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BOOK VII - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 
The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, trans. Francis Hutcheson and James Moor, edited and with an Introduction by James Moore and Michael Silverthorne (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008).
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1. What is vice? ’Tis what you have often seen. Have this thought ready on all emergences that they are such things as you have often seen: you’ll find all things, earlier or later, just the same. Such matters as fill all histories of the antient, or middle, or present ages: of such things, all cities and families are full. Nothing is new. Every thing is ordinary, and of short duration.
2. How can the grand maxims of life ever become dead in the soul, unless the opinions suitable to them be extinguished? And it is still in your power to revive and kindle again these true opinions. I can always have the sentiments I ought to have about such things; why, then, am I disturbed? What is external to my soul, is of no consequence to it. Be thus persuaded, and you stand upright and firm. You may revive when you please. Consider things again, as you have done formerly. This is reviving again.
3. The vain solicitude about shows, scenical representations, flocks and herds, skirmishing, little bones cast in for contention among little dogs, baits cast into a fish-pond, the toiling of Ants, and their carrying of burdens, the fluttering of affrighted flies, the involuntary agitations of puppets by wires! We ought to persist amidst such things with good-nature, without storming at them; and be persuaded that such is the worth of each person, as is the value of the things he pursues.
4. In Conversation, we should give good heed to what is said; and in business, to what is done: in the former, that we may understand what is signified; and, in the latter, to what end it is refered.
5. Is my understanding sufficient for this subject or not? If it is sufficient, I use it as an Instrument given me by the universal nature for this work: If it is not, I either give place in this work to those who can better execute it; unless it be some way incumbent as duty upon me; and, in that case, I execute it as well as I can, taking the aid of those, who, by directing my mind, can accomplish something seasonable and useful to the public. For whatever I do, whether by my self, or with the assistance of others, ought to be directed to that, alone, which is useful and suitable to the public.
6. How many of those, who were once much celebrated, are now delivered up to oblivion? and how many of those who sung the praises of others, are now entirely gone?
7. Don’t be ashamed to take assistance. Your design should be to discharge your duty, as it is a soldier’s to storm a breach in a wall. What if, because of your lameness, you cannot mount the works alone? you may do it with the assistance of others.
8. Be not disturbed about futurity: You shall come to encounter with future events, possessed of the same reason you now employ in your present affairs.
9. All things are linked with each other, and bound together with a sacred bond: Scarce is there one thing quite foreign to another. They are all arranged together in their proper places, and jointly adorn the same world. There is one orderly graceful disposition of the whole. There is one God in the whole. There is one substance, one law, and one reason common to all intelligent beings, and one truth; as there must be one sort of perfection to all beings, who are of the same nature, and partake of the same rational power.
10. Every thing material shall soon vanish, and be swallowed up in the matter of the whole. Every active principle shall soon be resumed into the intelligence and cause of the whole. And the memory of every thing shall soon be buried in eternity.
11. In the rational being, the same conduct is agreeable to nature, and agreeable to reason.
12. Either shew yourself as one always upright, or as one well corrected and amended.
13. As the several members are in an organised body, such are all rational beings, tho’ distant in place; since both are fitted for one joint operation. This thought will more deeply affect your heart, if you often speak to yourself thus, I am a member of that great rational body or system. If you merely call yourself a * part of mankind, you don’t yet love mankind from your heart, nor does the doing of good yet ultimately delight you, without further views. You only do good, as matter of duty and obligation, and not as doing, at the same time, the greatest good to yourself.
14. Let external things affect, as they please, the * things which can be affected by them; let those complain of them which suffer by them. But if I can prevent any apprehension that the event is evil, I am not hurt. And it is in my power to prevent it.
15. Let any one do or say what he pleases, I must be a good man. Just as if the gold, the emerauld, or the purple were always saying, let men do or say what they please, I must continue an emerauld, and retain my lustre.
16. Is not the governing part the sole cause of its own disturbance? Does it not raise in it self its fears, its sorrows, its desires? If any other thing can raise its fears or sorrows, let it do so. ’Tis in its own power not to be moved by opinions about such incidents. Let the despicable body take thought, if it can, for it self; lest it suffer any thing, and complain when it suffers. The † soul which is ter-rified or dejected, or which is struck with imaginations or opinions about such things, would suffer nothing, if you would not give it up to such imaginations. The governing part is free from all indigence or dependence, if it don’t make it self indigent. In like manner, it may be free from all disturbance and obstruction, if it don’t disturb and obstruct it self.
17. To have good-fortune is to have a good divinity governing our lot; or a good divinity, within, governing us. Be gone, then, imagination! Go, by the Gods! as you came: for I have no more use for you. You came, according to the old custom: I am not angry with you; only, be gone.
18. Does one dread a change? What can arise without changes? What is more acceptable or more usual to the nature of the whole? Can you warm your bagnio, unless wood undergoes a change? Can you be nourished, unless your food is changed? Or, can any thing useful be accomplished, without changes? Don’t you see, then, that your undergoing a change, too, may be equally necessary to the nature of the whole?
19. Through the substance of the universe, as through a torrent, flow all particular bodies; all, of the same nature; and fellow-workers with the whole; as the same members of our body co-operate with each other. How many a Chrysippus, and Socrates, and Epictetus,1 hath the course of ages swallowed up? Let this thought occur to you, about every person, and event.
20. About this alone I am solicitous; that I may not do any thing unsuitable to the constitution of a man; or in another manner than it requires; or in a time not suitable.
21. The time approaches when you shall forget all things, and be forgotten by all.
22. ’Tis the part of a man to * love even those who offend him; and this one may do, if he would consider that those who offend are our kindred by nature; that they offend through ignorance, † and unwillingly; and that, in a little, both we and they must die: and especially, that they have done thee no dammage; for, they cannot make thy soul worse than it was before.
23. The presiding nature forms out of the universal substance, as out of wax, sometimes a colt; and then, changing that again, out of its matter forms a tree; and afterwards, a man; and then, something different; and each of these forms subsisted a little while. There can be nothing dismal in a chest’s being taken asunder, as there was nothing dismal in it’s being at first joined together.
24. A wrathful countenance is exceedingly against nature. When the countenance is often thus deformed, its beauty dies, and cannot be revived again. By this very thing you may ‡ apprehend that it is against reason.
If the sense of moral evil is gone, what reason could one have for desiring to live?
25. All things you behold, shall the nature presiding in the universe change; and out of their substance make other things; and others, again, out of theirs; that the universe may be always new.
26. When one has offended, or done any thing wrong; consider what opinion of his, about some good, or evil, hath led him into this misconduct. When you discover this, you will pity him; and neither be surprised, nor angry. Perhaps, you yourself may imagine the same thing, or some such like thing, to be good. If you don’t at all look upon such things as good or evil, you can easily be indulgent and gentle to those who are in a mistake.
27. Don’t let your thoughts dwell upon what you want, so much, as, upon what you have. And consider the things you enjoy, which are dearest to you; how earnestly and anxiously you would desire them, if you wanted them: And yet be on your guard; lest, by your delighting in the enjoyment of such things, you enure yourself to value them too much; so that if you should lose them, you would be much disturbed.
28. Wind thyself up within thy self. The rational governing part has this natural power, that it * can fully satisfy itself, in acting justly; and, by doing so, enjoying tranquillity.
29. Blot out all imaginations. Stop the brutal impulses of the passions. Circumscribe the present time; and apprehend well the nature of every thing which happens, either, to yourself, or, to others. Distinguish between the mate-rial and the active principle. Consider well the last hour. The fault another commits there let it rest where the guilt resides.
30. Apply your mind attentively to what is said in conversation; and enter deeply into what is done, and into those who do it.
31. Rejoice yourself with simplicity, modesty, and the thoughts of the indifference of all things between virtue and vice; love mankind; and be obedient to the Gods. Says one.—“all things by certain laws.” † But what if all be elements and no more? ’Tis sufficient that even in that case, all happens by an inevitable law; except ‡ a very few things.
32. Concerning death. ’Tis either a dispersion, or atoms, a vanishing, an extinction, or a translation to another state.
33. Concerning pain. What is intolerable must soon carry us off. What is lasting is tolerable. The understanding can preserve a calm, by its opinions; and the governing part becomes no worse. The * parts which suffer by pain, let them determine about it if they can.
34. Concerning Glory. Consider the understandings of those who confer praises, what they shun? and what they pursue? And, as heaps of sand are driven upon one another, the latter bury and hide the former: Just so, in life, the former ages are presently buried by the ensuing.
35. This from † Plato. To the man who has a true grandeur of soul, and a view of the whole of time, and of all substance; can human life appear a great matter? ’Tis impossible, says he. Can then such a one conceive death to be terrible? ’Tis impossible.
36. ’Tis a saying of Antisthenes, ’tis truly royal to do good and be reproached.5
37. ’Tis unworthy, that our countenance should be obedient to our soul, and change and compose itself as the soul directs, while yet the soul cannot conform and adorn itself, according to its own inclination.
44. ’Tis thus in Plato. “I would give him this just answer. You are much mistaken, man, to think that a man of any worth makes much account between living and dying. Ought he not to consider this alone, whether he acts justly or unjustly, the part of a good or of a bad man?”11
45. He says again. “In truth, O Athenians! wheresoever one has placed himself by choice, judging it the fittest for him; or ‡ wheresoever he is placed by his commander; there, I think, he ought to stay at all hazards; making no account of death; or any other evil, but vice.”14
46. Again. “But, pray, consider, whether what is truly noble and good, be not placed in something else than preserving life; or, in being preserved. Nor is it so very desirable to one of a truly manly disposition to continue in life a long time; nor ought he to love it much. But, he should rather commit this to the will of God; assenting to the maxim of even our old women, that ‘no man can avoid his destiny,’ and study how he shall pass, as virtuously as he can, the time destined for him.”15
47. Consider the course of the stars; as thinking that you revolve along with them; consider, also, continually, the changes of the elements into each other. Such extensive thoughts purge off the filth of this terrestrial life.
48. This is beautiful in Plato. “When we consider human life, we should view, as from an high tower, all things terrestrial; such as herds, armies, men employed in agriculture, in marriages, divorces; births, deaths, the tumults of courts of justice, desolate lands, various barbarous nations, feasts, wailings, markets; a medley of all things, in a system adorned by contrarieties.”16
49. Consider things past; the revolutions of so many empires; and thence you may foresee what shall happen hereafter; for they shall be just of the same nature; nor can they break off the harmony or concert now begun. Hence, ’tis much the same to view human life for forty or for a myriad of years; for, what further can you see?
Euripides intends by this, either the disentangling again of the entangled atoms, or some such dispersion of immutable elements.
52. He is a better wrestler than thou art; be it so. He is not more social and kind, nor more modest; nor better prepared to meet the accidents of life; nor more gentle toward the offences of his neighbours.
53. Wherever one can act according to that reason which is common to Gods and men, there, there’s nothing terrible. Where we can have the advantage or enjoyment of acting prosperously, according to the structure of our nature, there we should suspect no hurt.
54. In all places and times, you may devoutly acquiesce and be satisfied with what befalls you, and have just dispositions toward your neighbours, and * skill-fully examine all arising imaginations; that none may insinuate themselves, till you thoroughly comprehend them.
55. Don’t be prying into the souls of those around you, but look well into this; whither it is that nature leads you: The nature of the whole, by external events; and your own nature, by suggesting what part you should act. Each one should act the part he is fitted for by his nature. Other beings are fitted to be subservient to the rational; as all inferior beings are subordinated to the superior; and the rational are formed for each other. What the structure of human nature is chiefly adapted to, is a social communication of good; and, next to this, is the command over all bodily appetites and passions. ’Tis the proper work of the rational and intelligent power, to † circumscribe itself, and to be unconquerable by the appetites and passions. For, both these are inferior faculties, common to the brutes. The intellectual part claims to itself this power over them, and not to be subjected to them; and that, very justly; as, by its own nature, fitted to command, and employ all these lower powers. The third office pointed out by the constitution of the rational nature, is to guard against rash assent, and error. Let the governing part retain these things, and go straight on in her course; and she has all her own good or perfection.
56. Consider your life as now finished and past. What little surplus there is beyond expectation, spend it according to nature. *
57. Love and desire that alone which happens to you, and is destined by providence for you; for, what can be more suitable? †
58. Upon every accident, keep in view those to whom the like hath happened. They stormed at the event; thought it strange; and complained. But where are they now? They are gone for ever. Why would you act the like part? Leave these unnatural changes and commotions to those fickle men, who thus change, and are changed. Be you intent upon this; how to make good use of such events. You may make an excellent use of them; they may be matter of ‡ virtuous action. Only attend well to yourself, and resolve to be a good man in all your actions. And still remember, that the external things, about which your actions are employed, are indifferent.
59. Look inwards; § within is the fountain of good; which is ever springing up, if you be always digging in it.
60. We should study also a stability of body; free from loose inconstant motion. For, as the soul displays itself by the countenance, in a wise and graceful air; so, it should in the whole body. But these things are to be observed without affectation.
61. The art of life resembles more that of the wrestler, than of the dancer; since the wrestler must ever be ready on his guard, and stand firm against the sudden unforeseen efforts of his adversary.
62. Revolve often what sort of men they are, whose approbation you desire; what sort of souls they have. Thus, you will neither accuse such as unwillingly mistake, nor will you require their approbation, if you look into the springs of their sentiments and affections.
63. ’Tis against its will, says Plato, that any soul is deprived of truth.23 You may say the same of justice, temperance, good-nature, and every virtue. ’Tis highly necessary to remember this continually: You will thence be made gentler toward all.
64. Upon any pain, recollect, that there’s no moral turpitude in it; nor does it make the soul the worse, or destroy it; either as it is rational, or social. As to the far greater part of those pains we are subject to, the maxim of Epicurus24 may assist you, “that it cannot both be intolerable and lasting”: especially, if you remember the narrow bounds within which it is confined; and don’t add opinions to it. Recollect this, too, that many other things fret us, which we don’t repute of the same nature with pain, tho’ they truly are: Thus, drowsiness, when one would be lively; being too warm; and the want of a natural appetite. When you are fretted with any of these things, rouse your mind, by saying thus to yourself: What? Do you yield yourself as vanquished by pain?
65. Entertain no such affection toward the most inhuman of your fellows, as they have toward their fellows.
66. Whence do we conclude that Socrates had a bright genius,25 and an excellent disposition? ’Tis not enough that he died gloriously; or argued acutely with the sophists; or that he kept watch patiently in the Areopagus;26 or that when he was ordered * to apprehend the innocent Salaminian, he gallantly disobeyed at all hazards the unjust command; or because of any stately airs or gate he assumed in public, which, too, one may justly disbelieve: [tho’ charged on him by Aristophanes:] ’Tis this we should look to, what sort of soul he had: Could he satisfy himself, without further view, in being * just toward men, pious toward God, not vainly provoked by the vices of others, nor servilely flattering them in their ignorance; counting nothing strange which was appointed by the President of the universe; nor sinking under it as intolerable; nor yielding up his soul to be affected by the passions of the body?
67. Nature hath not so † blended the soul with the body, as that it cannot circumscribe itself, and execute its own office by itself. One may be a most divine man, and yet be unknown to all. Remember this always: and this also, that the happiness of life consists in very few things. And tho’ you despair of becoming a good logician, or naturalist, you need not therefore despair of becoming free, possessed of an high sense of honour and modesty, kind and social, and resigned to God.
68. You may live superior to all force, in the highest delight, were all men loudly to rail against you as they please; tho’ wild beasts were to tear the poor members of this corporeal mixture, which has been nourished along with you. What hinders the soul to preserve itself amidst these things, in all tranquillity, in just judgments about the things which surround it, and in a proper use of what is cast in its way? So that the judgment may say, “such is thy real nature, tho’ thou appearest otherwise.” The ‡ faculty which directs how to use every thing, may say, “it was such an event as thou art, that I wanted. For whatever occurs, is to me § matter of rational and social virtue, and of the proper art of man or God. Whatever occurs is familiar, and suited either to the purpose of God or man; and is not new nor untractable, but well known and easy.”
69. The perfection of manners can make one spend each day as his last; and keep himself always calm, without sloth or hypocrisy.
70. The Gods, who are immortal, are not fretted, that, in a long eternity, they must always bear with such a numerous wicked world: Nay, further, they always take care of it. * Yet you who are presently to cease from being, must be fretted and tired with it, tho’ you are one of these wretched creatures yourself!
71. ’Tis ridiculous that you don’t endeavour to repress, and fly from all vice in yourself, which you have in your power to do; but are still striving to restrain it in others, and avoid the effects of it; which you can never do.
72. Whatever the rational and social power observes, as neither subservient to any improvement of the understanding, nor of social dispositions; it just-ly deems inferior to itself, and below its regard.
74. No man is tired of what is gainful to him. Your gain consists in acting according to nature. Since the gain is yours, why should you be weary of such a course of action?
75. The presiding nature of the whole once set about the making this universe. And now either we must allow, that all things, even the worst we see, happen, § according to a necessary consequence or connexion, with those excellent things primarily intended; or must say, there was no rational intention or design, in the production of these things which are most excellent; which yet appear to be the peculiar objects of intention in the universal mind. The remembring this will make you much more serene on many occurrences.
[* ] Thus a stone may be called a part of a rude heap. A member refers to a regular whole, an organised body, in which the safety and prosperity of each member depends on that of the whole, and the happiness of the whole requires that of each member.
[* ] See, B. V. 19. and the note upon it.
[† ] See, B. V. 19.
[* ] Here the divine precept of loving our enemies, or such as injure us.
[* ] See, B. V. 19.
[‡ ] He means probably these which the Stoics say, are in our own power.
[* ] B. V. 19. and B. II. 2.
[‡ ] Of the same kind, is the following divine sentiment of Epictetus; Arrian, II. 16.13 “For the future, O God! Use me as thou pleasest, thy will is my will. I am equally ready for whatever thou orderest. I plead not against any thing which thou thinkest proper. Lead me whithersoever thou willest. Cloath me in what dress thou willest. Is it thy will I should be a magistrate, or a private man; remain in my own country, or in exile; be poor, or rich? In all these will I vindicate thee before men.”
[* ] This examination of the images of fancy, so often mentioned by Antoninus, is one of the most excellent means for preserving purity of mind. Vice first enters the soul, under the disguise of some apparent good, nay, under some colours of virtue; but, when the will is not suffer’d to give its consent to any of the propositions of fancy, until they are stript of all disguise; and considered according to their own real value; the moral turpitude of bad actions must determine us to reject them; and thus preserve innocence and integrity.19
[† ] B. V. 19.
[* ] It may be remembered here once for all, the life according to nature, in Antoninus, is taken in a very high sense: ’Tis living up to that standard of purity and perfection, which every good man feels in his own breast: ’Tis conforming our selves to the law of God written in the heart: ’Tis endeavouring a compleat victory over the passions, and a total conformity to the image of God. A man must read Antoninus with little attention, who confounds this with the natural man’s life, condemned by St. Paul.20
[† ] The practice of this great maxim, would produce the most perfect tranquillity of mind: For, a man who desires only what God destines him, can never be disappointed; since infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, must always accomplish its designs; and, as he loves all his works, every event ordered by him, must be really best for the whole, and for the individuals to which it happens: An intimate and permanent conviction of this, must be the best foundation for the practice of the maxim here recommended. See the citation from Epictet. in the note at 46.21
[‡ ] Viz. of filial love, and submission to God, of manly fortitude and patience; of meekness and goodness toward these very men, who are the causes of such external misfortunes. Those who storm’d and fretted at such accidents have not, by all their efforts, escaped them.
[§ ] The author of this advice, had the best opportunities of trying all the happiness which can arise from external things. The dissipating pursuits of external things, stupify the nobler powers. By recollection we find the dignity of our nature: the diviner powers are disentangled, and exert themselves in all worthy social affections of piety and humanity; and the soul has an inexpressible delight in them.22
[* ] He had received these orders from the thirty tyrants; who intended to put Leo the Salaminian to death, and seize his estate. Socrates at all hazards disobeyed them, in the height of their power. This Plato mentions in the apology, and in one of his letters.27
[* ] See the note at X. 11.
[† ] See, B. V. 19.
[‡ ] That is, the intellectual part, or the rational soul.
[§ ] See, B. VII. 58.
[‡ ] See, IX. 42. near the end.
[§ ] See, IX. 28.
[1.] For Chrysippus see the endnotes, bk. VI, p. 178n11. For Epictetus see the endnotes, bk. I, p. 170n7.
[2.] “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.”
[3.] Cicero, De officiis, bk. I, chap. 29 (Loeb ed., pp. 104–5): “We need only to look at the faces of men in a rage or under the influence of some passion or fear or beside themselves with extravagant joy: …” Hutcheson had cited the same observation from Cicero in A System of Moral Philosophy, bk. I, chap. V, sec. V, vol. I, p. 87.
[4.] Hutcheson’s remark may indicate that he found Marcus’s writing obscure in this article; or he may have been suggesting that Marcus was proposing a doubt on this subject in the same dialectical spirit that Hutcheson perceived in bk. XII, art. 5, pp. 145–46. See the endnotes, bk. V, p. 177n16.
[5.] Antisthenes, fragment 20b. Antisthenis fragmenta, ed. Caizzi.
[6.] Euripides, Bellerophon, fragment 287, ll. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 5, pt. 1, ed. Kannicht, p. 357).
[7.] This quotation was used as an epigram prefaced to Philosophiae moralis (1745). In A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747) it is translated as “Give joy to the immortal gods and those that love you,” and it is attributed to “An unknown poet in Antonin.” The source remains unknown.
[8.] Euripides, Hypsipyle, fragment 757, ll. 925–26 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 777).
[9.] Euripides, Antiope, fragment 208, ll. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 299).
[10.] Euripides, fragment 918, ll. 3–4 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 924).
[11.] Plato, Apology 28b (Loeb ed., pp. 102–5).
[12.] Plato, Republic 486a–b (Loeb ed., vol. II, pp. 8–11).
[13.] Epictetus, Discourses, bk. II, chap. 16, sec. 42 (Loeb ed., vol. I, p. 335).
[14.] Plato, Apology 28d (Loeb ed., pp. 104–5).
[15.] Plato, Gorgias 512d–e (Loeb ed., pp. 484–85).
[16.] The words “This is beautiful in Plato,” which are found in some manuscripts, are excluded from modern editions; Gataker, however, printed them (1697, p. 65). A close approximation to this passage is found in Plato’s Sophist 216c (Loeb ed., pp. 266–67); similar sentiments appear in Plato’s Republic 500b–c (Loeb ed., vol. II, pp. 66–67).
[17.] Euripides, Chrysippus, fragment 839, ll. 9–11 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 924).
[18.] Euripides, Suppliants 1110–11 (Loeb ed., pp. 124–25); and a quotation of unknown authorship, fragment 303 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta, vol. I, p. 95).
[19.] See the endnotes, bk. III, pp. 172–73n1.
[20.] See the editors’ introduction, p. xx. Also see bk. VI, art. 24, p. 76n, and bk. VIII, art. 54, p. 105n.
[21.] Hutcheson was referring to the citation from Epictetus at art. 45, pp. 88– 89; there is no note at bk. VIII, art. 46.
[22.] See the endnotes, bk. III, p. 173n9.
[23.] A characteristic doctrine of Plato’s found, for instance, at Republic 412e–13a (Loeb ed., vol. I, pp. 296–97), but Marcus’s version closely follows Epictetus’s paraphrase at Discourses, bk. I, chap. 28, sec. 4 (Loeb ed., vol. I, pp. 178– 79).
[24.] Epicurus, fragment 447, Epicurea, ed. Usener, p. 447.
[25.] Hutcheson’s translation is consistent with Gataker’s text (p. 68), “ei tēlaugēs Sōkratēs,” but modern editions treat “Tēlaugēs” as the proper name of an obscure contemporary of Socrates and add a negative, in which case the meaning of the sentence is, “How do we know that Telauges was not in character superior to Socrates?” See The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, ed. Farquharson, vol. I, p. 143, vol. II, pp. 749–50.
[26.] Hutcheson’s translation, “in the Areopagus,” is a mistranslation of “en tōi pagōi” (in Gataker’s text, p. 68). It is an understandable mistranslation since in earlier Greek, at least, “pagos” could mean “rock” or “hill,” and does have this meaning in “Areopagos,” “the hill of Ares” in Athens. In this passage of Marcus, however, “en tōi pagōi” means “in the frosty cold,” and alludes to the story Plato tells at Symposium 220b–d (Loeb ed., pp. 232–35) of how Socrates slept in the open through the frosty nights during the campaign against Potidaea.
[27.] Plato, Apology 32c–d (Loeb ed., pp. 116–19); Epistle VII, 324c–325a (Loeb ed., pp. 478–81). The “thirty tyrants” conducted a reign of terror at Athens in 404–403 bc The charge mentioned in the text that Socrates assumed “stately airs or gate” seems to be a reference to Aristophanes, Clouds, 222ff.
[28.] The reference to Matthew 5:45–47 is to the Sermon on the Mount where Christ urges his followers not to follow the example of the Roman tax collectors (“the publicans”) who love only those who love the Romans. He exhorts his followers to love their enemies, bless those that curse them, and so on.
The reference to “Cambray’s dialogue of Socrates, Alcibiades and Timon” is to François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon (1651–1715), Archbishop of Cambrai (1696–1715), Fables and Dialogues of the Dead, Dialogue XVII: “Socrates, Alcibiades and Timon: A Just Medium between the Man-Hating Character of Timon, and the Corrupt Character of Alcibiades,” pp. 187–201. At p. 194, Socrates declares “we must love Mankind, in spite of their Defects, endeavour to do ’em good; we must serve ’em without any view of interest.”
[29.] See bk. V, art. 17, p. 64n.