Front Page Titles (by Subject) XCVIII.: THE THREE PERSONALITIES OF THE BUDDHA. - The Gospel of Buddha
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XCVIII.: THE THREE PERSONALITIES OF THE BUDDHA. - Buddha, The Gospel of Buddha 
The Gospel of Buddha. Compiled from Ancient Records by Paul Carus. Illustrated by O. Kopetzky (Chicago and London: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1915).
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THE THREE PERSONALITIES OF THE BUDDHA.
WHEN the Blessed One had passed away into Nirvāna, the disciples came together and consulted what to do in order to keep the Dharma pure and uncorrupted by heresies. 1
And Upāli rose, saying: 2
“Our great Master used to say to the brethren: ‘O bhikkhus! after my final entrance into Nirvāna you must reverence and obey the law. Regard the law as your master. The law is like unto a light that shines in the darkness, pointing out the way; it is also like unto a precious jewel to gain which you must shun no trouble, and be ready to bring any sacrifice, even, should it be needed, your own lives. Obey the Dharma which I have revealed to you; follow it carefully and regard it in no way different from myself.’ 3
“Such were the words of the Blessed One. 4
“The law, accordingly, which the Buddha has left us as a precious inheritance has now become the visible body of the Tathāgata. Let us, therefore, revere it and keep it sacred. For what is the use of erecting dāgobas for relics, if we neglect the spirit of the Master’s teachings?” 5
And Anuruddha arose and said: 6
“Let us bear in mind, O brethren, that Gotama Siddhattha has revealed the truth to us. He was the Holy One and the Perfect One and the Blessed One, because the eternal truth had taken abode in him. 7
“The Tathāgata taught us that the truth existed before he was born into this world, and will exist after he has entered into the bliss of Nirvāna. 8
“The Tathāgata said: 9
“ ‘The truth is omnipresent and eternal, endowed with excellencies innumerable, above all human nature, and ineffable in its holiness.’ 10
“Now, let us bear in mind that not this or that law which is revealed to us in the Dharma is the Buddha, but the entire truth, the truth which is eternal, omnipresent, immutable, and most excellent. 11
“Many regulations of the Sangha are temporary; they were prescribed because they suited the occasion and were needed for some transient emergency. The truth, however, is not temporary. 12
“The truth is not arbitrary nor a matter of opinion, but can be investigated, and he who earnestly searches for the truth will find it. 13
“The truth is hidden to the blind, but he who has the mental eye sees the truth. The truth is Buddha’s essence, and the truth will remain the ultimate standard by which we can discern false and true doctrines. 14
“Let us, then, revere the truth; let us inquire into the truth and state it, and let us obey the truth. For the truth is Buddha our Master, our Teacher, our Lord.” 15
And Kassapa rose and said: 16
“Truly thou hast spoken well, O brother Anuruddha. Neither is there any conflict of opinion on the meaning of our religion. For the Blessed One possesses three personalities, and every one of them is of equal importance to us. 17
“There is the Dharma Kāya. There is the Nirmāna Kāya. There is the Sambhoga Kāya. 18
“Buddha is the all-excellent truth, eternal, omnipresent, and immutable. This is the Sambhoga Kāya which is in a state of perfect bliss. 19
“Buddha is the all-loving teacher assuming the shape of the beings whom he teaches. This is the Nirmāna Kāya, his apparitional body. 20
“Buddha is the all-blessed dispensation of religion. He is the spirit of the Sangha and the meaning of the commands which he has left us in his sacred word, the Dharma. This is the Dharma Kāya, the body of the most excellent law. 21
“If Buddha had not appeared to us as Gotama Sakyamuni, how could we have the sacred traditions of his doctrine? And if the generations to come did not have the sacred traditions preserved in the Sangha, how could they know anything of the great Sakyamuni? And neither we nor others would know anything about the most excellent truth which is eternal, omnipresent, and immutable. 22
“Let us then keep sacred and revere the traditions; let us keep sacred the memory of Gotama Sakyamuni, so that people may find the truth; for he whose spiritual eye is open will discover it, and it is the same to every one who possesses the comprehension of a Buddha to recognize it and to expound it.” 23
Then the brethren decided to convene a synod in Rājagaha in order to lay down the pure doctrines of the Blessed One, to collect and collate the sacred writings, and to establish a canon which should serve as a source of instruction for future generations. 24