Front Page Titles (by Subject) BOOK X. * - The Chinese Classics: Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius (Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean)
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BOOK X. * - Confucius, The Chinese Classics: Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius (Analects, Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean) 
The Chinese Classics: Translated into English with Preliminary Essays and Explanatory Notes by James Legge. Vol. 1. The Life and Teachings of Confucius. Second Edition (London: N. Trübner, 1869).
Part of: The Chinese Classics
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ChapterI.1. Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were one who was not able to speak.
2. When he was in the prince’s ancestorial temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
II.1. When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the officers of the lower grade, he spake freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with the officers of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
2. When the prince was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.
III.I. When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend beneath him.
2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.
3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, “The visitor is not turning round any more.”
IV.1. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.
2. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gate-way; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.
3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came like those of one who hardly had breath to utter them.
4. He ascended the dais, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe.
5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got to the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.
V.1. When he was carrying the sceptre of his prince, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground.
2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance.
3. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
VI.1. The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress.
2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish colour.
3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
4. Over lamb’s fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn’s fur one of white; and over fox’s fur one of yellow.
5. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.
6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.
7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.
8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.
9. His under garment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.
10. He did not wear lamb’s fur, or a black cap, on a visit of condolence.
11. On the first day of the month, he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.
VII.1. When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean, and made of linen cloth.
2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
VIII.1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his minced meat cut quite small.
2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discoloured; nor what was of a bad flavour; nor anything which was badly cooked; nor that which was not in season.
3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.
4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.
6. He was never without ginger when he ate.
7. He did not eat much.
8. When he had been assisting at the ducal sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received over night. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.
9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.
10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave respectful air.
IX. If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
X.1. When the villagers were drinking together, on those who carried staves going out, he went out immediately after.
2. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.
XI.1. When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
2.Ke K‘ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, “I do not know it. I dare not taste it.”
XII. The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, “Has any man been hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.
XIII.1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.
2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed; but he first tasted everything.
3. When he was sick and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.
4. When the prince’s order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
XIV. When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.
XV.1. When any of his friends died, if he had no relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices, he would say, “I will bury him.”
2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.
XVI.1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.
2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute them in a ceremonious manner.
3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.
4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up.
5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.
XVII.1. When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord.
2. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
XVIII.I.Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by-and-by settles.
2.The Master said, “There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!” Tsze-loo made a motion to it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.
[* ]Heading and subjects of this book. “The village.” This book is different in its character from all the others in the work. It contains hardly any sayings of Confucius, but is descriptive of his ways and demeanour in a variety of places and circumstances. It is not uninteresting, but, as a whole, it does not heighten our veneration for the sage. We seem to know him better from it, and to Western minds, after being viewed in his bed-chamber, his undress, and at his meals, he becomes divested of a good deal of his dignity and reputation. There is something remarkable about the style. Only in one passage is Confucius styled “The Master” He appears either as “K‘ung the philosopher,” or as “The superior man.” A suspicion is thus raised that the chronicler had not the same relation to him as the compilers of the other books. Anciently, the book formed only one chapter, but it is now arranged under seventeen divisions. Those divisions, for convenience in the translation, I continue to denominate chapters, which is done also in some native editions.
[1. ]Demeanour of Confucius in his village, in the ancestral temple, and in the court.
[2. ]Demeanour of confucius at court with other officers, and before the prince. It was the custom for all the officers to repair at daybreak to the court, and wait for the prince to give them audience “Great officer” was a general name, applicable to all the higher ministers in a court. At the imperial court they were divided into three classes.—“highest,” “middle,” and “lowest,” but the various princes had only the first and third. Of the first order there were properly three, the king or nobles of the state, who were in Loo the chiefs of the “three families.” Confucius belonged himself to the lower grade.
[3. ]Demeanour of Confucius at the official reception of a visitor. 1. The visitor is supposed to be the prince of another state. On the occasion of two princes meeting there was much ceremony. The visitor having arrived remained outside the front gate, and the host inside his reception-room, which was in the ancestial temple. Messages passed between them by means of a number of officers called keui, on the side of the visitor, and pin, on the side of the host, who formed a zigzag line of communication from the one to the other, and passed their question and answers along, till an understanding about the visit was thus officially effected. 2. This shows Confucius’ manner when engaged in the transmission of the messages between the prince and his visitor. He must have occupied an intermediate place in the row of his prince’s pin, bowing to them on the right or the left, as he transmitted the messages to and from the prince. 3. The host having come out to receive his visitor, proceeded in with him, it is said, followed by all their internuncios in a line, and to his manner in this movement this paragraph is generally referred. But the duty of seeing the guest off, the subject of the next paragraph, belonged to the pin who had been nearest to the prince, and was of higher rank than Confucius sustained. Hence arises a difficulty Either it is true that Confucius was at one time raised to the rank of the highest dignitaries of the state, or he was temporarily employed, for his knowledge of ceremonies, after the first act in the reception of visitors, to discharge the duties of one. Assuming this, the “hastening forward” is to be explained of some of his movements in the reception-room. How could he hurry forward when walking in file with the other internuncios? The ways of China, it appears, were much the same anciently as now. A guest turns round and bows repeatedly in leaving, and the host can’t return to his place till these salutations are ended.
[4. ]Demeanour of Confucius in the court at an audience. 1. The imperial court consisted of five divisions, each having its peculiar gate. That of a prince of a State consisted only of three, whose gates were named foo, che, and loo. The “gate” in the text is any one of these. The bending his body when passing through, high as the gate was, is supposed to indicate the great reverence which Confucius felt. 2. Each gate had a post in the centre, by which it was divided into two halves, appropriated to ingress and egress. The prince only could stand in the centre of either of them, and he only could tread on the threshold or sill. 3. At the early formal audience at daybreak, when the prince came out of the inner apartment, and received the homage of the officers, he occupied a particular spot. This is the “place,” now empty, which Confucius passes in his way to the audience in the inner apartment. 4. He is now ascending the steps to the “dais” or raised platform in the inner apartment, where the prince held his council, or gave entertainments, and from which the family rooms of the palace branched off. 5. The audience is now over, and Confucius is returning to his usual place at the formal audience.
[5. ]Demeanour of Confucius when employed on a friendly embassy. 1. “Sceptre” here is in the sense simply of “a badge of authority.” It was a precious stone, conferred by the emperor on the princes, and differed in size and shape according to their rank. They took it with them when they attended the imperial court, and, according to Choo He, and the old interpretation, it was carried also by their representatives, as their voucher, on occasions of embassies among themselves. 2. The preceding paragraph describes Confucius’ manner in the friendly court, at his first interview, showing his credentials, and delivering his message. That done, he had to deliver the various presents with which he was charged. After all the public presents were delivered, the ambassador had others of his own to give, and his interview for that purpose is here spoken of.—Choo He remarks that there is no record of Confucius ever having been employed on such a mission, and supposes that this chapter and the preceding are simply summaries of the manner in which he used to say duties referred to in them ought to be discharged.
[6. ]Rules of Confucius in regard to his dress. 1. The title of “Superior Man,” used here to denote Confucius, can hardly have come from the hand of a disciple. “The ornaments,” i.e. the collar and sleeves. The first colour, it is said, by Choo He, after K‘ung Gan-kwŏ, was worn in fasting, and the other in mourning, on which account Confucius would not use them. 2. There are five colours which go by the name of “correct,” viz., “azure, yellow, carnation, white, and black,” others, among which are red, and red-drop, go by the name “intermediate.” Confucius would use only the correct colours, and moreover, Choo He adds, red and reddish-blue are liked by women and girls. 3. This single garment was made from the fibres of a creeping plant, the dolichos. See the She-king, Pt I. Bk I. ii. 4. The lamb’s fur belonged to the court dress, the fawn’s was worn on embassies, the fox’s on occasions of sacrifice, &c. The fur and the thin garment over it were of the same colour. This was winter wear. 5. Confucius knew how to blend comfort and convenience. 6. This paragraph, it is supposed, belongs to the next chapter, in which case it is not the usual sleeping garment of Confucius that is spoken of, but the one he used in fasting. 7. These are the furs of paragraph 5. 8. The appendages of the girdle were—the handkerchief, a small knite, a spike for opening knots, &c. Being ornamental, they were laid aside in mourning. 9. The lower garment reached below the knees like a kilt or petticoat. For court and sacrificial dress, it was made curtain-like, as wide at top as at bottom. In that worn on other occasions, Confucius saved the cloth in the way described. So, at least, says K‘ung Gan-kwŏ. 10. Lamb’s fur was worn black (paragraph 4), but white is the colour of mourning in China, and Confucius would not visit mourners but in a sympathizing colour. 11. This was Confucius’ practice, after he had ceased to be in office.
[7. ]Rules observed by Confucius when fasting. 1. The sixth paragraph of last chapter should come in as the second here. 2. The fasting was not from all food, but only from wine or spirits, and from strong-flavoured vegetables.
[8. ]Rules of Confucius about his food. 1. The “minced meat.” according to the commentators. was made of beef, mutton, or fish, uncooked. One hundred shing of paddy were reduced to thirty, to bring it to the state of finely-cleaned rice. 4. It is said, that in other things he had a limit, but the use of wine being to make glad, he could not beforehand set a limit to the quantity of it. 8. The prince, anciently (and it is still a custom), distributed among the assisting ministers the flesh of his sacrifices. Each would only get a little, and so it could be used at once. 10. The “sacrificing” refers to a custom something like our saying grace. The Master took a few grains of rice, or part of the other provisions, and placed them on the ground, among the sacrificial vessels, a tribute to the worthy or worthies who first taught the art of cooking. The Buddhist priests in their monasteries have a custom of this kind: and on public occasions, as when K‘e-ying gave an entertainment in Hongkong in 1845, something like it is sometimes observed, but any such ceremony is unknown among the common habits of the people. However poor might be his fare, Confucius always observed it.
[9. ]Rule of Confucius about his mat.
[10. ]Other ways of Confucius in his village. 1. At sixty, people carried staves. Confucius here showed his respect for age. He would not go out before the “fathers.” 2. There were three of these ceremonies every year, but that in the text was called “the great no,” being observed in the winter season, when the officers led all the people of a village about, searching every house to expel demons, and drive away pestilence. It was conducted with great uproar, and little better than a play, but Confucius saw a good old idea in it, and when the mob was in his house, he stood on the eastern steps (the place of a host receiving guests) in full dress. Some make the steps those of his ancestral temple, and his standing there to be to assure the spirits of his shrine.
[11. ]Traits of Confucius’ intercourse with others. 1. The two bows, it is said, were not to the messenger, but intended for the distant friend to whom he was being sent. 2. K‘ang was Ke K‘ang-tsze of II. xx. et al. Confucius accepted the gift, but thought it necessary to let the donor know he could not, for the present at least, avail himself of it.
[12. ]How Confucius valued human life. A “stable” was fitted to accommodate 216 horses. The term may be used indeed for a private stable, but it is more natural to take it here for the State kew. This is the view in the Family Sayings.
[13. ]Demeanour of Confucius in relation to his prince. 1. He would not offer the cooked meat to the spirits of his ancestors, not knowing but it might previously have been offered by the prince to the spirits of his. But he reverently tasted it, as if he had been in the prince’s presence. He “honoured” the gift of cooked food, “glorified” the undressed, and “was kind” to the living animal. 2. The sacrifice here is that in chapter viii. 10. Among parties of equal rank all performed the ceremony, but Confucius, with his prince, held that the prince sacrificed for all. He tasted everything, as if he had been a cook, it being the cook’s duty to taste every dish before the prince partook of it. 3. The head to the east was the proper position for a person in bed; a sick man might for comfort be lying differently, but Confucius would not see the prince but in the correct position, and also in the court dress, so far as he could accomplish it. 4. He would not wait a moment, but let his carriage follow him.
[14. ] A repetition of part of III. xv. Compare also chapter ii. These two passages make the explanation, given at III. xv., of the questioning being on his first entrance on office very doubtful.
[15. ]Traits of Confucius in the relation of a friend. 2. Between friends there should be a community of goods. “The flesh of sacrifice,” however, was that which had been offered by his friend to the spirits of his parents or ancestors. That demanded acknowledgment.
[16. ]Confucius in bed, at home, hearing thunder, &c. 2. Compare IX. ix., which is here repeated, with heightening circumstances. 3. The carriage of Confucius’s time was hardly more than what we call a cart. In saluting when riding, parties bowed forward to the front bar. 4. He showed these signs, with reference to the generosity of the provider.
[17. ]Confucius at and in his carriage. 1. The strap or cord was attached to the carriage to assist in mounting it.
[18. ] A fragment, which seemingly has no connection with the rest of the book. Various corrections of characters are proposed, and various views of the meaning given. Ho An’s view of the conclusion is this “Tsze-loo took it and served it up. The Master thrice smelt it and rose.”