Front Page Titles (by Subject) INTRODUCTION. - The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs)
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INTRODUCTION. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). In 11 vols. Volume 8.
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uses to which, in the character of ends, this essay is directed.
Practical, and speculative or theoretical, in both these points of view will the matter of Language be here considered—in a speculative point of view, to what end? Answer: to this end, viz. that the objects, for the accomplishment of which it is considered in the practical view, may be the more effectually attained. On this occasion, as on all others, suppose no practical good attainable, speculation is without use and without value.
It is, therefore, no otherwise than in virtue of its relation to practice, that the speculative survey proposed to be taken of the matter in question is of any use. But if, by its relation to practice, the speculative survey be subservient to practice, it is then itself of practical use, and the difference between the practical survey and the speculative vanishes; and so, in effect, it does, in respect of everything but vicinity to use, to actual and particular use. To particular use, that part which is distinguished by the name of practical is most immediately subservient; that which is termed speculative in a manner not quite so immediate, it being only through the medium of the practical part that it is so.
Thus much being premised, I proceed to bring to view the order in which the principal and most comprehensive topics, viz. those in which, taken together, all others will be included,—will follow one another in the ensuing pages.
I. Modes or forms of which discourse or language has been found susceptible, viz. audible, visible, and their respective substitutes.
II. Uses of language, 1. Primary or social, viz. communication of the matter of thought from mind to mind. 2. Secondary or solitary, viz. 1. Recordative of the matter of thought; 2. Improvement of the matter of thought and language,—improvement of thought, viz. always with a view to action, otherwise the improvement is but imaginary, not real.
III. Operations performable in relation to discourse or language, viz. 1. Employing in the ordinary manner; 2. Choosing for use; 3. Learning; 4. Teaching; 5. Improving.
IV. Different occasions on which it may be desirable that language should be respectively applied to the several sorts of uses to which it is applicable, viz. 1. Simple information, applying to the conception; 2. Probation, applying to the judgment; 3. Gratification, applying to the sensitive faculty; 4. Excitation, applying to the will through the medium of the affections and the passions.*
V. Properties desirable in the matter of which language is susceptible.
This will be determined by, and bear reference to, the several preceding topics, viz. 1. Modes or forms; 2. Uses; 3. Operations; 4. Occasions.
Of these properties, the following list will, it is hoped, be found not to want much of being a complete one:—1. Clearness; 2. Correctness; 3. Copiousness; 4. Completeness; 5. Non-Redundance; 6. Compressedness; 7. Pronunciability; 8. Melodiousness; 9. Discibility; 10. Docibility; 11. Decorability; 12. Meliorability; 13. Impressiveness; 14. Dignity; 15. Patheticalness.
VI. Different degrees in which these several desirable properties are possessed by the principal and best constructed languages in use.†
VII. Means by which, in so far as the particular language employed by him admits of the possession of them, these several desirable properties may, on each occasion, be secured by the individual by whom the matter of language is employed.
VIII. Explanation of the several parts of speech, i. e. of the different modifications of the matter of language corresponding to the several modifications of thought, for which,—as often as to any considerable extent, thought comes to be communicated, whatsoever be the subject and the occasion,—expression requires to be found, and for which signs must, in every language, be provided; and, accordingly,—whatsoever be the difference between the sign or signs employed for the designation of any given import in this or that language, and the sign or signs employed for the designation of that same import in this or that other particular language,—are accordingly furnished.*
[* ] No farther exposition of this head has been found among the MSS.—Ed.
[† ] No exposition of this head has been found among the MSS.—Ed.
[* ] The completion of this proposal, in so far as respects the abstract connexion between the actions of the mind and their typification in language, will be found considered in the last chapter of this work; but in so far as respects the practical explanation and analysis of the various parts of speech, the object will be found better fulfilled in the immediately ensuing tract on Universal Grammar.—Ed.