Front Page Titles (by Subject) Book II.: Plan of Management. - The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs)
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Book II.: Plan of Management. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). In 11 vols. Volume 8.
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Plan of Management.
Separation and Aggregation.—
The task of separation incomplete, unless that of aggregation be combined with it. Purposes for which Separation may be necessary or useful—1. Preservation of health from infection. 2. Preservation of morals from corruption. 3. Preservation of decency. 4. Prevention of unsatisfiable desires. 5. Security (reciprocal) against annoyance, by bad smells, bad sights, noise, quarrels, scolding, &c. 6. Concealment (occasional) of the governed from the censorial eye of the governing class. 7. Security (particularly to the governing class) as against personal injury from the evil-disposed among the governed. 8. Distinctness in point of education, for moral purposes, and for the purpose of experiment, as between the indigenous, quasi-indigenous, extraneous, and coming-and-going stock of the non-adult class.—Purposes for which appropriate aggregation may be necessary or useful. 1. Matrimonial society. 2. Family society. 3. Nursing attendance. 4. Medical attendance. 5. Moral superintendence. 6. Instruction and direction of labour. 7. Intercommunity of work and labour. Modes and degrees of separation—as against contact, smell, hearing, sight.Means of separation. 1. In some cases separate huts or cottages. (See Ch. iii. Buildings and Land, and Book iv. Pauper Comforts.) 2. In general, in the common building, form of the building—divisions, separate and uncommunicating. (See the plate, and see Ch. iii. Buildings and Land.) 3. In out-door employments, mode of laying out the land. (See ibid.) 4. In spots that require to be occupied each by divers classes that require to be kept separated, separate hours: ex. gr. 1. Baths: one serving thus for both sexes. (See Ch. xii. Pauper Education: and Book iv. Pauper Comforts.) 2. Staircases, &c. 5. To indicate transgression,—conspicuous distinctions in dress. 6. Against infection, separation not merely as between class and class, but as between individual and individual.—Infirmary huts, to serve when not so employed, as Peculium huts. (See Ch. iii. and Book iv. Pauper Comforts.) 7. Against corruption, the corrupted and suspected separated from the unsuspected, and in some instances, from each other, as between class and class: casual depredators, especially those under twenty-one, to be kept separate from the unavowed-employment hands, who are habitual depredators: unchaste hands, from those of a susceptible age, of their own sex, as well as of the other: as between individual and individual, to serve as an obstacle to corruptive communication, appropriate aggregation, by intermixture of Guardian Elders, taken from classes rendered corruption-proof by good character, infirmity, or age. The Elders secure against annoyance—by the authority vested in them—by mutual support—(there being more than one in each ward) and by their being stationed, by the peculiar form of the building, generally within view, always within call, of the governing body in the centre of the building. (See the plate, and Ch. iii.)
8. For decency, separation as between sex and sex, at the usual times of repose, change of dress, &c.
9. For prevention of unsatisfiable desires—1. Separation at meal times, as between those who have the homeliest fare, and those, who in consideration of habit or infirmity, are indulged with choicer fare. (See Ch. vi. Diet.) 2. Separation as between sex and sex, from the commencement of a certain age. 3. Separation of the indigenous and quasi-indigenous stock of the non-adult class, from the coming-and-going stock, who might excite hankerings after emancipation, by flattering pictures of the world at large.
10. For security against annoyance, 1. Separation as between the annoying and the susceptible classes. 2. Intermixture of guardian elders. 3. Near vicinity and general presence of the members of the governing body, with reference to the several classes of the governed—the result of the peculiar form of the building, as above. 4. Infirmary Huts, moveable Watch-Houses, and other Peculium huts and cottages, allotted to the classes rendered by age or past prosperity peculiarly susceptible of annoyance. 5. The insane consigned to a set of appropriate establishments. (See Ch. xi.)
Concealment (occasional) i. e. security from observation—circumferential screens occasionally interposed between the governing body in the centre of the building, and the governed classes all round. (See Ch. iii.)
11. Security as against the violent and refractory among the governed classes.—1. Between the central lodge, (the proposed station of the governing body,) and the surrounding divisions occupied by the governed, an annular area interposed.—2. Intermixture of guardian elders with the dangerous classes, as before.
12. For distinctness in point of education, separation (as above) as between the non-adult and the adult, and, among the non-adult, as between the apprentice and the coming-and-going stock; and, among the apprentice-stock, as between the indigenous and the extraneous—coming in after a certain age.
13. For appropriate care, the insane in an establishment by themselves—or with distinct establishments for distinct classes. For appropriate care and education, the deaf and dumb, in a set of appropriate establishments; likewise the non-adult of those born blind; or, if in a common industry-house, collected into groups, large enough to afford, each of them, full employment to an appropriate tutor.
14. For the Union of matrimonial society with decency, separation, combined with appropriate aggregation. In the bed stages of the married ward, double cells each for a married couple, formed by high partitions, and alternating with cells of the same dimension, each holding four small children (feet to feet) of the innocent and unobserving age, say from two to four, five, or six, (see the plate annexed.)
15. For exemption from annoyance combined with family society, power of choosing an inmate, given to the occupant of each peculium abode.—(See Book iv. Pauper Comforts.)
Vicinity—General principle with regard to arrangement, as between class and class, in point of vicinity. Next to every class, from which any inconvenience is to be apprehended, station a class unsusceptible of that inconvenience. Examples: 1. Next to raving lunatics, or persons of profligate conversation, place the deaf and dumb, if (included in the same establishment, and) separated as to sight. 2. Next to prostitutes, and other loose women, place the aged women. 3. Within view of the abodes of the blind, place melancholy and silent lunatics, or the shockingly deformed. 4. Next to each married couple (as before) place at bed-time a set of children under the age of observation. Barrier-Ward—a ward interposed for making the separation the more perfect between a ward occupied by a class considered as noisome or dangerous, and another considered as susceptible: classes that, for one or other of the above purposes, require separation as between class and class.
Annoyance, the great source of discomfort in the existing poor-houses—overbalancing the comfort from fare much superior to that of the independent state. This discomfort may to a certainty be banished altogether from the proposed industry-houses. (See Ch. iii. Buildings and Land; and Book iv. Pauper Comforts.)
A separate establishment not necessary, as against moral corruption, since, in an industry-house of the proposed form, separation may, as to this or any other purpose, be as perfect in the same establishment, as between two establishments ever so widely distant.
Buildings and Land.
Size, number, and distribution of the Industry-houses.—Number of paupers of all ages, at the opening of the institution, say five hundred thousand: at the end of twenty-one years, by the accumulation of the apprentice stock, five hundred thousand more, at which period the accumulation ceases: the effluents or outgoers, equalling the inffluents or incomers. (See Book v. Ch. i. Population expected.)—Number to a house two thousand—number of houses at the opening, say two hundred and fifty: at the twenty-one year’s end, five hundred. Number of spots therefore to be marked out for industry-houses, five hundred: whereof at the outset two hundred and fifty full, two hundred and fifty vacant.—Average distance accordingly between house and house 10⅔ miles: viz. the side of the square, of which four contiguous houses occupy the angles. Distance of the remotest part of each industry-house district from the house, upon the supposition of an exact equality of distribution, 7½ miles: being the semi-diameter of a circle circumscribing that square.—Distances upon the supposition of two hundred and fifty houses, miles fifteen and 10⅝. Reasons of the above arrangement—The larger the houses the fewer; and the fewer, the farther asunder. But the fewer the better, especially on the score of expense, for the company; partly on account of there being the fewer, partly, (as will be seen,) on account of there being the larger: the more, however, the better for the paupers, and others resorting to the houses: partly because the distance is less between house and house, partly because it is the less between each house, and that part of the country which is at the greatest distance from any house. The number of the houses being given, the more equal the distribution of the spots the better, because the maximum of the distance between house and house is the less, as also between any part of the country and the nearest house.
Advantages from having the houses upon a large scale, and thence from having them few. 1. Saving in the article of salaries, in the instance of such officers of which there must be one to each house, be the house ever so small; yet not more than one, be the house ever so large—such as governor, matron, medical curator, chaplain, &c.* 2. Ditto, in regard to subordinates, where the whole of a man’s time must be paid for, though there is business for no more than a part: the smaller the establishments, the oftener this loss may come to be repeated. 3. Saving in the article of building, in the instance of such apartments, of which there must be one for each of the officers.—Bedchamber at any rate, if no other. 4. Ditto in regard to such, of which there must be one, at any rate, for each house, viz. Inspector’s Lodge or Officers’ Common Room in the centre, Kitchen, Surgeon’s Room, Chapel, &c. 5. Ditto in respect to a walled yard attached to the strong ward.† 6. Ditto in respect to utensils necessary to every house, but which need not be multiplied in proportion to the population of the houses: such as clocks, house-door lamps, ladders, &c. 7. Saving in the article of vessels, the proportion of matter to capacity diminishing as the vessels are enlarged; as in kitchen boilers. 8. Advantage in respect of the faculty of carrying the division of labour to the higher pitch, the greater the stock of hands. 9, 10. Advantages by making purchases, and saving refuse of all kinds on a large scale. 11. Advantage in respect of the security for good management, by attracting the greater share of public notice and attention: e. gr. on the part of travellers, topographers, &c.—See, as to all these points, the next Chapter—Book vi. Ch. i.—and Pauper Systems compared.
Advantages from having the houses as near to one another as may be:—I. To the pauper community. 1. The distance the less for the sick to walk, or be carried to the house. 2. So, for all classes, in visiting their friends in their native parishes, or other places of prior residence, within the district. 3. So, for out-of-employ hands to go to the house for employment. II.—To the self-maintaining poor—The less time and labour consumed in making use of the nearest house, in its several qualities of, 1. Employment-Register-Office. 2. Charitable Loan Office. 3. Frugality Bank. 4. Superannuation Annuity Bank. 5. Widow Annuity Bank. 6. Charitable Remittance Office. 7. Frugality Inn. 8. Frugal Conveyance Stage. 9. And in visiting friends and relatives in the house. 10. Stages likewise the shorter, as between house and house, in the character of frugality inns and frugal conveyance houses on long journies. III.—To the Company, in respect of journies for transferring the transferable part of the stock of hands to situations where provision is cheap, or the demand for labour in general, or for a particular species of labour, high. IV.—In the character of Poor Debtors’ Pass Houses, and Delinquents’ Pass Houses, to the public at large.
The thing to be desired is, that between house and house the distance shall not be greater than a man, or even a woman, of the labouring class can conveniently travel on foot without baiting: nor, from any place to the nearest industry house, so great but that he or she may travel to and fro in the course of the day without sleeping.
Plan of an Industry House, with its Appurtenances.—
Points to be attended to on this occasion. I. Health; depending on, 1. Freedom from damp. 2. Facility of ventilation. 3. Security against the spread of infection—thence occasional faculty of separation. II. Comfort; depending on, 4. Exemption from excessive cold. 5.—Heat. 6.—Bad smells. 7.—Noise. 8.—Observation of superiors, when not necessary. III. Industry; depending (as far as the building is concerned) on, 9.—Size. 10.—Form. 11.—Dimension;—and 12. Lightsomeness of the whole building, and of each apartment, according to the nature of the business carried on in it. 13. Compactness, i. e. distance between apartment and apartment throughout—the shorter the better—as well for the purpose of work, as for the purpose of book-keeping, (in which is included the keeping account of work;) and that the whole establishment may be surveyed by the principal manager, and orders given, and answers received by him, from every part of it without change of place, IV. Morality; in as far as depends upon, V. Discipline: for the perfection of which there should be, 14. Universal transparency. 15. Simultaneous inspectability at all proper times. 16. On the part of the inspectors, the faculty of being visible or invisible at pleasure. 17. On the part of the building, faculty of affording separation, as between class and class, to the extent of the demand, as detailed in the last chapter. 18. Means of safe custody, in relation to the dangerous and other disreputable classes. 19. Subserviency to the purpose of preventing intrusion of prohibited company. 20. Giving warning of the approach of apprehended intruders. 21. Preventing the introduction of prohibited articles—such as spirituous liquors, gunpowder, arms, &c. VI. Reception and Accommodation ofVisiters. VII. Safety againstFire. VIII. Subserviency to the Exercise ofDevotion. IX. Economy.Expense as small as possible in comparison to use: degree of use being measured by degree of subserviency to the several purposes above-mentioned.
All the above points provided for, and the principal of them to a degree of absolute perfection, by a plan of architecture, governed by a new and simple principle—the central inspection principle. General form, circular; or, for cheapness, circularly poligonal—say in twelve sides or cants, each constituting a division of the building: each division divided in height into five stories, viz. two long or whole floors, alternating with two short or narrow floors, and a gallery above, divided into six stages, rising one above another.—Ward, the name of an occasional division, adjusted in its dimensions to the population of the class to which it is allotted. The governed, (the paupers of all ages and classes) occupying the several divisions at the circumference; the governors, (the officers,) the central part, termed the Lodge, or Inspection Lodge. (See the plate annexed.) Any part capable of being withdrawn from inspection at any time, for comfort, decency, &c., by circumferential screens, parallel to the outer front of the division, and up to the height to which it reaches, closing the inner front.
At the time of divine service, a stage, on which are placed the pulpit, reading-desk, clerk’s desk, and communion table, lets down through the ceiling upon the floor of the lodge. Balanced by counterpoises all round, a moderate force is sufficient to raise or lower it. The under surface of the stage, in form of a flattish dome, constitutes, as far as it extends, the ceiling of the lodge. The descent of this dome discloses a set of circular seats above, serving as a gallery for chapel visiters. The pauper congregation are ranged, at the inner front of their several divisions, on a set of forms, backed by the circumferential screens, which keep the implements of work out of sight. An interval of two feet all round, above the top of the circumferential screens, serves for the admission of the light.
Means of Ventilation. 1. Between the lodge and the divisions all round, an annular well covered by an opening sky-light, and clear from top to bottom, except in as far as occupied by the staircase, and the two stories of landing-place or gallery all round, for communication between the staircase and the several divisions. This well will maintain a draught of air from the several stories of windows all round (five in number) whenever they are open, as a chimney does from a door. 2. Chains of ventilation tubes, running from the bottom to the top of each division.—Conceive a square tube, (like that used for conducting rain water from the top to the bottom of a house,) running through the building, at bottom piercing the floor of the lowest level or ground story, at top piercing the roof. On the ground story, conceive a few inches of this tube cut away, from the ceiling downward. This discontinuance will give room for that part of the air injured by respiration, which being the lightest, tends to occupy the top of the room, (viz. the azote) to escape through the ceiling, at the part where the tube recommences: and (the height at which the tube opens being so much above the height of a man standing in the room) will not incommode any of the inhabitants by the blast. An equal part, and no more, is cut away, in like manner, in the room immediately above; where, for the reason just given, the foul air issuing from the room below will not be breathed over again by the inhabitants of the upper room; not being discharged into it, but at a height considerably above that of their mouths. Another chain, the converse of the above, for carrying off the heavy part of the foul air, (viz. the carbonic acid;) the interruptions being in this case towards the floor, instead of being towards the ceiling, as in the former case.
One division, allotted for officers’ private apartments, is exhibited in the draught: five whole floors, as in an ordinary house. Out of the interior part of it is taken the only staircase: out of the annular well, the galleries forming the communication between the apartments and the staircase. In the central part, the lowest floor a little lower than in the circumferential, for the sake of getting two floors of store-room under the lodge.
The height of the central lodge being, according to the plan, fourteen feet, and capable of being increased, a gallery (not exhibited in the draught) extending all round to a breadth limited by the circumference of the dome, would on week days afford a commodious station for any number of clerks, and on Sundays would add to the accommodation of chapel visiters. Should any deficiency of light be perceived in the lodge, a supply might be obtained by lining the interior boundary of the gallery on the outside here and there with pieces of looking-glass, by which the light, coming through the windows of the upper or gallery floor of the divisions all around, might be reflected down into such parts of the lodge as it would not otherwise reach; and by the same means some parts of the upper floor or gallery all around might be rendered visible to some parts of the lodge, to which they would not present any direct view.—Means whereby the lodge, notwithstanding the centrality of its situation, might at all times be subjected to any degree of ventilation that would be required.—Two hollow trunks, leading from the outside of the building, through the radial passage, one on each side the door-way, forming each of them at its surface a seat, skirting the passage the whole of its length. Entering the lodge, one on each side of the door, they terminate each in a hollow pilaster; from this pilaster the air may be discharged either at a height approaching that of the ceiling (as in the chain of ventilation-tubes for the apartments in the circumference) or at any lesser elevation, by means of apertures opening or closing at pleasure. Continued up through the chapel-visiters’ gallery, they would afford ventilation to that part. In general a sufficient current would be kept up by difference of temperature: but in a hot season, and a stagnant atmosphere, the current might be accelerated or produced by the action of any one of a variety of machines, too well known to need any description here.
The same room for all purposes—work, meal, and sleep. Lodging is thus afforded with scarce any addition to the expense.* —Accommodation for sleeping.—I. Single Bed-places;i. e. places for single persons of all ages, from about six years old upwards. (See the plate.)—A range of bed-stages, or frames, in a line, running along each of the side-walls of each room, as shown in the ground plan; the head towards the wall. Each bed-stage six feet in width, and from six feet and a half to five feet and a half in length: the longest where the room is broadest; some holding three persons, others four, with a partition between every two persons: height at the head, the width of two boards; (a little less than two feet) sloping down to the breadth of one board at the feet; (a little less than one foot.) Room in width for each person—in a stage holding three, twenty-four inches;—in a stage holding four, eighteen inches: (seamen have but fourteen.) Each bed-stage, being furnished (as in the plate) with a counterpoise at two or each of the four corners, might draw up to the ceiling in the day-time, to leave the space below clear. But if reversed, it would form a table for working at, or any other purpose; the extra-depth, which would be in the way of the knees, being got rid of, by doubling up on hinges: by means of a few cords remaining constantly attached, the beds and bedding would pack up within the frame: the stand, composed of two horses crossing one another, and turning round a common upright (the horizontal section of it being represented by an X) would be nearly flat when the legs of X were brought close, for the purpose of stowing the stand away at bed-time, when not thus employed. The partitions furnished with proper stands, might form each of them a bench to sit upon at table; or two together might form a narrow table. Various means of adapting the articles in question to these changes may be conceived; the particularizing them would require more room than can be spared. II. Double or married Bed-stages. (See the plate.) Each four feet in width, bounded by a moveable partition or screen on each side, six feet and a half high.—Alternating with these married bed stages, sets of children’s bed stages, for children of an innocent and unobserving age:—say from two to six years: each for two rows of children, lying feet to feet: breadth, in some, for two children in a row, in others, for three. In the two opposite ranges, in the same room, the alternation should be so managed, as that each couple should have for its opposite neighbours—not another married couple—but a set of children. In the day-time, these high partitions serve for the circumferential screens, employed as above at chapel-times, and at other times (still in the same circumferential situation) as anti-inspection screens, in vacation hours.—When not in use, they stow away in the radial direction, close and parallel to the radial walls.—For the sets of cribs for infants, see the plate, and see Ch. ix. Child-nursing.
Infirmary. Persons labouring under infirmities neither noisome nor contagious, are lodged in the uppermost or gallery floor: a person labouring under an infirmity either noisome or contagious, occupies to himself an infirmary hut. Description of an infirmary hut. A cube of seven or eight feet. Width of the door, three feet: width of the bed, three or four feet; space on the other side of the bed, one foot. The door close-fitted and well listed: particularly at the side by which it hangs on the door-case. As the door opens, it forms a screen to the head of the patient, defending him against the blast. On the inside, a thin board, as long as the door is wide, fastened to the top of it, making with the plane of the door an angle greater than a right angle, for the purpose of directing up towards the ceiling such of the air as, at the opening of the door, comes in above. To weaken the reverberation of the blast, opposite the door, an oval hole, closed by a well-fitted and listed shutter, playing loosely on a pin on which it is hung, and loaded a little at the bottom, that it may the more effectually overcome the friction, and replace itself in a position exactly vertical;—the fresh air, as it comes in at the door, pushes before it, and pushes out at the aperture, a part of the air which it finds in the room, and which, were it not for the vent thus given to it, would reverberate upon the bed. On the right hand of the patient, as he lies in his bed, a small window, not opening, but closely caulked. The bedstead on feet, one foot and a half above the ground. On each side, and at the feet, a flap, running the whole length, and reaching to the ground, turning by hinges on the bedstead. For warmth, the flaps are turned up, and occupy a vertical position, enclosing the patient as it were in a box, and keeping the bed-clothes from being undesignedly thrown off: for coolness, they let down. The ceiling, instead of being flat, coves a little in two slopes, corresponding to those of the roof: at top they do not meet in an angle, but in a narrow plane, say a foot wide; in the middle of its length, an aperture, say about two feet in length, closed by a slider, to let out the foul air occasionally at the top, more or less frequently, according to the temperature. The convergescence of the roof, which may take place in two directions only, or in all four, enables the blast to sweep out the air the more clearly; there being no corners where it can lurk unexpelled. For equality of temperature, the outside covering thatch: unless any apprehension should be entertained of its harbouring infectious vapour, in which case tiling or slating must be employed instead. The door clogged by a counterpoise, to ensure the shutting of it, and to moderate and equalise the blast produced by opening it. In cold weather, to close it more effectually at bottom, a roller hanging loosely by the woollen cloth by which it is covered. When not occupied as an infirmary, each hut would make a comfortable abode for two persons, at bed and meal times. By putting four together, four walls out of the sixteen, or by putting together two, one wall out of the eight might be saved, as in this figure, in which the situation of the door is marked by the short line:—but, on the quadruple plan, the benefit of the vent for the blast of the door is sacrificed. In as far as noisomeness is the sole ground of sequestration (as in bad venereal cases) the quadruple plan may be as good as the double or single; and there seems no reason why the double plan, at least, should not be upon a par with the single, even in the most infectious fevers.*
Approach and out-lying Cottages.—
The approach, an avenue bounded by parallel walls; each wall serving as a support or back to a pent-house roof, supported in front by slender posts, forming thus a sort of covered walk or corridor, tiled or thatched, paved with brick or stone, according to the country. The same wall forming one of the boundaries of a line of out-lying huts or cottages. The door of each cottage opening into the corridor: a small window, either at the top of the door, or in the wall opposite. Between door and door, a bench for the customers to the Industry-house, in its quality of Employment-Intelligence-Office: over the benches the series of Employment-Gazettes pasted against the wall. (See Book in. Ch. i. Employment secured.) No cooking being to be performed in any of these huts, each consisting of but a single room, on a plan nearly similar to that of the Infirmary Huts, they might be warmed by a flue running through the line of them, as in hot houses.†
Uses of the Avenue. This the only approach—no introduction by stealth—neither ingress nor egress for any one without his being exposed to scrutiny, the whole length of the avenue. Occasional barrier across the avenue at one or both ends, to keep out the promiscuous influx of the employment-seeking hands.
In the corridor, the bedridden and infant part of the population might receive air and exercise on a rainy Sunday, by being drawn on droshkies (a vehicle in use in Russia, consisting of a board mounted on wheels) by the stout part of the children of their own sex; the non-existence of windows towards the avenue, would preserve the ancient inhabitants of the cottages from being incommoded by the noise and promiscuous resort of the Employment-seeking hands: and if, on this or any other account, it were an object at any time to cut off such communication altogether, the access of those visiters might be confined to hours when the inhabitants of the cottages were at their employments in the house.
Means of Separation.
Uncommunicating floors in each division, three out of the five: each short floor communicating with the long floor immediately underneath it. Divisions, eleven out of the twelve: the twelfth being reserved for the officers: three, multiplied by eleven, gives thirty-three uncommunicating apartments. Three and thirty classes may thus be kept in a state of perfect and constant separation from each other, yet all of them constantly present to the officers in the lodge. Between whatever classes a separation is kept in the house, it must be equally kept up without the house: the land must, therefore, be separated into wards, as well as the house. Between class and class, the barriers will be constituted by roads, not to be crossed by either class, nor to be made use of as roads by both at the same time. Barrier against strangers, a double fence all round: the space between fence and fence a belt planted with wood. It may be termed the sequestration belt. The land divisions radiating in continuation of the house divisions: the house not far from the centre of the land, that the land divisions may be equal as well as the house divisions; or if one ward requires less land than another, the land division may, on that side, be so much the shorter, and the house so much the nearer to the extremity of the land.
Difficulty of framing the conception to an adequate comprehension of the central-inspection plan, and of the effects it would have upon the management.—If in a building on this plan, anything of disorder is supposed, it must be, because though in words, the adoption of it may have been admitted, the state of things that would be the necessary result of it, is not present to the mind. The disorder supposed is supposed to be out of sight, which in fact it never could be. From the want of this advantage, proceeds that anxiety, the intensity, and at the same time, the inefficacy, of which is apparent in every page of the rules and orders that one sees. “Officers frequently to go into the wards—frequently to hear complaints—master frequently to go into every ward, and inspect the persons therein, on a particular day of the week especially—Twice a-week the matron to inspect every part of the house—Paupers to be kept clean—Officers frequently to take a view of them—Paupers to come down into the dining-hall to be mustered and employed—doors to be locked, that they may not harbour in the wards in the day time—Nurse-children frequently to be visited—once a-month at least—Apprentices frequently to be visited by the Messenger.”—This, from the regulations of one of the first-rate Poor-Houses—All this an attempt—and that, probably, in a great degree, an unavailing one—to effect by great exertions, not a hundredth part of what on the central inspection plan would take place of itself, without a man’s stirring from his chair.*
Means of extension. First method—
If the purpose, for which the extension is wanted, be such, as a floor of one of the divisions of the house will suffice for, apply it accordingly, giving a proportionable increase to the line of avenue, or outlying cottages: for, (per estimate,) when once provision has been made for the two thousand upon the central inspection plan, outlying cottages, at two lodgers to a cottage, may be built at an expense not greater per head than the expense of the main building. This plan of extension may be pursued, so long as there is an assurance of a correspondent number of inhabitants, so circumstanced, as that they can be made to do as much work in value, out of the main building as in it: being employed, for example, partly in out-door work, partly in such in-door and sedentary work, as they may be trusted with, and would be capable of doing, in such a confined and ill-lighted situation: to which may be added, such farther number for which room can be found in the main building at the in-door working times. The additional stock of comfort afforded by this method, will be no small recommendation to it.—Second method, by which an extension may be given to the main building to an unlimited amount, for any purposes in relation to which the benefit of the central inspection principle is not wanted:—Before, and parallel to, that division which fronts the avenue, add a projecting front, communicating with the main building by a narrow passage:—length of the passage, such as to save the division from having its light materially obstructed by the projecting front: for which reason, so far at least as that division extends, the projection should consist of but one floor: the roof low, and if flat, so much the better.*
Principles of Management.—
Necessity of finding a name for each leading principle, for the purpose of reference.—The newspaper mode of naming parliamentary bills, a precedent, and an example of the use. To each principle corresponds a rule, given at length in the work at large, with the requisite limitations and explanations.
Means: 1. Separation and Aggregation principle. (See above, Ch. ii.) 2. Central Inspection, or Inspection-architecture principle. (See above, Ch. iii.) 3. Ample Scale principle—Push to the utmost the advantage derivable from the amplitude of the scale—For applications, see infra. 1. Labour-division principle.—2. Whole-sale purchase principle—Refuse-employing principle.—(And see supra, Ch. ii.) 4. Management-selection principle. Under each head of management, observe in what industry-house the management in relation to that head, is better than in the rest, and introduce it into the rest. 5. Tabular-statement principle. In each industry-house, reduce the system of book-keeping to the form of a table, inspectable at one view, and at each period, from the two hundred and fifty particular tables, form a general table. (See infra, Ch. x. Book-keeping.) The use of the Tabular-statement principle, is to facilitate the application of the Management-selection principle.—No close and persevering comparison, but when the objects are on the same surface of the same paper, or of divers papers ranged in the same plane. 6. Uniform-management principle. Keep up the same plan of management in all the industry-houses, in all points, which present no particular reasons for variation, as between house and house. Frame for this purpose at the outset, a set of blank books or forms, to be observed in all, improving them from time to time, according to the suggestions of experience. 7. Local-consideration observing, or exception-observing principle—a memento, not to push the principle of uniformity too far—so far as to keep the management the same in any two establishments, in regard to any point, in respect of which the influence of local circumstances requires a difference.
Motives: 8. Duty and Interest junction principle.—No means to be omitted that can contribute to strengthen the junction between interest and duty, in the instance of the person intrusted with the management:—i. e. to make it each man’s interest to observe on every occasion that conduct which it is his duty to observe. Application of this principle to practice—All means of acting upon a man’s interest, reduceable to the two heads of punishment and reward.—Punishment, commonly so called, is out of the question here, being provided by the general dispensations of law—applications of reward are left mostly free in transactions between individual and individual. But money (including money’s worth) is, in point of effect, the matter either of reward, or punishment, or of both at once, in so far as it lies in the power of one man to cause it to pass into, or to pass out of, the hands of another. A given mass of reward is the more valuable (because the more certain) where it attaches of course upon the conduct intended to be promoted, without the formality of legal investigation, directed expressly to that purpose. The duty of the manager of an industry-house has two main branches: duty towards those under his care, resolvable into humanity—and duty to his principals, (the company,) resolvable into economy. Publicity, the most effectual means of applying the force of moral motives, in a direction tending to strengthen the union between his interest and the humane branch of his duty; by bringing to light, and thus exposing to the censure of the law and of public opinion, or at any rate of public opinion, every instance of contravention. For enforcing economy, what is called contract, is the most efficacious species of arrangement, where the case admits of its being adopted:—the contractor standing to the whole loss (the apprehension of which operates like the fear of punishment) as well as to the whole profit, (the expectation of which operates like the hope of reward.)—Next to that, partnership; in which a man stands to only a part loss and part gain:—the union between interest and duty being of course the stronger, the larger a man’s share: (regard being had to the sum-total of his property) especially since the larger a man’s partnership share, the less the difference between the whole of any profit which he might make to himself in fraud of the partnership, and the share that would come to him fairly, under the partnership. Next to that, a share of profits, without any share of loss. Danger to be guarded against, where share of profit is confined to particular articles—temptation to increase, to the prejudice of the partnership, the amount of the partnership transactions in these articles—and so per contra in the case of loss. Salary, an expedient to be recurred to no otherwise than as far as contract or partnership are inapplicable. Salary, however large, affording no motive for the habitual discharge of the trust, much less for any extraordinary exertions in the view of discharging it to the best possible effect, but only for the single act of undertaking it, and thereby exposing one’s self to the penalties appointed for non-discharge or mis-discharge of it.—General receipt for connecting a man’s interest with his duty—Cause a profit to accrue to him of itself, on the taking place of the result proposed to be promoted—or a loss, or other prejudice, on the taking place of the result proposed to be averted. For instances of the application of this principle to the working and other subordinate hands, see the several principles of detail, exhibited further on, under the head of working-hands—Motives.—For an instance of its application to the situation of the local manager in chief, (the governor,) or other persons bearing parts in the management, see the next principle.
9.Life-Assurance, or Life-warranting principle.—Give to every one, on whose care, in the instance of each child, the probability of its life in any degree depends, an interest, and that a pecuniary and never-ceasing interest—in the preservation of its life.—Application of this principle. That the service of an average child to twenty-one, possesses a clear value—reckoning even from birth—much more, from any more advanced period, is proved in another place. (See Book v. Ch. ii. Pecumary Estimates.) By giving this service to the company, an interest in the wished-for result (viz. the preservation of life to the latest period)* is given to the company: an interest, from which flows the company’s best and largest source of profit. It is therefore the company’s interest to communicate a share of this interest to such of its several subordinates, on whose conduct the result in any way depends, in such shape and quantity, as shall in each instance be best adapted to the purpose.—Examples: 1. Establish it as a rule, that the governor, matron, medical curator, and female midwife, shall, each of them, pay head-money, for every woman who dies in child-bed. 2. Give to a certain part (the larger the better) of the emoluments of the governor, matron, medical curator, and nurses, the shape of head-money, payable for the survivors only of the non-adults, from year of age to year of age, either during the whole of the apprenticeship (viz. to twenty-one) or only during the age of extra-mortality. 3. Give in all like manner an extra premium or bounty to the governor, matron, medical curator, and nurses, of such of the industry-houses (in a certain number) in which the success of the management in this particular, shall, within a certain period, (say yearly,) have been most conspicuous.—The interest which a member of the community at large, has in the populousness of the community at large, is as nothing, in comparison with the interest thus created; viz. on the part of a member of the company, and still more on the part of an officer of a company’s industry-house. This is the only shape which genuine and efficient humanity can take. The notion, which insists upon disinterestedness (i. e. the absence of the species of motive most to be depended upon) as an indispensable qualification, or even though it were but a recommendation, in the instance of a person bearing a part in the management of such a concern, is a notion respectable in its source, but the most prejudicial in its tendency of any that can be imagined—Every system of management which has disinterestedness, pretended or real, for its foundation, is rotten at the root, susceptible of a momentary prosperity at the outset, but sure to perish at the long run. That principle of action is most to be depended upon, whose influence is most powerful, most constant, most uniform, most lasting, and most general among mankind. Personal interest is that principle: a system of economy built on any other foundation, is built upon a quicksand.
10. Principle of Publicity, or Transparent-management principle. This regards motives as well as means. The more universally the particulars of the management are held up to view, the more universally the means of observing, and thence of adopting, whatever is good, and of observing, and thence of avoiding whatever is bad, are held up to view: and the stronger the force (because the greater the certainty) with which the motives derivable from the popular or moral, as well as those derivable from the political or legal sanction operate towards the insuring such adoption and avoidance. For the dependance of the degree of publicity on the amplitude of the scale, see supra, Ch. iii.
11.Concourse-attraction principle—a branch of the principle of publicity.—In the contrivance of the buildings, and the whole system of management, neglect no circumstance that can contribute to engage attention to the management, and attract to the spot a concourse of such visiters, whose remarks may afford instruction, and their scrutiny a spur to improvement, and a check to abuse. (See Ch. xii. Pauper Education—and Book iii. Ch. x. National Force strengthened.)
12.All-employing principle. Reasons—Health, amusement, morality, (i. e. preservation from vice and mischief,) as well as economy. Not one in a hundred is absolutely incapable of all employment. Not the motion of a finger—not a step—not a wink—not a whisper—but might be turned to account in the way of profit in a system of such a magnitude. (See below, Labour-division principle.)—A bed-ridden person if he can see and converse, may be fit for inspection; or though blind, if he can sit up in the bed, may knit, spin, &c. &c. Real inability is relative only—i. e. with reference to this or that species of employment, or this or that situation.—In the situation in question employment may be afforded to every fragment of ability, however minute. On the part of the deaf and dumb, and the blind, the ability is entire; requiring only to be directed into particular channels. So, on the part of most classes of the insane, requiring only particular means for the direction of it.—In a limited local establishment on the present footing, the stock of ability lies oftentimes unemployed, for want of those appropriate means and opportunities of employment which could not be afforded to any profit in any other than an establishment on the largest scale.
13.Employment-appropriation principle.—Till the several classes of confined hands (i. e. who, by reason of infirmity, are susceptible of particular employments only, see Ch. viii. Employment) are provided, allot no such employment to unconfined-ability-hands, possessing a natural capacity for every employment. Husband the stock of anybody’s work employments, reserving them for confined-ability hands, according to the nature of the case, and expending none of them upon hands of all work. Examples: 1. Allot not to males any employment exercisable by females, till the female stock of hands is fully provided: 2. Nor to adults, or children of a superior age, any employment exercisable by children of the lowest workable age, till the stock of hands of that lowest age is provided: 3. And so with regard to the deaf and dumb, the blind, the lame, &c.: 4. Nor to the willing, any employments to which the earn-first principle is applicable, without imputation or danger of inordinate severity, till the stock of lazy hands is provided with employments of that nature. (See infra, Section iv. Earn-first principle.) 5. Nor to practised hands any employments to which unpractised hands are competent, till the stock of unpractised hands is provided in like manner.*Any-body’s work employments are such as may be carried on by unpractised hands: imperfect-hand employments, though capable of being carried on by imperfect hands, may require practice.
14.Labour-division principle. In the choice and allotment of employments, remember to improve to the utmost the room afforded by the largeness of the scale for the division of labour. Besides the saving of time, in respect of the passing from employment to employment, and from place to place, the more operations a process is divided into, the more simple the several operations: and the more simple an operation, the better the chance it has of being brought within the competence of the different classes of confined-ability hands, as just described.—Thence, 1. Time saved. 2. Relative ability increased. 3. Quantity of the scarcest sorts of employment increased.—The extent of the advantage derivable from this principle has no other limit than what is set by the expense of conveyance, viz. the expense of conveying the stock of raw, or less elaborated materials, to the spot where the stock of hands is accumulated; and from thence, in a finished or more elaborated shape, to the field of consumption or demand.
15.Employment-changing, or several-trade principle.—Classes of employments proper in divers points of view, to be assigned interchangeably to the same hand: 1. For health and gain of working time, one laborious, another sedentary or unlaborious. 2. For health and equal development of strength, (See Ch. xii. Pauper Education,) one stationary, (which may yet be laborious,) one ambulatory. 3. For gain of working time, one out-door, or fair-weather employment; one in-door, or all-weather employment. 4. For saleable profit to the Company—to the public, despatch, and saving of expense—one low but certain-profit employment for a peace employment; ex. gr. improvement of land:—one high though temporary profit employment, for a war employment; ex. gr. ship-building, and the trades connected with it. In the instance of the female branch of the unripe stock of hands, by way of preparation for matrimony, or private service, the circle of family employments alternating with the manufacturing, agricultural, and other profit-yielding community employments of the house. Examples: Child-tending, sick-tending, cooking, washing, making, mending. Inattention to this point among the existing community-establishments.
16. Principle of self-supply.—In the whole stock requisite for the maintenance of the establishment, there will be few, if any, sorts of articles—even raw materials included, as well as workmanship—that might not be produced by the working strength of the establishment:—if it be sufficient in quantity the whole expense of the present poor rates might thus be saved. Advantages: Value in the way of use, not susceptible, like value in the way of exchange of being destroyed or reduced by glut, competition, stagnation, change of fashion, war, or other causes; nor by imperfections in workmanship affecting appearance rather than use:—imperfections particularly congenial to such unpractised and feeble hands.—Under the principle of self-supply, neither market, i. e. demand, nor capacity of production, are exposed to failure.—Each hand working, for the most part, not only for the establishment of which he is a member, but, in some degree, individually for himself, natural justice holds out its sanction to this arrangement, sympathy helps to promote it, and self-advantage to sweeten it.—Acknowledged community of interest will enable the willing to spur the lazy, without exposing themselves to the reproach of officiousness or ill-nature.—Working for sale would, unless laid under restraints by superior authority, expose individual competitors to universal ruin: self supply injures nobody—affords ground of complaint to nobody. In the case of an individual, indeed, the principle of self-supply is repugnant to good economy, and is the forced resource of a nation little advanced in the career of opulence: for in that case, in as far as the application of the principle of self-supply extends, the benefit of the labour-division principle is foregone. But in this vast populous establishment, affording within itself the means of carrying the division of labour—not only to the ordinary pitch, but beyond it,—the two principles act in conjunction, and the operation of each is favoured by the assistance it receives from the other.
Motives. End view,—the extraction of labour to as great a value as may be, consistently with the regard due to health, customary relaxation, and the observance of religious duties. N. B.—The principles exhibited in this section, as subservient to that end, are but so many applications of the Duty and Interest-junction principle.
17.Self-liberation principle. No relief but upon the terms of coming into the house, (i. e. an industry house,) and working out the expense;—till then no enlargement.
18.Earn-first principle.—When ability adequate to the task is certain, and laziness apprehended, no meal given, till the task by which it is earned has been first performed. The self-liberation principle is sufficient, without the earn-first principle, in the instance of adequate ability hands: such alone excepted, if any such there be, who would prefer idleness and confinement to industry and liberty. For these the addition of the earn-first principle would be necessary; but principally to those who, though habitually able to earn more or less towards their maintenance, are not able to earn the whole of it. Without this, or some severer and less unexceptionable spur, the lazy among them would do nothing. As to those who come within the operation of the self-liberation principle, whether a man works more or less, makes no difference to the Company: the better he works, the sooner he is out: the less he works, the longer he stays. So far as the operation of this principle extends, the Company need never be a loser, but may be a gainer if it pleases: utmost expense of maintenance per head per day, of an ablebodied male, not so much as 4d. average value of the lowest paid species of labour, not so little as 1s. Humanity, however, will not be the only check upon the abuse of rating the value of the relief too high, or, what comes to the same thing, the value of the work performed, too low: since, the worse terms the Company afford to self-liberation hands, the fewer they will have; the better the more. It is only by the combination of the self-liberation principle with the earn-first principle, applied, the one or the other, according to circumstances, that voluntary charity is reconcileable with industry, or compulsory charity with justice. Employment for lazy hands, (to be administered upon the earn-first principle,) should be—1. Certainly performable. 2. Exactly measurable: ex. gr. turning of a wheel for grinding, &c.—or for raising water—so many turns made, so much work done.—To husband this sort of work, give a new hand the option between a greater quantity of this sort of work, and a less quantity of a sort which is more wanted, but, in respect to which the quantity, or the relative ability of the workman, is less free from dispute: ex. gr. digging, wheeling away, carting, hedging, gathering, chaff-cutting, weaving, picking, sorting, &c.
19.Piece-work, or proportionable-pay principle.—The application of it seems confined to three cases: 1. That of the relative extrability hands among the permanent stock: i. e. those who, though not capable of earning a full maintenance elsewhere, are capable of earning more than a maintenance in this establishment—the Company keeping up a fund of employment, such as is not to be had elsewhere, and affording maintenance cheaper than it can be had elsewhere. 2. Among these may be reckoned the extra-ability part of the apprentice stock; who cannot earn a maintenance elsewhere, because they are not yet permitted to go elsewhere. 3. The case of encouragement-money given out of earnings. If a man cannot be maintained in the establishment for less than 3d. and he cannot, in the way of piece-work, earn more than 2½d. nothing is to be got by the Company by paying him the whole of his earnings, and making him pay for his board, instead of finding him in board, and working him upon the earn-first principle.—Caution necessary in the application of the piece-work principle, where badness of quality may be masked—ex. gr. in those parts of a house or ship which are covered up—inside brick-work, caulking, &c.—or where despatch, under the spur of the reward, threatens to be productive of bad workmanship or waste. Caution in favour of health, especially in the case of the apprentice stock. Many, under the spur of the piece-work principle, injure their healths, and shorten their lives. But the mischief is probably owing, in a considerable degree, to fermented liquors: by the use of which such excessive exertions are commonly accompanied and supported, and which would have no place here.
20.Peculiar-premium, prize-giving, or competition-excitement principle.—Advantages: 1. By paying one or a few victors, you get the result of the extra-exertions of the whole multitude of competitors. 2. This combines well with the piece-work principle:—nor does either supersede the other; some being more taken with the certainty of a smaller reward, others with a chance of a larger one:—the degree of excitement, and thence of exertion, is thus rendered greater than it could be even by the certainty of a reward to the same amount, in a state of insulation.
21.Honorary-reward principle.—This is mostly an application of the Peculiar-premium principle, and the class of hands, to the circumstances of which it is more particularly applicable are, the unripe hands. In this shape, reward costs nothing.—Examples: 1. Superiority of seat, at table or elsewhere.* 2. Precedence in processions, or other public exhibitions. 3. Promotion to a higher class or form, i. e. to a form already occupied by children standing higher on the scale of acquirments, and mostly of a higher age. 4. Distinction in dress, with or without addition for the purpose of decoration.—Query, which is the greatest? The good done by the exercise of useful exertion, or the mischief by the suffering produced by the ferment raised among the dissocial passions—disappointment, dejection, envy, jealousy, revenge.—The good is supposed to predominate considerably: but all possible care should be taken to reduce the mischief to its minimum.
22.Separate-work principle, or performance-distinguishing principle.—This is the basis of the foregoing principles: without this, neither punishment nor reward:—especially no punishment. Rules: 1. Where tasks can be separated, avoid gang-work. 2. Where gang-work is inevitable, the smaller the gang the better. 1. Because the fewer the workmen whose work is thus blended, the easier each man’s share in the work may be distinguished. 2. Because, if a reward be given to the gang, the smaller the gang, the larger the share which each man’s own exertion procures for him. N. B. If the gang be not large, by shifting the hands from gang to gang in the same work, the share contributed by each to the result of the joint-work, may be obtained separate. 3. Where the reward is divisible, to spur a lazy hand, join him with a willing one: viz. if the arrangement be temporary: for, if it be permanent, despair and resentment against injustice, will be apt to slacken the exertions of the industious hand, and reduce them to a level with those of his unindustrious partner. 4. In work for self-supply, allot to each individual what he has individually been concerned in producing: he will then be his own rewarder and his own punisher, according to the goodness or badness of his work. 5. Giving him the last choice, may, in some cases, be a means of bringing his workmanship to a uniform pitch of goodness. 6. In work for sale, the price fetched by the work of each gang, and if possible of each individual, should be noted, that the reward, if any, may be proportionate.
Fare: 23. Suitable-fare principle.—Charity-maintenance—maintenance at the expense of others, should not be made more desirable than self-maintenance. Fare consequently the cheapest that can be found, so it be nourishing and wholesome—for, if there be any cheaper in use, it must be among the self-maintaining poor.—Luxury, being a relative term, is applicable with as much propriety to the diet of the poor as of the rich. Luxury, if it does not render the condition of the burdensome poor more desirable than that of the self-maintaining poor, fails of its purpose: if it does, it violates justice, as well as economy, and cuts up industry by the roots.—This extends not to any who may have earned, though it be in the establishment, more than the expense of their maintenance—since these are not burdensome, but self-maintaining:—nor to any extra comforts, purchased with any such peculium share of earnings, the allowance of which, is productive of a value more than equal to the expense, although the whole amount of a man’s earnings should fall short of the whole expense of his maintenance. Example: Expense of maintenance, say 2s. a-week; ordinary earnings, 1s., if, by giving fifty per cent. encouragement-money for extra earnings, you can make him earn 1s. 6d. you save 3d.; and the 3d. he spends and costs over and above the 1s. does not go counter to the principle—although it should be clear that a self-maintainer of the same degree of ability without doors, would not earn above the 1s.
24.Habit-respecting principle.—This principle is the antagonist of, and a check upon, the former: its application is merely temporary, confined to the existing stock of old-stagers. How far, in consequence of habits of luxurious fare, contracted under the existing plan of poor-house provision, (how uncomfortable soever upon the whole,) the Suitable-fare principle should be departed from in the instance of that stock, is a problem for the humanity and discretion of the company to solve. (See Ch. vii. Diet.)
25. Principle of Sobriety or No-fermented liquor principle.—1. Fermented liquor, even of the weakest kind, is a drink not natural to the human frame. 2. In as far as it is fermented, it contributes nothing to health or nourishment. 3. In its abuse it is the most fertile of all sources of vice and misery.—4. No line can be drawn between the use and the abuse.—Some constitutions are kept in a state of perpetual intoxication by small beer.—5. Perfect health reigns where fermented liquors are excluded,—proved in the instance of the Philadelphia prison.
26. Wholesale-purchase principle.—27. Refuse-employing or Save-all principle.—These are but applications of the ample-scale principle. On a scale of such magnitude no species of refuse but has its value: all animal—all vegetable substances—if good for nothing else, are valuable as manure. (See the paper of the Board of Agriculture on manures.) But before their arrival at this state, many are the articles that may have gone through more stages than one in the scale of degradation. (See Ch. x. Book-keeping.)—28. Use-multiplying or Several-use principle.—An article being deemed necessary, observe whether it may not be rendered applicable to more uses than one.—Examples: 1. Each room serving for work, meals, sleep, and devotion: the consecrated part being let down from above at chapel-times.—2. Married bed-stage partitions serving for circumferential privacy screens.—3. Single ditto, serving for forms, working-tables, &c.—4. The bed-stages themselves all capable of serving for tables. (See Ch. vii.)—5. Straw for beds, employed first for men, and then for cattle.—6. The whole establishment applied to the several different purposes of a poor-house—an hospital—a house of correction—a prison—a pawnbroking establishment—a bank for the poor—an inn for the poor, &c. &c., without prejudice to any, and much to the advantage of many, of the objects in view.—For the application of this principle to actions as well as things, see Ch. xii. Pauper Education.
29. Apprenticeship principle.—No relief to a pauper within the latest age at which it is usual for a child to be bound apprentice, but on the terms of being bound to the company till full age. Advantages: 1. To the child instruction, intellectual, moral, and religious; inbred habits of systematical frugality—certain security from vice and criminality—certainty of employment during the apprenticeship, and ever afterwards—chance of promotion to rank and affluence. (See infra, Indigenous-promotion principle.) Condition, upon the whole, more than upon a par in point of happiness with that of an individual of the same age in the world at large. (See Book iv. Pauper Comforts.)—2. To the Company, and its copartners the rateable parishioners—a fund of increasing profit, at the end of twenty years, and ever afterwards, more than equal to the amount of the present poor-rates. (See Book v. Ch. ii. Pecuniary Estimates.)
30.Talent-cultivation principle.—Natural talents of any kind, manifesting themselves in an extraordinary degree to receive appropriate culture. Examples: Musical habits principally:—viz. an extraordinary fine voice, or an extraordinary good ear, and thence affection for the pursuit. (In the instance of a natural taste for the arts of design, or of strength or comeliness adapted to dancing, or other theatrical exhibitions, superiority is less manifest, culture is less exceptionable in the eyes of a severe moralist, and the object is of inferior account.)—Advantages: Comfort and consideration of this part of the pauper community increased.—Importance and desirableness of the condition of a Company’s apprentice raised. For the importance of music, as an assistant to instruction, intellectual, moral, and religious, see Ch. xii. Pauper Education.
31.Fellow-instruction principle;—a branch of the Indigenous-promotion principle.—The children themselves to be employed in the instruction of their fellows; the more advanced, in the instruction of the less advanced:—as much of the instruction as possible to be given upon this plan—in time the whole of it may.—Advantages: 1. Saving in the expense of superior instruction. 2. On the part of the pupils, comfort increased: the impression of awe, and idea of coercion being in great measure removed. 3. Progress accelerated—the alacrity being increased, and the analogy of ideas betwixt teacher and pupil closer. 4. On the part of the teacher.—Comfort increased, in respect of the pleasures of superiority and command. 5. Progress accelerated: the knowledge acquired by teaching being much more perfect than what can be acquired by simple learning in the one case the mind being in good measure passive—in the other completely active. To the cultivated mind of a master, the task of perpetually dwelling on ideas of no higher rank than those which are upon a level with the capacities of children, is a wearisome and fastidious task. In the case of the pupil-instructor, the task which he has but just ceased to learn, in quality of pupil, is some time before it has lost its relative importance in his conception in his new quality of tutor; and when it has, it is exchanged for a higher. 6. Preparation for the application of the indigenous-promotion principle, by appointing the quondam apprentice to the higher offices of the establishment.
32.Indigenous-promotion principle.—From the time that the institution has been long enough on foot to have laid a suitable foundation in point of education, none of the officers (unless perhaps the chaplain) to be chosen elsewhere than out of the establishment, viz. out of the apprentice stock.—Advantages: I. To the Company’s wards, hope, encouragement, and consideration. II. To the Company—1. Certainty of fitness, in respect of suitable education, character, experience, and probation—2. Saving in respect of expense of salaries. A given allowance, administered to persons whose habits of expense have been of the very lowest rank, will go proportionably farther, than if administered to an individual trained up in the profuse habits of the world at large.
Officers—Numbers and Functions—
the same in every Industry House.—1. Governor. 2. Chaplain. 3. Medical curator. 4. Schoolmaster, to act likewise as secretary. 5. Organist to act on Sundays as music-master, and* on weekdays as a clerk. 6. Governess, for the female part. 7. School-mistress, for the younger part of the female apprentices. 8. Matron, or head nurse, for the infant part—to act as midwife. 9. Husbandry bailiff. 10. Foreman and forewoman, at first, for the several employments.—Impossibility of determining with exactness, previously to experience, the exact number of officers requisite: two functions may be exercised by the same individual; or several individuals may be requisite for one function.
In most instances, the greatest part of the emolument must wear the shape of a fixed salary from first to last: the value of the service actually rendered by each individual, not being capable of being exhibited in any such precise quantity, that the quantum of the reward shall be capable of being made to rise and fall with it. Governors must, at the outset, be in great measure, if not altogether, upon a salary: in process of time, as the expenses and returns of the establishment become ascertained and known, they may be paid upon the footing of contract or partnership. Till the apprentice stock has produced individuals ripe for this as well as the other offices, the emoluments being fixed, it might be sold by auction to candidates possessed of certain qualifications: power to the Company to revoke the appointment at any time on payment of the purchase-money. The price a man gives, will be a proof of the degree of his inclination for the business of the office; thence of his fitness, as far as depends upon inclination. The other exceptions regard the officers to whose functions the application of the life-assurance principle is extendible—the nurse receiving the whole of her emolument, and the medical curator a proportionable part of his, and so, perhaps, the governor and governess, in the shape of annuities on the lives of the apprentice-children under their care, up to a certain age. (See Ch. iv.)
Powers and Restraints.—
Except as undermentioned, the authority of the governor to be absolute over the whole establishment; but no act to be done without the privity of the rest of the officers: each being rendered responsible for every act of the governor to which he does not enter his dissent; and the entry of each act being accompanied with a memorandum, stating what officers were present, and which, if any, absent at the time. Cases to be specified in which, to prevent any such mischief as would be irreparable, the veto of the chaplain or surgeon shall be sufficient to suspend the execution of any order of the governor, until there shall have been time for the pleasure of the Direction-Board to be made known.—Examples: 1. Danger to the security of the whole establishment by fire or water.—2. Danger to the safe custody of the apprentice stock, or stock of self-liberation hands; especially such as belong to any of the dangerous or disreputable classes. 3. Danger of communication of infection, or danger of life and limb to any individual in the establishment.—4. Danger of violation of the principle of separation, as between class and class.—5. Mischief, by the cutting down, destroying, or damaging timber, or other trees: the mischief in each case being such, as, were it not for the veto, might take place before the intimation of the pleasure of the Board could arrive. Contracts of purchase, sale, hire, and loan, such as are made in the local establishment, and not by the general Direction-Board, to be made by the governor, but with the privity of all the officers of both sexes. In cases that will admit of suspension, power to be reserved to the Direction-Board, to disallow any such contract within a limited time; these, like all other acts, being reported to the Board in weekly or daily course. No officer to be ever absent for a day together, without a substitute chosen by himself; but liable to be disallowed by the governor singly, or by any two other officers—the principal to be peculiarly responsible for the conduct of the substitute. The substitute to be, in the case of the chaplain, a minister in holy orders: in that of the medical curator, a person who has undergone such tests of capacity as shall have been established for the purpose. Power to each officer to take an assistant or assistants, upon the same terms as specified above, in regard to substitutes. Each officer will thus have the faculty—not indeed of appointing his successor, but of placing any one whom he is disposed to favour, in a situation which will naturally afford him an advantage in this respect. The power of nomination remaining in the Board, no detriment seems likely to ensue from such a privilege: the choice of a person, for whose conduct the chooser is personally responsible, affording as fair a presumption of fitness, as a choice made by an irresponsible member of the General Board. Each officer to be responsible to the Board, for every instance of misbehaviour, or proof of manifest incapacity, exhibited by any other, if within a certain time he does not give information thereof by minute in the books; taking care that a copy of the minute be transmitted to the Board. The plea of self-preservation will thus afford a shield against the imputation of officiousness and ill-nature. All the official acts to be exercised in the common room; viz. the central lodge.
Rich and honourable source of encouragement, were it the pleasure of his Majesty to confer the honour of knighthood on a select number of such of the governors, as should have distinguished themselves in the humane, upright, intelligent, and dignified, exercise of their office:—also to bestow some of the church sinecures on some of the chaplains; but tenable only during their continuance in the exercise of that laborious and useful office.—Might not an arrangement of this sort help to protect the church establishment from obloquy?
The Company at the end of every year to present pieces of plate, in the way of premiums, to such of the officers of the two hundred and fifty houses—governors more particularly—as shall have distinguished themselves in their respective situations. The act of remuneration to be grounded, in every instance, on specific, and specified, exemplifications of merit, with reference to the evidence presenting itself in each instance, as apparent on the face of the books. A thousand or two a-year thus expended would go a good way, and probably produce ample repayment in the way of zeal and useful service.
All magistrates and clergymen, resident in the county, visiters ex officio. Power to inspect the books, especially the complaint-book; (See Ch. x. Book-keeping)—examine persons, and make minutes. The power might be coupled with an obligation, to be performed (suppose once a-year) in the instance of those resident within the pauper district, belonging to the industry-house. In the case of the ecclesiastical visiters, especially those resident at a distance, a small fee, fixed, or increased with the distance, might be a reasonable accompaniment to the obligation. The whole establishment, with its two thousand members, being inspectable, and every member of it examinable, sick or well, from a single station, (the centre lodge,) the time thus required to be bestowed will not be great.
Diet about two-thirds of the necessary quantum of expense.—Distinction between diet for the new-comers, and diet for the old-stagers.* —Necessity, in respect of life and health, is the only standard in the former case; habit may prescribe an addition to the expense in the latter. (See p. 384, Habit-respecting principle.)—In the case of the new-comers,—animal food—meat—is the great source of expense—The greater part of mankind use animal and vegetable together; many, however, use vegetable only: ex. gr. the Hindoos:—some, animal only, viz. the Esquimaux, and other inhabitants of the regions too cold for vegetation—also some Tartar nations.—It is not clear that the latter are healthier or stronger than the former.—Whether a mixture, of animal food with vegetable, be more advantageous in point of health and strength, taken together, than vegetable alone, and if so, what proportion is most advantageous, is a matter of experiment in the highest degree interesting, never as yet tried, but which might be tried with the utmost advantage, in the proposed establishment, in the instance of the indigenous branch of the apprentice stock.—Bread is uneconomical—not only as being the result of an expensive manufacturing process, but as being considered as an appendage to meat, and thence impressing the idea of a want of meat. Bread and water, a penal diet in England, more expensive than the ordinary diet in Scotland.
I. Non-adults: especially the Indigenous and Quasi-Indigenous Classes.—Taking the cheapest food in point of quality, experiments should be made for ascertaining the most advantageous quantity. The lowest step in the scale, a quantity greater, in a known proportion, than the least quantity consumed by an average child of the same age among the husbandry part of the self-maintaining poor in Scotland—This ascertainable, with great precision, from the observations made by the Guardians of the Poor at Glasgow. The highest step, the quantity consumed by an average child of the same age, to whom as much is given as it will eat. Gradations to be marked out at equal intervals between these two points.—Difference to be tried between two meals a-day, and three—whether any, and how much, more is consumed at three than at two;—the quality the same,—quantity at option, as before:—and, if more is consumed, whether any, and what difference in point of strength or health be the result.—One a-day, and four a-day, hardly worth trying.—The two sexes to be compared to each other for this purpose, at the different ages.—Health being the mere negation of disease, if their be no disease in any instance, (which is the most probable, as well as the most desirable, result,) no indication in this respect will be afforded: in that case, as far as health is concerned, the smallest allowance is preferable, as being least expensive.—Difference between general strength, and particular or local strength. The human frame to be examined in this point of view—Some muscles stronger in some subjects, others in others—even where, in point of general strength, there may be no difference.—Tests of strength to be established—a single species of exertion, such as running, lifting, rowing, turning a wheel, &c.—each taken singly—is not of itself an adequate test of general strength, for all varieties in point of organization.—The proper tests for this purpose, are the exertions made in the several employments in actual use:—the experiment having by this means a direct application to practical use.—The effect of differences in point of quantity being ascertained, another class of experiments may regard the effect of differences in point of quality, i. e. species of food, each species taken apart; and another, of the effect of mixtures.
II. Adults—(New-Comers.)—A fixed dietary would be irreconcileable to economy; since the proportions in point of price, as between article and article, are subject to great and continual variation. So, likewise, a fixed allowance in money; since the same quantity of money will purchase as much again of any given species of food, or even of that which is cheapest at the time, at one time as at another: and, by an improvident application of a limited sum, famine might be produced.—The following course seems the proper one for the Direction Board to take. Give a list of rations, of different sorts—the more numerous, the better—all regarded as coming within the price proposed. Give to the governor of each house the option, as betwixt these several rations; allowing him even to employ, or at least to propose, others:—but on condition of their not exceeding a fixed price.
III. Adults.—Old-Stagers.—Paupership habit, is the habit principally to be considered in this case; the original habit, acquired during the self-maintaining state, having been more or less superseded by it. The paupership habit, instead of being less luxurious and expensive throughout, is, in the instance of those maintained in the way of community-maintenance (i. e. in poor-houses, howsoever denominated) invariably, and in an enormous degree, more luxurious and expensive.—Original habits are determined mostly by professions, though in some degree by territorial situations:—the agriculturalist, the lowest paid of all classes. In community-maintenance, the habit has generally been adjusted to the habits of the best-paid classes, though influenced more or less by territorial situation. Difference in this respect between bread countries and meal countries; and among bread countries, between wheaten bread countries and inferior bread countries—viz. rye, barley, oaten, and pease-bread countries. Meat is the great article of excess in the existing poor-houses.* Whatever degree of indulgence it may be thought fit, in consideration of acquired habits, to extend to the old-stagers, they should be dieted apart from the new-comers.—Briefly thus—two tables—New comers’ table, and old-stagers’ table. This to save the new-comers from the pains of regret and privation, and from the dissocial emotions and affections of envy and discontent.
Should any retrenchment be deemed advisable, voluntary charity will remain as a resource for the amount of the difference. (See Book iii. Ch. xiii. Voluntary Charity assisted—and Book iv. Pauper Comforts.)—Fish a contingent resource, in situations and seasons affording a glut.—Expectations entertained of a mode of curing, by which the benefit may be extended to all seasons and situations.—Conduct with regard to the mode of retrenchment.—1. Diminishing the number of meat-days.—2. Diminishing the quantity of meat on each day.—3. Diminishing partly the number of days, partly the quantity on each.—Saving by inferior pieces, a casual resource, depending on local situation:—the amount limited, since the ratio of inferior to superior cannot be increased. The distinction being principally the result of prejudice and caprice, differing widely as between country and country, any considerable increase in the relative demand would raise the price. In great towns, many parts, considered elsewhere as delicacies, and in vain coveted in country places, are degraded in saleable value, and even reprobated as unfit for man, by being denominated according to the demand made of them for the use of inferior animals. The principle of self-supply, though applied to this article, would not altogether supersede the distinction between superior and inferior pieces; since the superior, fresh or preserved, might be reserved for sale, and the inferior, in greater quantity, purchased with the price. This mode of retrenchment, a point of great delicacy: the settling of it, as far as can be done, by resolutions, conceived in general terms, a proper subject for the authority of Parliament. The execution ought not at any rate to be sudden: time should be allowed to the class in question to accommodate themselves to their new situation, and experience the benefit of it in other points of view.
Clothing, Bedding, &c.—
I. Clothing.—Two points to be attended to—frugality and distinction—the latter, for the purpose of separation and aggregation—(See Chap. ii.)—Frugality.—1. Materials, the cheapest, so as to afford sufficient warmth. 2. Form, excluding all useless parts—such as skirts to coats and waistcoats—brims to hats—unless it be in the heat of summer, for protection against the sun; for which purpose straw would be preferable.—Necessity and use the standards—not fashion—though fashion has of late been approaching nearer and nearer to use.—Distinction, principally by colour—form being determined by frugality. In default of a sufficient number of cheap colours sufficiently contrasted, shreds of one colour, applied to a ground of another colour, might be employed.—Shoes with wooden soles, used in many country places, and even in London, under the name of clogs, Saving on this score alone, 3s. 6d. a head, in the instance of adults: about £40,000 or £50,000 a-year, in the whole.—In summer, no stockings; but the leg covered, or nearly so, by a prolongation of the breeches; which at that part may be repaired by piecing, more advantageously than stockings by darning. In winter, stockings might be added, or rather hose: i. e. stockings of woven cloth, as being more advantageously repairable.—At the parts most exposed to wear, viz. under the arm-pits, between the thighs, and at the elbows, linings, for strength, of shreds of leather—a species of frugality already in use.—For coverings of shoes, in place of, or in addition to leather, the materials of cast-off coats and waistcoats might be employed—or, for women’s, gowns and petticoats—such as could not be applied with more advantage to other uses.
Soldiers wear uniforms, why not paupers?—those who save the country, why not those who are saved by it? Not the permanent hands only, but likewise the coming-and-going hands should wear the uniform while in the house, for order, distinction, and recognition, as well as for tidiness: being charged at a fixed rate per day; reserving to them the option with regard to shoes and stockings.
Clothing would be made, all of it, by the strength of the establishment, according to the principle of self-supply: but this would make no difference in point of relative cheapness and dearness, as between material and material; the quantity of labour requisite being the same, whether home-made, bought, or sold.—For the particulars, see Book v. Ch. ii. Pecuniary Estimates.
II. Bedding.—For the Bed-stages, see above, Chap. iv.—Bed, stuffed with straw:—one side covered with the cheapest linen or hempen cloth, for summer; the other, with coarse woollen for winter.—Stretching the under sheet on hooks, pins, or buttons, will save the quantity usually added for tucking in:—in cold weather, that the woollen may be in contact with the body, the sheet might be omitted. Rug, and two or three blankets:—upper sheet of no greater width than the cell, and tacked on to one of the blankets. Bed, one for the whole stage, or a separate one for each cell; and so the under sheet.—The advantages of separation are, superior portability; each bringing and stowing away his own bed without embarrassment or delay; and that in case of uncleanliness, the annoyance may be confined to the author of it. Straw, the more frequently changed the better, particularly in the warm months.—To the extent of the quantity wanted for littering cattle, the change will cost nothing; and beyond that quantity the expense will be only the difference between the value of the straw, as straw, and the value of it, as manure.
The grand point is, to suit the nature of the employ to the nature of the hands.—The only difficulty is to find employment of a nature suited to the unwilling hands, and the infra-ability or inadequate-ability hands.* The quantum of this sort of employment requisite for the population (when complete) of each Industry-house, will of course depend upon the population of these two classes of hands. A stock of easy, or any-body’s-work employment, having been found in a quantity adequate to the number of difficulty-employed hands, the difficulty is at an end. Self-supply is a principle particularly fruitful in any-body’s-work employments.—In the agricultural branch, most of the operations being suitable to unexercised, many to feeble hands: in the clothing branch, most to feeble, many to unexercised hands. The stock of everyman’s-work operations being increased more and more by the division of labour, (which in this scale of unexampled amplitude may be carried to an unexampled pitch,) the stock of work adapted to these confined-ability hands will receive a proportionable increase.
To afford the extra stock of labour suited to the extra demand in time of war, or preparation for war, each hand, exercising a war-trade, must be prevented from employing in it more than a certain part of his time (say three or two days out of the six) in peace: otherwise whatever accession to the national stock of war-employment hands were afforded by the Company’s apprentice-stock of hands, would only drive out, or keep out, so many free hands; and there would be no more to spare of the sort of labour in question—no greater fund of capacity for that sort of labour lying by and unemployed then, than there is now. The advantage derivable from the employment-mixing principle, is peculiar, in great measure to such a company and its hands: since “no man can serve two masters,” nor, in general, the same master-man carry on, without disadvantage, two or more unconnected trades.
Local advantages appurtenant to the situations of the several Industry-houses, may afford employments, to a value which in part might otherwise be lost; and those such as would be less apt than others to interfere with private trade. Examples: Stone-cutting—brick-making—mining—fishing, with the preliminary employments subservient to it—such as ship-building, sail-making, &c. The quantity of work performable in these subservient employments, might be confined to the supply of the Company’s own demand.—No more vessels to be built, &c., than what the Company employs. In regard to husbandry-work for individual farmers, the Company might restrict itself, or be restricted, to rates regarded as excessive; say, all beyond double the ordinary rate: the object being not to deprive self-maintaining hands of any employment, nor even of any such advantage as would be a reasonable compensation for casual want of work, and want of adequate pay in winter time—but only to get this or that work done, which might otherwise not be done at all—not being capable of being despatched in time, with all the labour that could be afforded by the obtainable stock of self-maintaining hands.
With regard to the pouring in hands into over-paid employments, whether in the view of taking the benefit of the excess, or (what would be the necessary consequence) for the purpose of reducing it, this advantage would be open to the Company, as well as to private masters, and private hands. The fund of information created by the Employment-Intelligence-Office plan, would be alike open to all parties interested. See Book iii. Ch. i. Employment secured.
In regard to the choice of employments, and the prudence of hazarding the necessary expense of such parts of the dead stock as might be requisite to a certain branch of industry, and could not, without loss, be transferred to any other branch, much will depend upon the permanence of the stock of hands capable of being allotted to any such employment: that is, in the instance of each hand, on the assurance of his continuance upon the establishment for a term not less than a certain time. The great and general uncertainty in relation to this head, is one of the most powerful and insuperable obstacles to productive economy in poor-houses, in the existing order of things.—(See Book v. Ch. v. Prospect of Success.)—Hence an important division of the population of a proposed Industry-house, into—1. Coming-and-going, or short-staying stock of hands—2. Longer-staying stock—3. Permanent, or standing stock.*
Owing partly to the permanence of their situation, partly to their aptitude for receiving a suitable education, it is the labour of the stock of unripe hands, in their quality of apprentices, that would constitute the chief basis of the Company’s profit-seeking arrangements.†
What the Company supplies itself with, will be gain to the Company, without being loss to other traders: since, whatever be the value that is thus produced by the Company, value to the same amount is saved out of the poor-rates. If the whole expense of the pauper community—say three millions—were thus defrayed by the labour of the pauper-community, and the Committee were but as trustees for the rateable inhabitants to the whole of the amount, the whole of the three millions would be saved to the rateable inhabitants, and they would have so much the more in their pockets, to lay out with individual traders of all sorts. Divided, as it is proposed to be, between the rateable inhabitants and the Company, the benefit to individual traders will be the same: the only difference being, that the part which is gained by the Company, will be laid out by and for the benefit of the members of the Company; while that part only which is divided amongst—that is, saved by—the rateable inhabitants, will be laid out by and for the benefit of the rateable inhabitants.
Great advantages the Company’s infants would have, in comparison with those of private families,—even of the most opulent, much more of the indigent.—1. Medical curators, as well as head-nurses and nursery girls, prepared by the most eminent lecturers in this line. 2. Uninterrupted medical attention. 3. Uninterrupted nursing attendance:—nurses constantly sitting up—no avocations—no over-laying. 4. Appropriate exercise, administered by the help of machinery, in whatever quantity may prove most advantageous—not stinted by the portion of time and labour that can be spared from other occupations, as in private families.—Examples: The infants danced, as they lay in their cribs, in numbers at a time.—(See the plate.) The labour performable by the slight exertion of a feeble hand, the weight being taken off by a counterpoise. For airing, in conjunction with exercise, an open carriage being provided, upon a principle as simple as that of the droshky spoken of in Ch. iii.—the cribs (which for this purpose should be capable of being separated from each other) may be suspended from horizontal poles, supported by proper uprights. They might be drawn about in this way in numbers by a single ass; or in smaller numbers, on smaller carriages, on the same principle, by some of the bigger children.—5. A system of experiment, for the purpose of improvement, constantly carrying on on a scale covering the whole kingdom, and recorded according to an uniform plan of registration, pursued alike in every industry-house.—(See Ch. x.) 6. Attention, uniform, systematical, governed by principle:—not exposed to be relaxed by casual want of affection; or to be misguided by ignorance, prejudice, or caprice.—7. Best mode of bringing up by hand, a particular field for experiment—The great medical authorities to be consulted previous to the formation of the plan. 8. Attention sharpened by the Life-Assurance principle by premiums, and by the honour of publicity. Rate of vitality among suckled children the standard. Two children to be suckled by each woman delivered in the house, the woman being supplied with extra nourishment for the purpose:—mothers of bastards might be detained (say for six or twelve months after delivery) for that purpose. The great object of endeavour will be to reduce the mortality among weaned children, to a level with that of suckled children—what if still lower? Liberal premiums every year to the nurses, &c., of a certain number of the houses, in which the rate of infant mortality has proved lowest: emulation consequently among all the houses. To show how much has been owing to local situation, and how much to management, if an industry-house, in which a premium has been gained twice running, be in a situation deemed peculiarly healthy,—as in the Welsh mountains—transfer this part of the official establishment to a situation in ill repute for health,—such as the hundreds of Essex; or to any other industry-house, if there be any other in which mortality has been higher: if, under this disadvantage, the success be similar, augment the premium in proportion.—For the savings to be made in the expense of child-nursing, as compared with ditto under the existing system, see Book v. Ch. ii. Pecuniary Estimates—and see Book iii. Ch. xi. Infant Mortality diminished.
Peculiar extent and importance of the system of Book-keeping in an establishment of this sort—Besides being, in every case, an indispensable basis to good management, it is in the present case an indispensable security for the due discharge of the several obligations, which the Direction of the Company, and the several agents in the several local establishments, will have taken upon themselves, with relation to the various parties interested—viz. the paupers—their individual friends, the rateable parishioners, the stockholders, government, and the public at large.
In a small and single poor-house there may be neither the demand for a full and perfect system of book-keeping, nor the adequate means of satisfying any such demand: the difference between the best and the worst management that can be expected may hardly be sufficient to make up for the expense of an adequate system of registration; that is, of engaging persons competent to the task. In a system of poor-houses of the proposed extent and magnitude, good book-keeping is the hinge on which good management will turn: the demand rises to the highest pitch; and so (it will be seen) does the sufficiency of the means at command for satisfying it. With the instruction, and under the check, of an adequate system of book-keeping, the management may be better conducted by the most ordinary hand, than by the ablest hand without that advantage; and the good management accidentally introduced by an able hand, would vanish with the hand that introduced it. Without this advantage, everything would be too much; with it, nothing would be too much. Without it, any single one of the collateral benefits hereinafter proposed, might be deemed visionary; with it, all of them together would be found practicable, easy, and secure.
In book-keeping, the heads—as in management, the principles of the system—will be governed by the objects or ends which it has in view. Of the objects or ends of action requisite on this occasion to be kept in view, the list will, as far as it goes, be the same in the one case as in the other; and will not be much less extensive or diversified in the case of book-keeping than in that of management itself.* Pecuniary economy, usually regarded as the sole object of book-keeping, will here be but as one out of a number; for the system of book-keeping will be neither more nor less than the history of the system of management in all its points. Health—comfort—industry—morality—discipline—and pecuniary economy—(both branches included—the saving or preservative, as well as the productive or augmentative) compose the list of objects in view in the present instance. In relation to all these points, and at each period, it is equally necessary that it should be known what, at that period the state of the management is and has been, in order that it may, in no future period, be suffered to grow worse, but in every future period be made to grow better and better in as high a degree as may be.
The unprecedented multitude of establishments, all requiring to be conducted upon a plan in most points exactly the same, (say two hundred and fifty, spread at equal distances over the surface of the whole kingdom,) is another circumstance which enhances the importance of the process, and at the same time gives an unprecedented turn to it. In ordinary economical concerns, the whole system of management is single and insulated: here everything is comparative; under every head, the management in each house presents an object of comparison to the management of every other. In relation to each head, the management in each local establishment has therefore two hundred and fifty times the chance of being advanced to the highest possible pitch of perfection that it can have, in any insulated establishment standing upon the ordinary footing. To profit by this advantage it is necessary that the system of book-keeping should in each house exhibit, with the utmost precision, and in the utmost detail, what the management is:—as, for example—under the head of pecuniary economy, what the rate of expense is on each of the articles consumed or used; and what the rate of expense, on each of the articles produced: that it may be seen in which of all the houses the management, in relation to each of those heads, is most advantageous upon the whole; and thence, with a view to practise, that the management of the most successful house may be taken in each instance for a pattern, and copied in every other. To book-keeping in its ordinary form must therefore be added, in the present case, a new and peculiar branch, which may be styled comparative or tabular book-keeping. To that comparison between period and period, which is so instructive, as often as it is made, in the case of any private concern, may here be added the comparison between house and house.
The plan of registration—at least the plan traced out in the first instance—cannot be too particular:—multiplied by the number of industry-houses in the kingdom, (two hundred and fifty,)—by the number of souls in an industry-house, (two thousand,)—or by the number of souls in the whole pauper population, (five hundred thousand,)—the minutest article may swell into importance. The supposition to set out upon is—that everything is to be registered, for the registration of which any use whatever can be found; then to strike off the list such heads, if any, of which the use, it is supposed, would not pay for the expense.
Multiplication of the number of the books would render the business—not the more complex, (as at first glance it might seem,)—but the more simple: as in manufacturing establishments, the several operations, separately considered, are the more simple, the greater the number of the hands amongst which they are distributed. Allotting to each article a separate book, would save the writing the name of that article as many times as it would occur in a general book. The quantity of matter to be entered being given, no addition is made to the labour of entering by any addition made to the number of the books. Books in any number may be given in charge to one hand; so long as no two, that are designed as checks to one another be given to the same hand. Multiplication of books, is but division of the contents.*
Under the proposed system of management, as the demand for a copious system of book-keeping is in an unexampled degree urgent and extensive, so are the facilities afforded to the process of book-keeping, by the peculiar plan of architecture, equally unexampled. Compactness and simultaneous transparency—both of which properties it exhibits in perfection—are the principal points upon which the advantage turns. Elsewhere, the knowlege of the matter of fact requires to be communicated to the manager in chief, often through a variety of channels: here, it is present to all his senses, and requires only to be preserved.—No false musters—no running to and fro—no mislayings and huntings—no crossings and justlings, for the purpose of survey and registration:—every person, and every thing, within view and within reach at the same instant.—A degree of minuteness which might elsewhere be impracticable or unthrifty—(costing more than the amount of any advantage that could be made from it)—would be without obstruction, and without objection, here.*
Chronological and Methodical—Elementary and Aggregate—are the natural and fundamental distinctions between book and book, in a set of books, having for their common subject-matter the transactions of the same establishment—and they apply, not only to books in which pecuniary economy is concerned, but to all the several books that respectively bear relation to the several other heads of management here concerned. In a chronological book, the arrangement of the entries is governed by the order of time merely: in a methodical book, by some other order, according to the purpose it is designed to serve. Entries of the elementary kind are generally entered in a chronological book, in the first instance;† and from thence copied either in their separate and elementary state, or in aggregate state and expression, into a book of the methodical kind. Elementary entries are of course the foundation of the aggregate:—an error in an elementary article cannot but be productive of a correspondent error in the aggregate in which it is included: an error in an aggregate article may exist, without any error in an elementary one.
Considered with reference to their subject-matters, the books may be distinguished into—1. Population-books—2. Stock-books—(including accounts of articles received, issued, and consumed)—3. Health-books—4. Behaviour-books—and 5. Correspondence-books. The plans of the population-books and stock-books, (elementary and aggregate included,) including also in each instance an indication of the use, would take up so much room, that they must either be omitted altogether out of the present outline, or posted off to an appendix. Of the health-books a sketch will be given in Book iii. Ch. xii. Useful Knowledge augmented, &c.—To the class of behaviour-books may be referred—1. Complaint-books—2. Misbehaviour-books—3. Black, or punishment-book—4. Red, or merit-book.
Idea of a complaint-book—I. Objects of complaint to the pauper inhabitants of any house—1. Fellow inmates of the same house—2. Officers of ditto—3. The general plan of management—as manifested either by the established practice, or the rules and orders of the house—4. Paupers of other houses—5. Officers of ditto—6. Strangers at large. II. Complainants against the pauper himself may be—1. Fellow inmates of the same house—2. Officers of ditto—3. Paupers of other houses—4. Officers of ditto—5. Strangers.—These five last cases may be considered as belonging to the Misbehaviour-book.‡ III. Heads for a complaint-book—1. Time (day, hour, and minute)—2. By whom—3. Against whom, or what—4. Concerning what—5. To whom—6. By whom examined into—7. Witness or witnesses examined—8. By whom decided upon—9. Time when decided upon—10. Time employed in the examination—11. Decision—12. Decision, by whom executed—(if it be a case calling for execution)—13. Time, &c., when executed.
Provision against suppression of complaints, where a pauper is complainant.—Time for complaining, a time when the whole official establishment is assembled—right of having the complaint entered in the book.—Complaints by paupers against paupers, will of course have officers for judges.—An appeal will in that case be a complaint against the officer who acted as judge. At every visitation (see Ch. v. Official Establishment) the governor bound to present to the visiters the books, exhibiting the complaints made by paupers, whether against officers, or against the management, for a certain time back. Complaints against the management not to be repeated by paupers after having been decided upon by the General Board. Punishment for complaints adjudged rash as well as groundless—still more if malicious, and made for the purpose of vexation.
Unexampled perfection, of which the system of procedure is susceptible in such a situation—the result, partly of the discipline, but principally of the architecture. Delinquency known the instant of its being committed: defendant, complainant, witnesses—(if distinct from the complainant)—judges—everybody—on the spot:—delinquency, complaint, trial, sentence, execution—might all be included—and without injustice—in the compass of the same minute.* Punishment may here be the less severe, in proportion as the certainty of it is the more entire: but in proportion as punishment is certain, delinquency will be rare. In case of complaints of a serious kind, (such as those which constitute a legal charge, civil or criminal,) the Industry-house itself will be a perfect, and the only proper, safe-custody house: by a common jail, such as common jails are at present, a scratch in the moral character would be inflamed into a death-wound.—(See Book iii. Ch. viii. Imprisonment, &c.)
In case of a complaint by a pauper against a stranger, if the stranger will not make up the matter, or it be a matter not fit to be made up, the consequence of a decision given against the stranger, will be a report from the house to the general Direction-Board—of which report, if confirmed, the consequence will be an order to prosecute.—Unexampled degree of protection thus secured to the pauper-population:—thence a degree of security, from which, by the intricacies and expenses, partly natural, partly factitious, of legal procedure, the self-maintaining poor—that is the great bulk of the community—are debarred. (See Defence of Usury, and Protest against Law Taxes.)
The black-book will be of use chiefly by its name; the matter of it will have already found a place in the misbehaviour-book: cases either of high delinquency, or of conspicuous pertinacity, (both classes rather ideal than probable in such a situation) will be the only ones proper to be put upon it.
Red-book.—The instances of the application of the peculiar premium principle, will constitute the ordinary matter of the red-book: uncalled-for, and unexpected manifestations of merit, the extraordinary. The chaplain, the “recording angel:”—one amongst other means of encompassing with sentiments of love and veneration the idea of this officer, the special guardian of religion and good morals.
viz. for the Insane, &c.—In the instance of some of the classes, appropriate houses may be of use: the appropriation being special, but not exclusive; that is, the complement of the establishment being made up out of the other classes, rather than room or officers’ time should be unemployed:—the central-inspection-architecture obviating whatever inconvenience might result from the aggregation, if, instead of being but apparent, it were real.—Classes requiring appropriate establishments.—I. The Insane. II. The Deaf and Dumb. III. The Blind—in some cases.
Reasons for collecting together, into appropriate establishments, persons afflicted with the above infirmities—I. Reasons applying to the curable classes of the insane. 1. Benefit of appropriate medical curation and attendance. 2. Giving to the patients the whole time, and entire attention, of the medical curator, undivided by miscellaneous practice. 3. Enlarging the field of his observation and experience. 4. Benefit of suitable instruction and superintendence, in respect of employment. 5. Ridding the ordinary houses of an annoyance.
II. Reasons applying to the case of the deaf and dumb; also to the blind, especially to children born blind, or become so at an early age. 1. Benefits of appropriate education. 2. As well as attendance—instruction—and superintendence—in respect of employment.—The deaf and dumb are of sound mind, or upon the footing of idiots, according to the care bestowed upon them at an early age.
III. Reasons applying to the case of the incurably insane—appropriate attendance, and (where susceptible of employment) instruction and superintendence. The insane of different descriptions—such as curable and incurable, susceptible and unsusceptible of employment, dangerous and innoxious, &c.—are not to be considered as necessarily allotted to the same establishment, one class as another, by reason of their common attribute of insanity, but may be aggregated to other establishments, and with other infirm classes, according to the nature of their respective cases. (See Ch. iii. Separation and Aggregation.)
An inquiry concerning the best method of providing for the non-adult classes of the pauper population coming under the management of the proposed Company—that is, for each individual, during the period of his non-age—requires for its answer a complete plan of education, adapted to this numerous division of the community. The importance of the inquiry is in the joint proportion of the advantage to the multitude of the individuals concerned, and of the degree of influence which—in the situation in question—a plan for this purpose may be expected to manifest. The multitude included under the denomination of the poor, compose the bulk of the community:—nineteen twentieths might perhaps be found to belong to that class:—in the condition of one of these twentieths, the plan in question would exercise a direct and all-commanding authority; and over the remainder a very considerable,—and finally, perhaps, an all-prevailing—though less certain, and immediate, influence. If, in point of real importance, the education of the rich can bear any comparison with that of the poor, it can only be in respect of the influence which the conduct of the former class has over the latter. In the situation proposed, the conduct of the poor will depend—not upon the remote and casual influence of the rich, in the way of example or casual communication, but upon the direct and constant exercise of plastic power. The influence of the schoolmaster on the conduct of the pupil in ordinary life, is as nothing, compared with the influence exercised by the Company over these its wards. Yet these are the classes whose case is so generally overlooked by the writers on education: partly (it should seem) as not being worthy of their notice; partly as not lying within their reach.
Education is the conduct of the individual through the early part of life.
The proper end of education is no other than the proper end of life—wellbeing.
The wellbeing here in question is, partly that of the individual to be educated, partly that of the parties at whose expense, and by whose care, he is to be educated—viz. the proposed Company:—in respect of the wellbeing of the child, they are as guardians, in respect of their own, they are as masters.
From the commencement to the conclusion of the period of education, (comprising in this country the first twenty-one years of life,) the field of education comprises the whole of the individual’s time.
The time of an individual is employed, partly in active occupations, partly in repose which is the absence of them all.—List of the ends or objects to one or more of which all occupations ought here to be directed.—I. For the advantage of the Company, as well as his own. 1. Profit of the pecuniary kind, the fruit of productive industry.—II. For his own advantage, in respect of his present condition in the apprentice-state. 2. Comfort (including amusement.) 3. Continuation of existence (viz. by nourishment.) 4. Health. 5. Strength. 6. Cleanliness. 7. Personal security.—III. Partly for his own advantage—in respect of his future condition after emancipation—partly for the advantage of the public at large. 8. Faculty of self-maintenance. 9. Faculty of self-amusement. 10. Intellectual strength. 11. Moral health. 12. Military strength. 13. Faculty of pleasing. 14. Religious affections. 15. Suitable instruction—instruction in all suitable points of art and knowledge.
Among these objects, some lead to others; many are compassed by one and the same occupation:—in some instances, the connexion is necessary; in others, it is dependent on management, and presents a wide field for improvement: and here comes in the application of the several use principle, spoken of in Ch. iv.—Examples—Repose and comfort sweeten the time occupied in nutrition.* —Cleanliness is subservient to health, comfort, and the faculty of pleasing. Productive industry is naturally, though not necessarily, accompanied by (bodily) health, strength, the faculty of self-maintenance, and moral health:—by management, not only may the connexion between these objects be much strengthened, but intellectual strength and comfort, (in the shape of amusement,) be added to the group.—Learning, otherwise of little value,—unless by being subservient to intellectual strength, is, (if suitable in kind,) capable of being made subservient to the faculty of self-maintenance—to the faculty of self-amusement—to moral health—to the faculty of pleasing—and to religious affections.—Military strength (of use principally to the public) is naturally enough subservient to comfort, (i. e. to amusement,) and to the faculty of pleasing.—The faculty of pleasing depends upon native comeliness, (the gift of nature, not of education,) upon health, strength, cleanliness, intellectual strength, and moral health.* Of religious affections, moral health is in this world the great use. From suitable instruction (suitable art and knowledge) these sublime affections, as well as intellectual strength, may derive nourishment and increase.—Amongst active occupations (occupations accompanied with strong exercise) there is one, viz. swimming, peculiarly subservient to personal security—applying to a danger, against which there is no constant security by any other means:—and to this advantage is added comfort, (including amusement,) health, strength, cleanliness, and even increase of strength (by increase of security) in a military view.
Of diet and clothing, (two of the efficient causes of comfort and continuation of existence,) mention has been made in the Ch. vi. and vii.:—of occupations, considered as directed to pecuniary profit, in the Ch. iv. and viii.:—of the accession of military strength, that might be derived from the apprenticeship system, mention will be made in Ch. x. of the next book.—Of the remaining principles of education, relative to these and the several other objects, a compressed view may be exhibited by the following Rules and Observations:
1. In the whole system of occupations, and in each occupation in particular, the attainment of the several objects enumerated, in the greatest possible number, and each in the highest possible degree, (regard being had to their respective degrees of subserviency to the general end,) ought to be kept in view.
2. Of absolute repose, considered as the total negation of all active occupations, the quantity allowed ought to be, the least that can be made sufficient for health and strength.†
3. The efficient causes of positive discomfort being absent, comfort (amusement included)—comfort, even where it is but the collateral result, is the natural concomitant, of the several occupations which have for their objects or effects—repose, (especially after strong exercise,) nutrition, health, strength, cleanliness, personal security, the exercise of the faculty of pleasing, and the consciousness of possessing it; and, by suitable management, it may be infused into those which have for their objects intellectual strength, moral health, military strength, religious affections, and suitable instruction: and, towards the close of the period, the lists of comforts may be closed and crowned by matrimonial society; of which comfort is naturally the object, though the continuation of the species, with its attendant comforts and anxieties, is another fruit of it.
4. Strong exercises, seem in the instance of most individuals to be, in some proportion or other, necessary to the perfection of health and strength; and in particular, in non-adults, to the development of strength: and the greater the proportion of such exercises, infused into the mass of occupation, without excessive fatigue, or the support given by artificial stimulants, the better both for health and strength.
5. To answer in perfection the purposes of health and development of strength, a system of exercise taken together, should be general in respect of the parts concerned in it, not local: it should find employ for every limb and every muscle: it should not be confined to particular limbs, or particular motions of the limbs.
6. Of the occupations which, having profit for their object, come under the head of productive labour, health, and strength, (supposing a due admixture, as above of the different species of labour,‡ )—health, strength, and even comfort, will be the natural, though but collateral results.
7. In the choice of occupations (due provision being made for health and strength, as above-mentioned) productive labour ought to take the lead: and that to such a degree, that no part of the time allowed by religion to be employed in productive labour, ought to be employed in any occupation directed exclusively to any other object, the portions of time allotted in each day to repose, nutrition, cleanliness, and religion, only excepted.
8. In particular, no portion of time ought to be directed exclusively to the single purpose of comfort;§ but amusement, as well as every other modification of comfort, ought to be infused, in the largest possible dose which economy admits of, into every particle of the mass of occupations by which time is filled.
9. The period preceding the birth of the faculty of productive labour, with the addition of those intervals of time from which, though not occupied by religious services, productive labour stands excluded by religious prohibitions, compose the time proper to be bestowed amongst the several other objects.
10. Instruction considered in the lump, the time of its commencement should be the earliest possible: and, in determining the earliest time possible, the commencement of physical capacity, (ascertainable by experiment as well as observation,) not usage—should be the guide.
11. In determining the quantity of instruction to be administered within a given compass of time, practicability—not usage—should be the measure.*
12. In the choice of subject-matters of instruction, utility—not usage—should be the guide.
13. In regard to the order of commencement, as between study and study, natural facility, not usage, should be the arbiter.
14. The utility in view ought to bear reference—in the first place to the situation of the individual, during the apprenticeship; in the next place, to his situation in the world at large, after the expiration of it.†
[* ] Chap. I. Classes mustered, is here omitted; room not being to be spared for it in an abstract thus compressed. The chief object of it is, to bring to view the several heads of inquiry, which a reader would expect to find touched upon, in relation to the several classes of hands that might naturally be looked for in the population of an Industry-house; with references to conduct him to the provision made in relation to each head, and enable him to satisfy himself whether anything be wanting, either in the list of cases, or in the provision made for them. Of the several Classes in question, a tabular view has already been given in “Annals of Agriculture,” Vol. xxix. No. 167, (see Pauper Population Table,) which is supposed to lie before him. The heads may mostly be collected from the Table of Contents already given.
[* ] For an exemplification by calculations, see the note at the end of this chapter.
[† ] See the note at the end of this chapter.
[* ] Systems which afford work alone, or work and diet without lodging, exclude from relief those whose homes are too far distant, and the homeless classes, whose need of relief is the most urgent. Want of a home is the result of extreme poverty in any of the classes: but there are some to which it is essential, others to which it is more particularly incident.—Examples.—1. Children deserted by both parents. 2. Orphans (fatherless and motherless.) 3. Foundlings. 4. Bastards. 5. Strange hands. 6. Stigmatized hands. 7. Suspected hands. 8. Unavowed employment hands. 9. Beggars. 10. Unchaste hands. 11. Disbanded hands.
[* ] Advantages from the transfer of the place of sick-relief, from an hospital on the common plan to a company’s Industry house.—1. In contagious cases, separate huts as above. (See Aikin on Hospitals.)—2. In cases requiring confinement, confinement more effectually ensured, a point found to be attended with great difficulty in the government hospitals.—3. Exercise suitable to convalescents, (whether mere exercise, or in the way of profit-yielding employment,) facilitated by the stock and personal strength of the house.—4. Airing, in addition to exercise, facilitated by the same means.—5. Habits of industry thus maintained without relaxation.—6. Saving, (to the company,) by exclusion of cases of pretended sickness, and convalescence purposely protracted.—Profit by the work.
[† ] Estimate of the expense per hut, on the above plans:
N. B. Chimney and fire-place are not included: the most advantageous mode of warming, for cases 1, 2, and 3, not having been determined on: but will be in Book v. Ch. ii. Pecuniary Estimates.
[* ] What is still better than facilitating extension, is the reduction effected in the demand for extension, to the degree that has just been seen, by the substitution of the law of universal settlement to the law of local settlement. This depends on the distinction (already glanced at in the paper printed in No. 167 of the Annals, see above, p. 364) between the transferable and untransferable stock of hands. For a moderate and limited time (suppose a year or two) any persons may be considered as transferable to any part of the country, except persons beyond a certain age, who have never dwelt for a certain length of time together, in any place more than  miles distant from the parishes in which they were born, or settled ever since  years old.—I. Hands transferable without reserve—Children not above years old, being, 1. Deserted by their parents. 2. Orphans, fatherless and motherless. 3. Foundlings. 4. Bastards. 5. Insane hands.—II. Hands transferable with less difficulty than others, though not altogether without reserve.—1. Strange hands. 2. Stigmatized hands. 3. Unavowed-employment hands. 4. Suspected hands, (including children of stigmatized and unavowed-employment hands.) 5. Beggars. 6. Unchaste hands. 7. Disbanded hands. 8. Children of disbanded hands.
[* ] For a gross sum once paid, new-born infants have been taken off the hands of parishes and individuals, by persons whose management has not been exposed to observation. This arrangement illustrates in the way of contrast that which is here recommended. A dead child neither tells tales, nor in any shape gives trouble to any body.
[* ] In the work at large, lists of any-body’s work employments, and imperfect-hand employments, will be endeavoured to be made out.
[* ] Employed at Westminister and other schools: boys of the same form taking place of each other each day, according to the success they have respectively had on that day in the species of competition called challenging.
[* ] For the means of defraying the expense of the salary of the music-master without charge to the Company, see Ch. xii.
[* ] Those who, upon the opening of the establishment, are transferred to it from the existing poor-houses.
[* ] Curious scale of fare compared with the qualities of the persons maintained—Self-maintaining poor, meat scarcely one day out of the seven—(Eden on the Poor passim.)—Burdensome poor, upon an average of seventy-seven houses, four days out of the seven. (Taken, on examination made in this view, from Eden.) Convicts of the worst species, and enemies, seven out of the seven. In the latter instance, quality advertised for, the best, and quantity excessive.
[* ] Those whose natural ability, with reference to labour, is decidedly below the necessary expense of their maintenance. This will include, 1, Feeble hands—as to a considerable part. 2, Unripe hands, up to a certain age—younger or older according to the management. 3, Sick hands—during the continuance of the sickness.—The unripe hands being capable of paying, with a profit, before maturity, and the sick after recovery, the feeble hands, together with such of the unripe and sick hands as die insolvent, (together with the few able hands that may chance to die in the same case,) are all that contribute at the long run to the necessary burden in point of expense. All others may be termed adequate-ability hands: most of whom will, of course, be extra-ability hands.
Confined-ability hands—those who may be able to do as much work as able hands in general;—only it must be of a certain sort—or preceded or accompanied by instruction or attendance of a certain sort, are—1, Insane hands (divers sorts.) 2, Imperfect hands. 3, Sick-and-well hands. 4, Tender hands. 5, Past-prosperity hands. 6, Of the dangerous and other disreputable classes, such as have been bred up, or confirmed, in habits of idleness or dissipation—but this only for a time.
[* ] I. Short-staying, or coming-and-going stock.—1, Sick hands. 2, Child-burdened hands. 3, Casual-stagnation hands. 4, Periodical-stagnation hands. 5, Out-of-place hands. 6, Disbanded hands. 7, Strange hands.—II. Longer-staying stock:—viz. as lying under difficulties, with regard to the obtaining of employment, over and above what exist in the preceding case.—1, Superseded hands. 2, Stigmatized hands. 3, Suspected hands. 4, Unavowed-employment hands. 5, Beggars. 6, Unchaste hands.—III. Permanent or standing stock: composed in one instance of those, who, by positive institution, are proposed to be fixed within the pale of the establishment for a long and determinate time; and as to the rest of such as, in virtue of their natural state and condition, are likely to remain for a time altogether undeterminate, and not likely to be of short continuance, and, in some instances, not likely to terminate but with life.—1, Unripe hands, or apprentice stock. 2, Among insane hands, all whose cases are looked upon as incurable. 3, Feeble hands. 4, Imperfect hands. 5, Sick-and-well hands (some sort). 6, Tender hands. 7, Past-prosperity hands.
[† ] According to a calculation, in which the value of earnings was taken at a rate supposed to be too low, and the expense of maintenance, at a rate supposed to be too high, the neat value of the service of a male child, from birth up to twenty-one, after all deductions on the score of death and sickness, appeared to be £23, 3s. 5d. and a fraction, payable at birth;—increasing, of course, with each year of age, up to a sum amounting to £66, 12s. 5d. and a fraction, at the commencement of the eighth year of age:—from which period, on account of there being fewer and fewer years of positive value to come, it went on diminishing. In this calculation, there is nothing but what is perfectly consistent with the known and indisputable fact of the universal burdensomeness of children, in the existing order of things, in all ranks of life, and in particular among the self-maintaining poor. In the early stages of the period of non-age, a large proportion of the natural value, or capacity of yielding a clear profit, is lost, by lying unemployed, for want of time, opportunity, intelligence, and capital, on the part of the parents, to turn it to account: in the latter stages, by the dissipation of the produce by the minor himself, (rendered independent of his parents by the faculty of self-maintenance,) in the habitual purchase of luxuries, to an amount which is more than equal to that of necessaries; as is demonstrated by his being obliged and able to do without them, when, out of the same earnings, he has a wife and children to maintain, in the married state.—(See Book iii. Ch. ii, Mendicity extirpated; Book v. Ch. v. Prospect of Success; and Book iii. Ch. v. Frugality assisted.)—Under these circumstances, no wonder that the pecuniary value of a child, reckoning from the beginning to the conclusion of this period, should be generally regarded as negative, in this country; especially considering that it really is so—in a high degree, and without any exception—in the case of the superior and liberally-educated classes:—that is, in the experience of all who either write or speculate upon the subject.—For the particulars of profit and loss upon this part of the Company’s stock, see Book v. Ch. ii. Pecuniary Estimates:—and, for the mode of taking account of it, see, in the meantime, the heads of a Non-adult-Value-Table, by the author, in Annals, No. 167, vol. xxix. (supra, p. 365.)—To give a positive value to an average child—is a problem, the solution of which would be an inexhaustible source of wealth, population, and happiness, to the state.—The proposed system bids fair to be—and it is the only one that, in the nature of things, could be—equal to the task.
[* ] Book-keeping is one instrument in the hand of economy, architecture (as we have seen) another. In all these branches of art, the list of objects to be aimed at is, in the present case, the same, in as far as their respective fields of action are co-extensive.
[* ] The names of the articles, and other heads, will be predetermined, and already entered on written or printed forms: the scribe will have little or nothing to do, but under these heads to set down individual objects by their names, and aggregates by their quantities.
[* ] In the form called the Italian, book-keeping is a science of itself, and a most intensely difficult one. Happily it is not here a necessary one. It is not practised in any of the existing poor-houses; nor (what is much more material) on any of the occasions in which national accounts are delivered in to Parliament.—Thus much seemed necessary to be intimated, lest a large number of professed book-keepers thoroughly initiated in the intricacies of the Italian mode, should be regarded as a necessary part of the official establishment of each industry-house, and an acquaintance with their language a necessary condition to the faculty of understanding the accounts:—on the former supposition, the expense would be great indeed; and on the latter, the security for good management, as well as the satisfaction to the public not a little weakened. If two copies of one and the same original (the waste book) may be of use in the character of checks, of how much greater use will not two original accounts be, kept by two uncommunicating hands? For instance, in the case of articles transferred from house to house, the transfer-inwards book of the one house, and the transfer outwards book of the other.—In the public accounts, the method is the method called for by the subject-matter and the occasion, and the language is the language in use with everybody. Would public accounts be rendered the clearer, by translating them into a language composed entirely of fictions, and understood by nobody but the higher class of merchants and their clerks?
The real use of the peculiarities which characterize the Italian mode, might be a subject well worthy of investigation. I mean in the situations in which it is at present employed; for here every purpose of the Italian mode might be answered, and answered in perfection—(I give it as the result of a particular and very laborious inquiry) by a set of heads, taken exclusively from the ordinary language.
[† ] To save the delay and danger of error that might result from determining in the first instance to what methodical head they belong to—and to preserve a constant assurance that nothing is omitted.
[‡ ] If there be an officers’ misbehaviour-book, it should be separate from the common misbehaviour-book, and kept by a separate hand. The name of the offender need not be entered—nor in the case of a first offence ought to be: the entry itself would be a punishment, and that a severe one. When a baker is fined for short weight, publication is held up to him in terrorem, as an ultimate punishment for delinquency otherwise incorrigible.
[* ] The mode of procedure observed by a wise and good man in private life, in the character of a father or the master of a family, within the sphere of his authority—the procedure of the domestic tribunal—is a standard by which the fitness of a system of judicial procedure—the procedure of public tribunals—may be tried:—the mode of procedure observable in such a tribunal as that of the proposed industry-house, is a standard of still greater simplicity and perfection: the real difficulties, that in some cases obstruct the procurement of evidence, constitute but one cause indeed, but that the principal one, of the necessity which really exists in some cases of deviating from these standards.—Compare with either of them the refusal to examine parties in the common law courts—civil as well as criminal—and the practice of examining parties—but in writing only, and after a six weeks’, month’s, and fortnight’s time for fabrication—in what are called the equity courts.—Delay is spoken of, by Montesquieu, as if it were of the essence of justice; and as if the greater the delay, the better the justice. But delay without special cause—all delay that takes place of course, and previous to the knowledge of the case—is—so long as it lasts—injustice. Lawyers, under the notion of coming at the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth—lawyers of all nations—have, in the instance of certain classes of witnesses, (differing in their list of these classes without end,) refused to judge whether the narrative be, or be not, a true one:—assuming, that there are but two degrees of probity, in this respect, among mankind—that of the ever-lying, and that of the never-lying—and not considering, or not sufficiently considering, that a refusal to hear any sort of witness—how depraved soever—is a license to commit, in the presence of that sort of witness, all imaginable crimes. Apply these rules of inaudibility to a population composed exclusively of convicted felons.
[* ] Concerning which, see Ch. vi.—Diet.
[* ] In the higher lines of life, it is moreover cultivated by instruction of a particular cast, directed exclusively to this object.
[† ] Sleep is not life, but the cessation of life: lying a-bed without sleep, is a habit productive of relaxation, and thence pernicious to bodily health: and in as far as it is idleness, pernicious to moral health.
[‡ ] Out-door, with in-door—loco-motive, with stationary—strong, with gentle exercise.—See above Ch. iv. Principles of Management.
[§ ] Make amusement, (i. e. comfort,) the sole end in view, regardless of those other objects, a sacrifice, not only of those other objects, but of comfort itself, will be apt to be the result. Those children are by no means the happiest, whose amusement is the most studied:—in particular, whose amusement is studied and provided for at the greatest expense. The faculty of leading to profit, either at once, or through the paths of dexterity and skill, is a property that may destroy the value of an occupation in the character of an amusement, in the eyes of a fond and prejudiced parent, but will not so much as diminish it in the estimation of the child. Forty pounds is no uncommon price for a house provided for the lodgment of a waxen child, and for the amusement of a human one:—forty pounds, by which, on the proposed plan, lodging for ever might be provided for eight children such as he: while his very amusement, duration as well intensity taken into the account, might have been much better provided for by his being led to take a part in the making of the house, than by all the industry that could be employed in getting him to look at it, when brought to him ready made.
[* ] Not but that usage may with advantage be taken for a mark to aim at—provided it be not the most general, but the most advantageous usage:—and so long as the quantity afforded by that best usage be taken—not for the maximum—but for the minimum. That the greatest quantity administered any where, may be administered every where, is certain: that a yet greater than that greatest quantity may be, administered everywhere, is probable.
[† ] The question whether any instruction of the literary kind ought to be administered, and the details of the system of instruction which, if any, would be the properest to be administered in such a situation, must be reserved for the body of the work.