Front Page Titles (by Subject) BOOK XVIII. * - The Chinese Classics: Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius (Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean)
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BOOK XVIII. * - Confucius, The Chinese Classics: Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius (Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean) 
The Chinese Classics: Translated into English with Preliminary Essays and Explanatory Notes by James Legge. Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius. Second Edition (London: N. Trübner, 1869).
Part of: The Chinese Classics
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ChapterI.1. The viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The viscount of Ke became a slave to Chow. Pekan remonstrated with him, and died.
2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.”
II. Hwuy of Lew-hea being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, “Is it not yet time for you, Sir, to leave this?” He replied, “Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?”
III. The Duke King of Ts‘e, with reference to the manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, “I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Ke family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the Ke, and that given to the chief of the Măng family.” He also said, “I am old; I cannot use his doctrines.” Confucius took his departure.
IV. The people of Ts‘e sent to Loo a present of female musicians, which Ke Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.
V.1. The madman of Ts‘oo, Tseĕ-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, “Oh Fung! Oh Fung! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government.”
2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Tseĕ-yu hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.
VI.1. Ch‘ang-tseu and Këĕ-neih were at work in the field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-loo to inquire for the ford.
2. Ch‘ang-tseu said, “Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?” Tsze-loo told him, “It is K‘ung K‘ew.” “Is it not K‘ung K‘ew of Loo?” asked he. “Yes,” was the reply, to which the other rejoined, “He knows the ford.”
3.Tsze-loo then inquired of Këĕ-neih, who said to him, “Who are you, Sir?” He answered, “I am Chung Yew.” “Are you not the disciple of K‘ung K‘ew of Loo?” asked the other. “I am,” replied he; and then Keĕ-neih said to him, “Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will change it for you? Than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?” With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.
4. Tsze-loo went and reported their remarks, when his master observed with a sigh, “It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people,—with mankind,—with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.”
VII.1. Tsze-loo, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying, across his shoulder on a staff, a basket for weeds. Tsze-loo said to him, “Have you seen my master, Sir!” The old man replied, “Your four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:—who is your master?” With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.
2. Tsze-loo joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.
3. The old man kept Tsze-loo to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.
4. Next day, Tsze-loo went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master said, “He is a recluse,” and sent Tsze-loo back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.
5. Tsze-loo then said to the family, “Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is aware of that.”
VIII.1. The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Pih-e, Shŭh-ts‘e, Yu-chung, E-yih, Choo-chang, Hwuy of Lew-hea, and Shaou-leen.
2. The Master said, “Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons;—such, I think, were Pih-e and Shuh-ts‘e.
3. “It may be said of Hwuy of Lew-hea, and of Shaoulëĕn, that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.
4. “It may be said of Yu-chung and E-yih, that, while they hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their words, but in their persons they succeeded in preserving their purity, and in their retirement they acted according to the exigency of the times.
5. “I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined.”
IX.1. The grand music-master, Che, went to Ts‘e.
2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ts‘oo. Leaou, the band-master at the third meal, went to Ts‘ae. Keuĕh, the band-master at the fourth meal, went to Ts‘in.
3. Fang-shuh, the drum-master, withdrew to the north of the river.
4. Woo, the master of the hand-drum, withdrew to the Han.
5. Yang, the assistant music-master, and Sëang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.
X. The duke of Chow addressed his son, the duke of Loo, saying, “The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talents for every employment.”
XI. To Chow belonged the eight officers, Pih-tă, Pih-kwŏh, Chung-tŭh, Chung-hwŭh, Shuh-yay, Shuh-hea, Ke-suy, and Ke-kwa.
[* ]Heading and contents of this book.—“The viscount of Wei” This book, consisting of only eleven chapters, treats of various individuals famous in Chinese history, as eminent for the way in which they discharged their duties to their sovereign, or for their retirement from public service. It commemorates also some of the worthies of Confucius’ days, who lived in retirement rather than be in office in so degenerate times. The object of the whole is to illustrate and vindicate the course of Confucius himself.
[1. ]The viscounts of Wei and Ke, and Pe-kan:—three worthies of the Yin dynasty. 1. Wei-tsze and Ke-tsze are continually repeated by Chinese, as if they were proper names. But Wei and Ke were the names of two small States, presided over by chiefs of the Tsze, or fourth, degree of nobility, called viscounts, for want of a more exact term. They both appear to have been within the limits of the present Shan-se, Wei being referred to the district of Loo-ch‘ing, department Loo-gan, and Ke to Yu-shay, department Leaou-chow. The chief of Wei was an elder brother (by a concubine) of the tyrant Chow, the last emperor of the Yin dynasty, bc 1153—1122. The chief of Ke, and Pe-kan, were both, probably, uncles of the tyrant. The first, seeing that remonstrances availed nothing, withdrew from court, wishing to preserve the sacrifices of their family, amid the ruin which he saw was impending. The second was thrown into prison, and, to escape death, feigned madness. He was used by Chow as a buffoon. Pe-kan, persisting in his remonstrances, was put barbarously to death, the tyrant having his heart torn out, that he might see, he said, a sage’s heart.
[2. ]How Hwuy of Lew-hea, though often dismissed from office, still clave to his country. Lew-hea Hwuy,—see XV. xiii. The office which Hwuy held is described in the Chow-le, XXXIV. iii. He was under the minister of Crime, but with many subordinate magistrates under him.—Some remarks akin to that in the text are ascribed to Hwuy’s wife. It is observed by the commentator Hoo, that there ought to be another paragraph, giving Confucius’ judgment upon Hwuy’s conduct, but it has been lost.
[3. ]How Confucius left Ts‘e, when the duke could not appreciate and employ him. It was in the year bc 516, that Confucius went to Ts‘e. The remarks about how he should be treated, &c., are to be understood as having taken place in consultation between the duke and his ministers, and being afterwards reported to the sage. The Măng family (see II. v.) was, in the time of Confucius, much weaker than the Ke. The chief of it was only the lowest noble of Loo, while the Ke was the highest. Yet for the duke of Ts‘e to treat Confucius better than the duke of Loo treated the chief of the Măng family, was not dishonouring the sage. We must suppose that Confucius left Ts‘e, because of the duke’s concluding remarks.
[4. ]How Confucius gave up official service in Loo. In the fourteenth year of the Duke Ting, Confucius reached the highest point of his official service. He was minister of Crime, and also, according to the general opinion, acting premier. He effected in a few months a wonderful renovation of the State, and the neighbouring countries began to fear that under his administration, Loo would overtop and subdue them all. To prevent this, the duke of Ts‘e sent a present to Loo of fine horses and of eighty highly accomplished beauties. The duke of Loo was induced to receive these by the advice of the head of the Ke family, Ke Sze or Ke Hwan. The sage was forgotten; government was neglected. Confucius, indignant and sorrowful, withdrew from office, and for a time, from the country too.
[5. ]Confucius and the madman of Ts‘oo who blames his not retiring from the world. 1. Ts‘eĕ-yu was the designation of one Luh T‘ung, a native of Ts‘oo, who feigned himself mad, to escape being importuned to engage in public service. It must have been about the year bc 489, that the incident in the text occurred. By the fung or phœnix, his satirizer or adviser intended Confucius, see IX. viii.
[6. ]Confucius and the two recluses, Ch‘ang-tseu and Keĕ-neih; why he would not withdraw from the world. 1. The surnames and names of these worthies are not known. It is supposed that they belonged to Ts‘oo, like the hero of the last chapter, and that the interview with them occurred about the same time. The designations in the text are descriptive of their character, and=“the long Rester,” and “the firm Recluse.” What kind of field labour is here denoted cannot be determined. 2. The original of “he knows the ford,” indicates that “he” is emphatic,=he, going about everywhere, and seeking to be employed, ought to know the ford. The use of “his Master” in the last paragraph is remarkable. It must mean “his Master” and not “the Master.” The compiler of this chapter can hardly have been a disciple of the sage.
[7. ]Tsze-loo’s rencontre with an old man, a recluse: his vindication of his master’s course. The incident in this chapter was probably nearly contemporaneous with those which occupy the two previous ones. Some say that the old man belonged to Shĕ, which was a part of Ts‘oo. “The five grains” are “rice, millet, sacrificial millet, wheat, and pulse.” But they are sometimes otherwise enumerated. We have also “the six kinds,” “the eight kinds,” “the nine kinds,” and perhaps other classifications. 2. Tsze-loo, standing with his arms across his breast, indicated his respect, and won upon the old man. 5. Tsze-loo is to be understood as here speaking the sentiments of the Master, and vindicating his course. By “the relations between old and young,” he refers to the manner in which the old man had introduced his sons to him the evening before, and to all the orderly intercourse between old and young, which he had probably seen in the family.
[8. ]Confucius’ judgment of former worthies who had kept from the world. His own guiding principle. 1. On the word “retired” with which this chapter commences, it is said:—“Retirement here is not that of seclusion, but is characteristic of men of large souls, who cannot be measured by ordinary rules. They may display their character by retiring from the world. They may display it also in the manner of their discharge of office.” The phrase is guarded in this way, I suppose, because of its application to Hwuy of Lew-hea, who did not obstinately withdraw from the world. Pih-e, and Shuh-ts‘e,—see V. xxii. Yu-chung should probably be Woo-chung. He was the brother of T‘ae-pih, called Chung-yung, and is mentioned in the note on VIII. i. He retired with T‘ae-pih among the barbarous tribes, then occupying the country of Woo, and succeeded to the chieftaincy of them on his brother’s death. “E-vih and Choo-chang,” says Choo He, “are not found in the classics and histories. From a passage in the Le-ke, XXI i. 14, it appears that Shaou-leen belonged to one of the barbarous tribes on the east, but was well acquainted with, and observant of, the rules of propriety, particularly those relating to mourning. 4. “Living in retirement, they gave a license to their words,”—this is intended to show that in this respect they were inferior to Hwuy and Shaou-leen. 5. Confucius’s openness to act according to circumstances is to be understood as being always in subordination to right and propriety.
[9. ]The dispersion of the musicians of Loo. The dispersion here narrated is supposed to have taken place in the time of Duke Gae. When once Confucius had rectified the music of Loo (IX. xiv.), the musicians would no longer be assisting in the prostitution of their art, and so, as the disorganization and decay proceeded, the chief among them withdrew to other countries, or from society altogether. 1. “The music-master, Che,”—see VIII. xv. 2. The princes of China, it would appear, had music at their meals, and a separate band performed at each meal, or possibly, the band might be the same, but under the superintendence of a separate officer at each meal. The emperor had four meals a day, and the princes of States only three, but it was the prerogative of the duke of Loo to use the ceremonies of the imperial household. Nothing is said here of the band-master at the first meal, perhaps because he did not leave Loo, or nothing may have been known of him. 3. “The river” is of course “the Yellow River.” 5. It was from Scang that Confucius learned to play on the lute.
[10. ]Instructions of Chow-kung to his son about government, a generous consideration of others to be cherished. See VI. v. It would seem that the duke of Chow was himself appointed to the principality of Loo, but being detained at court by his duties to the young Emperor Ch‘ing, he sent his son, here called “the duke of Loo,” to that State as his representative.
[11. ]The fruitfulness of the early time of the Chow dynasty officers. The eight individuals mentioned here are said to have been brothers, four pairs of twins by the same mother. This is intimated in their names, the two first being primi, the next pair secundi, the third tertii and the last two ultimi. One mother, bearing twins four times in succession, and all proving distinguished men, showed the vigour of the early days of the dynasty in all that was good.—It is disputed to what reign these brothers belonged, nor is their surname ascertained.