Front Page Titles (by Subject) APPENDIX.—No. VII. - The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs)
APPENDIX.—No. VII. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). In 11 vols. Volume 8.
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- Errata—vol. VIII.
- Chrestomathia: Being a Collection of Papers, Explanatory of the Design of an Institution, Proposed to Be Set On Foot Under the Name of the Chrestomathic Day School, Or Chrestomathic School, For the Extension of the New System of Instruction to the High
- Introduction By the Editor.
- First Preface to the First Edition.
- Second Preface to the First Edition.
- Chrestomathic (a) Instruction Tables. Table I.
- Chrestomathic Instruction Tables. Table II.
- Appendix. No. I.
- Appendix.—no. II.
- Appendix.—no. III.
- Appendix.—no. IV.: Essay On Nomenclature and Classification. *
- Appendix.—no. V.: Sources of Motion.
- Appendix.—no. VI.
- Appendix.—no. VII.
- Appendix.—no. VIII.
- Appendix No. IX.
- A Fragment On Ontology; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Classification of Entities.
- Chapter II.: Fictitious Entities Classified.
- Essay On Logic: Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Logic—what ?
- Chapter II.: Logic, Its Characteristics.
- Chapter III.: Præcognita: Or, Preliminary and General Indications Concerning Logic, According to the Aristotelians.
- Chapter IV.: Of Aristotle’s Predicaments and Postpredicaments.
- Chapter V. *: Mode of Discussion.
- Chapter VI.: Relation of Logic to the Business of Human Life In General, and Therein to Arts and Sciences, I. E. to Disciplines.
- Chapter VII.: Clearness In Discourse, How to Produce It? and Hence of Exposition.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Division.
- Chapter IX.: Of Methodization, Otherwise Termed Arrangement. † ‡
- Chapter X.: Of the Art of Invention.
- Appendix.—a.: Phenomena of the Human Mind.
- Appendix B. Division of Art and Science. †
- Essay On Language; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Modes Or Forms of Which Discourse Or Language Has Been Found Susceptible, Viz. Audible, Visible, and Their Respective Substitutes.
- Chapter II.: Uses of Language.
- Chapter III.: Operations Which, In the Character of an Art, Are Performable In Relation to Discourse, Or Language In General.
- Chapter IV.: Properties Desirable In a Language.
- Chapter V.: Of Improvement Considered As Applicable to Language, Or the Means By Which, In So Far As the Particular Language Employed By an Individual Admits of the Possession of Them, the Properties Desirable In Language May, On Each Occasion, Be Secured
- Chapter VI.: Analytical View of the Matter of Thought and Internal Action; Correspondent View of the Matter of Language.
- Fragments On Universal Grammar; Now First Published, From the Manuscripts of Jeremy Bentham.
- Chapter I.: Definitions.
- Chapter II.: Uses of Universal Grammar.
- Chapter III.: Of the Parts of Speech.
- Chapter IV.: Of the Noun-substantive.
- Chapter V.: Of the Adjective.
- Chapter VI.: Of Pronouns. *
- Chapter VII.: Of Verbs.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Government and Concord.
- Chapter IX.: Of Prepositions, Adverbs, and Conjunctions.
- Chapter X.: Of Interjections.
- Tracts On Poor Laws and Pauper Management.
- Note By the Editor On the Tracts On Poor Laws.
- Situation and Relief of the Poor.
- Observations On the Pauper Population Table Hereunto Annexed.
- Outline of the Non-adult Value Table.
- Outline of a Work Entitled Pauper Management Improved.
- Book I.: Political Arrangements.
- Book II.: Plan of Management.
- Book III.: Collateral Benefits.
- Book IV.: Pauper Comforts.
- Observations On the Poor Bill. Introduced By the Rt. Hon. William Pitt (feb, 1797). : Chapter I. Introduction
- Chapter II.: 1. Under-ability, Or Supplemental-wages Clause.
- Chapter III.: 2. Family-relief, Or Extra-children Clause.
- Chapter IV.: 3. Cow-money Clause.
- Chapter V.: 4. Relief-extension, Or Opulence-relief Clause.
- Chapter VI.: 5. Apprenticeship Clause.
- Three Tracts Relative to Spanish and Portuguese Affairs; With a Continual Eye to English Ones.
- Advertisement For Tract the First and Second; of This Second * Publication, Namely, On the Then Proposed Spanish House of Lords. ( Anno 1820.)
- Tract, No. I.: Letter to the Spanish Nation On a Then ( Anno 1820) Proposed House of Lords.
- Advertisement to Tract the Second.
- Tract, No. II.: Observations On Judge Advocate Hermosa’s Panegyric On Judicial Delays; On the Occasion of the Impunity As Yet Given By Him to the Loyal Authors of the Cadiz Massacre, a Counterpart to the Manchester Massacre; Explaining, Moreover, the Effe
- Advertisement to Tract the Third.
- Tract, No. III.: Letter to the Portuguese Nation, On Antiquated Constitutions; On the Spanish Constitution Considered As a Whole, and On Certain Defects Observable In It; In Particular, the Immutability-enacting, Or Infallibility-assuming, the Non-re-elig
- Letters to Count Toreno, On the Proposed Penal Code, Delivered In By the Legislation Committee of the Spanish Cortes, April 25th, 1821.
- Letter I.
- Letter II.: On the Course Taken By the Legislative Committee, to Prevent, Otherwise Than By Punishment Eo Nomine, the Free Examination of Their Proposed Penal Code.
- Letter III.
- Letter IV.
- Letter V.
- Letter VI.
- Letter VII.
- Supplemental Advertisement.
- Securities Against Misrule, Adapted to a Mahommedan State, and Prepared With Particular Reference to Tripoli In Barbary.
- Note By the Editor.
- Chapter I.: Preliminary Explanations.
- Chapter II.: Public Opinion the Sole Remedy—parallel Between the Public-opinion Tribunal and the Official Judicatories.
- Chapter III.: Notification and Publication In Reference to Securities.
- Chap. IV.: The Securities In Detail.
- Part I.: Securities In Favour of the Nation Considered In the Aggregate.
- Part II.: Securities In Favour of Individuals.
- Chapter V.: Hopes of Success For Any Project Having Such Securities For Its End.
Hints towards a system and course of Technology, from Bishop Wilkins’ Logical work, published by the Royal Society, A° 1668, under the title of “An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language.”—Pp. 243-248.
In the character of a practical project fit for use, this work, with all its ingenuity, failed in its design: being written before the discoveries made in the field of Pscychology by Locke.
It seems not likely that, by the formation of a new language, the difficulties and inconveniences attendant on the use of the collection of signs at present employed in the registration and communication of ideas would be diminished. In no other way than through the medium of some existing language, with which he is already acquainted, could any person be made to learn any such new formed language. The difficulty of learning this new language, in which, at the outset, not so much as one book could be found, would therefore be a new created difficulty, in compensation for which it does not appear how or where any preponderant or equivalent facility would be to be found. Enriched, partly by analogy from its own stores, partly by importation from foreign languages, dead and living, some one of the existing European languages would, it should seem, be found better adapted to the purposes of an universal language, than any new one which, in the nature of the case, could be framed. Moreover, in his explanations, the ingenious author began at the wrong end. Not, observing that it is from our corporeal ideas that all our mental ideas are derived, and that, accordingly, as far as the means of tracing them have been within our reach, all words now employed in giving expression to incorporeal ideas, were originally employed in giving expression to corporeal ideas: words now employed for giving expression to incorporeal ideas, are those which he begins with, thus putting the cart before the horse. At the time when this essay was written, the discoveries made by Locke in the field of Psychology, had not been published. If they had been known to this ingenious author, this book of his would either not have been written, or would have appeared in a form considerably different. In the complete failure of the main design, may, perhaps, be seen the cause why it is at present so little known; and why (for this, it is believed, is the fact) that, notwithstanding the patronage and recommendation of the Royal Society, of which this Bishop was one of the most respectable members, it never saw a second edition. But, in other respects, it would be found the product of a truly original genius, abounding in ideas from which, in the fields of Logic and Universal Grammar, useful instruction may be found in abundance.
“The general kinds of Violent Motion, may be distributed according to the effects upon the thing moved, into such as denote
- Translation into a new place; comprehending
- Motion together; when the Mover sustains the thing mored; to which may be annexed, by way of affinity, that other action, by which one thing sustains, or hinders the falling of another.
- 1.Carrying, bring, convey, bear, serve, import, waft, weare about one, portable, portage, porter, baggage, vehicle, fare, bier, packhorse.Bearing, supporting, sustain, hold up, prop, shore up, stay up, uphold, carry, stand under, shoulder up, bolster up.
- Amotion, when the Mover and Moved do at the beginning cease to be contiguous: or, admotion, when the thing moved doth end in a contiguity of something else.
- 2.Casting, throwing, fling, hurl, project, inject, eject, ding, pelt, toss, coit, sling.Catching, apprehend, lay hold, snatch, lay hands on, grapple, grasp, scamble.
- Often returns into the same place; according to greater or less degrees.
- 3.Swinging, Vibration, waving, brandish, agitate, exagitate, to and fro, flourish, rock, sway, dangling, pendulous, wield.Shaking, Quassation, concussion, jogging, agitate, dandle, wag, swag, sway, jolt, totter, flutter, shatter, waving.
- Some impression from the Mover; according to the more
- General name; or that which is from an obtuse hard body.
- 4.Striking, Percussion, smite, bang, beat, bast, buffet, cuff, dash, hit, swinge, thump, thwack, blow, stripe, slap, flap, rap, tap, kick, wince, spurn, bob, box, fillip, whirret, yerke, pummel, punch, rebuff, repercussion, collision, guash, skittish, interfere, let fly at.Knocking, beating, Blow, butt, Mallet, battering, jobbing, Ramm.
- Particular kind; by the end of a thing, more obtuse, or acute.
- 5.Pounding, braying, contusion, stamp.Pecking, Mattock, Pick-ax.
- Dissolution of Union in the same body, according to,
- The Stiffness or Limberness of the body wherein it is made.
- 6.Breaking, Fracture, Rupture, burst, Crack, Crash, Squash, Dash, Flaw, Shatter, shiver, crumble.Tearing, torn, dilacerate, rend, rent, ragged, tattered, flittered, jagged, pull in pieces.
- The figure of the body by which it is made; either an edge or a point.
- 7.Cutting, Incision, gash, slash, hack, hew, chop, rip, chip, snip, slice, section, segment, carve, dissect, whittle, barb, pare, top, lop, curtail, dock, sharp, keen, Hatchet, Pole-ax.Pricking, Stabbing, Goad, pungent, runn in, thrust in, goar.
“The Sundry kinds of works about which men of several callings use to employ themselves, are usually styled by the name of
Operation, Labor-ious Pains, Travail, Toil, moile, Turmoile, drudge, droil, work, handy-work, Ply, co-operate, take pains, lay about him.
Play, Sport, lusory, dally.
These are either,
- More common and general; relating to
- Mechanical Faculties, I.
- Mixed Mechanical operations, II.
- More Particular; belonging to the providing of
- Food, Agriculture, III.
- Houses, or Utensils, Fabrile Arts, IV.
- Clothing, Sartorian Trades, V.
- Physic, Chymical, Pharmaceutical Operations, VI.
“I. Operations belonging to the Mechanical Faculties, are either such as do refer to the
- Lever; for the forcible motion of a thing upwards or downwards.
- 1.Lifting, heave, hoise, advance, elevate, exalt, Lever, Crow, Crane.Depressing, strein, stress, weigh down.
- Balance; for trial of the weight of things, or the preponderating of one side.
- 2.Librating, balancing.Biassing, preponderate.
- Wedge; for the dividing of hard tough bodies; to which may be opposed the thrusting of them close together.
- 3.Cleaving, rive, slit, split, Cleft, Chink, Chat, Crevise.Compressing, crib, gripe, pinching, press, squeezing, straining, wring, nip, twing, throng, crowd, crush, constipation, bulge.
- Pully, when the mover and moved continue their contiguity in admotion, or amotion.
- 4.Pulling, pluck, tow, tug, lugg, twing, twitch, draw, drag, Draught, hale, Revulsion, vellication, distract.Thrusting, push, shove, drive, rush, justle, repell, extrude, intrude, press, throng, crowd, cramm, farce, wedge in, vennue, run at, foin at.
- Wheel; by continued turning about, or rolling backward or forward.
- 5.Vertiginating, turning round, Revolution, wheeling, Rotation, twirl, whirl, spinn, roll, round.Volutation, tumbling, rolling, wallow, welter, rock, trundle, waddle.
- Screw, to which may be adjoined for some affinity, the action of that concave Instrument used for the projection of water.
- 6.Screwing, Winch.Syringing, squirting, spirt, spouting.
- Spring, wherein there is a motion of restitution; to which may be annexed for its affinity, the forcible putting a thing out of its natural tension and posture.
- 7.Springing, elastical, fillip.Bending, bow, warp, crooke.
“II. Those are styled Mixed Mechanical operations, which are not appropriate to any one kind of art, but are general and common to many. These do concern the
- Uniting or separating of several bodies; considered more
- 1.Binding, gird, Band, Bond, Bundle, Packet, Fardle, sheafe, faggot, tack, lace, swaddle, swathing, trussing, girt, surcingle.Loosening, unbind, undoe, solve, lax, slack, relaxation.
- Relatively to the affections of Binding, viz. fastning of the bond by a knot, or confused kinds of knots.
- 2.Tying, Knot, Node, bracing, buckling, coupling, fastning, knit, furling.Tangling, entangle, hamper, ravel, perplex, snarled, felter, intricate, involved, Intrigues, extricate, complicate, insnare, Labyrinth.
- Concealing, or manifesting; either more
- 3.Covering, heal, Veil, shroud, hide, whelm, stop, Canopy, Hood, Lid, palliate, cloake, overlay, overrun, overshadow.Uncovering, open, expose, discover, shew, reveal, naked, unmask, unveil.
- Special, relating to containing bodies.
- 4.Shutting, stop, close, inclosing, immure, exclude, seclude, recluse, obstruct, Wink, fold up, pinn up, sowe up, seal up, corke up, lute up, lock up, put to the door.Opening, breaking up, disclose, display, Expansion, gap, Slade, Aperture, unstop, expose, lay or set open.
- Putting of things nearer together, or farther asunder; either
- More general,
- 5.Gathering, Collect-ion, assemble, convene, compeile, levy, raise men or money, Receiver, rake or scrape together, rally, glean, pick up.Scattering, discuss, disperse, dissipate, sprinkle, strew, inspersion.
- More particular; with reference to the
- Capacity of
- Consistent bodies, and such as are not supposed to be contained.
- 6.Heaping, accumulate, amass, lay up, stow, pile, Stack, Mow, Cock, Rick, Shock, Drift, Dunghill, mixen.Spreading, diffuse, Expansion, display, Suffusion, strew, run, plash, lay cloth.
- Fluid Bodies, and such as are supposed to be contained in something.
- 7.Filling, replenish, Repletion, full, plenary, sated, staw, cram, stuff, farse, reoruit.Emptying, evacuate, vacant, Vacuity, rid, void, exhaust, Chasm, clear, lanke, lave, draw dry.
- Motion of bodies, chiefly fluids; according to the more general name: or that which is involuntary, and besides intention.
- 8.Pouring, Effusion, Infusion, gush, guggling, yewer, Tunnel.Spilling, shedding, run out, seeth over.
“III. Operations belonging to Agriculture, do concern either
- The Ground, or Land: in respect of,
- Loosening it; either by single persons; or by the help of drawing Beasts.
- 1.Digging, delve, break up, spit, spade.Plowing, tilling, breaking up, coulter, share.
- Breaking the clods, and smoothing the surface.
- Helping or directing the fertility of the Ground, by adding some new matter, or removing the impediments of noxious Plants.
- 3.Manuring, cultivate, dunging, marling, soiling, Tilth, culture. Weeding,
- The Grane or Seed, chiefly of Herbs; in respect of
- Putting it into the ground, or taking it off from the ground upon its maturity.
- 4.Sowing, seminate.Reaping, mowing, Crop, Harvest, Sithe, Sickle, stubble, swarth.
- Separating of it from the straw or lesser husks;
- 5.Threshing, Flail.Winnowing, Fan, Ventilation.
- The Propagation of Trees or Shrubs, chiefly by
- Putting the Root of the Plant in the ground; to which may be adjoined, the putting of Grain segregately into the ground, which is sometimes used for pulse.
- 6.Planting, implant.Setting.
- Joyning a part of one plant to another, either to the top of the body, or some branch being cut, or to the sides of the body.
- 7.Grafting, ingraft, Imp.Inocolating.
- Cutting off superfluous Branches; to which may be adjoyned, the cutting down of the whole.
- 8.Pruning, dressing, cutting, coping.Felling, grubb, Wood-fall.
“IV. By Fabrile Operations, (Smith, Carpenter, Mason, &c.) are meant all such kinds of works as do primarily concern our Houses or Utensils, whether for necessity or ornament: to which may be adjoyned, those operations which concern the making of earthen ware, styled, Figulatory, Potter. These are distinguishable into such as denote
- Dissolution of Continuity; either by
- Separating of some thin parts from the surface of a body by rubbing with an edge; or breaking the body itself into minute parts by percussion with some obtuse body.
- 1.Shaving, scraping, raze, razour.Contusion, bruising, pounding, stamping, braying, morter, pestle.
- Dividing from a body some small part; either by affriction upon a stone, or with an iron instrument.
- 2.Grinding, attrition, Grist, Quern, Mill.Filing, Raspe.
- Dividing the parts of a body, by cutting it, either in roundish caveties, or in oblong scissures.
- 3.Boring, perforate, foraminate, pierce, Bodkin, Dril, Awle, Gimlet, Wimble, Trepann, Awgre.Sawing, Saw, whipsaw, &c.
- Uniting, either of metalline or other bodies, by some third body adhering.
- 4.Sodering, Cement, luting.Gluing, cementing, glutinous, conglutinate.
- Shaping of bodies into particular figures; either by Hammering or Melting.
- 5.Forging.Casting, melt, founding, fusile, molde.
- Cutting, either a solid and bulky, or a flat figure.
- 6.Carving, Sculpture.Graving, engrave, etching.
- Compressing of a soft body; or circumagitating either a soft, or hard body.
- 7.Kneading, moulding, plastic.Turning, Lathe.
- Adorning the surface of the body; either by variety of colours, or adding an external lustre to it.
- 8.Painting, limn, draw, enamel, fucus, pensil.Varnishing, size.
V. Sartorian Operations do concern either the
- Preparations of stuffs; by
- Making several vegetable or animal substances into Thread.
- 1.Twisting, tortion, wreath, writhing, twine, winding.Spinning, Spinster, Rock, Distaff.
- Joyning such Threads together into Cloth.
- 2.Weaving, Texture, Contexture, Loom, Web, braid, woven, Hurdle, Shuttle, Wicker, Matt.Knitting.
- Thickening and colouring such cloth.
- 3.Fulling, milling, Fuller.Dying, stain, Tincture, tinge, ingrain.
- Making of Stuffs into Vests; either by
- Uniting necessary, and cutting off unnecessary parts.
- 4.Sowing, Stitch, Seam-ster, Suture, Welt, needle, dearn, quilt, draw cloth, rip.Clipping, Scissors, shear, shorn, cut.
- Placing together the parts in greater or lesser plicatures.
- 5.Folding, wrap, lap, plait, clinching, clutching, doubling, envelop.Curling, crisping, frizling, furling.
- Preserving of such stuffs or vests clean; common likewise to other things.
- By the help of water or liquor; either when
- Things are put into, and agitated in the water; to which may be opposed the putting upon them other bodies of a more gross consistence; styled,
- 6.Washing, scouring, Lotion, rince, Laver, Laundress, gurgling.Smearing, daubing, anoint, ointment, Unction, greaze, chrism; and many with [be] as bespaul, spit, spue, sprinkle.
- Water is imbibed and communicated to the thing; to which may be adjoined, for its affinity, the putting of things into liquor in order to the communicating of some new quality to such liquor.
- 7.Soaking, steeping, embrewing, macerating, watering Land, &c., bathing, imbibe, sinke, sop, brewis, embrew.Infusion, watering Fish, &c., macerate, Decoction, impregnate.
- By external Motion of or upon them, more or less violent.
- 8.Rubbing, scrape, Friction, Frication, scrub, chafe, Attrition, frit, gall, scowr, taw, grate.Wiping, stroke, terse, handkerchief, towel, knapkin.
- By Instruments to separate those minuter bodies which adhere to the superficies.
- 9.Brushing, sweeping, Beesom, Whisk, Brush, Broom, Maukin.Combing, carding, currying.
“VI. By Chymical Operations are meant such kind of works as tend to the changing of bodies, with respect to the position and figure of their minuter parts. By this, amongst other ends, medicaments are usually prepared; for which reason those kind of operations styled Pharmaceutical, belonging to the apothecary, may be hereunto annexed.
The operations belonging to this head, do concern the changing and preparing of bodies; either by
- Instruments, for the reduction of them into minute parts; by compression and affriction betwixt two hard bodies; or by separating the parts so reduced, through a porous plain.
- 1.Grinding.Sifting, bolting, Sieve, siercing, ranging.
- Liquors; either
- Changing the consistence of bodies; by reducing them into a more liquid, or a more dry consistence.
- 2.Dissolution, melt, liquifie, dissolve, thaw, fusil, flux, run about.Coagulation, congealing, Clod, Curd, Gelly, Clottered Gore, Concretion, grumous.
- Dividing hard bodies into minute parts; by an acid liquor, through which such parts are dispersed; or sinking down of such parts to the bottom, by the mixture of some other liquor.
- 3.Corrosion, eating, fretting, gnawing, caustic.Precipitation, settling.
- Separating of these parts from the liquor; by passing them through a porous body; either downward, or both upward and downward.
- 4.Straining, Percolation, squeeze, colender.Filtration, filtre.
- Heat, applicable chiefly either to
- Liquid bodies; which being kept for some considerable time in a gentle heat, upon this usually follows, either the
- Loosening the inward parts of such bodies, so as by agitation they work one upon another; styled,
- 5.Digestion.Fermentation, work, fret, Leven, Yeast, Barm, Rennet.
- Separating of the finer parts, by raising them up in the form of a liquor; or, the farther separating of the more spirituous from the watery parts of this liquor.
- 6.Distillation, still, Limbeck, cohobation.Rectifying.
- Hard and solid bodies; either by
- Driving away the more watery and volatil parts and leaving the more solid; or, raising the volatil parts in the form of a salt.
- 7.Charring, churk, Tinder.Subliming, sublimation.
- Burning away the combustible parts of a body; or turning the parts remaining after such burning into a liquor.
- 8.Calcination.Lixiviation, deliquiate, Lye, Buck.”
The passage here copied is a mere characteristic extract, (being a portion of Part II. ch. ix.) from the elaborate work of Bishop Wilkins, which may be called an attempt to make an analysis of the whole subject matter of language, or a classification of all things whether in the material or immaterial world, to which there can be any occasion to apply words; or, as the Bishop describes it, “a just enumeration and description of such things or notions as are to have marks or names assigned to them.”—Ed.