Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHRESTOMATHIC INSTRUCTION TABLES. TABLE II. - The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs)
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CHRESTOMATHIC INSTRUCTION TABLES. TABLE II. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 8 (Chrestomathia, Essays on Logic and Grammar, Tracts on Poor Laws, Tracts on Spanish Affairs) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). In 11 vols. Volume 8.
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CHRESTOMATHIC INSTRUCTION TABLES. TABLE II.
Showing, at one view, the PRINCIPLES constitutive of the New-Instruction System, considered as applicable to the several ulterior branches of Art and Science-Learning (Language-Learning included) through the medium of the several sorts of EXERCISES, by the performance of which Intellectual Instruction is obtained or obtainable.
☞ The perfection of the System consisting, in great measure, in the co-operation and mutual subserviency of the several Principles, any adequate conception of its excellence and sufficiency, especially with a view to the here proposed extension, could scarcely (it was thought) be formed, without the benefit of a simultaneous view, such as is here exhibited.
By the figures subjoined to each Principle, reference is made to the Volumes and Pages of Dr Bell’s Elements of Tuition, London, 1814, in which that Principle is mentioned or seems to have been had in view; some of the principal passages are distinguished by brackets. The references to Vol. II. are put first, that being the Volume in which the explanations are given. The articles for which no authority has been found, in Dr Bell or elsewhere, are distinguished by not being in Italics.
in the application of which to the purpose of Instruction, School Management consists: viz.
1. Applying attention to portions of discourse, orally or scriptitiously (1.) delivered, in such sort as to conceive, remember, and occasionally recollect, and repeat them, in terminis.
2. Or in purport.(2.)
3. Applying attention to sensible(3.) objects, to the end that, by means of correspondent and concomitant portions of discourse, their respective properties may so far be conceived, remembered, and occasionally recollected and repeated: viz. either in the terms, or according to the purport, of such discourse.
4. Performance of organic(4.) exercises, in so far as performed for the simple purpose of attaining proficiency in the performance of those same operations, and not as per No. 9.
§ I. Universally applicable to all branches of Intellectual learning.
5. i.Simply recitative(5., 6.) Exercises, performed in terminis.
6. ii.Simply recitative(5., 6.) Exercises, performed in purport.
7. iii.Responsive(7., 8.) Exercises performed in terminis.
8. iv.Responsive(7., 8.) Exercises performed in purport.
9. v. Performance of organic operations, in so far as employed as tests of intellection(9.) and proficiency, in regard to corresponding Mathetic Exercises.
10. vi.Note-taking: i. e. the extempore taking of Notes, or Memorandums, of the purport of Didactic discourses, while orally delivered; accompanied or not by exhibitions, as above, No. 3.
§ II. Exclusively applicable to Language learning.
11. i.Parsing, Canoniphantic, or Grammaticosyntactic Relation and Rule indicative Exercise.
12. ii.Single Translation Exercise.
13. iii.Double or reciprocating Translation Exercise.
14. iv.Purely syntactic composition Exercise, or Clark’s Exercise.
15. v. Purely syntactic prosodial composition Exercise, or Metre-restoring Exercise.
16. vi. Prosodial non-significant or Purely metrical (original) composition Exercise.
17. vii. Purely metrical Translation Exercise.
PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT: (c)
applicable to Intellectual Instruction, through the medium of those same Exercises: viz.
To all branches without distinction.
I. Principles, relative to the Official Establishment: i. e. to the quality and functions of the Persons, by whom the performance of the several Exercises is to be directed.
1.Scholar-Teacher employment maximizing principle.
II. xiii. 29. 31. 33. 43. 44. 75. 79. 81. 82. 87. 99. 125. 133. 134. 197. 201. 210. 222. 223. 229. 237. 241. 265. 267. 362. 368. 369. 370. 371. 388. 403. 411. 424. 425. 426. 427. 431. 439.
I. v. xxvi. xxx. 1. 22. 23. 37. 40. 41. 48. 115 to 126.
2.Contiguously proficient Teacher preferring principle. ii. 271.
3.Scholar-tutor employment maximizing, or Lesson-getting Assistant employing, principle. ii. 90. 93. 110. 212. 220. 237. 249. 283. 299. 329. 343. 344. 366. 368. 369. 399. 401.
4.Scholar-Monitor employment maximizing, or Scholar Order-preserver employment maximizing, principle. ii. 90. 213. 403. 439.
5.Master’s time economizing, or Nil per se quod per suos, principle. ii. 263.
6.Regular Visitation, or Constant Superintendency providing, principle. ii. 191. 213. 227. 323. 419. 420. 422. 427. 431. 432. i. 126.
II. Principles, having, for their special object, the preservation of Discipline: i. e. the effectual and universal performance of the several prescribed Exercises, and the exclusion of disorder: i. e. of all practices obstructive of such performance, or productive of mischief in any other shape; and, to that end, the correct and complete observance of all arrangements and regulations, established for either of those purposes.
7. i.Punishment minimizing, and Corporal Punishment excluding principle. ii. 78. 84. 124. 127. 195. 196. 208. 232. 233. 236. 262. 343. 346. 389. 410. 439. i. 39. 43. 89. 90. 123.
8. ii.Reward economizing principle. ii. 262. 346. 347. 348. 349.
9. iii.Constant and universal Inspection promising and securing principle. ii. 237. i. 38.
☞ To this belongs the Panopticon Architecture employing principle.
10. iv.Place-capturing, or Extempore degradation and promotion, principle. ii. 124. 134. 137. 194. [207.] 216. 235. 250. 251. 254. 259. 280. 283. 286. 287. 289. 301. 314. 315. 329. 337. 343. 357. 358. 359. 360. 369. 410. 439. 442.
11. v.Appeal (from Scholar-master) providing principle.
12. vi.Juvenile Penal Jury, or Scholar Jurymen employing principle. ii. 209. 214. 228. 229. 234. [236.] 261. 346. 368. 402. 426. i. 43.
III. Principles, having, for their special object, the securing the forthcomingness of Evidence: viz. in the most correct, complete, durable and easily accessible shape: and thereby the most constant and universal notoriety of all past matters of fact, the knowledge of which can be necessary, or conducive, to the propriety of all subsequent proceedings; whether for securing the due performance of Exercises, as per Col. i. or for the exclusion of disorder, as per Col. ii.
13. i.Aggregate Progress Registration, or Register employing, principle. ii. 214. 228. 229. 251. [257.] [258.] 263. 273. 293. 340. 360. 363. 368. 373. 419. 420. 422. 427. 432. i. 78. 117.
14. ii.Individual and comparative proficiency registration, or Place-competition-result Registration employing, principle. ii. 230. 231. 259. 265. 275. 330. i. 30. 31. 116.
15. iii.Delinquency registration, or Black-Book employing, principle. ii. 214. 231. 232. 234. [235.] 261. 346. 368. 369. i. 43. 89.
16. iv.Universal Delation principle, or Non-Connivance tolerating, principle. ii. 234. 236. 264. 361. 366.
IV. Principles, having, for their special object, the securing perfection: viz. in the performance of every Exercise, and that in the instance of every Scholar, without exception.
17. i.Universal proficiency promising principle. ii. 46. 78. 83. 118. 127. 283. 368. 372. 386. 387. 401. i. 30. 32. 109.
18. ii.Non-conception, or Non-intellection, presuming, principle, ii. 255. 256. 259. 365.
19. iii.Constantly and universally perfect performance exacting, or No-imperfect performance tolerating, principle. ii. 134. 252. 253. 263. 271. 276. 279. 284. 292. 293. 294. 297. 298. 309. 313. 324. 325. 339. 340. 342. 352. 353. 354. 355. 357. 387. 439. 441. 443.
20. iv.Gradual progression securing, or Gradually progressive Exercises employing, principle, ii. 308. 427. 439. 442.
21. v.Frequent and adequate recapitulation exacting principle. See 19. iii.
22. vi. Place-capturing probative exercise employment maximizing principle. See 10. iv.
23. vii. Fixt verbal standard employment, and Verbal conformity exaction, maximizing principle. Lancaster’s Improvements, p. 84. Bell,ii. 440. 441. 443.
24. viii. Organic Intellection-Test employment maximizing principle. ii. 273. 275. 289. 290. i. 25. 26. 37.
25. Note-taking Intellection-Test employment maximizing principle.
26. ix.Self service exaction maximizing principle. ii. 87. 327. 328. i. 28.
27. x.Task-descriptive enunciation and promulgation exacting principle. ii. 287. 290. 354. 363. 373. 442.
28. xi. Constant all-comprehensive and illustrative Tabular Exhibition maximizing principle.
29. xii.Distraction preventing, or Exterior object excluding, principle.
30. xiii.Constantly and universally apposite Scholar-classification securing principle. ii. 82. 124. 127. 132. 209. 212. 215. [216.] 217. 218. [243.] 263. 338. 340. 345. 359. 362. 387. 395. 401. 439. 441. i. 29. 125.
V. Principles, having, for their special object, the union of the maximum of despatch with the maximum of uniformity; thereby proportionably shortening the time, employed in the acquisition of the proposed body of instruction, and increasing the number of Pupils, made to acquire it, by the same Teachers, at the same time.
31. i.Simplification maximizing, or Short lesson employing, principle. ii. 194. 195. 202. 203. [207.] 208. 210. [223.] 224. 263. 265. 272. 275. 294. 302. 331. 351. 355. 356. 362. 363. 369. 371. 385. 410. 427. 441. 442. 439.
32. ii.Universal-simultaneousaction promising and effecting principle. ii. 215. 285. 287.
33. iii.Constantly-uninterrupted-action promising and effecting principle. ii. 252. 263. 283. 364. 439.
34. iv.Word of command employing, or Audible-direction abbreviating principle. (Lancaster, 110. See No. 23.) ii. 250 to 254. 280. 281. 310. 360. 363. i. 30.
35. v.Universally visible signal, or pattern employing, or Universally and simultaneously visible direction employing, principle. ii. 254. 270. 275. 279. 440. 443.
36. vi.Needless repetition and commoration excluding principle. ii. 252. 282. 288. 354. 373. 439. 442.
37. vii. Remembrance assisting Metre-employment maximizing principle.
38. viii.Employment varying, or Task-alternating principle. ii. 252. 283. 289. 290. 264.
To particular branches exclusively:
I. To the arts of Speaking, Reading, and Writing.
39. i.Constantly distinct intonation exacting principle. ii. 132. 299.
40. ii.Syllable lection exacting, or Syllable-distinguishing intonation employing, principle. ii. 287. 362. 370. 412. i. 27.
41. iii.Recapitulatory-spelling discarding, or Unreiterated-spelling exacting, principle. ii. 280. 303. 304. 306. 370. 412.
42. iv.Vitiously retroactive repetition, or Balbutient recollection-assisting repetition prohibiting, principle, ii. 132. 240. 252. 260. 262. 288. 354. 373.
43. v.Sand-Writing employing, or Psammographic, principle. ii. 88. 89. 91. 270. 274. 276. 279. 327. 350. 370. 412. 427. 441. i. 24. 25.
II.To Geometry and Algebra.
☞ For several proposed principles of instruction not referable to this system, see the tract, printed as Appendix, No. VIII.
[(a.)] [Mathetic.] From a Greek word, which signifies conducive to learning.Syn. (i. e. Synonymous terms or phrases)—Imbibitive, Acquisitive exercises: exercises, by the performance of which, instruction or learning is imbibed, acquired, obtained; by which progress is made, proficiency obtained, or a lesson got: simply mathetic, to distinguish them from those which may be termed mathetico-docimastic, as per No. (9.) by which progress is made, and at the same time exhibited.
Correspondent, and, in its performance, precedent, as well as in some cases subsequent, to each species of exercise performed by the learner, is a didactic operation (didactic, from a Greek word, signifying conducive to teaching,) which must be performed by the teacher. From the general nature of the case, the nature of the didactic operation, correspondent to the mathetic exercise, will, without much difficulty, be conceived: but for greater clearness, and more particular designation, will in each instance be here given.
[(b.)] [Probative.] Syn. Docimastic: from a Greek word, which signifies the affording experimental proof, such as in chemistry is afforded by the case of a test: exercises, by the performance of which proof of progress or proficiency, and, if any, of the degree of it, is made: to this head belong the exercises, by the performance of which a lesson is said.
[(1.)] [Orally or Scriptitiously.] Orally, i. e. by word of mouth: scriptitiously, i. e. in writing, or in print: [in terminis] Syn. in the very terms, in the very words; in tenor.—Correspondentdidactic operation,Delivery, oral or scriptitious, of these same portions of discourse.
[(2.)] [In purport.] Syn. in words, which, however different, present the same import, sense, meaning, signification—the same ideas—are to the same effect.
On the difference between tenor and purport depends, (it will be seen,) in several very material respects, the nature and effect of this, and the recitative and responsive exercises, Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8: viz. according as it is in tenor only, or in purport only, or in either indifferently, that the recital or responsion is required to be performed. See Principles, No. 23.
[(3.)] [Sensible Objects.] Such objects, by which ideas are presented to us, through the medium of any of our five senses. These are—1. In so far as natural history is the subject, bodies and portions of matter, in the state, whether of rest or motion, in which they are found or observed, before they have been made to-undergo any change by human art. 2. In so far as either experimental philosophy, or technology (i. e. knowledge of what belongs to already established arts) is the subject, they will be found referable to one or other of four heads, viz. operations, subject matters, instruments, and results: 1. Operations, i. e. motions, produced with the view of producing the results: 2. Subject matters operated upon; 3. Instruments operated with, or by means of; and 4. Results, which are mostly bodies, brought into some new form; but, in some instances, motions produced for some special purpose. Correspondent didactic operations—Making exhibition of those same sensible objects.
[(4.)] [Organic Exercises.] Exercises, in the performance of which bodily organs are employed: as, in the case of pronunciation, spelling, and reading, the organs of speech; in the case of drawing and writing, the hands; and not merely, as in the case of recollection, the powers of the mind. Correspondentdidactic operations—Prescription and direction, of these same organic exercises: and, in case of drawing and writing, inspection of the several products.
[(5, 6.)] [Simply Recitative Exercises.] Recitative, i. e. consisting in the reciting or repeating of some portions of discourse, as delivered by word of mouth, or in print or writing: for which purpose it must have been gotten by heart, as the phrase is; and, accordingly, if delivered in print, said off book, as the phrase is, or out of book, or without book, simply: viz. to distinguish this from the responsive exercises, No. (7.)
[(7, 8.)] [Responsive Exercises.] Correspondentdidactic operation,interrogative examination, i. e. prescription and direction of this same exercise.
[(9.)] [Test of Intellection.] i. e. as a proof of his understanding, or a trial, how far, if at all, he understands, what he has heard or repeated; for, a case, which otherwise is but too apt to happen, is that, after having heard, or after having read, and thereupon learnt to repeat, though it be ever so correctly and completely, the words of a discourse, which, for that purpose, have been delivered to him, the pupil,—instead of laying up in his mind the proper, i. e. the intended, meaning, No. (2.), the meaning which the words were intended to convey, and in the conveyance of which consists their sole use—contains in his mind—has in his memory, nothing but the bare words; i. e. the sounds, with or without the forms presented to the eye by the series of the letters: i. e. no meaning at all, or some meaning more or less improper—more or less incorrect or incomplete. For putting him to this trial, one mode or test is, the calling upon him, viz. by a question, expressed, whether in the same words, or in different words, to deliver the same meaning, but expressed in other words. Another expedient is confined to the case, where the object of the instruction is, to teach the practice of some branch of art, to the practice of which the exercise of some bodily organ is necessary, or some branch of science, the possession of which is capable of being proved by the practice of some correspondent art: in this latter case, the fact, viz. of his understanding the meaning of the words, by which the instruction in question relative to the science was expressed, is capable of being proved, in some degree, by his performing some organical operation, by the performance of which the correspondent art is practised.
Thus, in so far as his pronunciation is correct, he affords a proof that the instructions, which have been conveyed to him on the subject of the art of speaking, are, in so far, not only remembered by him, but understood; in so far as his writing is correct, that the corresponding instructions, on the subject of the art of writing, are, in so far, not only remembered, but understood: if, after the description given to him of the characteristic marks of this or that species of plant, or animal, or tool, or utensil, or mathematical figure, he is able to give expression, and has accordingly given expression, to these same marks, by drawing, here, likewise, in so far as the figure drawn by him is correct, he has afforded a proof that that same description has not only been remembered by him, but understood. Correspondentdidactic operations, Prescription and direction of those same exercises; organic operations, and, in the case of drawing or writing, inspection of the result.
[(c.)] [Principles of Management.] Of the plan pursued in the giving of names to these several principles, the idea was taken from the practice of the House of Commons, in their Votes, as copied or imitated in the newspapers, in relation to Bills when spoken of on the occasion of their progress in the Houses. Any names less uncouth and more expressive, will, if suggested, be gratefully received, and gladly substituted. It is only by giving thus to each its particular name, (viz. in the form of a compound substantive or adjective,) and to all one common name, viz. principles, that the arrangements could be employed, by which the particular ends and uses common to each class, and the sort of relation borne by each principle to every other, and thence to the whole system, are, as here, brought together in one point of view; and thereby the whole system exposed in the most commodious manner to that scrutiny, by which, in proportion as it is close and intimate, the perfection of the system will, it is believed, be rendered manifest.