innocent III.
- 123.: The Prefect of Rome Takes the Oath of Fidelity to the Pope, 1198.
- 124.: John of Ceccano’s Oath of Fidelity to Innocent Iii, 1201.
- 125.: Innocent Iii Commands the Archbishop of Messina to Receive the Oaths of Bailiffs In Sicily, 1203.
- 126.: Innocent Iii Commands the English Barons to Pay Their Accustomed Scutage to King John, 1206.
- 127.: Innocent Iii to Peter of Aragon, 1211.
- 128.: Innocent Iii Grants the Title of King to the Duke of Bohemia, 1204.
- 129.: Innocent Iii Rebukes the English Barons For Resisting King John of England, 1216.
- 130.: Decision of Innocent Iii In Regard to the Disputed Election of Frederick Ii, Philip of Suabia, and Otto of Brunswick, 1201.
- 131.: Treaty Between Philip, King of Germany, and Philip Ii, King of France, 1198.
- 132.: Alliance Between Otto Iv and John of England, 1202.
- 133.: Concessions of Philip of Suabia to Innocent Iii, 1203.
- 134.: Promise of Frederick Ii to Innocent Iii, 1213.
- 135.: Promise of Frederick Ii to Resign Sicily After His Coronation As Emperor, 1216.
- 136.: Concessions of Frederick Ii to the Ecclesiastical Princes of Germany, 1220.
- 137.: Decision of the Diet Concerning the Granting of New Tolls and Mints, 1220.
- 138.: Frederick Ii Gives a Charter to the Patriarch of Aquileia, 1220.
- 139.: Statute of Frederick Ii In Favor of the Princes, 1231-2.
- 140-142.: Treaty of San Germano, 1230.
- 140.: The Preliminary Agreement.
- 141.: Papal Stipulations In the Peace of San Germano, 1230.
- 142.: Letter of Gregory Ix About the Emperor’s Visit to Him After the Peace of San Germano, 1230.
- 143-144.: the Final Struggle Between Gregory Ix and Frederick II.
- 143.: Papal Charges and Imperial Defence, 1238.
- 144.: The Excommunication of Frederick Ii, 1239.
- 145.: Current Stories About Frederick II.
- IV.: The Empire From 1250 to 1500
- 146.: Diet of Nürnberg, 1274.
- 147.: The German Princes Confirm Rudolf’s Surrender of All Imperial Claims In Italy, 1278-79.
- 148.: Revocation of Grants of Lands Belonging to the Imperial Domain, 1281.
- 149.: An Electoral “letter of Consent,” 1282.
- 150.: Letter of Rudolf to Edward I, King of England, Announcing His Intention of Investing His Sons With Austria, Etc., 1283.
- 151.: Decree Against Counterfeiters, 1285.
- 152.: The Beginning of the Swiss Confederation, 1290.
- 152 A.: Edict of Rudolf, Forbidding Judges of Servile Rank to Exercise Authority In Schwyz, 1291.
- 153.: Concessions of Adolf, Count of Nassau, to the Archbishop of Cologne In Return For His Vote, 1292.
- 154.: The Archbishop of Mainz Is Confirmed As Archchancellor of Germany, 1298.
- 155.: Declaration of the Election of Henry Vii, 1308.
- 156.: The Supplying of the Office of the Archchancellor of Italy, 1310.
- 157.: The Law “licet Juris” of the Diet of Frankfort, August 8, 1338.
- 158-159.: the Diet of Coblenz, 1338.
- 158.: Chronicle of Flanders. (french.)
- 159.: Chronicle of Henry Knyghton.
- 160.: The Golden Bull of Charles Iv, 1356.
- 160 a and 160 B.: the Acquisition of the Mark of Brandenburg By the Hohenzollern Family, 1411.
- 160 A.: the Cities of the Mark Make Complaints to Sigismund, 1411. ( German. )
- 160 B.: Sigismund Orders the People of the Mark to Receive Frederick of Hohenzollern As Their Governor, 1412. ( German. )
- V.: The Church From 1250 to 1500
- 161.: Bull of Nicholas Iii Condemning All Heretics, 1280.
- 162.: The Bull “clericis Laicos” of Boniface Viii, 1298.
- 163.: Boniface Viii Announces the Jubilee Year, 1300.
- 164.: The Bull “unam Sanctam” of Boniface Viii, 1302.
- 165.: Conclusions Drawn By Marsilius of Padua From His “defensor Pacis.”
- 166.: Condemnation of Marsilius of Padua. 1327.
- 167.: The Beginning of the Schism. the Manifesto of the Revolting Cardinals. Aug. 5, 1378.
- 168.: The University of Paris and the Schism, 1393.
- 169.: The Council of Pisa Declares It Is Competent to Try the Popes. 1409.
- 170.: An Oath of the Cardinals to Reform the Church. Council of Pisa, 1409.
- 171.: The Council of Constance Claims Supreme Authority, 1415.
- 172.: Reforms Demanded By the Council of Constance, 1417.
- 173.: Concerning General Councils. the Council of Constance, 39th Session, October 9, 1417.
- 174.: Pius Ii, By the Bull “execrabilis,” Condemns Appeals to a General Council, 1459.
- 175.: William Iii of Saxony Forbids Appeals to Foreign Courts, 1446.
- 176.: Papal Charter For the Establishment of the University of Avignon, 1303.
- 177.: Popular Dissatisfaction That the Church Had So Much Wealth, Ca. 1480.
- 178.: Complaints of the Germans Against the Pope, 1510.
- 179.: Abuses In the Sale of Indulgences, 1512.
- VI.: Feudalism
- 180.: Form For the Creation of an Antrustio By the King.
- 181.: Form For the Suspending of Lawsuits.
- 182.: Form For Commendation. Middle of Eighth Century.
- 183.: Form By Which the King Allows a Powerful Person to Undertake the Cases of a Poor Person.
- 184-188.: Dependent Tenure of Land.
- 184.: Form For the Gift of Land to a Church to Be Received Back By the Giver As a Benefice.
- 185.: Form For a Precarial Letter.
- 186.: Form of Precarial Letter.
- 187.: Form of Precarial Letter.
- 188.: Gift of Land to Be Received Back and Held In Perpetuity For a Fixed Rent.
- 189.: Treaty of Andelot, 587.
- 190-194.: Grants of Immunity.
- 190.: Precept of Chlothar Ii, 584-628.
- 191.: Grant of Immunity to a Monastery, 673.
- 192.: Form of a Grant of Immunity to a Monastery.
- 193.: Form By Which the King Granted Lands With Immunity to Secular Persons.
- 194.: Grant of Immunity to a Secular Person, 815.
- 195-196.: the Feudalizing of Public Offices.
- 195.: Edict of Chlothar Ii, 614.
- 196.: Capitulary of Kiersy, 877.
- 197-202.: the Military Obligation of the Holder of Land.
- 197.: Capitulary of Lestinnes, 743.
- 198.: Capitulary of Aquitaine, Pippin, 768.
- 199.: Capitulary of Heristal, 779.
- 200.: General Capitulary to the Missi, 802.
- 201.: Capitulary to the Missi, 806.
- 202.: Capitulary Concerning Various Matters, 807.
- 203-208.: Effect of the Carolingian Organization On the Growth of Feudalism.
- 203.: General Capitulary to the Missi, 805.
- 204.: Capitulary of 811.
- 205.: Capitulary of Worms, 829.
- 206.: Capitulary of Aachen, 801-813.
- 207.: Agreement of Lothar, Ludwig, and Charles, 847.
- 208.: Capitulary of Bologna, 811.
- 209.: Homage.
- 210.: Homage.
- 211.: Homage.
- 212.: Homage.
- 213.: Homage.
- 214.: Homage of Edward Iii of England to Philip V of France, 1329.
- 215.: Feudal Aids.
- 216.: Feudal Aids.
- 217.: Feudal Aids, Etc.
- 218-225.: Homages Paid By the Count of Champagne.
- 218.: Homage to the Duke of Burgundy, 1143.
- 219.: Homage to Philip Ii of France, 1198.
- 220.: Homage to the Duke of Burgundy, 1200.
- 221, 222.: Agreement Between Blanche of Champagne and Philip Ii, 1201.
- 221.: Letter of Blanche.
- 222.: Letter of the King.
- 223.: Homage to the Bishop of Langres, 1214.
- 224.: Homage to the Bishop of Châlons, 1214.
- 225.: Homage to the Abbot of St. Denis, 1226.
- 226.: List of the Fiefs of Champagne, About 1172.
- 227.: Sum of the Knights [who Owe Service to the Count of Champagne].
- 228.: Extent of the Lands of the County of Champagne and Brie, About 1215.
- 229, 230.: The Attempt of the King to Control the Feudal Nobles.
- 229.: The Feudal Law of Conrad Ii, 1037.
- 230.: The Feudal Law of Frederick I For Italy, 1158.
- VII.: Courts, Judicial Processes, and the Peace
- 231.: Sachsenspiegel.
- 232.: Frederic Ii Appoints a Justiciar and a Court Secretary, 1235. From the Peace of the Land Which Was Proclaimed At Mainz, 1235.
- 233.: Wenzel Creates a Commission to Arbitrate All Differences, 1389. From the Peace of Eger, 1398. (german.)
- 234-239.: Ordeals Or Judgments of God.
- 234.: Ordeal By Hot Water.
- 235.: Ordeal By Hot Iron.
- 236.: Ordeal By Cold Water.
- 237.: Ordeal By Cold Water.
- 238.: Ordeal By the Barley Bread.
- 239.: Ordeal By Bread and Cheese.
- 240-250.: Documents On the Peace of God, the Truce of God, and the Peace of the Land.
- 240.: Peace of God, Proclaimed In the Synod of Charroux, 989.
- 241.: Peace of God, Proclaimed By Guy of Anjou, Bishop of Puy, 990.
- 242.: Truce of God, Made For the Archbishopric of Arles, 1035-41.
- 243.: Truce of God For the Archbishoprics of Besancon and Vienne, Ca., 1041.
- 244.: Truce For the Bishopric of Terouanne, 1063.
- 245.: Peace of the Land Established By Henry Iv, 1103.
- 246.: Peace of the Land For Elsass, 1085-1103.
- 247.: Decree of Frederick I Concerning the Keeping of Peace, 1156.
- 248.: Peace of the Land Declared By Frederick I In Italy, 1158.
- 249.: The Perpetual Peace of the Land Proclaimed By Maximilian I, 1495. ( German. )
- 250.: The Establishment of a Supreme Court to Try Peace-breakers, 1495. ( German. )
- VIII.: Monasticism
- 251.: The Rule of St. Benedict. About 530.
- 252.: Oath of the Benedictines.
- 253.: Monk’s Vow.
- 254.: Monk’s Vow.
- 255.: Monk’s Vow.
- 256.: Monk’s Vow.
- 257.: The Written Profession of a Monk.
- 258.: The Ceremony of Receiving a Monk Into the Monastery.
- 259.: Offering of a Child to the Monastery.
- 260.: Offering of a Child to the Monastery.
- 261.: Commendatory Letter.
- 262.: Commendatory Letter.
- 263.: General Letter.
- 264.: Letter of Dismissal.
- 265.: The Regular Clergy. Prologue of the Rule of St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, For His Clergy, Ca. 744.
- 265 A.: Military-monkish Orders. the Origin of the Templars, 1119.
- 266.: Anastasius Iv Grants Privileges to the Knights of St. John (hospitallers), 1154.
- 267.: Innocent Iii Orders the Bishops of France to Guard Against Simony In the Monasteries, 1211.
- 268.: Innocent Iii Grants the Use of the Mitre to the Abbot of Marseilles, 1204.
- 269.: The Friars. the Rule of St. Francis, 1223.
- 270.: The Testament of St. Francis, 1220.
- 271.: Innocent Iv Grants the Friars Permission to Ride On Horseback When Travelling In the Service of the King of England, 1250.
- 272.: Alexander Iv Condemns the Attacks Made On the Friars Because of Their Idleness and Begging, 1256.
- 273.: John Xxii Condemns the Theses of John of Poilly In Which He Attacked the Friars, 1320.
- IX.: The Crusades
- 274.: The Meritorious Character of Martyrdom. Origen, Exhortation to Martyrdom, 235 Ad, Chaps. 30 and 50. (greek.)
- 275.: Origen, Commentary On Numbers, Homily X, 2. ( Greek. )
- 276.: Forgiveness of Sins For Those Who Die In Battle With the Heathen. Leo Iv (847-55) to the Army of the Franks.
- 277.: Indulgence For Fighting Heathen, 878.
- 278.: Gregory Vii Calls For a Crusade, 1074.
- 279.: The Speech of Urban Ii At the Council of Clermont, 1095. Fulcher of Chartres.
- 280.: The Council of Clermont, 1095. Robert the Monk.
- 281.: The Truce of God and Indulgence For Crusaders. the Council of Clermont, 1095.
- 282.: Rabble Bands of Crusaders. Ekkehard of Aura, Hierosolimita.
- 283.: Peter the Hermit. Anonymi Gesta Francorum, 1097-99.
- 284.: Eugene Iii Announces a Crusade, December 1, 1145.
- 285.: The Third Crusade, 1189-90. From the Chronicle of Otto of St. Blasien.
- 286.: Innocent Iii Forbids the Venetians to Traffic With the Mohammedans, 1198.
- 287.: Papal Protection of Crusaders. Innocent Iii Takes the King of the Danes Under His Protection, 1210.
- 288.: Innocent Iii and the Lateran Council Announce a Crusade, 1215.
- X.: Social Classes and Cities In Germany
- 289.: Otto Iii Forbids the Unfree Classes to Attempt to Free Themselves, Ca. 1000.
- 290.: Henry I Frees a Serf, 926.
- 291.: Henry Iii Frees a Female Serf, 1050.
- 292.: The Recovery of Fugitive Serfs, 1224.
- 293.: The Rank of Children Born of Mixed Marriages Is Fixed, 1282.
- 294.: Frederick Ii Confers Nobility, About 1240.
- 295.: Charles Iv Confers Nobility On a Doctor of Both Laws, 1360.
- 296.: The Law of the Family of the Bishop of Worms, 1023.
- 297.: The Charter of the Ministerials of the Archbishop of Cologne, 1154.
- 298.: The Bishop of Hamburg Grants a Charter to Colonists, 1106.
- 299.: The Privilege of Frederick I For the Jews, 1157.
- 300.: The Bishop of Speyer Gives the Jews of His City a Charter, 1084.
- 301-325.: the Cities of Germany.
- 301.: Lothar Ii (855-69) Grants a Market to the Monastery of Prüm, 861.
- 302.: Otto I Grants a Market to an Archbishop, 965.
- 303.: Otto Iii Grants a Market to Count Bertold, 999.
- 304.: No One Shall Compel Merchants to Come to His Market, 1236.
- 305.: A Market-court Is Independent of the Local Court, 1218.
- 306.: Otto I Grants Jurisdiction Over a Town to the Abbots of New Corvey, 940.
- 307.: The Ban-mile, Or the Limits of the Bishop’s Authority, 1237.
- 308.: The Citizens of Cologne Expel Their Archbishop, 1074.
- 309.: The People of Cologne Rebel Against Their Archbishop, 1074.
- 310.: Confirmation of the Immediateness of the Citizens of Speyer, 1267.
- 311.: Summons Sent to an Imperial City to Attend a Diet, 1338.
- 312.: Municipal Freedom Is Given to the Town Called Ebenbuchholtz, 1201.
- 313.: The Extension of the Corporate Limits of the City of Brunswick, 1269.
- 314.: The Decision of a Diet About the Establishment of City Councils In Cathedral Towns, 1218.
- 315.: Frederick Ii Forbird the Municipal Freedom of the Towns and Annuls All City Charters, 1231-2.
- 316.: Breslau Adopts the Charter of Magdeburg, 1261. (german.)
- 317.: The Schoeffen of Magdeburg Give Decisions For Culm, 1338. (german.)
- 318.: The Establishment of the Rhine League, 1254.
- 319.: Peace Established By the Rhine League, 1254.
- 320.: Agreement Between Hamburg and Lübeck, Ca. 1230.
- 321.: Agreement For Mutual Protection Between Lübeck and Hamburg, 1241.
- 322.: Lübeck, Rostock, and Wismar Proscribe Pirates, 1259.
- 323.: Decrees of the Hanseatic League, 1260-64.
- 324.: Decrees of the Hanseatic League, 1265.
- 325.: Cologne Merchants Have a Gildhall In London, 1157.
- 1.: Large Collections; National
- 2.: Large Collections; Ecclesiastical and Papal
- 3.: Special Topics Selected Documents, Etc.
Anno 842 (843). The three brothers divided the kingdom of the Franks among themselves; to Charles fell the western portion from the British ocean to the Meuse; to Ludwig, the eastern portion, that is, Germany as far west as the Rhine, including certain cities and their counties east of the Rhine to furnish him with wine; to Lothar, who, as the oldest, bore the title of emperor, the part in between, which still bears the name of Lotharingia, and all of Provence and the land of Italy with the city of Rome.
The Treaty of Meersen, 870.
The northern portion of the kingdom of Lothar was divided on his death (855) between two of his sons, Lothar and Charles, the other, Louis, taking Italy. Charles died in 863 and Lothar in 869; thereupon their uncles, Charles the Bald and Ludwig the German, divided that territory between them by the treaty of Meersen, the preliminaries of which are given here. See a map for the line of the division.
In the year of the incarnation of our Lord 870, the third indiction, the day before the nones of March [March 6], in the 32d year of the reign of the glorious king Charles [the Bald], in the palace of the king at Aachen, this agreement was made between him and his brother Ludwig.
Count Ingelram, for king Charles.
I promise for my lord that my lord, king Charles, will permit his brother, king Ludwig, to have such portion of the kingdom of Lothar as they two or their representatives may decide upon as just and equitable. Charles will never molest him in his possession of that portion or of the kingdom which he held before, if Ludwig on his side will keep the same faith and fidelity toward him, which I have promised for my lord.
Count Leutfrid, for king Ludwig.
I promise for my lord that my lord, king Ludwig, will permit his brother, king Charles, to have such portion of the kingdom of Lothar as they two or their representatives may decide upon as just and equitable. Ludwig will never molest him in his possession of that portion or of the kingdom which he held before, if Charles on his side will keep the same faith and fidelity toward him, which I have promised for my lord.
Invasions of Northmen at the End of the Ninth Century.
See introductory note to no. 15 for the nature of these invasions. The chronicle accounts in this and the next document illustrate very well the necessity which lay upon the local officials of defending the country against invaders. The particular feature of the events narrated here is the participation of the ecclesiastical lords, archbishops and bishops, in these warlike enterprises. This was due to the fact that the ecclesiastical lords were great landholders and exercised all the functions of secular officials.
Ad annum 883. The Northmen, ascending the Rhine, plundered and burnt many villages. Liutbert, archbishop of Mainz, with a small band of troops, attacked them and, after killing many of them, recovered much of the booty which they had taken. Cologne [which had been burnt by the Northmen, 881] was rebuilt, except its churches and monasteries, and its walls with their gates and towers were restored.
Ad annum 885. The Northmen entered the territory about Liège, collected all kinds of provisions, and prepared to spend the winter there. But Liutbert, archbishop of Mainz, and count Heimrih, with others, fell upon them suddenly, killed many of them, and drove the others into a small stronghold. They then seized the provisions which the Northmen had collected. The Northmen, after enduring a long siege, during which they suffered from hunger, finally fled from the stronghold by night.
Invasion of the Hungarians,ca. 950.
Michael, bishop of Regensburg, after governing his diocese well for some years, gathered his troops and joined the other Bavarian nobles in resisting an invasion of the Hungarians. In the battle which followed, our troops were defeated. One of the bishop’s ears was cut off, and after receiving many other wounds he was left for dead on the field. One of his personal enemies had fallen at his side, and, by feigning death when the Hungarians searched the battle-field, he escaped with his life. When he saw that he was alone with the bishop whom he hated, he seized a lance and tried to kill him. But the bishop, having recovered consciousness, was able to defend himself, and, after a fierce struggle with his enemy, succeeded in striking him down. After a long and perilous journey the bishop found his way back to Regensburg, greatly to the joy of his flock. All his clergy welcomed him as a bold warrior, his flock honored and cherished him as an excellent pastor, and his wounds and maiming redounded to his honor.
Dissolution of the Empire.
The empire divided in 843 was for a brief period reunited under Karl the Fat from 884-887. But the failure of Karl either to enforce his authority in the empire or to protect its boundaries led to his deposition and to the definite division of the empire into small kingdoms under local rulers. Arnulf, an illegitimate son of Karlmann, the brother of Karl the Fat, became king of Germany; in France, as early as 879, Provence or lower Burgundy had elected a local count, Boso, as king; in 888, after the deposition of Karl the Fat, most of the French nobles elected Odo, duke of Francia, who belonged to the family of the counts of Paris, as their king, while upper Burgundy chose its own ruler in count Rudolf, and Aquitaine still held out under its duke for the young Charles the Simple, grandson of Charles the Bald. In Italy Charles the Bald, Ludwig, and Karl the Fat had attempted in vain to assert the authority of the emperor there, and Italy went its own way and became the field of battle between rival claimants for the crown, both of them local Italian nobles. Thus by 888 there were, including Aquitaine, six separate kingdoms, Germany, Italy, France, Aquitaine, Provence, and Burgundy.
Anno 879. Boso, on hearing of the death of Louis [the Stammerer], set out from Provence and undertook to seize the whole of Burgundy. And after he had won over several bishops to his cause by threats and persuasion, he proceeded to Lyon and there was anointed king over the Burgundian realm by Aurelian, the metropolitan of Lyon, and the other bishops. He ignored the young sons of Louis, treating them as illegitimate because their mother had been disgraced and put away at the order of Charles [the Bald]. But these youths, Louis and Carlman, were raised to the throne by abbot Hugo and the other nobles, and warred against Boso all their lives. Not only they but also the other kings of the Franks hated him for his usurpation, and made their dukes and vassals promise that they would try to overthrow and slay him.
Anno 887. In this year there died at Orleans abbot Hugo, who had held and ruled manfully the duchy [of Robert the Strong, i.e., Francia], and the duchy was given by the emperor to Robert’s son, Odo, who had been up to that time count of Paris, and who, together with Gozlinus, bishop of Paris, had protected that city with all his might against the terrible onslaughts of the Northmen. . . .
In the month of November on St. Martin’s day [November 11, 887], Karl [the Fat] came to Tribur and held a general diet. Now when the nobles of the kingdom saw that the emperor was failing not only in bodily strength, but in mind also, they joined in a conspiracy with Arnulf, son of Karlmann, to raise him to the throne, and they fell away from the emperor to Arnulf in such numbers that after three days scarcely anyone was left to do the emperor even the services demanded by common humanity. . . . King Arnulf, however, gave Karl certain imperial lands in Alamannia for his sustenance, and then, after he had settled affairs in Franconia, he himself returned to Bavaria.
Anno 888. After the death of Karl the kingdoms which had obeyed his rule fell apart and obeyed no longer their natural lord [i.e., Arnulf], but each elected a king from among its own inhabitants. This was the cause of many wars, not because there were no longer any princes among the Franks fitted by birth, courage, and wisdom to rule, but because of the equality of those very traits among so many princes, since no one of them so excelled the others that they would be willing to obey him. For there were still many princes able to hold together the Frankish empire, if they had not been fated to oppose one another instead of uniting.
In Italy one portion of the people made Berengar, son of Everhard, markgraf of Friuli, king, while another portion chose as king Guido, son of Lambert, duke of Spoleto. Out of this division came so great a strife and so much bloodshed that, as our Lord said, the kingdom, divided against itself, was almost brought to desolation [Matt. 12:25]. Finally Guido was victorious and Berengar was driven from the kingdom. . . .
Then the people of Gaul came together, and with the consent of Arnulf, chose duke Odo, son of Robert, a mighty man, to be their king. . . . He ruled manfully and defended the kingdom against the continual attacks of the Northmen.
About the same time, Rudolf, son of Conrad, the nephew of abbot Hugo, seized that part of Provence between the Jura and the Pennine Alps [Upper Burgundy], and in the presence of the nobles and bishops, crowned himself king. . . . But when Arnulf heard of this he advanced against Rudolf, who betook himself to the most inaccessible heights and held out there. All his life Arnulf, with his son Zwentibold, made war on Rudolf, but could not overcome him, because he held out in places where only the chamois could go and where the troops of the invaders could not reach him.
The Coronation of Arnulf, 896.
Arnulf regarded himself as the successor to Karl the Great and attempted to exercise some real authority over the whole empire. This appears in his relations to Odo of France, to the kings of the Burgundies, and to the claimants in Italy. The expedition which he undertook to Italy in order to end the disorders there resulted in his receiving the imperial crown.
Anno 896. A second time Arnulf went down into Italy and came to Rome, and with the consent of the pope stormed the city. This was an unheard-of thing, not having happened since Brenno and the Gauls captured Rome many years before the birth of Christ. The mother of Lambert, whom he had left to defend the city, fled with her troops. Arnulf was received into the city with the greatest reverence by pope Formosus and was crowned emperor by him before the altar of St. Peter. But as he returned from Rome he was seized with an illness that troubled him for a long time.
Rise of the Tribal Duchies in Germany,ca. 900.
Not true; see no. 2, for the sack of Rome by Alaric, 410, and by Geiseric, 455.