- Errata—vol. VIII.
- Chrestomathia: Being a Collection of Papers, Explanatory of the Design of an Institution, Proposed to Be Set On Foot Under the Name of the Chrestomathic Day School, Or Chrestomathic School, For the Extension of the New System of Instruction to the High
- Introduction By the Editor.
- First Preface to the First Edition.
- Second Preface to the First Edition.
- Chrestomathic (a) Instruction Tables. Table I.
- Chrestomathic Instruction Tables. Table II.
- Appendix. No. I.
- Appendix.—no. II.
- Appendix.—no. III.
- Appendix.—no. IV.: Essay On Nomenclature and Classification. *
- Appendix.—no. V.: Sources of Motion.
- Appendix.—no. VI.
- Appendix.—no. VII.
- Appendix.—no. VIII.
- Appendix No. IX.
- A Fragment On Ontology; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Classification of Entities.
- Chapter II.: Fictitious Entities Classified.
- Essay On Logic: Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Logic—what ?
- Chapter II.: Logic, Its Characteristics.
- Chapter III.: Præcognita: Or, Preliminary and General Indications Concerning Logic, According to the Aristotelians.
- Chapter IV.: Of Aristotle’s Predicaments and Postpredicaments.
- Chapter V. *: Mode of Discussion.
- Chapter VI.: Relation of Logic to the Business of Human Life In General, and Therein to Arts and Sciences, I. E. to Disciplines.
- Chapter VII.: Clearness In Discourse, How to Produce It? and Hence of Exposition.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Division.
- Chapter IX.: Of Methodization, Otherwise Termed Arrangement. † ‡
- Chapter X.: Of the Art of Invention.
- Appendix.—a.: Phenomena of the Human Mind.
- Appendix B. Division of Art and Science. †
- Essay On Language; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Modes Or Forms of Which Discourse Or Language Has Been Found Susceptible, Viz. Audible, Visible, and Their Respective Substitutes.
- Chapter II.: Uses of Language.
- Chapter III.: Operations Which, In the Character of an Art, Are Performable In Relation to Discourse, Or Language In General.
- Chapter IV.: Properties Desirable In a Language.
- Chapter V.: Of Improvement Considered As Applicable to Language, Or the Means By Which, In So Far As the Particular Language Employed By an Individual Admits of the Possession of Them, the Properties Desirable In Language May, On Each Occasion, Be Secured
- Chapter VI.: Analytical View of the Matter of Thought and Internal Action; Correspondent View of the Matter of Language.
- Fragments On Universal Grammar; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Chapter I.: Definitions.
- Chapter II.: Uses of Universal Grammar.
- Chapter III.: Of the Parts of Speech.
- Chapter IV.: Of the Noun-substantive.
- Chapter V.: Of the Adjective.
- Chapter VI.: Of Pronouns. *
- Chapter VII.: Of Verbs.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Government and Concord.
- Chapter IX.: Of Prepositions, Adverbs, and Conjunctions.
- Chapter X.: Of Interjections.
- Tracts On Poor Laws and Pauper Management.
- Note By the Editor On the Tracts On Poor Laws.
- Situation and Relief of the Poor.
- Observations On the Pauper Population Table Hereunto Annexed.
- Outline of the Non-adult Value Table.
- Outline of a Work Entitled Pauper Management Improved.
- Book I.: Political Arrangements.
- Book II.: Plan of Management.
- Book III.: Collateral Benefits.
- Book IV.: Pauper Comforts.
- Observations On the Poor Bill. Introduced By the Rt. Hon. William Pitt (feb, 1797). : Chapter I. Introduction
- Chapter II.: 1. Under-ability, Or Supplemental-wages Clause.
- Chapter III.: 2. Family-relief, Or Extra-children Clause.
- Chapter IV.: 3. Cow-money Clause.
- Chapter V.: 4. Relief-extension, Or Opulence-relief Clause.
- Chapter VI.: 5. Apprenticeship Clause.
- Three Tracts Relative to Spanish and Portuguese Affairs; With a Continual Eye to English Ones.
- Advertisement For Tract the First and Second; of This Second * Publication, Namely, On the Then Proposed Spanish House of Lords. ( Anno 1820.)
- Tract, No. I.: Letter to the Spanish Nation On a Then ( Anno 1820) Proposed House of Lords.
- Advertisement to Tract the Second.
- Tract, No. II.: Observations On Judge Advocate Hermosa’s Panegyric On Judicial Delays; On the Occasion of the Impunity As Yet Given By Him to the Loyal Authors of the Cadiz Massacre, a Counterpart to the Manchester Massacre; Explaining, Moreover, the Effe
- Advertisement to Tract the Third.
- Tract, No. III.: Letter to the Portuguese Nation, On Antiquated Constitutions; On the Spanish Constitution Considered As a Whole, and On Certain Defects Observable In It; In Particular, the Immutability-enacting, Or Infallibility-assuming, the Non-re-elig
- Letters to Count Toreno, On the Proposed Penal Code, Delivered In By the Legislation Committee of the Spanish Cortes, April 25th, 1821.
- Letter I.
- Letter II.: On the Course Taken By the Legislative Committee, to Prevent, Otherwise Than By Punishment Eo Nomine, the Free Examination of Their Proposed Penal Code.
- Letter III.
- Letter IV.
- Letter V.
- Letter VI.
- Letter VII.
- Supplemental Advertisement.
- Securities Against Misrule, Adapted to a Mahommedan State, and Prepared With Particular Reference to Tripoli In Barbary.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Preliminary Explanations.
- Chapter II.: Public Opinion the Sole Remedy—parallel Between the Public-opinion Tribunal and the Official Judicatories.
- Chapter III.: Notification and Publication In Reference to Securities.
- Chap. IV.: The Securities In Detail.
- Part I.: Securities In Favour of the Nation Considered In the Aggregate.
- Part II.: Securities In Favour of Individuals.
- Chapter V.: Hopes of Success For Any Project Having Such Securities For Its End.
The history of the present publication is as follows:
At the writing of the ensuing Letter, in so far as a judgment, which it has more than once happened to me to hear pronounced, is correct,—the writer of it—the Conde de Toreno—one of the Deputies to the Spanish Cortes from the province of Asturias, of the 149 European Deputies the only one whose name is a titled name,—was one of the most influential men, not to say the most influential man, in all Spain.
On the 9th of August, 1821, without any antecedent intercourse, or previous expectation on my part, I had the honour of receiving it from him. It is in the following terms:—
Paris,le 6 Août 1821.
Monsieur J. Bentham,
Notre commun ami Mr Bowring veut bien se charger de vous faire passer le volume cijoint, qui comprend le projet du Code pénal présenté par le Comité à la deliberation de Cortes, qui doit avoir lieu l’hiver prochain. Vous y verrez des choses bonnes, d’autres fort mauvaises. N’allez pas pourtant vous effrayer, Monsieur, des articles qui parlent sur la religion: celà ne passera pas: le tems des persecutions en Espagne n’existe plus, et, malgré toutes les lois, il y a dans le fait une tolerance très grande. Je soumets, Monsieur, à vos lumières et à la profondeur de votre esprit, et de vos connaissances, ce projet. Ayez la complaisance de me faire passer vos observations, d’ici aux derniers jours de Septembre, que je dois retourner en Espagne: je vous en serai extrêmement redevable: j’en profiterai dans la discussion. A qui pourrais-je en effet mieux m’adresser, qu’au constant defenseur de l’humanité, et au profond écrivain de tant d’ouvrages célèbres sur la legislation?
Soyez sûr, Monsieur, du plaisir, et même du devoir, que je me ferai, d’écouter vos conseils dans cette matière, et de l’empressement que je mettrai toujours de vous offrir l’hommage de mon admiration, et de ma profonde considération.
Le Comte de Toreno.
On the 22d of that same month (August, 1821,) and not before, I received the work which it announces.
On the 11th of September 1821, the Count being still at Paris, I sent off in manuscript, directed to him at that capital, by the post, the first of these seven Letters. The succeeding ones were directed either to him at Paris, to the care of the Spanish Mission there, or to him at Madrid. The day, on which the last of them was sent off, was the second of November, 1821.
The reader, as he proceeds, can scarce fail to be more or less curious, to have some conception of the result produced by it, on the part of the two distinguished statesmen principally concerned:—Comte Toreno, at whose instance, the observations were made and communicated; and Mr Calatrava, Chairman of the Legislation Committee of Cortes, composed of five members, by whose names the work which is the subject of them stands authenticated.
To this curiosity, such imperfect satisfaction, as is in my power, is here afforded. Its principal aliment will be—a second Letter, of the 26th September, 1821, from the same illustrious hand. The reader will naturally enough expect to find it in this place. But as, at that time, the three first of these Letters of mine were on Count Toreno’s table, any conception, which could be conveyed by that Letter of his to a person not acquainted with the contents of those same Letters to which his bears reference, would be altogether inadequate. For this reason,—this, together with all such further explanations as can be given, are referred to the conclusion of these Letters, and will be found under the head of Supplemental Advertisement. Suffice it in this place to mention, that, by that second letter of the Count’s, his consent to that intention of publication, which the reader will find declared by me, is signified.
Note.—In Letter I. (p. 491,) the reader will see certain positions, mentioned as designed to accompany the offer of an all-comprehensive and rationalized Code; and to serve as heads to so many sections in that address. In the list of these positions, though substantially they remain the same, considerable changes in respect of order and expression have presented themselves: and the tenor of the offer is intended to undergo a correspondent change. In the four first, no change is proposed to be made. But to the seven succeeding ones, the eight which here follow are now intended to be substituted.
5. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, for the function exercised by the drawing of the original draught of such a Code, the competitors admitted be as many as, without reward at the public expense, can be obtained: and so for that of proposing alterations in such draught as shall have been adopted. Plan for obtaining competitors.
6. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, for the drawing of any such draught, no reward at the public expense be given.
7. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, every draught so given in be, from beginning to end, if possible, the work of a single hand.
8. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, such original draught being the work of a single hand, it be known to be so.
9. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, such original draught, being the work of a single hand, it be known whose the hand is.
10. The greatest happiness of the greatest number requires—that, for the drawing of the original draught, all foreigners be admitted into the competition: and that in so far as applicable,—unless it be in all particulars taken together decidedly inferior, the draught of a foreigner be employed in preference.
11. On the part of an individual, proposing himself as draughtsman for the original draught of a Code of laws, willingness or unwillingness to interweave in his draught a rationale as above, is the most conclusive preliminary test, and that an indispensable one, of appropriate aptitude in relation to it.
12. On the part of a ruler, willingness or unwillingness to see established an all-comprehensive Code, with its rationale as above, is among the most conclusive tests of appropriate aptitude, in relation to such his situation.
Paris, 6th August, 1821.
Mr J. Bentham, Sir,
Our common friend Mr Bowring has the goodness to undertake to forward to you the accompanying volume, containing the project of the Penal Code, presented by the Committee for the deliberation of the Cortes, at its next winter’s meeting. You will see in it some good things, others very bad. Do not however frighten yourself, Sir, about those articles which speak of religion: they will not pass: in Spain the time of persecutions is no longer in existence: and, spite of all laws, a very extensive toleration has place in fact. I submit this proposed Code, Sir, to the consideration of your enlightened mind. Do me the favour to convey to me your observations on it between this and the last days of September, at which time I shall be on my return to Spain. I shall be highly obliged by your so doing. I shall make my profit of them in the course of the discussion. An address of this sort—to whom could it be made with more propriety, than to the constant defender of the principles of humanity, to the profoundly thinking author of so many celebrated works on legislation?
Be assured, Sir, of the pleasure, and even of the sense of duty, with which I shall attend to your suggestions on this subject, and of the eagerness with which I shall embrace every occasion of offering to you the homage of my admiration and of my high consideration.
Le Comte de Toreno.