Front Page Titles (by Subject) Biographical Sketches of Authors Referred to by Vattel - The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxury (LF ed.)
Biographical Sketches of Authors Referred to by Vattel - Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxury (LF ed.) 
The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxury, edited and with an Introduction by Béla Kapossy and Richard Whitmore (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008).
About Liberty Fund:
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.
The copyright to this edition, in both print and electronic forms, is held by Liberty Fund, Inc.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
- A Note On the Texts
- English Editions of the Law of Nations
- Three Essays By Vattel
- The Law of Nations
- Preliminaries Idea and General Principles of the Law of Nations.
- Book I: Of Nations Considered In Themselves
- Chapter I: Of Nations Or Sovereign States.
- Chapter II: General Principles of the Duties of a Nation Towards Itself.
- Chapter III: Of the Constitution of a State, and the Duties and Rights of the Nation In This Respect.
- Chapter IV: Of the Sovereign, His Obligations, and His Rights.
- Chapter V: Of States Elective, Successive Or Hereditary, and of Those Called Patrimonial.
- Chapter VI: Principal Objects of a Good Government; and First to Provide For the Necessities of the Nation.
- Chapter VII: Of the Cultivation of the Soil.
- Chapter VIII: Of Commerce.
- Chapter IX: Of the Care of the Public Ways of Communication, and the Right of Toll.
- Chapter X: Of Money and Exchange.
- Chapter XI: Second Object of a Good Government,—to Procure the True Happiness of the Nation.
- Chapter XII: Of Piety and Religion.
- Chapter XIII: Of Justice and Polity.
- Chapter XIV: The Third Object of a Good Government,—to Fortify Itself Against External Attacks.
- Chapter XV: Of the Glory of a Nation.
- Chapter XVI: Of the Protection Sought By a Nation, and Its Voluntary Submission to a Foreign Power.
- Chapter XVII: How a Nation May Separate Itself From the State of Which It Is a Member, Or Renounce Its Allegiance to Its Sovereign When It Is Not Protected.
- Chapter XVIII: Of the Establishment of a Nation In a Country.
- Chapter XIX: Of Our Native Country, and Several Things That Relate to It.
- Chapter XX: Of Public, Common, and Private Property.
- Chapter XXI: Of the Alienation of the Public Property, Or the Domain, and That of a Part of the State.
- Chapter XXII: Of Rivers, Streams, and Lakes.
- Chapter XXIII: Of the Sea.
- Book II: Of a Nation Considered In Its Relations to Others
- Chapter I: Of the Common Duties of a Nation Towards Others, Or of the Offices of Humanity Between Nations.
- Chapter II: Of the Mutual Commerce Between Nations.
- Chapter III: Of the Dignity and Equality of Nations,—of Titles,—and Other Marks of Honour.
- Chapter IV: Of the Right to Security, and the Effects of the Sovereignty and Independence of Nations.
- Chapter V: Of the Observance of Justice Between Nations.
- Chapter VI: Of the Concern a Nation May Have In the Actions of Her Citizens.
- Chapter VII: Effects of the Domain, Between Nations.
- Chapter VIII: Rules With Respect to Foreigners.
- Chapter IX: Of the Rights Retained By All Nations After the Introduction of Domain and Property.
- Chapter X: How a Nation Is to Use Her Right of Domain, In Order to Discharge Her Duties Towards Other Nations, With Respect to the Innocent Use of Things.
- Chapter XI: Of Usucaption and Prescription Among Nations.
- Chapter XII: Of Treaties of Alliance, and Other Public Treaties.
- Chapter XIII: Of the Dissolution and Renewal of Treaties.
- Chapter XIV: Of Other Public Conventions,—of Those That Are Made By Subordinate Powers,—particularly of the Agreement Called In Latin Sponsio,—and of Conventions of Sovereigns With Private Persons.
- Chapter XV: Of the Faith of Treaties.
- Chapter XVI: Of Securities Given For the Observance of Treaties.
- Chapter XVII: Of the Interpretation of Treaties.
- Chapter XVIII: Of the Mode of Terminating Disputes Between Nations.
- Book III: Of War
- Chapter I: Of War,—its Different Kinds,— and the Right of Making War.
- Chapter II: Of the Instruments of War,—the Raising of Troops, &c.—their Commanders, Or the Subordinate Powers In War.
- Chapter III: Of the Just Causes of War.
- Chapter IV: Of the Declaration of War,— and of War In Due Form.
- Chapter V: Of the Enemy, and of Things Belonging to the Enemy.
- Chapter VI: Of the Enemy’s Allies—of Warlike Associations— of Auxiliaries and Subsidies.
- Chapter VII: Of Neutrality—and the Passage of Troops Through a Neutral Country.
- Chapter VIII: Of the Rights of Nations In War,—and First, of What We Have a Right to Do, and What We Are Allowed to Do, to the Enemy’s Person In a Just War.
- Chapter IX: Of the Right of War, With Regard to Things Belonging to the Enemy.
- Chapter X: Of Faith Between Enemies,—of Stratagems, Artifices In War, Spies, and Some Other Practices.
- Chapter XI: Of the Sovereign Who Wages an Unjust War.
- Chapter XII: Of the Voluntary Law of Nations, As It Regards the Effects of Regular Warfare, Independently of the Justice of the Cause.
- Chapter XIII: Of Acquisitions By War, and Particularly of Conquests.
- Chapter XIV: Of the Right of Postliminium.
- Chapter XV: Of the Right of Private Persons In War.
- Chapter XVI: Of Various Conventions Made During the Course of the War.
- Chapter XVII: Of Safe-conducts and Passports,—with Questions On the Ransom of Prisoners of War.
- Chapter XVIII: Of Civil War.
- Book IV: Of the Restoration of Peace; and of Embassies
- Chapter I: Of Peace, and the Obligation to Cultivate It.
- Chapter II: Treaties of Peace.
- Chapter III: Of the Execution of the Treaty of Peace.
- Chapter IV: Of the Observance and Breach of the Treaty of Peace.
- Chapter V: Of the Right of Embassy, Or the Right of Sending and Receiving Public Ministers.
- Chapter VI: Of the Several Orders of Public Ministers,—of the Representative Character,—and of the Honours Due to Ministers.
- Chapter VII: Of the Rights, Privileges, and Immunities of Embassadors and Other Public Ministers.
- Chapter VIII: Of the Judge of Embassadors In Civil Cases.
- Chapter IX: Of the Embassador’s House and Domestics.
- Additional Essays
- Essay On the Foundation of Natural Law and On the First Principle of the Obligation Men Find Themselves Under to Observe Laws 1
- Dissertation On This Question: “can Natural Law Bring Society to Perfection Without the Assistance of Political Laws?”
- Dialogue Between the Prince of ****and His Confidant, On Certain Essential Elements of Public Administration
- Biographical Sketches of Authors Referred to By Vattel
The first two essays included here, Essay on the Foundation of Natural Law and Can Natural Law Bring Society to Perfection Without the Assistance of Political Laws? date from the early and formative phase of Vattel’s career and anticipate many of the themes of The Law of Nations. Both essays were originally published in the collection Le loisir phi losoph ique ou pièces diverses de philosophie, de morale et d’amusement (Geneva, 1747). The second dissertation was a response to the Academy of Dijon’s prize competition of 1742.
The third essay, Dialogue Between the Prince of **** and His Confidant, was first published in Amusemens de littérature, de morale, et de politique par M. de Vattel (The Hague: Pierre Gosse Junior & Daniel Pinet libraires de S.A.S, 1765, 21–48). It is translated here in English for the first time.
Biographical Sketches of Authors Referred to by Vattel
Ammianus Marcellinus (ad 330–95): A Greek from Antioch, Ammianus served as a soldier in the Roman army. He later wrote a history of Rome and on “civilitas,” the moral and institutional restraints that an emperor ought to observe. His work Res gestae libri was published in thirty-one volumes, of which only the last eighteen survive.
Anson, George (1697–1762): First Baron Anson, admiral and naval reformer, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in 1757. He is notable for his work A Voyage Round the World (1748), in which he recounted his experiences circumnavigating the globe.
Appian (or Appianus) (ad ca. 95–ca. 165): Known as Appian of Alexandria, he earned recognition for his rhetorical skills in pleading cases in Rome and was appointed Procurator Augusti of Egypt in 147. He wrote Roman History in twenty-four books, of which thirteen survive. His work gives accounts of various peoples and countries up to their incorporation into the Roman Empire.
Aristotle (384–322 bc): Greek philosopher, polymath, and student of Plato, he wrote on everything from anatomy to rhetoric. His major works—Physics, Metaphysics, On the Soul, Politics, Nicomachean Ethics, Rhetoric, and On the Heavens—have had a long-lasting influence on the development of every aspect of Western philosophical thought.
Arrian (L. Flavius Arrianus) (ad ca. 92–ca. 175): Of Greek origin, born in Nicomedia (now Izmit, west Turkey), he was important in the Roman administration and became proconsul of Baetica. He is best known for his work as a historian; of his many books, his Anabasis Alexandri is the oldest-surviving complete account of the campaigns of Alexander the Great.
Augier de Marigny, François (1690–1762): French writer known for the Histoire des Arabes (1750), which covers 636 years of the Islamic world, from the first successors of Mohammed in the seventh century to 1258 when the last caliph was toppled from power by the Tartars. His work was based on the writings of the Coptic bishop Severus.
Aulus Gellius (ad ca. 125–ca. 180): Studied grammar and rhetoric in Rome and philosophy in Athens, eventually holding judicial office in Rome. His work Noctes Atticae, comprising twenty books, was in the form of a “commonplace” book, in which he noted things of interest, including notes on grammar, geometry, philosophy, and conversations.
Bacallar y Sanna, Vicente (Marquis de San Felipe) (1669–1728): Spanish nobleman and author. His works included Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire d’Espagne sous le règne de Philippe V (1756) and Monarchia Hebrea (1745).
Bellay, Martin Du (1495–1559): Born in Langey, France. Bellay’s work Les mémoires de Mess. M. Du Bellay was originally started by his older brother Guillaume, who was a successful general and diplomat for Francis I. After Guillaume’s death, Bellay incorporated his brother’s writing into his own to form a single work.
Bernard, Jacques (1658–1718): Born in Nions, Dauphiné, Bernard was a French theologian trained at Geneva. After preaching reformed doctrines in France, he left for Gouda in the 1680s, where he became pensionary minister. His Abrégé de l’histoire de l’Europe appeared monthly between 1686 and 1688; it was followed by Lettres historiques (1692–98) and his continuation of Bayle’s Nouvelles de la république des lettres (1699–1710, 1716–18). From 1705 he was minister of the Walloon Church at Leiden.
Bilain, Antoine (d. 1672): French jurist who wrote on French foreign policy. His books presented legal arguments in support of Louis XIV’s claims against neighboring powers.
Bodin, Jean (1530–96): Born in Angers, France. Bodin was a jurist, natural law philosopher, and advocate of free trade. Part of the circle of the Duc d’Alençon, he also served as a delegate in the Third Estate of the Estates-General, working with D’Hôpital advocating religious tolerance between extremist Protestants and Catholics. He wrote La démonomanie des sorciers (1580), but it is his book of political theory, Six livres de la République (1576), on the nature of sovereignty, that established his reputation.
Boizard, Jean: Early eighteenth-century writer about whom little is known, except that he was the royal treasurer for a time in France. His book Traité des monnoyes (1714) explains monetary systems, financial terms, the variety of forms of money, and how money is made.
Bontekoe, Willem (1587–1657): Born in Hoorn, Holland, Bontekoe was a boat captain in the Dutch East India Company who compiled a journal of his eventful journey to Sumatra. His story, Voyages of the Dutch to the East-Indies (1646), recounted shipwrecks and adventure on the high seas and became a best-seller, going through many editions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Bougeant, Guillaume Hyacinthe (1690–1743): Born in Quimper, Brittany, he became a Jesuit priest and taught classics at the Colleges of Caen and Nevers. His work Amusement philosophique sur le langage des bêtes (1737) caused his exile from Paris. However, his historical works on the Thirty Years’ War and on the Treaty of Westphalia reestablished his reputation. His three comedies in which he satirized Jansenists were widely translated.
Bourbon Condé, Anne Geneviève de (1619–79): The only daughter of Henry II, prince of Condé, she moved in court circles and was involved in the factional religious politics of the day. She instigated the first and second Frondes and was a lifelong enemy of Mazarin. An avowed Jansenist, she gave up court life in 1653 and retired to a convent in Port Royal. She wrote Abrégé du memoire de Madame la Duchesse de Longueville.
Buddeus [Budaeus], Johann Franz (1667–1729): Born in Anklam, Pomerania. German Lutheran theologian, professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg (1692), professor of moral philosophy at Halle (1693), and professor of theology at Jena (1705). His writings most commented-upon across Europe were Historia juris naturae et synopsis juris naturae et gentium iuxta disciplinam Hebraeorum (1695) and Elementa philosophiae practicae (1697).
Bullinger, Heinrich (1504–75): One of the key figures of the Reformation in Zurich and a close ally of Zwingli, whom he succeeded in 1531 as head of the Zurich congregation. Bullinger published widely, including histories of the Reform (1564), the Swiss Confederation (1568), and Zurich (1573–74).
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van (1673–1743): Born in Holland. Writer on international maritime law, publishing De dominio maris in 1702. He also wrote on and specialized in diplomatic rights and public law and proposed the “three-mile limit rule,” which stated that a nation may claim sovereignty over a territorial distance of three miles from shore, roughly the distance a cannon could then shoot.
Caesar (Gaius Julius Caesar) (100–44 bc): Roman political and military leader who played a key role in changing the Roman Republic into an empire, an act which famously precipitated his murder. He wrote several memoirs of his different successful military campaigns, including De bello Africo, De bello Alexandrino, and De bello Gallico.
Callières, François de (1645–1717): Born in Thorigny, France, Callières was sieur de Rochelay et de Gigny and private secretary to Louis XIV, as well as a diplomat and man of letters. A member of the Académie Française, he published eight books, including De la manière de négocier avec les souverains (1716), which was considered a preeminent guide to diplomacy.
Camden, William (1551–1623): English antiquarian, archaeologist, and headmaster of Westminster School. He wrote Britannia, the first comprehensive, county-by-county topographical survey of Great Britain, and Annales rerum gestarum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante Elizabetha (1615), a detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I.
Campanella, Tommaso (1568–1639): Born in Calabria in southern Italy, Campanella became a Dominican monk in 1583. He was well known for his heterodox theological beliefs and radical political views. His opposition to Spanish rule in Italy led to a life of intermittent imprisonment. His most famous work, La città del sole, written during imprisonment, was published in Italian in 1602 and in Latin as Civitas solis in 1623.
Champier, Symphorien (1471–1538): Born in Lyons, France. Doctor of medicine and cofounder of the College of the Doctors of Lyon with François Rabelais. Categorie medicinales, on the logic of medical analysis and argumentation, is the best known of his many works.
Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier (1682–1761): Born in St. Quentin, France, Charlevoix was a Jesuit teacher and explorer who wrote chronicles of his traveling adventures. His work Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France was among the earliest written descriptions of North America.
Chauvelin, Henri-Philippe (Abbé) (1716–70): Little is known of Chauvelin except that he was canon of Our Lady of Paris and adviser to the Parlement of Paris. The lengthy title of his work translates as “Tradition of the facts which express the system of independence that the Bishops opposed, in the various centuries, with the invariable principles of the sovereign justice of the king on all his subjects indistinctly; and need for letting act the secular judges against their companies, to maintain the observation of the law, and the public tranquillity.”
Chevalier, Nicolas (1650–1720): Little is known about him other than that he wrote Histoire de Guillaume III, roi de la Grande Bretagne, a biography of King William III of England.
Choisy, François Timoléon de (1644–1724): Born in Paris. An extravagant cross-dresser and flamboyant character in Louis XIV’s court who later underwent a religious conversion, he was ordained and became the abbé of Choisy. He was author of six historical and religious works, but it was his Mémoires (1737), a salacious account of his years at court, that proved his most popular publication.
Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero) (106–43 bc): Born in Arpinium, Italy. An orator, statesman, political theorist, and philosopher of ancient Rome. He was famous for his skillful prosecutions in court, for his views on the rhetorical arts, and for defining philosophy as an education in citizenship.
Commines, Philippe de (1447–1511): Flemish diplomat and writer who served in the courts of Burgundy and France. In his Mémoires de Messire Philippe Commines (1552), he analyzed the contemporary political scene with the aim of instructing the reader in statecraft. He was an advocate of political machination over military action.
Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis (1693–1765): Born in Paris. Professor of rhetoric at the College of Beauvais for twenty years. He produced major works on Roman history, two editions of Livy, and Rhétorique français (1767).
Curtius Rufus, Quintus: First-century ad historian and the author of Historiae Alexandri Magni, a biography of Alexander the Great in ten books that focused on character rather than events.
Daniel, Gabriel (1649–1728): Born in Rouen, France. A Jesuit, Daniel was appointed historiographer of France by Louis XIV. Among philosophical, theological, and historical treatises, he wrote the epic Histoire de France (1713) in seventeen volumes, which was quickly translated into four languages.
de la Vega, Garcilaso (1539–1616): Born in Cuzco, Peru. Although he left Peru for Spain and was conscripted into military service at a young age, his writings on Inca life, history, and subsequent Spanish conquest earned him the sobriquet “El Inca.” He was the first Spanish writer to sympathize with the Inca plight.
Demosthenes (384–322 bc): Athenian orator and statesman. He was instrumental in his city’s uprising against Alexander the Great. Defeat forced him into exile, where he took his own life. The corpus of his work that survives amounts to sixty-three texts, including many of his political and judicial orations.
Diodorus Siculus (ca. 80–20 bc): Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily (hence “Siculus”) whose forty books, of which only fifteen survive, provide a history of the world from mythical times to 60 bc
Duport du Tertre, François-Joachim (1716–59): Born in St. Malo, France, he was a Jesuit priest and historical writer. He left the priesthood to become an independent author and wrote the Abrégé de l’histoire d’Angleterre (1751) and Project utile pour le progrès de la littérature (1756).
Etterlin, Peterman (d. 1509): Swiss chronicler and historian of Lucerne. Served as a captain in the wars against Charles of Burgundy (1474–77).
Eutropius (ad ca. 320–ca. 390): A Roman, Eutropius held the office of secretary in Constantinople at the height of the Byzantine era, working under both Emperors Julian and Valens. His book Eurtopii breviarium ab urbe condita is a ten-book compendium of the history of Rome.
Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great) (1712–86): An “enlightened despot” from the Hohenzollern dynasty, he was responsible for transforming Prussia from a small kingdom into a European power through a series of military conquests. He wrote several works, including Anti-Machiavel (1739) and Instructions militaires du roi de Prusse pour ses généraux (1762).
Gramond, Gabriel-Barthélemy de (1590–1654): Born in Toulouse, France. Little is known of this author except that he was a nobleman and adviser to the president of the Parlement of Toulouse.
Grotius, Hugo (1583–1645): Born in Delft. A jurist in the Dutch republic, a great and prolific humanist scholar, an European diplomat, and an ecumenical theologian. His works include De iure praedae (1605) and De jure belli ac pacis (1625), by which he was seen to have laid the foundations of international law, and De veritate religionis Christianae (1627).
Guicciardini, Francesco (1483–1540): Born in Florence, Italy. A statesman and a political and historical writer, he worked for the Medici popes and was appointed governor of Modena, Reggio, and Parma. Among his many histories and political discourses, the History of Italy (Storia d’Italia) (1537–40) established his reputation.
Heiss von Kogenheim, Johann: Of German origin. Although precise details of his life are unknown, in the late seventeenth century he was the resident historian at the court of Louis XIV.
Herodotus (fifth century bc): Born in Halicarnassus, in Asia Minor. Called the “Father of History” for his detailed account of the Greco-Persian wars from 500 to 479 bc
Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679): English philosopher and author of many works concerning ethics, politics, history, and human nature, such as De cive (1642), De corpore (1655), De homine (1658) and Questions Concerning Liberty, Necessity, and Chance (1656). Leviathan (1651), his major work, cemented his reputation, which has endured.
Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65–8 bc): Born in Venusia, Italy. Leading Roman lyric poet and satirist in the time of Augustus. The themes of his odes and epistles were love, friendship, and the pleasures of life. His works included Satires (35–30 bc) Epodes (30 bc) and three books of Odes (23 bc).
Joinville, Jean de (ca. 1224/5–1317): French nobleman from Champagne, medieval historian, crusader, friend and servant of Louis IX, the French king canonized in 1297. Joinville’s history of this king was completed in 1309 at the request of the then queen, Jean of Navarre.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus) (ad 483–565): Known as the last Roman Emperor, he was ruler of the Eastern Empire and is notable for his conquests and for re-taking Rome and the Western Empire from the Ostrogoths. His lasting legacy was the great codification of Roman law.
Lacombe, Jacques (1724–1811): French lawyer and author. His writings included histories of northern Europe and of Queen Christina.
Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo (1522–90): Italian jurist and historian.
La Pimpie Solignac, Pierre Joseph de (1687–1773): Little is known of this French author except that he served on the staff of King Stanislas of Poland. He wrote Les amours d’Horace (1728), which was an attempt to recreate the life and times of Horace, and L’histoire générale de Pologne (1752).
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716): German philosopher and polymath who served the house of Hanover as court counselor, diplomat, librarian, and much else. Of his prodigious writings on virtually all areas of philosophy, science, mathematics, technology, law, and history, only a few were published in his lifetime, most importantly Essais de théodicée (1710).
Le Vassor, Michel (1646–1718): French Protestant, historian, and critic of Louis XIV. Through his various writings and membership in the circle of Pierre Jurieu, he underscored the instability in the European state system caused by aspirations to universal monarchy.
Livy (Titus Livius) 59 bc–ad 17): Born in Patavium, Italy. Historian and historical interpreter on a grand scale, rejecting the contemporary method of yearly chronological history. He focused instead on themes, such as public morality, and on periods of thought, exemplified by his epic work of Roman history, comprising one hundred forty-three books.
Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus) (ca. 94–ca. 49 bc): Roman poet, philosopher, and Epicurean. His poem De rerum natura was accredited with influencing Virgil and naturalizing Greek philosophical ideas and discourse in the Latin language.
Machiavelli, Nicolò (1469–1527): Florentine political philosopher, musician, poet, and playwright. Famous for such works as The Prince (1505) and Discourses on Livy (1519). Accused of justifying reason-of-state in politics, he sought to show how republics could maintain themselves in early modern Europe.
Mariana, Juan de (1536–1624): Born in Talavera, Spain. A Jesuit and a Spanish historian whose work was noted for its accuracy and style. His major work, Historiae de rebus Hispaniae (1592–1605), consisted of thirty books; his other important work, De rege et regis institutione (1598), debated whether it was lawful to overthrow a tyrant. He concluded that it was, which led to his imprisonment by the Inquisition.
Matthieu, Pierre (1563–1621): French historian and poet, popularizer of Charron and Montaigne and chronicler of the history of the French court and kingly life.
Mézeray, François Eudes de (1610–83): Official historiographer of France and in 1649 admitted to the Académie Française. He wrote summaries of French and Latin chronicles in his three-volume Abrégé chronologique (1667).
Molesworth, Robert (First Viscount Molesworth) (1656–1725): Supporter of William of Orange and a prominent member of the Irish Privy Council, he was very much involved in the European political scene, which he commented upon in his various writings.
Montaigne, Michel de (1533–92): Born near Bordeaux. French Renaissance scholar and statesman during the Wars of Religion. The first edition of his famous Essays was published in 1580 and a later edition in 1588.
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de (1689–1755): Born near Bordeaux. French nobleman, magistrate, and prolific author. His Lettres persanes (1721) brought him to prominence in European literary circles. His magisterial reflection on the nature of law and the likely future of France, De l’esprit des lois (The Spirit of the Laws) (1748), became one of the most influential works of the century.
Montgon, Charles Alexander de (1690–1770): The Abbé de Montgon was a French diplomat and the secret agent of King Philippe V of Spain. His Mémoires de M. l’Abbé de Montgon (1748–49) in ten volumes reveal his machinations regarding the succession to the thrones of Spain and France and his negotiations with Portugal. His duplicity was discovered and he was condemned to exile. His memoirs proved a significant source in European diplomatic history.
Monthenault D’Egly, Charles Philippe de (1696–1749): Wrote Histoire des rois des deux Siciles (1741).
Nevers, Louis de Gonzage, Duc de (1539–95): Leading French Catholic soldier in the Wars of Religion, whose memoirs related his experiences in battle.
Noel, Alexandre (also Natalis Alexander) (1630–1724): Born in Rouen, France. Dominican priest and professor of theology, he lectured on theology, philosophy, and ecclesiastical law at the Sorbonne before becoming archbishop of Rouen. He was a Thomist and his writings, Selecta historiae ecclesiasticae capita (1676–86) in twenty-six volumes and Selecta historiae veteris testamenti (1689), comprised a pioneering study of comparative religion.
Ockley, Simon (1678–1720): Born in Exeter, England. Ockley was a British Orientalist and fellow of Jesus College Cambridge, where he lectured on Arabic history. He translated many Arabic texts into English. His central work was the two-volume Conquest of Syria, Persia, and Egypt by the Saracens (1708–18).
Ossat, Arnauld d’ (1536–1604): Born in Gascony, France. Bishop of Bayeux and a French diplomat, he played a major role in negotiating the reconciliation of Henry IV in 1595 with the Holy See. He was named Conseiller d’Etat in 1587 and served Henry IV in Italy.
Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) (43 bc–ad 17): Born in Sulmonia, Italy. Roman poet who wrote about love and mythology. His themes and style were influential in art and literature throughout the Renaissance. Much of his work has survived, such as Amores (10 bc) in five volumes and Heroides (5 bc), consisting of twenty-one letters. Metamorphoses (ad 8), describing the creation and history of the world, remains his most famous work.
Papon, Jean (1507–90): Lieutenant general of Ballifs de Forez.
Pas, Antoine de (Marquis de Feuquieres) (1648–1711): An important figure in the French military. His Mémoires sur la guerre (1730) recounted his battle experiences serving Louis XIV.
Pecquet, Antoine (1704–62): Held the position “premier commis” in the French ministry of Foreign Affairs during the reign of King Louis XV. He wrote Discours sur l’art de négocier (1737), later published as De l’art de négocier avec les souverains, par M. Pecquet (1738).
Pineau-Duclos, Charles (1704–72): French biographer and novelist. He was secretary of the Académie Français and succeeded Voltaire as the official historiographer of France.
Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus) (ad ca. 63–ca. 113): Born in Comum, Italy. Roman magistrate serving as senator, quaestor, tribune, praetor, consul, augur, and ambassador between ad 81 and ad 110. His numerous letters (Epistulae) described Roman life in the first century.
Plumard de Danguel, Louis-Joseph (John Nickolls, pseud.) (1722–77): Born in Mans, France, de Danguel was a political economist whose essay Remarques sur les avantages et les désavantages de la France et de la Gr. Bretagne (1754) was a comparative study of the condition of workers, agriculture, taxation, and the fishing industry.
Plutarch (Mestrius Plutarchus) (ad 40–ca. 120): Born in Chaeronea, Greece. Biographer and essay writer as well as an ambassador for Chaeronea at Rome. In total he wrote forty-four biographies and seventy-eight works on moral, political, philosophical, and scientific topics in essay or dialogue form.
Polybius (ca. 200–118 bc): Born in Megalopolis. An officer of the Achaean League, he is considered reliable as a historian because of his presence at the destruction of both Carthage and Corinth. In Rome at the end of the Punic Wars, he wrote the Histories, comprising forty books, in which he attempted to trace the causes of the rise of Rome and the Mediterranean world from 220 to 146 bc
Prévost, Antoine François (Abbe Prévost) (1697–1763): Born in Hesdin, Artois. Prévost served as Jesuit priest for many years before leaving the church and fleeing to London and Utrecht. These experiences formed the basis of his Mémoires et aventures d’un homme de qualité (1728) and Le philosophe Anglais (1731), the seventh volume of which became the novel Manon Lescault (1731), which was forbidden in France as a scandalous work.
Pufendorf, Samuel (1632–94): Born in Chemnitz, Saxony. A German jurist and historian, he was seen, along with Grotius, as one of the major voices in defining natural law and jurisprudence in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. While a professor at Heidelberg, he introduced natural and civil law into the curriculum. He also served Charles XI of Sweden and the elector of Brandenburg.
Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus) (ad ca. 40–ca. 96): Born in Calahorra, Spain. The first professor of any subject to hold an official appointment in Rome. In his Institutio oratoria he described how to train men for leadership and what qualities they should possess, advocating the importance of rhetoric and education.
Rebmann, Hans (or Johann) Rudolf (1566–1605): Born in Bern, Switzerland. Rebmann was a poet noted for writing in the German vernacular.
Rohan, Henri, Duc de (1579–1638): Born in Blain, Brittany. A favorite of Henry IV, he made his name as a soldier and leader of the Huguenot forces and died after being wounded in battle. He wrote Le parfait capitaine (1631) and Traité du gouvernement des treize cantons (1630s) in which he applied the lessons of Caesar’s military tactics to contemporary warfare.
Schodeler, Wernher (1490–1541): Born in Bremgarten (Bern), Switzerland. Little is known about him except that he was a town clerk who spent much of his time writing the Eidgennössische Chronik, an illuminated chronicle of Switzerland. It was published ca. 1535, six years before he died of the plague.
Selden, John (1584–1654): Born in West Tarring, Sussex. Scholar, jurist, and legal antiquary who studied law and became keeper of records at the Inner Temple and a member of Parliament. His various works included Titles of Honour (1614), De diis Syris (1617), History of Tithes (1618), Mare clausum (1618)—a rejection of Grotius’s Mare Liberum concerning sovereignty of the sea—and De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraerorum (1640).
Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca) (ca. 4 bc–ad 65): Born in Cordova, Spain. Undogmatic Stoic and polymath, politician and courtier, eventually tutor of Nero. He was forced to commit suicide at the age of seventy after falling from Nero’s favor. His extensive oeuvre comprises essays on ethics and natural phenomena, as well as nine tragedies.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (ad ca. 320–90): Little is known about his life except that he was prefect of the Roman province of Pannonia Secunda, present-day Serbia, Bosnia, and Croatia. Four works that have been published together as Historia Romana have been ascribed to him, although his authorship remains contested.
Sharaf Ad-Din ˛Ali Yazdi (d. 1454): A Persian historian from Yazd, in Samarkand. He was well known to Shāh Rokh Mirza, who was the fourth son of Tamerlane and the ruler of Central Asia. His main work was The History of Timur-Bec, Known by the Name of Tamerlain the Great (London, 1723).
Simler, Josias (1530–76): Born in Kappel, Switzerland. A Swiss theologian and classicist, Simler was professor of theology in Zürich and penned the first known study of the Alps in De Alpibus commentarius (ca. 1574). His De Helvetorium republica (1576) focused on Swiss constitutional issues.
Socrates (ca. 470–399 bc): Athenian philosopher and teacher. Socrates served as a soldier in the Peloponnesian War and was later appointed to the Athenian Assembly. His life and writings are known through the works of Plato, Aristotle, and Xenophon, among others.
Solís y Rivadeneira, Antonio de (1610–86): Born in Alcala de Henares, Spain. Dramatist, poet, and historian of the conquest of Mexico. His Historia de la conquista de México (1686) covered the initial journey of Juan de Grijalva in 1518 to Cortes’s defeat of Montezuma in 1520. His work celebrated the achievements of the conquistadors.
Stettler, Michael (1580–1642): Citizen of Bern and one of the most influential historians in seventeenth-century Switzerland. His works included the famous Chronikon oder Grundliche Beschreibung der fürnembsten Geschichte und Thaten.
Stumpf, Johannes (1500–78): Originally from Bruchsal, in Germany, he studied at Heidelberg. Stumpf converted to Protestantism during the early 1520s and became an ally and close friend of Zwingli.
Sully, Maximilien de Béthune, Duc de (1560–1641): Born in Rosny. French Protestant and nobleman who fought in the Wars of Religion before serving Henry IV in numerous offices, becoming well known for fostering agriculture and commerce. His famous Mémoires were published in 1638, with additional volumes appearing posthumously in 1662.
Tacitus (Publius Cornelius Tacitus) (ca. ad 55–117): Roman orator and historian of imperial Rome, he became prefect consul under Nerva in 97. His Annals and Histories examined the reigns of Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero.
Tertullian (Florens Quintus Septimius Tertullianus) (ad ca. 155–230): Born in Carthage. He was the first notable Latin theological thinker of early Christianity and a church leader, whose work later influenced St. Thomas Aquinas. Known as the “Father of the Latin Church,” he introduced the term “Trinity” into Christian eschatology. His many works included De testimonio animae, De monogamia, De patientia, and De spectaculis, which were polemical, moral, and ascetic treatises.
Thou, Jacques Auguste de (1553–1617): French historian who moved in the court circles of Henry III. He was appointed “président à mortier” in 1596 and was instrumental in negotiating the Edict of Nantes with the Protestants. He later replaced Sully in the Conseil des Finances. His Historia sui temporis (1620), in eighteen books, focused on the history of his own time, especially the Wars of Religion.
Thucydides (ca. 454–399 bc): Born in Athens. His unfinished History of the Peloponnesian War, comprising eight books, became famous as the earliest surviving work of contemporary history that was factual and avowedly devoid of mythical and religious inspiration.
Tribbechov, Adam (1641–87): Born in Lübeck, Germany. German theologian. Professor of moral philosophy, then of history, at the new University of Kiel, later church administrator in Gotha. His writings included De philosophia morum inter barbaros praecipue orientales (1666) and De doctoribus scholasticis et corrupta per eos divinarum humanarumque rerum scientia (1665).
Tschudi, Aegidius (also Giles) (1505–72): Born in Glarus, Switzerland. He devoted himself to the Counter-Reformation, using his authority as chief magistrate. He is better known as a historian of the Swiss Confederation, although his work was published posthumously. Beschreibung Galliae Comatae (1758) was a topographical, historical, and antiquarian description of ancient Helvetia; his major work, Chronicon helveticorum (1734–36), related Swiss history from 1001 to 1470.
Turretini [Turretin] [Turretinus], François (1623–87): Born in Geneva of Italian descent. Pastor of the Italian church at Geneva, where he used his position to redefine Calvinist orthodoxy. He was appointed professor of theology in 1653, and his polemic Institutio theologiae elencticae in three parts (1679–85) was used as a standard text in Reformed circles.
Valerius Maximus: Early-first-century Roman author. Little is known about him except that he was a professional rhetorician. His book Factorum et dictorum memorabilium, dedicated to Tiberius, was a collection of anecdotes and miscellany about Roman history for the use of orators.
Varro, Marcus Terentius (116–27 bc): Born in Rieti, Italy. A Roman scholar, writer, and supporter of Pompey in the civil wars of the Triumvirate, reaching the offices of tribune and then praetor. After Pompey’s defeat he was granted a pardon by Caesar and in 47 bc was appointed to run the public library planned by Caesar. He wrote hundreds of works, of which only two survive, De Lingua Latina in twenty-five books and Rerum rusticarum libri III, on agricultural topics.
Velly, Paul François (Abbé) (1709–59): Prolific French historian and theological author.
Vertot, René-Aubert de (1655–1735): Born in Benetot, Normandy. A Capuchin abbé and prolific historian with histories of, among other matters, the Knights of Malta and the revolutions in Sweden and Portugal.
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70–19 bc): Born in Mantua, Italy. The most famous of his works is the Aeneid, an epic poem on the history of Rome comprising six books. Other works included the Eclogues and Georgics.
Vogel, Franz Adam (d. 1749): Born in Colmar. Lawyer and grand-juge of the Swiss Guard stationed in France. Author of Code criminal de l’empereur Charles V (1735).
Vopiscus, Flavius: In 59 bc he was tribune to the plebs and involved with the factions against Cataline, becoming praetor in 54 bc
Wattenwyl (French spelling is Watteville), Alexander Ludwig von (1714–81): Born in Berne, Switzerland, of a patrician family, Wattenwyl became a magistrate and historian and was one of the first to attempt a modern history of the Swiss Confederation based on original source material. Between 1763 and 1766 Wattenwyl participated in the reform-oriented Helvetic Society, where he defended anti-Rousseauian positions. Wattenwyl’s views on Bernese constitutional history were summarized in his posthumously published Über die Staatsverfassung der Stadt und Republik Bern (Schweizerisches Museum, 1783). He was also the author of Histoire de la Confédération helvétique (1754).
Wicquefort, Abraham de (1598–1682): Born in Amsterdam. A Dutch diplomat to France, in 1675 Wicquefort was accused of high treason after selling secret dispatches to the English ambassador. He escaped the death penalty; however, all his goods were confiscated, and he was imprisoned in Lowenstein, where he wrote The Embassador and His Functions (1716) about his experiences.
Witt, Johan de (1625–72): Born in Dordrecht. In 1650 he became leader of the deputation of Dordrecht to the States of Holland. He later ruled the Republic of United Provinces and was assassinated by his enemies in the Orange party, whom he had opposed throughout his political career. He wrote a book on mathematics, Elementa curvarum linearum (1659) and Waardije van lyf-renten naer proportie van los-renten (1671), on political economy.
Wolff, Christian (1679–1754): Born in Breslau, Silesia. A German philosopher and polymath, he composed a vast philosophical system comprehending all sciences, first in German, then in Latin, and dominated philosophy in Germany and beyond for decades in the middle of the eighteenth century.
Xenophon (ca. 428–353 bc): Born in Ephesus. Soldier, mercenary, and historian. His history Hellenica focused on events of 411 to 362 bcAnabasis (The Inland Expedition [of Cyrus]) is a record of his travels in the expedition against the Persians and was used as a field guide by Alexander the Great.
Works Referred to by Vattel
- Canon in nona actione [Can. in nona actione], Corpus Iuris Canonici. In The 1917 or Pio-Benedictine Code of Canon Law in English Translation, edited by Edward N. Peters. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2001.
- Extravagantes communes [Extravag. Commun.]. In Corpus Iuris Canonici, edited by Emilius Ludwid Richter. Reprint of the 1879–81 edition. Graz, 1959.
- Hardouin, Jean. Conciliorum collectio regia maxima. 12 vols. Paris, 1715.
- Ammianus Marcellinus. Res gestae XXXI. In Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History III. Books 27–31. Excerpta Valesiana, translated by J. C. Rolfe. Loeb Classical Library no. 331. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1939.
- Anonymous. Mémoires pour server à l’histoire du differend entre le Pape et le Canton de Lucerne. à L***. Lucerne, 1727.
- Anson, George. A Voyage Round the World [Anson’s Voyage Round the World]. London, 1748. Modern edition, London: Oxford University Press, 1974.
- Appian. De bello punico. In Appian, Roman History. Translated by Horace White. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library, nos. 2, 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1912.
- Aristotle. Politics. Translated by H. Rackham. Loeb Classical Library, no. 264. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1932.
- Arrian. Anabasis Alexandri I [de Exped. Alexand.]. In Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander 1–4, translated by P. A. Brunt and E. Iliff Robson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 236. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929.
- Augier de Marigny, François. Histoire des Arabes sous le gouvernement des califes [Hist. of the Arabs]. Paris, 1750. Published in English as The History of the Arabians, Under the Government of the Caliphs. London, 1758.
- Aulus Gellius. Noctes Atticae III [Aul. Gell. Noct. Attic. lib. iii]. In Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, Books 1–5, translated by J. C. Rolfe. Loeb Classical Library, no. 195. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1927.
- Bacallar y Sanna, Vicente (Marquis de San Felipe). Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire d’Espagne sous le règne de Philippe V [Memoirs of M. de St. Phillippe] [Memoirs of Mons. de St. Phillipe] [Memoirs of M. St. Phillip;Memorial of the marquis de St. Philip]. Translated by Maudave. Paris, 1756. Published in English as Memoirs of Elizabeth Farnese. London, 1746.
- Bellay, Martin Du. Les mémoires de Mess. M. Du Bellay [Memoirs of Martin Du Bellay]. Paris, 1569. Modern edition, Mémoires de Martin et Guillaume Du Bellay, edited by V. L. Bourrilly and F. Vindry. Paris: Renouard, H. Laurens, succ., 1908–19.
- Bernard, Jacques, ed. Nouvelles de la République des Lettres. Amsterdam, 1698–1710.
- Bilain, Antoine. Traité des droits de la reyne tres-chrestienne sur divers estats de la Monarchie d’Espagne [A treatise on the right of the queen to several states of the Spanish monarchy]. Paris, 1667.
- Bodin [Bodinus], Jean. Six livres de la République [Republic]. Paris, 1576. Published in English in Jean Bodin, On Sovereignty. Edited and translated by Julian H. Franklin. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
- Boizard, Jean. Traité des monnoyes, de leurs circonstances & dépendances [Treatise on Coin]. Paris, 1714.
- Bontekoe, Willem. Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvingevan de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz Bontekoe [Voyages of the Dutch to the East-Indies]. Hoorn, 1646. Published in English as Memorable Description of the East-Indian Voyage, 1618–25. Translated and edited by C. B. Bodde-Hodgkinson and Pieter Geyl. London: Routledge, 1929.
- Bougeant, Guillaume Hyacinthe. Histoire des guerres et des négociations qui précédèrent le traité de Westphalie sous le règne de Louis XIII [History of the Treaty of Westphalia]. Paris, 1751.
- Bourbon Condé, Anne Geneviève de. Abrégé du Mémoire de Madame la Duchesse de Longueville, contre Madame la Duchesse de Nemours, touchant la compétence des trois Estats de Neuf-chastel. N.p., 1670–80.
- Buddeus [Budaeus], Johann Franz. Elementa philosophiae practicae, instrumentalis et theoreticae [Elementa Philos. Pract.]. Magdeburg, 1697. Published in English as Elements of Instrumental Philosophy. 1717.
- Burke, William. An Account of the European Settlements in the Americas. London, 1757.
- Bynkershoek, Cornelius van. De foro legatorum liber singularis [Competent Judge of Embassadors]. Leiden, 1721. Published in English as De foro legatorum liber singularis—a monograph on the jurisdiction over ambassadors in both civil and criminal cases. Translated by Gordon J. Laing. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946.
- Caesar. De bello Gallico. In Caesar, The Gallic Wars, translated by H. J. Edwards. Loeb Classical Library, no. 72. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1917.
- Callières, François de. De la manière de négocier avec les souverains [Manner of negotiating with Sovereigns]. Brussels, 1716. Published in English as The Art of Negotiating with Sovereign Princes. London, 1716; On the Manner of Negotiating with Princes. Translated by A. F. Whyte. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1983.
- Camden, William. Annales rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum, regnante Elizabetha [Annal. Angl.]. London, 1615. Published in English as Annales, or, the True and Royall History of the Famous Empresse Elizabeth Queene of England, France, and Ireland [History of Queen Elizabeth]. London, 1625. Excerpts published in William Camden, The History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth, Late Queen of England. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
- Campanella, Tommaso. Civitas solis (La città del sole). Frankfurt, 1623.
- Champier, Symphorien. Les gestes, ensemble la vie du preulx chevalier Bayard [Life]. Lyons, 1525. Modern edition edited by Denis Crouzet. Paris: Impr. nationale, 1992.
- Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier. Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France, avec le journal historique d’un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans l’Amérique septentrionnale [History of New France]. Paris, 1744.
- Chauvelin, Henri-Philippe (Abbé). Tradition des faits, qui manifestent le sistème d’indépendance que les évêques ont opposé dans les différens siècles aux principes invariables de la justice souveraine du roi sur tous ses sujets indistinctement; et la nécessité de laisser agir les juges séculiers contre leurs entreprises, pour maintenir l’observation des loix, et la tranquillité publique. N.p., .
- Chevalier, Nicolas. Histoire de Guillaume III, roi de la Grande Bretagne. Amsterdam, 1692.
- Choisy, François Timoléon de. Histoire de Charles Cinquième roi de France [Choisy’s History of Charles V] [abbé de Choisy, Hist. de Charles V]. Paris, 1689.
- Choisy, François Timoléon de. Histoire de France sous les règnes de S. Louis, de Philippe de Valois, du roi Jean, de Charles V., et de Charles VI [Choisy’s History of St. Louis]. Paris, 1688–95.
- Cicero. De divinatione [de Divinat.]. In Cicero, On Old Age. On Friendship. On Divination, translated by W. A. Falconer. Loeb Classical Library, no. 154. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1923.
- Cicero. De inventione. In Cicero, On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Topics, translated by H. M. Hubbell. Loeb Classical Library, no. 386. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949.
- Cicero. De legibus [de Legib.]. In Cicero, On the Republic. On the Laws, translated by Clinton W. Keynes. Loeb Classical Library, no. 213. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Cicero. De natura Deorum [De Natura Deorum]. In Cicero, On the Nature of Gods. Academics, translated by H. Rackham. Loeb Classical Library, no. 268. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933.
- Cicero. Fragment. Ex lib. ii De Republica. In Cicero, On the Republic. On the Laws, translated by Clinton W. Keynes. Loeb Classical Library, no. 213. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Cicero. De officiis III [De Offic.]. In Cicero, On Duties, translated by Walter Miller. Loeb Classical Library, no. 30. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1913.
- Cicero. In Verrem I [Orat. i]. In Cicero, The Verrine Orations I: Against Caecilius. Against Verres, translated by L. H. G. Greenwood. Loeb Classical Library, no. 221. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Cicero. In Verrem I [Orat. ii, i.85]. In Cicero, The Verrine Orations II: Against Verres, part 2, books 3–5, translated by L. H. G. Greenwood. Loeb Classical Library, no. 293. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935.
- Cicero. Pro Caecina [Orat. pro Caecina]. In Cicero, Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo, translated by H. Grose Hodge. Loeb Classical Library, no. 198. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1927.
- Cicero. Pro Roscio Comoedo [Orat. pro Q. Roscio, comoedo]. In Cicero, Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. The Three Speeches on the Agrarian Law Against Rullus. Translated by J. H. Freese. Loeb Classical Library, no. 240. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930.
- Cicero. Pro Sestio [Pro P. Sextio]. In Cicero, Pro Sestio. In Vatinium, translated by R. Gardner. Loeb Classical Library, no. 309. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958.
- Cicero. Somnium Scipionis [Som. Scip.; De republica VI.xiii]. In Cicero, On the Republic. On the Laws, translated by Clinton W. Keynes. Loeb Classical Library, no. 213. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Cicero. Tusculan Disputations [Tuscul.]. Translated by J. E. King. Loeb Classical Library, no. 141. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1927.
- Commines, Philippe de. Mémoires de Messire Philippe Commines [Memoires of Commines]. Paris, 1552. Published in English as Memoirs of Philip de Commines, Lord of Argenton. Praeger Series in War Studies. London, 1991.
- Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis. Histoire des empereurs romains [History of the Emperors]. Paris, 1750–56. Published in English as The History of the Roman Emperors. Translated by John Mill. London, 1814.
- Curtius Rufus, Quintus [Q. Curt.]. History of Alexander. [Quint. Curt.]. In Quintus Curtius, History of Alexander, translated by J. C. Rolfe. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library, nos. 368, 369. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946.
- Daniel, Gabriel. Histoire de France [Father Daniel’s History of France] [Hist. of France]. Paris, 1713. Published in English as The History of France. London, 1726.
- D’Egly, Charles Philippe de Monthenault. Histoire des rois des deux Siciles [History of the Kings of the Two Sicilies] [History of the Two Sicilies]. Paris, 1741.
- Demosthenes. Against Aristocrates [Orat. Adv. Aristocrat.]. In Demosthenes, Against Meidias. Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2 (21–26), translated by J. H. Vince. Loeb Classical Library, no. 299. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935.
- Diodorus Siculus. Library of History. Vol. IX, books 18–19.65. Translated by R. M. Geer. Loeb Classical Library, no. 377. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1947.
- Duport du Tertre, François-Joachim. Histoire des conjurations, conspirations et révolutions célèbres [Conspiracies] [Du Port’s Hist. of Conspir.]. Paris, 1754.
- Etterlin, Peterman. Kronica von der loblichen Eydtgnoschaft [Etterlin]. Basel, 1507. Reprint, Winterthur, 1978.
- Eutropius. Eutropii breviarium ab urbe condita [Eutropius]. Published in English as The Breviarium ab urbe condita of Eutropius. Translated by H. W. Bird. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993.
- Frederick II of Prussia. Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg. Translated by M. Darget. London, 1748.
- Gramond, Gabriel-Barthélemy de. Historiarum Galliae ab excessu Henrici IV libri XVIII, quibus rerum per Gallos tota Europa gestarum accurata narratio continetur, autore Gabr. Bartholomaeo Gramondo, ... [Hist. Gall.]. Tolosae: apud A. Colomerium, 1643.
- Grotius, Hugo. Annales et historiae de rebus Belgicis [Ann.] [Annals of the Netherlands] [Hist. of the Disturb. in the Netherlands] [Hist. of the Disturbances in the Low Countries] [Hist. of the Disturbances in the Netherlands] [Hist. of Netherlands] [Hist. of the Troubles in the Low Countries] [History of the Disturbances in the Low Countries] Amsterdam, 1657. Published in English as De rebus belgicis, or, The Annals and History of the Low-Countrey-Warrs. London, 1665.
- Grotius, Hugo. The Free Sea [Mare Liberum]. Edited by D. Armitage. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2004.
- Grotius, Hugo. The Rights of War and Peace, in Three Books: Wherein Are Explained, the Law of Nature and Nations, and the Principal Points Relating to Government [De Jure Belli et Pacis] [Law of War and Peace]. Edited and translated by Jean Barbeyrac. London, 1738. Modern edition edited by R. Tuck. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005.
- Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy, from the Year 1490, to 1532 ... In twenty books. Translated into English by the Chevalier Austin Parke Goddard. London, 1753–56.
- Heiss von Kogenheim, Johann. Histoire de l’Empire [History of the Empire]. Paris, 1684. Published in English as History of the Empire. Translated by Bourgeois de Chastenet. London, 1727–29.
- Herodotus. The History of Herodotus. Translated by G. Rawlinson. 4 vols. London: J. Murray, 1862.
- Hobbes, Thomas. De Cive, or the Citizen [De Cive]. Published in English as Thomas Hobbes, De Cive, or the Citizen—English Version. Edited by Howard Warrender. Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes. Oxford, 1984. Published in Latin as Thomas Hobbes, De Cive—Latin Version. Edited by Howard Warrender. Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes. Oxford, 1984.
- Horace. Carmina IV [Hor. lib. iv. od. 6]. In Horace, Odes and Epodes, translated by Niall Rudd. Loeb Classical Library, no. 33. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.
- Horace. Satires, Epistles. The Art of Poetry [Ars poetica]. Translated by H. Rushton Fairclough. Loeb Classical Library, no. 33. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1926.
- Joinville, John de. Histoire de saint Louis, Credo et lettre à Louis X. Accompagné d’une traduction par M. Natalis de Wailly. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1874.
- Justinian I [Justin.]. Digests (Pandects) [Digest.]. In The Digest of Justinian, translated by Alan Watson. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1997.
- Justinian I [Justin.]. Institutes I [Instit. lib. i]. In The Institutes of Justinian: Text, Translation, and Commentary, edited and translated by J. A. C. Thomas. New York: American Elsevier, 1975.
- Lacombe, Jacques. Abrégé chronologique de l´histoire du Nord [Histoire du Nord]. Paris, 1762.
- Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo (Johannis Pauli). Institutiones juris canonici: Cum notis variorum, praecipue arcana dominationis papalis, episcopalis, et clericalis in Ecclesia Romana detegentibus; In usum auditorii Thomasiani [Thomas. Nat. ad Lancell.]. Halle, 1715–17.
- La Pimpie Solignac, Pierre Joseph de. L’histoire générale de Pologne de Mr. de Solignac [History of Poland]. Paris, 1750.
- Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Codex juris gentium diplomaticus. [Codex Juris Gent. Diplomat.] [diplomatic code of the law of nations] [Leibnitii Codex Juris Gent. Diplomat.] [diplomatic Code of the Law of Nations] [Leibnitii Codex Juris Gent. Diplomat.] [Leibnitz, Cod. Jur. Gent. Diplomat.]. Hanover, 1693.
- Le Vassor, Michel. The History of King Lewis XIII [Hist. of Louis XIII]. London, 1700–1702.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita I. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 1–2, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 114. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita II. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 1–2, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 114. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita IV. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 3–4, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 133. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1922.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita V. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 5–7, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 172. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita VI. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 5–7, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 172. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita VII. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 5–7, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 172. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita VIII. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 8–10, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 191. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita IX. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 8–10, translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library, no. 191. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita XXVIII. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 28–30, translated by F. G. Moore. Loeb Classical Library, no. 381. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita XXX. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 28–30, translated by F. G. Moore. Loeb Classical Library, no. 381. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita XXXVIII. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 38–39, translated by E. T. Sage. Loeb Classical Library, no. 313. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Ab urbe condita XLII. In Livy, History of Rome, Books 40–42, translated by E. T. Sage and A. C. Schlesinger. Loeb Classical Library, no. 332. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1938.
- Livy [Tit. Liv]. Epitom. lib. XVIII. In Livy, Summaries, Fragments, and Obsequens, translated by A. C. Schlesinger. Loeb Classical Library, no. 404. London: Heinemann, 1959.
- Lucretius. De rerum natura [unreferenced]. In Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, translated by W. H. D. Rouse, revised by Martin F. Smith. Loeb Classical Library, no. 181, rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992.
- Machiavelli, Nicolò. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio [Disc. on Livy ]. 1531. Published in English as Discourses on Livy. Translated by Harvey C. Mansfield and Nathan Tarcov. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
- Mariana, Juan de. De rege et regis institutione [de Rege et Regis Institut.]. Toledo, 1599.
- Matthieu, Pierre. Histoire de France sous les regnes de François I, Henri II, François II, Charles IX, Henri III, Henri IV, and Louis XIII [Matthieu vol. ii book 3]. 2 vols. Paris, 1631.
- Mézeray, François Eudes de. A General Chronological History of France [Hist. of France] [History of France]. London, 1683.
- Molesworth, Robert. Etat présent du Danemark, par M. Molesworth, envoyé d’Angleterre à la Cour de Danemark [Present State of Denmark]. Amsterdam: Jansons à Waesberge, 1732.
- Montaigne, Michel de. Les essais de Michel de Montaigne, nouvelle edition. 3 vols. London, 1724.
- Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de. The Spirit of the Laws [Spirit of Laws]. Edited by A. M. Cohler et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- Montgon, Charles Alexander de. Mémoires de M. l’Abbé de Montgon [Memoirs of the abbé De Montgon]. Lausanne, 1748–49.
- Nevers, Louis de Gonzage, Duc de. Les Mémoires de Monsieur le Duc de Nevers [Memoires de Nevers]. Paris, 1665.
- Noell [Natalis], Alexandre. Historia ecclesiastica [Dissert. Hist. Eccl.] [Natal. Alex. Dissert. Hist. Eccles.]. Paris, 1676.
- Ockley, Simon. The Conquest of Syria, Persia, and Egypt by the Saracens [Alvakedi’s History of the Conquest of Syria]. London, 1708–18.
- Ockley, Simon. The History of the Saracens [History of the Saracens]. London, 1718. Reprint, Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger, 2003.
- Ossat, Arnauld d’. Lettres de illustrissime et reverendissime Cardinale d’Ossat [Letters of Cardinal d’Ossat]. Paris, 1624.
- Ovid. Tristia I. In Ovid, Tristia. Ex Porto, translated by A. L. Wheeler, revised by G. P. Gould. Loeb Classical Library, no. 151. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
- Papon, Jean. Recueil d’arrests notables des cours souveraines de France [Arrêts Notables]. Paris, 1565.
- Pas, Antoine de, Marquis de Feuquières. Mémoires sur la guerre [Memoires de Feuquieres]. [Paris?], 1730. Published in English as Memoirs Historical and Military. London, 1736.
- Pecquet, Antoine. Discours sur l’art de négocier. Paris, 1737.
- Pineau-Duclos, Charles. The History of King Louis XI, King of France. London, 1746.
- Pliny the Younger [Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus]. Epistulae [Ep. L]. In Letters, I Books 1–7, translated by Betty Radice. Loeb Classical Library. New York: Heinemann, 1969.
- Plumard de Danguel, Louis-Joseph [John Nickolls, pseud.]. Remarques sur les avantages et les désavantages de la France et de la Gr. Bretagne, par rapport au commerce. Leiden [Paris], 1754. Published in English as Remarks on the Advantages and Disadvantages of France and Great-Britain with Respect to Commerce. London, 1754.
- Plutarch. Agesilaus [Life of Agesilaüs]. In Plutarch, Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas and Marcellus, translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb Classical Library, no. 87. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1917.
- Plutarch. Demetrios [in Demetrio.]. In Plutarch, Demetrius and Antony. Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius [Plut. in Pyrr.], translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb Classical Library, no. 101. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1920.
- Plutarch. Fabius [life of Fabius Maximus]. In Plutarch, Pericles and Fabius Maximus. Nicias and Crassus, translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb Classical Library, no. 65. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1916.
- Plutarch. Publicola [in Poplicol.]. In Plutarch, Theseus and Romulus. Lycurgus and Numa. Solon and Publicola, translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb Classical Library, no. 46. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914.
- Polybius. Historiae III [Histor. lib. iii]. In Polybius, Histories Books 3–4, translated by W. R. Paton. Loeb Classical Library, no. 137. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1922.
- Prévost, Antoine François. Histoire générale des voyages, ou Nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre qui ont été publiées jusqu’à présent dans les différentes langues. 20 vols. Paris, 1746–1801.
- Pufendorf, Samuel. Les devoirs de l’homme et du citoien. 4th ed. Amsterdam, 1718. Modern English edition, The Whole Duty of Man, According to the Law of Nature. Edited by I. Hunter and D. Saunders. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003.
- Pufendorf, Samuel. Of the Law of Nature and Nations [Law of Nature and Nations; De jure naturae et gentium]. Edited by Jean Barbeyrac. Translated by Basil Kennet. 4th ed. London, 1729. Reprint, Clark, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 2005.
- Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria VII [Inst. Orat.] [Instit. Orat.]. In Quintilian, The Orator’s Education, Books 6–8, translated by Donald A. Russell. Loeb Classical Library, no. 126. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.
- Quintilian. The Major Declamations Attributed to Quintilian [Declamations]. Translated by L. A. Sussman. Frankfurt am Main; New York: Verlag P. Lang, 1987.
- Rebmann, Hans Rudolf. Ein neuw, lustig, ernsthafft, poetisch Gastmal, vnd Gespräch zweyer Bergen, in der löblichen Eydgnossschafft, vnd im Berner Gebiet gelegen ... Bern, 1606.
- Ricci, Pietro Andrea. Synopsis, decreta et resolutiones sac. congr. Immunitatis super controversijs iurisdictionalibus complectens. [Synops. Decret. et Resol. S. Congreg. Immunit.]. Praeneste: Typis Barberinis apud Antonium Ruzzolum, 1708.
- Rohan, Henri, Duc de. Mémoires du Duc de Rohan sur les choses qui se sont passées en France depuis la mort de Henri le Grand jusqu’à la Paix faite avec les Réformés [Memoires de Rohan]. [Paris?], 1644. Published in English as The Memoires of the Duke of Rohan. Translated by George Bridges. London, 1660.
- Schodeler [Schodoler], Wernher. Eidgenössische Chronik [Schodeler]. Bremgarten an der Reuss, [ca. 1510–35]. Reprint, Luzern: Faksimile-Verlag, 1980.
- Selden, John. Mare clausum, of the Dominion, or, Ownership of the Sea [Mare Clausum]. London, 1635. Reprint, Clark, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 2002.
- Seneca. De beneficiis. In Seneca, Moral Essays, vol. 3. Translated by John W. Basore. Loeb Classical Library, no. 310. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935.
- Seneca. De ira I. In Seneca, Moral Essays. De providentia. De constantia. De ira. De clementia, translated by John W. Basore. Loeb Classical Library, no. 214. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Sextus Aurelius Victor. De Viris Illustribus [Auctor de Viris Illust.]. In Sexti Aurelii Victoris Liber de Caesaribus. Praecedunt Origo gentis Romanae et Liber de viris illustribus urbis Romae. Subsequitur Epitome de Caesaribus, edited by Franz Pichlmayr and Roland Gründel. Leipzig: B. G. Teubneri, 1966.
- Sharaf ad-Din ˛Ali Yazdi. The History of Timur-Bec, Known by the Name of Tamerlain the Great [Hist. of Timur-Bec]. From the Persian by Cherefeddin Ali. Translated into French by Petis de la Croix and into English by John Darby. 2 vols. London, 1723.
- Simler, Josias. De Helvetiorum republica [de Repub. Helvet.]. Zürich, 1576.
- Socrates of Constantinople [Scholasticus]. Ecclesiastical History [Hist. Eccles.]. Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger, 2003.
- Solís y Rivadeneira, Antonio de. Historia de la conquista de México. Spain, 1686. Modern edition, Prologue and appendices by Edmundo O’Gorman. Notes by José Valero Silva. Mexico City, 1973. Published in English as History of the Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards. Translated by Thomas Townsend. London, 1742.
- Stettler, Michael. Chronikon oder Grundliche Beschreibung der fürnembsten Geschichte und Thaten, welche sich in gantzer Helvetia, den jüngsten Jahren nach, von ihrem Anfang her gerechnet, ... bis auff das 1627. Jahr /participirt, verlauffen. Bern, 1627.
- Stumpf, Johannes. Gemeiner loblicher Eydgnoschafft Stetten/Landen vnd Völckeren Chronick wirdiger thaaten beschreybung. Zürich, 1554.
- Sully, Maximilien de Béthune, Duc de. Mémoires de Maximilien de Béthune Duc de Sully, principal ministre de Henry le Grand, mis en ordre: Avec des rémarques [Memoirs digested by M. de l’Ecluse] [Sully’s Memoirs] [Sully’s Memoirs, by M. de l’Ecluse]. Edited by Pierre Mathurin de L’Écluse des Loges. London [Paris], 1752.
- Tacitus, Annales I. In Tacitus, Histories 4–5. Annals 1–3, translated by Clifford H. Moore and John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 249. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931.
- Tacitus. Annales II [Tacit. Annal. lib. ii]. In Tacitus, Histories 4–5. Annals 1–3, translated by Clifford H. Moore and John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 249. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931.
- Tacitus. Annales III. In Tacitus, Histories 4–5. Annals 1–3, translated by Clifford H. Moore and John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 249. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931.
- Tacitus. Annales XII. In Tacitus, Annals 4–6, 11–12, translated by John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 312. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937.
- Tacitus. Annales XIII. In Tacitus, Annals 13–16, translated by John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 322. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937.
- Tacitus. Annales XIV. In Tacitus, Annals 13–16, translated by John Jackson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 322. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937.
- Tertullian. Tertullian De exhortatione castitatis [Exhort. Castit.]: Ermahnung zur Keuscheit. In Tertullian, edited by Hans-Veit Friedrich. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1990.
- Thou [De Thou], Jacques Auguste de. A. Thuani historiarum sui temporis. Geneva, 1620. Published in English as Monsieur de Thou’s History of His Own Times. Translated by Bernhard Wilson. London, 1729–30.
- Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War, Books 3–4. Translated by C. F. Smith. Loeb Classical Library, no. 109, rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930.
- Tribbechov, Adam. Exercitationes ad baronii annales ubi desiit Isaacus Casaubonus: In Acad. Kiloniensi ad disputandum propositae Kilonium [ad Baron. Annal.]. Kiel: Reumann, 1667; later edition Leipzig: Reumann, 1708.
- Tschudi, Aegidius. Chronicon Helveticorum. Basle, 1734–36. Reprint, Bern: Allgemeine Geschichtsforschende Gesellschaft der Schweiz, 1968–2000.
- Turretini [Turretin] [Turretinus], François. Compendium theologicae didacto-elencticae [Turretin, Hist. Ecclesiast. Compendium]. Published in English as Institutes of Elenctic Theology. Edited by James T. Dennison. Translated by George Musgrave Giger. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Publications, 1992.
- Valerius Maximus [Valer. Maxim.]. Factorum et dictorum memorabilium [Valer. Max.]. In Valerius Maximus, Memorable Doings and Sayings, translated by D. R. Shackleton Bailey. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library, nos. 492, 493. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.
- Varro. De lingua Latina V [de Ling. Lat. lib. iv]. In Varro, On the Latin Language, translated by Roland G. Kent. Loeb Classical Library, no. 333. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951.
- Vattel, Emer de. Le loisir philosophique ou pièces diverses de philosophie, de morale, et d’amusement. Geneva, 1747.
- Vattel, Emer de. Mélanges de littérature, de morale, et de politique. Neuchâtel: Edit. du Journal Helvétique, 1760.
- Vega, Garcilaso de la. Royal Commentaries of the Incas and General History of Peru [Garcillasso de la Vega]. Edited and translated by Harold V. Livermore. Lisbon, 1609. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966.
- Velly, (Abbé) Paul François. Histoire de France, depuis l’établissement de la monarchie jusqu’au règne de Louis XIV—Nouvelle édition [Abbé Velly, History of France] [Hist. of France]. Vols. 1–7 by Velly. Vols. 8–17 by C. Villaret. Vols. 18–30 by J. J. Garnier. Paris, 1755–86.
- Velly, (Abbé) Paul François. Poliergie, ou Mêlange de littérature et de poësies. Amsterdam: Arkstée et Merkus, 1757.
- Vertot, René-Aubert de. History of the Revolutions in Sweden, Occasioned by the Change in Religion [History of the Revolutions in Sweden]. London, 1696.
- Vertot, René-Aubert de. Revolutions of Portugal. Translated by G. Roussillon. London, 1721.
- Virgil. Aeneid II. In Virgil, Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid Books 1–6, translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library, no. 63. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1916.
- Virgil. Aeneid VI. In Virgil, Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid Books 1–6, translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library, no. 63. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1916.
- Virgil. Aeneid X [Aen.]. In Virgil, Aeneid 7–12, Appendix Vergiliana, translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library, no. 64. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1918.
- Virgil. Eclogues. In Virgil, Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid Books 1–6, translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library, no. 63. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1916.
- Vogel, Franz Adam. Traité historique et politique des alliances entre la France et les XIII. Cantons: Depuis Charles VII jusqu’à présent par Mr. Vogel G[rand] J[uge] D[es] G[ardes] S[uisses]. Suivant la copie imprimée-Paris [Vogel’s Historical and Political Treatise]. 1733.
- Vopiscus, Flavius. Probus [Prob.]. In Historia Augusta III, translated by David Magie. Loeb Classical Library, no. 263. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1932.
- Wattenwyl (French spelling is Watteville), Alexander Ludwig von. Histoire de la Confédération helvétique [History of the Helvetic Confederacy] [Hist. of the Helvetic Confederacy]. Bern: Gottschall, 1754.
- Wicquefort, Abraham de. The Embassador and His Functions [The Ambassador] [Embassador] [Embassad.] [Embass.]. Translated by John Digby. London, 1716. Reprint, Leicester: Leicester University, 1997.
- Witt, Johan de. Brieven geschreven ende gewisselt tusschen den Heer Johan de Witt. [De Witt’s Letters and Negotiations] Gravenhage, 1723–25. Modern edition, Brieven van Johan de Witt. Edited by Robert Fruin. Amsterdam: J. Müller, 1919.
- Wolf[f], Christian. Ius naturae et ius gentium [Jus Gent.] [Law of Nations] [Law of Nature] [Wolf, Jus Gent.] [Wolf, Jus Gentium] [Wolf, Jus Nat.] [Wolfii, Jus Gent.] [Wolfius, Jus Gent.] [Wolfius, Jus Nat.]. Halle, 1740–46. Reprinted in J. Ecole et al., eds., Christian Wolff: Gesammelte Werke, series 2 (Latin), vol. 61. Hildesheim [Zurich] New York, 1960.
- Wolf[f], Christian. Ius gentium methodo scientifica pertractatum. Translated by Joseph H. Drake. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934.
- Wolf[f], Christian. Philosophia practica universalis methodo scientifica pertractata [Phil. Pract. Univ.]. Frankfurt, 1738–39. Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften. Abtl. 2, Lateinische Schriften. Band 10–11. Hildesheim: Olms, 1971–78.
- Wolf[f], Christian. Theologia naturalis scientifica pertractata [Theol. nat.]. 2 vols. Frankfurt, 1736–37.
- Xenophon [Xenoph.]. Constitution of Lacedaemon [Lacedaemon. Respublica.]. In Xenophon, Hiero. Agesilaus. Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting. Constitution of the Athenians, translated by E. C. Marchant and G. W. Bowersock. Loeb Classical Library, no. 183. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925.
- Xenophon [Xenoph.]. Cyropaedia V [Cyrop.]. In Xenophon, Cyropaedia 5–8, translated by Walter Miller. Loeb Classical Library, no. 52. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914.
- Xenophon [Xenoph.]. Hellenica. [Hist. Graec.] In Xenophon, Hellenica Books 1–4, translated by Carleton L. Brownson. Loeb Classical Library, no. 88. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1918.
Writings on Vattel
- Bandelier, André. “De Berlin à Neuchâtel: La genèse du Droit des gens d’Emer de Vattel.” In Schweizer im Berlin des 18. Jahrhunderts, 45–56, edited by Martin Fontius and Helmut Holzhey, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996.
- Baudenet D’Annoux, Henry. Le développement de la neutralité de Grotius à Vattel. Orléans: A. Gout, 1910.
- Beaulac, Stéphane. “Emer de Vattel and the Externalization of Sovereignty.” Journal of the History of International Law 5 (2003): 237–92.
- Beaulac, Stéphane. “The Westphalian Legal Orthodoxy—Myth or Reality?” Journal of the History of International Law 2 (2000): 148–77.
- Béguelin, Eduard. “En souvenir de Vattel.” In Recueil de travaux, 35–176. Neuchâtel: Attinger, 1929.
- Brierly, J. L. The Law of Nations. 6th ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1963.
- Bull, Hedley. The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. London: Macmillan, 1977.
- Butler, Peter F. “Legitimacy in a States-System: Vattel’s Law of Nations.” In The Reason of States, edited by Michael Donelan, 45–63. London: Allen and Unwin, 1978.
- Cavallar, Georg. The Rights of Strangers: Theories of International Hospitality, the Global Community, and Political Justice Since Vitoria, 306–17. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.
- Dufour, Alfred. “Religion, église, état dans la pensée d’Emer de Vattel.” Musée Neuchâtelois 2002: 169–92.
- Fenwick, Charles G. “The Authority of Vattel.” American Political Science Review 7 (1913): 395–410.
- Guggenheim, Paul. Emer de Vattel et l’étude des relations internationales en Suisse. Genève: Georg et Cie, 1956.
- Guggenheim, Paul. “La souveraineté dans l’histoire du droit des gens de Vitoria à Vattel.” In Mélanges offerts à Juray Andrassy, edited by Vladimir Ibler, 111–21. La Haye: Martin Nijhoff, 1968.
- Haggenmacher, Peter. “L’Etat souverain comme sujet du droit international, de Vitoria à Vattel.” Droits: Revue française de théorie juridique 16 (1992): 11–20. Paris: PUF.
- Hochstrasser, Timothy J. Natural Law Theories in the Early Enlightenment, 177–83. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- Hurell, Andrew. “Vattel: Pluralism and Its Limits.” In Classical Theories of International Relations, edited by Ian Clark and Iver B. Neumann, 233–55. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
- Jouannet, Emmanuelle. “La critique de la pensée classique durant l’entredeux guerres: Vattel et Van Vollenhoven (Quelques réflexions sur le modèle classique du droit international).” Miskolc Journal of International Law 1 (2004): 45–63.
- Jouannet, Emmanuelle. Emer de Vattel et l’émergence doctrinale du droit international classique. Paris: A. Pedrone, 1998.
- Jouannet, Emmanuelle. “Vattel et la sujétion directe de l’Etat au droit international.” In L’Etat Moderne: Regards sur la pensée politique de l’Europe Occidentale entre 1715 et 1848, edited by Simone Goyard-Fabre, 153–79. Paris: J. Vrin, 2000.
- Kant, Immanuel. “Perpetual Peace.” In Kant: Political Writings, edited by H. S. Reiss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Kapossy, Béla. Iselin contra Rousseau: Sociable Patriotism and the History of Mankind. Basel: Schwabe, 2006.
- Kelsen, Hans. “Quincy Wright’s A Study of War and the Bellum Justum Theory.” Ethics 3, no. 3 (1943): 208–11.
- Koskenniemi, Martti. From Apology to Utopia: The Structure of International Legal Argument, 89–97. Helsinki: Finnish Lawyers’ Publishing Co., 1989.
- Lapradelle, Albert de. Introduction to The Law of Nations or the Principles of Natural Law, by Emer de Vattel, iii–lix. Carnegie ed. Washington, D.C., 1916. Reprint, New York: Oceana, 1964.
- Linklater, Andrew. Men and Citizens in the Theory of International Relations. London: Macmillan, 1982.
- Manz, Johannes. Emer de Vattel: Versuch einer Würdigung; Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Auffassung von der individuellen Freiheit und der souveränen Gleichheit. Diss. Zürich, 1971.
- Midgley, E. B. F. The Natural Law Tradition and the Theory of International Relations, 184–95. London: Elek, 1975.
- Montmorency, J. E. G. de. “Emerich de Vattel.” Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation, n.s., 10 (1909): 17–39. Reprinted in Great Jurists of the World, edited by John Macdonell and Edward Manson, 477–504. Boston: Little, Brown, 1914.
- Nussbaum, A. A Concise History of the Law of Nations. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
- Onuf, Nicholas Greenwood. “Civitas Maxima: Wolff, Vattel, and the Fate of Republicanism.” American Journal of International Law 88 (1994): 280–303.
- Rabkin, Jeremy. “Grotius, Vattel, and Locke: An Older View of Liberalism and Nationality.” Review of Politics 59 (1997): 292–322.
- Remec, Peter Pavel. The Position of the Individual in International Law According to Grotius and Vattel. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1960.
- Ruddy, Francis Stephen. “The Acceptance of Vattel.” Grotian Society Papers 1972: 177–96. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
- Ruddy, Francis Stephen. International Law in the Enlightenment: The Background of Emmerich de Vattel’s Le Droit des Gens. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1975.
- Schmitt, Carl. Der Nomos der Erde im Völkerrecht des Jus Publicum Europaeum. 4th ed. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, 1997.
- Senellart, Michel. “La qualification de l’ennemi chez Emer de Vattel.” Astérion, no. 2 (juillet 2004) 31–51.
- Staub, Hans. Die Völkerrechtlichen Lehren Vattels im Lichte der naturrechtlichen Doktrin: Ein Beitrag zur Gründungsgeschichte des Völkerrechts. Berlin: Vahlen, 1922.
- Thévenaz, Henri. “Vattel ou La destinée d’un livre.” Schweizerisches Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht 14 (1957): 9–16.
- Tuck, Richard. The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant, 191–96. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Van Vollenhoven, Cornelius. Du droit de paix. De iure pacis. La Haye: M. Nijhoff, 1932.
- Van Vollenhoven, Cornelius. Les trois phases du Droit des gens. La Haye: M. Nijhoff, 1919.
- Whelan, Frederick G. “Vattel’s Doctrine of the State.” History of Political Thought 9 (1988): 59–90. Reprinted in Grotius, Pufendorf, and Modern Natural Law, edited by K. Haakonssen, 403–34. Brookfield, Vt.: Dartmouth Publishing, 1998.
- Wright, Quincy. Preface to The Position of the Individual in International Law According to Grotius and Vattel, by Peter Pavel Remec. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1960.
- Wright, Quincy. A Study of War. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942.
- Zurbuchen, Simone. “Die schweizerische Debatte über die Leibniz-Wolffsche Philosophie und ihre Bedeutung für Emer von Vattels philosophischen Werdegang.” In Reconceptualizing Nature, Science, and Aesthetics: Contribution à une nouvelle approche des Lumières helvetiques, edited by Patrick Coleman, Anne Hofmann, and Simone Zurbuchen, 91–113. Genève: Slatkine, 1998.
This book is set in Adobe Garamond, a modern adaptation by Robert Slimbach of the typeface originally cut around 1540 by the French typographer and printer Claude Garamond. The Garamond face, with its small lowercase height and restrained contrast between thick and thin strokes, is a classic “old-style” face and has long been one of the most influential and widely used typefaces.
Printed on paper that is acid-free and meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, z39.48-1992. (archival)
Book design by Louise OFarrell Gainesville, Florida
Typography by Apex CoVantage Madison, Wisconsin
Printed and bound by Worzalla Publishing Company Stevens Point, Wisconsin
Emer de Vattel, Essay on the Foundation of Natural Law and on the First Principle of the Obligation Men Find Themselves Under to Observe Laws (Essai sur le fondement du droit naturel, et sur le premier principe de l’obligation où se trouvent tous les hommes, d’en observer les lois), translated by T. J. Hochstrasser.
Dissertation on This Question: “Can Natural Law Bring Society to Perfection Without the Assistance of Political Laws?” (Dissertation sur cette question: “Si la loi naturelle peut porter la société à sa perfection, sans le secours des loix politiques?”), translated by T. J. Hochstrasser.
Emer de Vattel, Dialogue Between the Prince of **** & his Confidant, on certain Essential Elements of Public Administration (Dialogue entre le prince de **** & son confident, sur quelques parties essentielles de l’administration publique), translated by K. Goodwin.