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CHAPTER III.: OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). In 11 vols. Volume 8.
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OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
By the name of the parts of speech are designated certain classes of words which being either indispensably necessary, or universally and highly convenient to the purpose of discourse, are to be found in all known languages.
The characters by which these several classes of words stand distinguished, and from which they are denominated, are taken solely from the consideration of the parts which they respectively bear in the composition of the mass of discourse termed a grammatical sentence, and thence from the relation which the classes of objects respectively designated by them may be seen to bear to one another, when considered in that point of view. They are the same to whatsoever part of the field of thought and action the subject and adjuncts of the discourse belong.
Of these parts, the names in general use are,—noun-substantive, noun-adjective, verb, participle, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
The objects respectively designated by these names are some of them single, some of them aggregated, consisting each of them of a cluster of words or signs.
The simple are, 1. Preposition. 2. Conjunction. 3. Adverb. 4. Interjection.
The aggregated are, 1. Noun-substantive. 2. Noun-adjective. 3. Verb. 4. Participle.
In those parts of speech which are aggregated, may be distinguished so many sub-parts as there are different objects included under the same name.
For giving an explanation of the several parts of speech and their respective sub-parts, that language will be the fittest to be employed which being furnished with signs for all the necessary parts and sub-parts, is encumbered with the smallest number of superfluous ones. This language will, it is believed, be found to be the English.
In giving an explanation of the several classes of words called parts of speech, the most instructive, not to say the only essentially instructive, course will, it is believed, be found to be the bringing to view, in the first place, the classes of objects that require to be designated, and thereafter, and thereupon, the different contrivances, and as the results of those contrivances, the species or classes of words which in different languages are employed in the designation of them.
This being the track proceeded in, for the laying a foundation for grammar, the art of logic, or, as some would say, metaphysics, is called in and employed.
The parts of speech are parts of a sentence, parts actual or potential, all of them of one and the same sentence.
To every word, to whatsoever part of speech it belongs, there are two distinguishable imports, viz. 1. Absolute. 2. Relative,—relation being had to the relative import of the other sorts of words, placed, or capable of being placed, in one and the same sentence.
The parts of speech may be divided into, 1. Significant by themselves. 2. Not significant by themselves.
Those significant by themselves are,—
3. Verb unmodified.†
Those not significant by themselves are,—
8. Words indicative of mood.
9. Words indicative of time.
The noun and the verb are each of them a cluster of conjugates,—each cluster composed of a root and branches.
The branches peculiar to a noun are the cases.
The branches peculiar to a verb are, 1. Moods. 2. Tenses. 3. Persons.
The branches common to nouns and verbs are numbers; i. e. affixes expressive of the number of the subjects or objects which are in view.
[* ]Good is as intelligible by itself as goodness. Sole difference, good gives intimation of a subject in which the quality is about to be asserted to be inherent; whereas goodness, the substantive, does not.
[† ] What is called the indicative mood, present tense, is the verb unmodified. In English take away the preposition to, it is a substantive. To love, take away the to, you have love, the substantive.
[‡ ] This includes in it the signification of, 1. A preposition; 2. A substantive; 3. An adjective.