Front Page Titles (by Subject) V: YOGA-UPANISHADS - Thirty Minor Upanishads
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V: YOGA-UPANISHADS - Misc (Upanishads), Thirty Minor Upanishads 
Thirty Minor Upanishads, trans. K. Narayanasvami Aiyar (Madras: Printed by Annie Besant at the Vasanta Press, 1914).
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ŚAṆDILYA-UPANISHAḌ OF AṬHARVAṆAVEḌA
Om. Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: “Please tell me about the eight aṅgas (parts) of Yoga which is the means of attaining to Āṭmā.”
Aṭharvan replied: “The eight aṅgas of yoga are yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, praṭyāhāra, ḍhāraṇā, ḍhyāna, and samāḍhi. Of these, yama is of ten kinds: and so is niyama. There are eight āsanas. Prāṇāyāma is of three kinds; praṭyāhāra is of five kinds: so also is ḍhāraṇā. Ḍhyāna is of two kinds, and samāḍhi is of one kind only.
“Under yama (forbearance) are ten:1 ahimsā, saṭya, asṭeya brahmacharya, ḍayā, ārjava, kshamā, ḍhṛṭi, miṭāhāra, and śaucha. Of these, ahimsā is the not causing of any pain to any living being at any time through the actions of one’s mind, speech, or body. Saṭya is the speaking of the truth that conduces to the well-being of creatures, through the actions of one’s mind, speech, or body. Asṭeya is not coveting of another’s property through the actions of one’s mind, speech, or body. Brahmacharya is the refraining from sexual intercourse in all places and in all states in mind, speech or body. Ḍayā is kindliness towards all creatures in all places. Ārjava is the preserving of equanimity of mind, speech, or body in the performance or non-performance of the actions ordained or forbidden to be done. Kshamā is the bearing patiently of all pleasant or unpleasant things, such as praise or blow. Ḍhṛṭi is the preserving of firmness of mind during the period of gain or loss of wealth or relatives. Miṭāhāra is the taking of oily and sweet food; leaving one-fourth of the stomach empty. Śaucha is of two kinds, external and internal. Of these, the external is the cleansing of the body by earth and water; the internal is the cleansing of the mind. This (the latter) is to be obtained by means of the aḍhyāṭma-viḍyā (science of Self).
“Under niyama (religious observances), are ten, viz., ṭapas, sanṭosha, āsṭikya, ḍāna, Īśvarapūjana, siḍḍhānṭa-śravaṇa, hrīḥ, maṭi, japa, and vraṭa. Of these ṭapas, is the emancipation of the body through the observances of such penances as kṛchchhra, chānḍrāyaṇa, etc., according to rules. Sanṭosha is being satisfied with whatever comes to us of its own accord. Āsṭikya is the belief in the merits or demerits of actions as stated in the Veḍas. Ḍāna is the giving with faith to deserving persons, money, grains, etc., earned lawfully. Īśvarapūjana is the worshipping of Vishṇu, Ruḍra, etc., with pure mind according to one’s power. Siḍḍhānṭa-śravaṇa is the inquiry into the significance of Veḍānṭa. Hrīḥ is the shame felt in the performance of things contrary to the rules of the Veḍas and of society. Maṭi is the faith in the paths laid down by the Veḍas. Japa is the practising of the manṭras into which one is duly initiated by his spiritual instructor, and which is not against (the rules of) the Veḍas. It is of two kinds—the spoken and the mental. The mental is associated with contemplation by the mind. The spoken is of two kinds—the loud and the low. The loud pronunciation gives the reward as stated (in the Veḍas): (while) the low one (gives) a reward thousand times (that). The mental (gives) a reward a crore (of times that). Vraṭa is the regular observance of or the refraining from the actions enjoined or prohibited by the Veḍas.
“Āsanas (the postures) are (chiefly) eight, viz., svasṭika, gomukha, paḍma, vīra, simha, bhaḍra, mukṭa, and mayūra.
“Svasṭika is the sitting at ease with the body erect, placing each foot between the thighs and knees of the other. Gomukha is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) placing the hollow of the left foot under the side of the right posteriors and the hollow of the right foot under the side of the left posteriors, resembling Gomukha (cow’s face). Paḍma is (the sitting at ease with the body erect) placing the back of each foot in the thigh of the other, the right hand grasping the right toe and the left hand the left toe. This, O Śāṇdilya, is praised by all. Vīra is the sitting at ease (with the body erect), placing one foot on the thigh of the other and the other foot underneath the corresponding (opposite thigh.) Simha is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) pressing the right side (of the thigh) with the hollow of left heel and vice versa. Rest your hands on the knees, spread out the fingers, open your mouth and carefully fix your gaze on the tip of your nose. This is always praised by the yogins. Siḍḍha1 is (the sitting at ease with the body erect), pressing the perineum with the left heel and placing the heel of the right foot above the genital organ, concentrating the mind between the two eyebrows. Bhaḍra is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) pressing the two ankles of the two feet firmly together against the Sīvinī (viz., lower part of the seed) and binding the knees firmly with the hands. This is the bhaḍra which destroys all diseases and poisons. Mukṭa is (the sitting at ease with the body erect,) pressing with the left heel the right side of the tender part of the Sīvinī, and with the right heel the left side of the tender part of the Sīvinī. Mayūra—(lit., peacock). Rest your body upon the ground with both palms and place your elbows on the sides of the navel, lift up the head and feet and remain like a stick in the air, (like the plant balance in gymnastics). This is the mayūra posture which destroys all sins. By these, all the diseases within the body are destroyed; all the poisons are digested. Let the person who is unable to practise all these postures betake himself to any one (of these) which he may find easy and pleasant. He who conquers (or gets mastery over) the postures—he conquers the three worlds. A person who has the practice of yama and niyama should practise prāṇāyāma; by that the nādis become purified.”
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: “By what means are the nādis purified? How many are they in number? How do they arise? What vāyus (vital airs) are located in them? What are their seats? What are their functions? Whatever is worthy of being known in the body, please tell me.” To that Aṭharvan replied (thus): “This body is ninety-six digits in length. Prāṇa extends twelve digits beyond the body. He who through the practice of yoga reduces his prāṇa within his body to make it equal to or not less than the fire in it becomes the greatest of the yogins. In men, the region of fire which is triangular in form and brilliant as the molten gold is situated in the middle of the body. In four-footed animals, it (fire) is quadrangular. In birds, it is round. In its (the region of fire’s) centre, the purifying, beneficial, and subtle flame is situate. Two digits above the anus and two digits below the sexual organ is the centre of the body for men. For four-footed animals, it is the middle of the heart. For birds, it is the middle of the body. Nine digits from (or above) the centre of the body and four digits in length and breadth is situated an oval form. In its midst is the navel. In it, is situated the chakra (viz., wheel) with twelve spokes. In the middle of the chakra, the jīva (Āṭmā) wanders, driven by its good and bad deeds. As a spider flies to and fro within a web of fine threads, so prāṇa moves about here. In this body, the jīva rides upon prāṇa. Lying in the middle of the navel and above it, is the seat of kuṇdalinī. The kuṇdalinī śakṭi is of the form of eight prakṛṭis (matter) and coils itself eight ways or (times). The movement of vāyus (vital airs) checks duly the food and drink all round by the side of skanḍha.1 It closes by its head (the opening of) the brahmaranḍhra, and during the time of (the practice of) yoga is awakened by the fire (in the apāna); then it shines with great brilliancy in the ākāś of the heart in the shape of wisdom. Depending upon kuṇdalinī which is situated in the centre, there are fourteen principal nādis (viz.,) Idā, Piṅgalā, Sushumnā, Sarasvaṭī, Vāruṇī, Pūshā, Hasṭijihvā, Yaśasvinī, Viśvoḍharī, Kuhūḥ, Śāṅkhinī, Payasvinī, Alambusā, and Gānḍhārī. Of them, Sushumnā is said to be the sustainer of the universe and the path of salvation. Situated at the back of the anus, it is attached to the spinal column and extends to the brahmaranḍhra of the head and is invisible and subtle and is vaishṇavī (or has the śakṭi force of Vishṇu). On the left of Sushumnā is situated Idā, and on the right is Piṅgalā. The moon moves in Idā and the sun in Piṅgalā. The moon is of the nature of ṭamas and the sun of rajas. The poison share is of the sun and the nectar of the moon. They both direct (or indicate) time and Sushumnā is the enjoyer (or consumer) of time. To the back and on the side of Sushumnā are situate Sarasvaṭī and Kuhūḥ respectively. Between Yaśasvinī and Kuhūḥ stands Vāruṇī. Between Pūshā and Sarasvaṭī lies Payasvinī.1 Between Gānḍhārī and Sarasvaṭī is situated Yaśasvinī.2 In the centre of the navel is Alambusā. In front of Sushumnā there is Kuhūḥ, which proceeds as far as the genital organ. Above and below kuṇdalinī is situated Vāruṇī, which proceeds everywhere. Yaśasvinī which is beautiful (or belonging to the moon), proceeds to the great toes. Piṅgalā goes upwards to the right nostril. Payasvinī goes to right ear. Sarasvaṭī goes to the upper part or the tongue and Śāṅkhinī to the left ear, (while) Gānḍhārī goes from the back of Idā to the left eye. Alambusā goes upwards and downwards from the root of the anus. From these fourteen nādis, other (minor) nādis spring; from them springing others, and from them springing others; so it should be known. As the leaf of the aśvaṭṭha tree (ficus religiosa) etc., is covered with minute fibres so also is this body permeated with nādis.
“Prāṇa, Apāna, Samāna, Uḍāna, Vyāna, Nāga, Kūrma, Kṛkara, Ḍevaḍaṭṭa, and Ḍhanañjaya—these ten vāyus (vital airs) move in all the nādis. Prāṇa moves in the nostrils, the throat, the navel, the two great toes and the lower and the upper parts of kuṇdalinī. Vyāna moves in the ear, the eye, the loins, the ankles, the nose, the throat and the buttocks. Apāna moves in the anus, the genitals, the thighs, the knees, the stomach, the seeds, the loins, the calves, the navel, and the seat of the anus of fire. Uḍāna lives in all the joints and also in the hands and legs. Samāna lives, permeating in all parts of the body. Along with the fire in the body, it causes the food and drink taken in, to spread in the body. It moves in the seventy-two thousand nādis and pervades all over the body along with the fire. The five vāyus beginning with Nāga go towards the skin, the bones, etc. The Prāṇa which is in the navel separates the food and drink which is there and brings about the rasas (juices) and others.1 Placing the water above the fire and the food above (or in) the water, it goes to the Apāna and along with it, fans up the fire in the centre of the body. The fire thus fanned up by the Apāna gradually increases in brightness in the middle of the body. Then it causes through its flames the water which is brought in the bowels by the Prāṇa to grow hot. The fire with the water causes the food and condiments, which are placed above, to be boiled to a proper degree. Then Prāṇa separates these into sweat, urine, water, blood, semen, the fæces and the like. And along with the Samāna, it takes the juice (or essence) to all the nādis and moves in the body in the shape of breath. The vāyus excrete the urine, the fæces, etc., through the nine openings in the body which are connected with the outside air. The functions of Prāṇa are inspiration, expiration, and cough. Those of Apāna are the excretion of the fæces and the urine. Those of Vyāna are (such actions as) giving and taking. Those of Uḍāna are keeping the body straight, etc. Those of Samāna are nourishing the body. Those of Nāga are vomiting, etc.; of Kūrma, the movement of the eyelids; of Kṛkara, the causing of hunger, etc., of Ḍevaḍaṭṭa, idleness, etc., and Ḍhanañjaya, phlegm.
“Having thus acquired a thorough knowledge of the seat of the nādis and of the vāyus with their functions, one should begin with the purification of the nādis. A person possessed of yama and niyama, avoiding all company, having finished his course of study, delighting in truth and virtue, having conquered (his) anger, being engaged in the service of his spiritual instructor and having been obedient to his parents and well instructed in all the religious practices and the knowledge of his order of life, should go to a sacred grove abounding in fruits, roots, and water. There he should select a pleasant spot always resounding with the chanting of the Veḍas, frequented by the knowers of Brahman that persevere in the duties of their orders of life and filled with fruits, roots, flowers, and water. (Else) either in a temple or on the banks of a river or in a village or in a town, he should build a beautiful monastery. It should be neither too long nor too high, should have a small door, should be besmeared well with cow-dung and should have every sort of protection.1 There listening to the exposition of veḍānṭa, he should begin to practise yoga. In the beginning having worshipped Vināyaka2 (Gaṇeśa), he should salute his Ishta-Ḍevaṭā (tutelary deity) and sitting in any of the above-mentioned postures on a soft seat, facing either the east or the north and having conquered them, the learned man keeping his head and neck erect and fixing his gaze on the tip of his nose, should see the sphere of the moon between his eyebrows and drink the nectar (flowing therefrom through his eyes. Inhaling the air through Idā3 for the space of twelve māṭrās,4 he should contemplate on the sphere of fire5 situated in the belly as surrounded with flames and having as its seed र (ra); then he should exhale it through Piṅgalā. Again inhaling it through Piṅgalā3 and retaining it (within), he should exhale it through Idā. For the period of twenty-eight months,6 he should practise six times at every sitting through the three sanḍhyās (morning, noon, and evening) and during the intervals. By this, the nādis become purified. Then the body becomes light and bright, the (gastric) fire is increased (within) and there is the manifestation of nāḍa (internal sound).
“Prāṇāyāma is said to be the union of Prāṇa and Apāna. It is of three kinds—expiration, inspiration, and cessation. They are associated with the letters of the (Samskṛṭ) alphabet1 (for the right performance of prāṇāyāma). Therefore Praṇava (Om) only is said to be Prāṇāyāma. Sitting in the paḍma posture, the person should meditate that there is at the tip of his nose Gāyaṭrī,2 a girl of red complexion surrounded by the numberless rays of the image of the moon and mounted on a hamsa (swan) and having a mace in her hand. She is the visible symbol of the letter A. The letter U has as its visible symbol Sāviṭrī,2 a young woman of white colour having a disk in her hand and riding on a garuda (eagle). The letter M has as its visible symbol Sarasvaṭī,2 an aged woman of black colour riding on a bull, having a trident in her hand. He should meditate that the single letter—the supreme light—the praṇava (Om)—is the origin or source of these three letters A, U, and M. Drawing up the air through Idā for the space of sixteen māṭrās, he should meditate on the letter A during that time; retaining the inspired air for the space of sixty-four māṭrās, he should meditate on the letter U during the time; he should then exhale the inspired air for the space of thirty-two mātrās, meditating on the letter M during that time. He should practise this in the above order over and over again.
“Then having become firm in the posture and preserved perfect self-control, the yogin should, in order to clear away the impurities of the Sushumnā, sit in the paḍmāsana (paḍma posture), and having inhaled the air through the left nostril, should retain it as long as he can and should exhale it through the right. Then drawing it again through the right and having retained it, he should exhale it through the left in the order that he should draw it through the same nostril by which he exhaled it before and retained it. In this context, occur (to memory) the following verses: “In the beginning having inhaled the breath (Prāṇa) through the left nostril, according to the rule, he should exhale it through the other; then having inhaled the air through the right nostril, should retain it and exhale it through the other.” To those who practise according to these rules through the right and left nostrils, the nādis become purified within three months. He should practise cessation of breath at sunrise, in the midday, at sunset and at midnight slowly till eighty (times a day) for four weeks. In the early stages, perspiration is produced; in the middle stage the tremor of the body, and in the last stage levitation in the air. These (results) ensue out of the repression of the breath, while sitting in the paḍma posture. When perspiration arises with effort, he should rub his body well. By this, the body becomes firm and light. In the early course of his practice, food with milk and ghee is excellent. One sticking to this rule becomes firm in his practice and gets no ṭāpa (or burning sensation in the body). As lions, elephants and tigers are gradually tamed, so also the breath, when rightly managed (comes under control); else it kills the practitioner.1
“He should (as far as is consistent with his health and safety) properly exhale it, properly inhale it or retain it properly. Thus (only) will he attain success. By thus retaining the breath in an approved manner and by the purification of the nādis, the brightening of the (gastric) fire, the hearing distinctly of (spiritual) sounds and (good) health result. When the nervous centres have become purified through the regular practice of Prāṇāyāma, the air easily forces its way up through the mouth of the Sushumnā which is in the middle. By the contraction of the muscles of the neck and by the contraction of the one below (viz.,) Apāna, the Prāṇa (breath) goes into the Sushumnā which is in the middle from the west nādi.2 Drawing up the Apāna and forcing down the Prāṇa from the throat, the yogin free from old age becomes a youth of sixteen.
“Seated in a pleasant posture and drawing up the air through the right nostril and retaining it inside from the top of the hair to the toe nails, he should exhale it through the same nostril. Through it, the brain becomes purified and the diseases in the air nādis1 are destroyed. Drawing up the air through the nostrils with noise (so as to fill the space) from the heart to the neck, and having retained it (within) as long as possible, he should exhale it through the nose. Through this, hunger, thirst, idleness and sleep do not arise.
“Taking in the air through the mouth (wide open) and having retained it as long as possible, he should expel it through the nose. Through this, (such diseases as) gulma, pleeha (both being splenetic diseases), bile and fever as also hunger, etc., are destroyed.
“Now we shall proceed to kumbhaka (restraint of breath). It is of two kinds—sahiṭa and kevala. That which is coupled with expiration and inspiration is called sahiṭa. That which is devoid of these is called kevala (alone). Until you become perfect in kevala, practise sahiṭa. To one who has mastered kevala, there is nothing unattainable in the three worlds. By kevala-restraint of breath, the knowledge of kuṇdalinī arises. Then he becomes lean in body, serene in face and clear-eyed, hears the (spiritual) sounds distinctly, becomes free from all diseases and conquers his (binḍu) seminal fluid,1 his gastric fire being increased.
2 “Centring one’s mind on an inward object whilst his eyes are looking outside without the shutting and opening of his eyelids, has been called Vaishṇavīmuḍrā. This is kept hidden in all the ṭānṭric works. With his mind and breath absorbed in an internal object, the yogin, though he does not really see the objects outside and under him, still (appears to) see them with eyes in which the pupils are motionless. This is called Khecharīmuḍrā. It has as its sphere of extension one object and is very beneficial. (Then) the real seat of Vishṇu, which is void and non-void, dawns on him. With eyes half closed and with a firm mind, fixing his eyes on the tip of his nose and becoming absorbed in the sun and moon, he after remaining thus unshaken (becomes conscious of) the thing which is of the form of light, which is free from all externals, which is resplendent, which is the supreme truth and which is beyond. O Śāṇdilya, know this to be Ṭaṭ (That). Merging the sound in the light and elevating the brows a little, this is of the way of (or is a part of) the former practice. This brings about the state of Unmanī which causes the destruction of the mind. Therefore he should practise the Khecharīmuḍrā. Then he attains to the state of Unamanī and falls into the yoga sleep (trance). To one who obtains this yoga sleep, time does not exist. Placing the mind in the midst of śakṭi and śakṭi1 in the midst of the mind and looking on the mind with the mind, O Śāṇdilya be happy. Place the Āṭmā in the midst of ākāś and ākāś in the midst of Āṭmā, and having reduced everything to ākāś, do not think of anything else. You should not (then) entertain thoughts, either external or internal. Abandoning all thoughts, become abstract thought itself. As camphor in fire and salt in water become absorbed, so also the mind becomes absorbed in the Ṭatṭva (Truth). What is termed manas (mind) is the knowledge of everything that is known and its clear apprehension. When the knowledge and the object cognised are lost alike, there is no second path (or that is the only path). By its giving up all cognition of objects, it (the mind) is absorbed and when the mind is absorbed, kaivalya (isolation) alone remains.
“For the destruction of the chiṭṭa, there are two ways—yoga and jñāna. O prince of sages! yoga is the (forcible) repression of the modifications of the mind, and jñāna is the thorough inquiry into them. When the modifications of the mind are repressed, it (the mind) verily obtains peace. Just as the actions of the people cease with the stopping of the fluctuations of the sun (viz., with sunset), so when the fluctuations of the mind cease, this cycle of births and deaths comes to an end. (Then) the fluctuations of prāṇa are prevented, when one has no longing for this mundane existence or when he has gratified his desires therein—through the study of religious books, the company of good men, indifference (to enjoyments), practice and yoga or long contemplation with intentness on any desired (higher) object or through practising one truth firmly.
“By the repression of the breath through inhalation, etc., by continual practice therein which does not cause fatigue, and by meditating in a secluded place, the fluctuations of the mind are arrested. Through the right realisation of the true nature of the sound which is at the extreme end of the pronunciation of the syllable Om (viz., Arḍhamāṭrā), and when sushupṭi (dreamless sleeping state) is rightly cognised through consciousness, the fluctuations of prāṇa are repressed. When the passage at the root of the palate which is like the bell, viz., uvula, is closed by the tongue with effort and when the breath goes up through (the upper hole), then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the consciousness (samviṭ) is merged in prāṇa, and when through practice the prāṇa goes through the upper hole into the ḍvāḍaśānṭa1 (the twelfth centre) above the palate, then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the eye of consciousness (viz., the spiritual or third eye) becomes calm and clear so as to be able to distinctly see in the transparent ākāś at a distance of twelve digits from the tip of his nose, then the fluctuations of prāṇa are stopped. When the thoughts arising in the mind are bound up in the calm contemplation of the world of ṭāraka (star or eye) between one’s eyebrows and are (thus) destroyed, then the fluctuations cease. When the knowlege which is of the form of the knowable, which is beneficent and which is untouched by any modifications arises in one and is known as Om only and no other, then the fluctuations of prāṇa cease. By the contemplation for a long time of the ākāś which is in the heart, and by the contemplation of the mind free from vāsānās, then the fluctuations of prāṇa cease. By these methods and various others suggested by (one’s) thought and by means of the contact of the many (spiritual) guides, the fluctuations cease.
“Having by contraction opened the door of kuṇdalinī, one should force open the door of moksha. Closing with her mouth the door through which one ought to go, the kuṇdalinī sleeps spiral in form and coiled up like a serpent. He who causes this kuṇdalinī to move—he is an emancipated person. If this kuṇdalinī were to sleep in the upper part of the neck of any yogin, it goes towards his emancipation. (If it were to sleep) in the lower part (of the body), it is for the bondage of the ignorant. Leaving the two nādis, Idā and the other (Pingalā), it (prāṇa) should move in the Sushumnā. That is the supreme seat of Vishṇu. One should practise control of breath with the concentration of the mind. The mind should not be allowed by a clever man to rest on any other thing. One should not worship Vishṇu during the day alone. One should not worship Vishṇu during the night alone; but should always worship Him, and should not worship Him merely during day and night. The wisdom-producing opening (near uvula) has five passages. O Śānḍilya this is the khecharīmuḍrā; practise it. With one who sits in the khecharīmuḍrā, the vāyu which was flowing before through the left and right nādis now flows through the middle one (Sushumnā). There is no doubt about it. You should swallow the air through the void (Sushumnā) between Idā and Piṅgalā. In that place is khecharīmuḍrā situated, and that is the seat of Truth. Again that is khecharīmuḍrā which is situated in the ākāśa-chakra (in the head) in the nirālamba (supportless) seat between the sun and moon (viz., Idā and Piṅgalā). When the tongue has been lengthened to the length of a kalā (digit) by the incision (of the frænum lingum) and by rubbing and milking it (viz., the tongue), fix the gaze between the two eyebrows and close the hole in the skull with the tongue reversed. This is khecharīmuḍrā. When the tongue and the chiṭta (mind) both move in the ākāś (khecharī), then the person with his tongue raised up becomes immortal. Firmly pressing the yoni (perineum) by the left heel, stretching out the right leg, grasping the feet with both hands and inhaling the air through the nostrils, practise kaṇtha-bandha,1 retaining the air upwards. By that, all affictions are destroyed; then poison is digested as if it were nectar. Asthma, splenetic disease, the turning up of the anus and the numbness of the skin are removed. This is the means of conquering prāṇa and destroying death. Pressing the yoni by the left heel, place the other foot over the left thigh: inhale the air, rest the chin on the chest, contract the yoni and contemplate, (as far as possible), your Āṭmā as situated within your mind. Thus is the direct perception (of truth) attained.
“Inhaling the prāṇa from outside and filling the stomach with it, centre the prāṇa with the mind in the middle of the navel, at the tip of the nose and at the toes during the sandhyās (sunset and sunrise) or at all times. (Thus) the yogin is freed from all diseases and fatigue. By centring his prāṇa at the tip of his nose, he obtains mastery over the element of air; by centring it at the middle of his navel, all diseases are destroyed; by centring it at the toes, his body becomes light. He who drinks the air (drawn) through the tongue destroys fatigue, thirst and diseases. He who drinks the air with his mouth during the two sanḍhyās and the last two hours of the night, within three months the auspicious Sarasvaṭī (goddess of speech) is present in his vāk (speech) viz., (he becomes eloquent and learned in his speech). In six months, he is free from all diseases. Drawing the air by the tongue, retain the air at the root of the tongue. The wise man thus drinking nectar enjoys all prosperity. Fixing the Āṭmā in the Āṭmā itself in the middle of the eyebrows, (having inhaled) through Idā and breaking through that (centre) thirty times, even a sick man is freed from disease. He who draws the air through the nādis and retains it for twenty-four minutes in the navel and in the sides of the stomach becomes freed from disease. He who for the space of a month during the three sanḍhyās (sunset, sunrise, and midnight or noon) draws the air through the tongue, pierces thirty times and retains his breath in the middle of his navel, becomes freed from all fevers and poisons. He who retains the prāṇa together with the mind at the tip of his nose even for the space of a muhūrṭa (forty-eight minutes), destroys all sins that were committed by him during one hundred births.
“Through the samyama of ṭāra (Om), he knows all things. By retaining the mind at the tip of his nose, he acquires a knowledge of Inḍra-world;1 below that, he acquires a knowledge of Agni-(fire) world.1 Through the samyama of chiṭṭa in the eye, he gets a knowledge of all worlds: in the ear, a knowledge of Yama-(the god of death) world:1 in the sides of the ear, a knowledge of Nṛṛṭi-world:1 in the back of it (the ear), a knowledge of Varuṇa-world:1 in the left ear, a knowledge of Vāyu-world:1 in the throat, a knowledge of Soma-(moon) world:1 in the left eye, a knowledge of Śiva-world:1 in the head, a knowledge of Brahmā-world:1 in the soles of the feet, a knowledge of Aṭala world:2 in the feet, a knowledge of Viṭala world: in the ankles, a knowledge of Niṭala (rather Suṭala) world: in the calves, a knowledge of Suṭala (rather Ṭalāṭāla world): in the knees, a knowledge of Mahāṭala world: in the things, a knowledge of Rasāṭala world: in the loins, a knowledge of Ṭalāṭala (rather Pāṭāla) world: in the navel, a knowledge of Bhūrloka (earth-world): in the stomach, a knowledge of Bhuvar (world): in the heart, a knowledge of Suvar (world): in the place above the heart, a knowledge of Mahar world: in the throat, a knowledge of Jana world: in the middle of the brows, a knowledge of Ṭapa world: in the head, a knowledge of Saṭya world.
“By conquering ḍharma and aḍharma, one knows the past and the future. By centring it on the sound of every creature, a knowledge of the cry (or language) of the animal is produced. By centring it on the sañchiṭa-karma (past karma yet to be enjoyed), a knowledge of one’s previous births arises in him. By centring it on the mind of another, a knowledge of the mind (or thoughts) of others is induced. By centring it on the kāya-rūpa (or form of the body), other forms are seen. By fixing it on the bala (strength), the strength of persons like Hanūmān is obtained. By fixing it on the sun, a knowledge of the worlds arises. By fixing it on the moon, a knowledge of the constellation is produced. By fixing it on the Ḍhruva (Polar star) a perception of its motion is induced. By fixing it on his own (Self), one acquires the knowledge of Purusha; on the navel, he attains a knowledge of the kāya-vyūha (mystical arrangement of all the particles of the body so as to enable a person to wear out his whole karma in one life): on the well of the throat, freedom from hunger and thirst arises: on the Kūrma nādi (which is situated in the well of the throat), a firmness (of concentration) takes place. By fixing it on the ṭārā (pupil of the eye), he obtains the sight of the siḍḍhas (spiritual personages). By conquering the ākāś in the body, he is able to soar in the ākāś: (in short) by centring the mind in any place, he conquers the siḍḍhis appertaining to that place.
“Then comes praṭyāhāra, which is of five kinds. It is the drawing away of the organs from attaching themselves to the objects of senses. Contemplating upon everything that one sees as Āṭmā is praṭyāhāra. Renouncing the fruits of one’s daily actions is praṭyāhāra. Turning away from all objects of sense is praṭyāhāra. Ḍhāraṇā in the eighteen important places (mentioned below) is praṭyāhāra, (viz.,) the feet, the toes, the ankles, the calves, the knees, the thighs, the anus, the penis, the navel, the heart, the well of the throat, the palate, the nose, the eyes, the middle of the brows, the forehead, and the head in ascending and descending orders.
“Then (comes) ḍhāraṇā. It is of three kinds, (viz.,) fixing the mind in the Āṭmā, bringing the external ākāś into the ākaś of the heart and contemplating the five mūrṭis (forms of ḍevaṭās) in the five elements—earth, āpas, fire, vāyu, and ākāś.
“Then comes ḍhyāna. It is of two kinds, saguṇa (with guṇas or quality) and nirguṇa (without quality). Saguṇa is the meditation of a mūrṭi. Nirguṇa is on the reality of Self.
“Samāḍhi is the union of the Jīvāṭmā (individual self) and the Paramāṭmā (higher self) without the threefold state, (viz., the knower, the known, and the knowledge). It is of the nature of extreme bliss and pure consciousness.
“Thus ends the first chapter of Śāṇdilya Upanishaḍ.”
Then the Bṛahmarshi Śāṇdilya not obtaining the knowledge of Brahman in the four Veḍas, approached the Lord Aṭharvan and asked him: “What is it? Teach me the science of Brahman by which I shall obtain that which is most excellent.”
Aṭharvan replied: “O Śāṇdilya, Brahman is saṭya, vijñāna and ananṭa in which all this (world) is interwoven, warp-wise and woof-wise, from which all originated and into which all are absorbed, and which being known makes everything else known. It is without hands and feet, without eyes and ears, without tongue or without body, and is unreachable and undefinable. From which, vāk (speech) and mind return, being unable to obtain (or reach) It. It is to be cognised by jñāna and yoga.1 From which, prajñā of old sprang. That which is one and non-dual, that which pervades everything like ākāś, which is extremely subtle, without a blemish, actionless, saṭ (be-ness) only, the essence of the bliss of consciousness, beneficent, calm and immortal and which is beyond. That is Brahman. Thou art That. Know That by wisdom. He who is the one, the shining, the giver of the power of Āṭmā, the omniscient, the lord of all, and the inner soul of all beings, who lives in all beings, who is hidden in all beings and the source of all beings, who is reachable only through yoga and who creates, supports and destroys everything—He is Āṭmā. Know the several worlds in the Āṭmā. Do not grieve, O knower of Āṭmā, thou shalt reach the end of pains.”
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan thus: “From the Brahman that is Om, imperishable, actionless, beneficial, saṭ (be-ness) only and supreme, how did this universe arise? How does it exist in It? And how is it absorbed in It? Please solve me this doubt.”
Aṭharvan replied: The Supreme Brahman, the Truth, is the imperishable and the actionless. Then from the formless Brahman, three forms (or aspects) arose, (viz.,) nishkalā (partless,) sakalā (with parts), and sakalā-nishkalā (with and without parts). That which is saṭya, vijñāna and ānanḍa, That which is actionless, without any impurity, omnipresent, extremely subtle, having faces in every direction, undefinable and immortal—that is His nishkalā aspect. Maheśvara (the great Lord) who is black and yellow rules, with aviḍyā, mūlaprakṛṭi or māyā that is red, white, and black, and that is co-existent with Him. This is his sakalā-nishkalā aspect. Then the Lord desired (or willed) by his spiritual wisdom (thus): May I become many?; may I bring forth? Then from this Person who was contemplating and whose desires are fulfilled, three letters sprang up. Three vyāhṛṭis,1 the three-footed Gāyaṭrī,2 the three Veḍas, the three ḍevas, the three varṇas (colours or castes) and the three fires sprang. That Supreme Lord who is endowed with all kinds of wealth, who is all pervading, who is situated in the hearts of all beings, who is the Lord of māyā and whose form is māyā—He is Brahmā. He is Vishṇu: He is Ruḍra: He is Inḍra. He is all the ḍevas: He is all the bhūṭas (elements or beings): He only is before: He only is behind: He only is on our left: He only is on our right: He only is below: He only is above: He only is the all. That form of him as Ḍaṭṭātṛeya,3 who sports with his Śakṭi, who is kind to his devotees, who is brilliant as fire, resembling the petals or a red lotus and is of four hands, who is mild and shines sinlessly—this is His sakalā form.”
Then Śāṇdilya questioned Aṭharvan, “O Lord, that which is Saṭ only and the essence of the bliss of consciousness—why is He called Parabrahman?”
Aṭharvan replied: “Because He increases bṛhaṭi and causes to increase everything (bṛhanṭi); so he is called Parabrahman. Why is He called Āṭmā? Since He obtains (āpnoṭi) everything, since He takes back everything and since He is everything, so he is called Āṭmā. Why is He called Maheśvara (the great Lord)? Since by the sound of the words Mahaṭ-Īśa (the great Lord) and by His own power, the great Lord governs everything. Why is He called Ḍaṭtāṭreya? Because the Lord being extremely pleased with Aṭri (Ṛshi) who was performing a most difficult penance and who had expressed his desire to see Him who is light itself, offered Himself (ḍaṭṭa) as their son, and because the woman Anasūyā was his mother and Aṭri was his father. Therefore he who knows the (secret) meaning knows everything. He who always contemplates on the supreme that It is himself becomes a knower of Brahman. Here these ślokas (stanzas) occur (to memory). ‘He who contemplates always the Lord of Lords and the ancient thus—as Ḍatṭāṭreya, the beneficent, the calm, of the colour of sapphire, one who delights in his own māyā and the Lord who has shaken off everything, as naked and as one whose whole body is besmeared with the holy ashes, who has matted hair, who is the Lord of all, who has four arms, who is bliss in appearance, whose eyes are like full-blown lotus, who is the store of jñāna and yoga, who is the spiritual instructor of all the worlds and who is dear to all the yogins, and one who is merciful towards His devotees, who is the witness of all and who is worshipped by all the siḍḍhas is freed from all sins and will attain (the Spirit).’
“Om Saṭyam (truth). Thus ends the Upanishaḍ.”
YOGAṬAṬṬVA-UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
I shall now describe yoga-ṭaṭṭva (yoga-truth) for the benefit of yogins who are freed from all sins through the hearing and the studying of it. The supreme Purusha called Vishṇu, who is the great yogin, the great being and the great ṭapasvin, is seen as a lamp in the path of the truth. The Grandfather (Brahmā) having saluted the Lord of the universe (Vishṇu) and having paid Him due respects, asked Him (thus): “Pray, explain to us the truth of yoga which includes in it the eight subservients.” To which Hṛshīkeśa (the Lord of the senses or Vishṇu) replied thus: “Listen. I shall explain its truth. All souls are immersed in happiness and sorrow through the snare of māyā. Kaivalya, the supreme seat, is the path which gives them emancipation, which rends asunder the snare of māyā, which is the destroyer of birth, old age and disease and which enables one to overcome death. There are no other paths to salvation. Those who go round the net of Śāsṭras are deluded by that knowledge. It is impossible even for the Ḍevas to describe that indescribable state. How can that which is self-shining be illuminated by the Śāsṭras? That only which is without parts and stains and which is quiescent beyond all and free from decay becomes the jīva (self) on account of the results of past virtues and sins. How did that which is the seat of Paramāṭmā, is eternal, and above the state of all existing things and is of the form of wisdom and without stains attain the state of jīva? A bubble arose in it as in water and in this (bubble) arose ahaṅkāra. To it arose a ball (of body) made of the five (elements) and bound by ḍhāṭus. Know that to be jīva which is associated with happiness and misery and hence is the term jīva applied to Paramāṭmā which is pure. That jīva is considered to be the kevala (alone) which is freed from the stains of passion, anger, fear, delusion, greed, pride, lust, birth, death, miserliness, swoon, giddiness, hunger, thirst, ambition, shame, fright, heart-burning, grief and gladness.
“So I shall tell you the means of destroying (these) sins. How could jñāna capable of giving moksha arise certainly without yoga? And even yoga becomes powerless in (securing) moksha when it is devoid of jñāna. So the aspirant after emancipation should practise (firmly) both yoga and jñāna. The cycle of births and deaths comes only through ajñāna and perishes only through jñāna. Jñāna alone was originally. It should be known as the only means (of salvation). That is jñāna through which one cognises (in himself) the real nature of kaivalya as the supreme seat, the stainless, the partless, and of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa without birth, existence and death and without motion and jñāna.
“Now I shall proceed to describe yoga to you. Yoga is divided into many kinds on account of its actions: (viz.,) Manṭrayoga, Layayoga, Hathayoga, and Rājayoga. There are four states common to all these: (viz.,) Ārambha, Ghata, Parichaya, and Nishpaṭṭi. O Brahmā, I shall describe these to you. Listen attentively. One should practise the Manṭra along with its māṭrikās (proper intonations of the sounds) and others for a period of twelve years; then he gradually obtains wisdom along with the siḍḍhis, (such as) aṇimā, etc. Persons of weak intellect who are the least qualified for yoga practise this. The (second) Laya-yoga tends towards the absorption of the chiṭṭa and is described in myriads of ways; (one of which is)—one should contemplate upon the Lord who is without parts (even) while walking, sitting, sleeping, or eating. This is called Laya-yoga. Now hear (the description of) Hatha-yoga. This yoga is said to possess (the following) eight subservients, yama (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), āsana (posture), prāṇāyāma (suppression of breath), praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), ḍhāraṇā (concentration), ḍhyāna, the contemplation on Hari in the middle of the eyebrows and samāḍhi that is the state of equality. Mahāmuḍrā, Mahābanḍha and Khecharī, Jālanḍhara, Uddiyāṇa, and Mūlabanḍha, uttering without intermission Praṇava (Om) for a long time, and hearing the exposition of the supreme truths, Vajrolī, Amarolī and Sahajolī, which form a triad—all these separately I shall give a true description of. O four-faced one (Brahmā), among (the duties of) yama moderate eating—and not others—forms the principal factor; and non-injury is most important in niyama. (The chief postures are) four (viz.,) Siḍḍha, Paḍma, Simha and Bhaḍra. During the early stages of practice, the following obstacles take place, O four-faced one, (viz.,) laziness, idle talk, association with bad characters, acquisition of manṭras, etc., playing with metals (alchemy) and woman, etc., and mirage. A wise man having found out these should abandon them by the force of his virtues. Then assuming Paḍma posture, he should practise prāṇāyāma. He should erect a beautiful monastery with a very small opening and with no crevices. It should be well pasted with cow-dung or with white cement. It should be carefully freed from bugs, mosquitoes and lice. It should be swept well every day with a broom. It should be perfumed with good odours; and fragrant resins should burn in it. Having taken his seat neither too high nor too low on a cloth, deerskin and kuśa grass spread, one over the other, the wise man should assume the Paḍma posture and keeping his body erect and his hands folded in respect, should salute his tutelary deity. Then closing the right nostril with his right thumb, he should gradually draw in the air through the left nostril. Having restrained it as long as possible, he should again expel it through the right nostril slowly and not very fast. Then filling the stomach through the right nostril, he should retain it as long as he can and then expel it through the left nostril. Drawing the air through that nostril by which he expels, he should continue this in uninterrupted succession. The time taken in making a round of the knee with the palm of the hand, neither very slowly nor very rapidly, and snapping the fingers once is called a māṭrā. Drawing the air through the left nostril for about sixteen māṭrās and having retained it (within) for about sixty-four māṭrās, one should expel it again through the right nostril for about thirty-two māṭrās. Again fill the right nostril as before (and continue the rest). Practise cessation of breath four times daily (viz.,) at sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight, till eighty (times are reached). By a continual practice for about three months, the purification of the nādis takes place. When the nādis have become purified, certain external signs appear on the body of the yogin. I shall proceed to describe them. (They are) lightness of the body, brilliancy of complexion, increase of the gastric fire, leanness of the body, and along with these, absence of restlessness in the body. The proficient in yoga should abandon the food detrimental to the practice of yoga. He should give up salt, mustard, things sour, hot, pungent, or bitter, vegetables, asafœtida, etc., worship of fire, women, walking, bathing at sunrise, emaciation of the body by fasts, etc. During the early stages of practice, food of milk and ghee is ordained; also food consisting of wheat, green pulse and red rice are said to favour the progress. Then he will be able to retain his breath as long as he likes. By thus retaining the breath as long as he likes, kevala kumbhaka (cessation of breath without inspiration and expiration) is attained. When kevala kumbhaka is attained by one, and thus expiration and inspiration are dispensed with, there is nothing unattainable in the three worlds to him. In the commencement (of his practice), sweat is given out; he should wipe it off. Even after that, owing to the retaining of the breath, the person practising it gets phlegm. Then by an increased practice of ḍhāraṇā, sweat arises. As a frog moves by leaps, so the yogin sitting in the Padma posture moves on the earth. With a (further) increased practice, he is able to rise from the ground. He, while seated in Paḍma posture, levitates. There arises to him the power to perform extraordinary feats. He does (or should) not disclose to others his feats of great powers (in the path). Any pain small or great, does not affect the yogin. Then excretions and sleep are diminished; tears, rheum in the eye, salivary flow, sweat and bad smell in the mouth do not arise in him. With a still further practice, he acquires great strength by which he attains Bhūchara siḍḍhi, which enables him to bring under his control all the creatures that tread this earth; tigers, śarabhas,1 elephants, wild bulls or lions die on being struck by the palm of the yogin. He becomes as beautiful as the god of love himself. All females being taken up with the beauty of his person will desire to have intercourse with him. If he so keeps connection, his virility will be lost; so abandoning all copulation with women, he should continue his practice with great assiduity. By the preservation of the semen, a good odour pervades the body of the yogin. Then sitting in a secluded place, he should repeat Praṇava (Om) with three pluṭa-mātṛās (or prolonged intonation) for the destruction of his former sins. The manṭra, Praṇava (Om) destroys all obstacles and all sins. By practising thus he attains the ārambha (beginning or first) state.
“Then follows the ghata (second state)—one which is acquired by constantly practising suppression of breath. When a perfect union takes place between prāṇa and apāna, manas and buḍḍhi, or jīvāṭmā and Paramāṭmā without opposition, it is called the ghata state. I shall describe its signs. He may now practise only for about one-fourth of the period prescribed for practice before. By day and evening, let him practise only for a yāma (3 hours). Let him practise kevala kumbhaka once a day. Drawing away completely the organs from the objects of sense during cessation of breath is called praṭyāhāra. Whatever he sees with his eyes, let him consider as Āṭmā. Whatever he hears with his ears let him consider as Āṭmā. Whatever he he smells with his nose let him consider as Āṭmā. Whatever he tastes with his tongue let him consider as Āṭmā. Whatever the yogin touches with his skin let him consider as Āṭmā. The yogin should thus unwearied gratify his organs of sense for a period of one yāma every day with great effort. Then various wonderful powers are attained by the yogin, such as clairvoyance, clairaudience, ability to transport himself to great distances within a moment, great power of speech, ability to take any form, ability to become invisible, and the transmutation of iron into gold when the former is smeared over with his excretion.
“That yogin who is constantly practising yoga attains the power to levitate. Then should the wise yogin think that these powers are great obstacles to the attainment of yoga, and so he should never take delight in them. The king of yogins should not exercise his powers before any person whatsoever. He should live in the world as a fool, an idiot, or a deaf man, in order to keep his powers concealed. His disciples would, without doubt, request him to show his powers for the gratification of their own desires. One who is actively engaged in one’s duties forgets to practise (yoga); so he should practise day and night yoga without forgetting the words of the guru. Thus passes the ghata state to one who is constantly engaged in yoga practice. To one nothing is gained by useless company, since thereby he does not practise yoga. So one should with great effort practise yoga. Then by this constant practice is gained the parichaya state (the third state). Vāyu (or breath) through arduous practice pierces along with agni the Kuṇdalinī through thought and enters the Sushumnā uninterrupted. When one’s chiṭṭa enters Sushumnā along with prāṇa, it reaches the high seat (of the head probably) along with prāṇa.
“There are the five elements (viz.,) pṛṭhivī, āpas, agni, vāyu and ākāś. To the body of the five elements, there is the fivefold ḍhāraṇā. From the feet to the knees is said to be the region of pṛṭhivī, is four-sided in shape, is yellow in colour and has the varṇa (or letter) La. Carrying the breath with the letter La along the region of earth (viz., from the foot to the knees) and contemplating upon Brahmā with four faces and four mouths and of a golden colour, one should perform ḍhāraṇā there for a period of two hours. He then attains mastery over the earth. Death does not trouble him, since he has obtained mastery over the earth element. The region of āpas is said to extend from the knees to the anus. Āpas is semi-lunar in shape and white in colour and has Va for its bīja (seed) letter. Carrying up the breath with the letter Va along the region of āpas, he should contemplate on the God Nārāyaṇa having four arms and a crowned head, as being of the colour of pure crystal, as dressed in orange clothes and as decayless; and practising ḍhāraṇā there for a period of two hours, he is freed from all sins. Then there is no fear for him from water, and he does not meet his death in water. From the anus to the heart is said to be the region of agni. Agni is triangular in shape, of red colour, and has the letter Ra for its (bīja) seed. Raising the breath made resplendent through the letter Ra along the region of fire, he should contemplate on Ruḍra, who has three eyes, who grants all wishes, who is of the colour of the midday sun, who is daubed all over with holy ashes and who is of a pleased countenance. Practising ḍhāraṇā there for a period of two hours, he is not burnt by fire even though his body enters the fire-pit. From the heart to the middle of the eyebrows is said to be the region of vāyu. Vāyu is hexangular in shape, black in colour and shines with the letter Ya. Carrying the breath along the region of vāyu, he should contemplate on Īśvara, the Omniscient, as possessing faces on all sides; and practising ḍhāraṇā there for two hours, he enters vāyu and then ākāś. The yogin does not meet his death through the fear of vāyu. From the centre of the eyebrows to the top of the head is said to be the region of ākāś, is circular in shape, smoky in colour and shining with the letter Ha. Raising the breath along the region of ākāś, he should contemplate on Saḍāśiva in the following manner, as producing happiness, as of the shape of binḍu, as the great ḍeva, as having the shape of ākāś, as shining like pure crystal, as wearing the rising crescent of moon on his head, as having five faces, ten heads and three eyes, as being of a pleased countenance, as armed with all weapons, as adorned with all ornaments, as having Umā (the goddess) in one-half of his body, as ready to grant favours, and as the cause of all the causes. By practising ḍhāraṇā in the region of ākāś, he obtains certainly the power of levitating in the ākāś (ether). Wherever he stays, he enjoys supreme bliss. The proficient in yoga should practise these five ḍhāraṇās. Then his body becomes strong and he does not know death. That great-minded man does not die even during the deluge of Brahmā.
“Then he should practise ḍhāraṇā for a period of six ghatikās (2 hours, 24 minutes). Restraining the breath in (the region of) ākāś and contemplating on the deity who grants his wishes—this is said to be saguṇa1 ḍhyāna capable of giving (the sidḍhis) aṇimā, etc. One who is engaged in nirguṇa1 ḍhyāna attains the stage of samāḍhi. Within twelve days at least, he attains the stage of samāḍhi. Restraining his breath, the wise one becomes an emancipated person. Samāḍhi is that state in which the jīvāṭmā (lower self) and the Paramāṭmā (higher self) are differenceless (or of equal state). If he desires to lay aside his body, he can do so. He will become absorbed in Parabrahman and does not require uṭkrānṭi (going out or up). But if he does not so desire, and if his body is dear to him, he lives in all the worlds possessing the siḍḍhis of aṇimā, etc. Sometimes he becomes a ḍeva and lives honoured in svarga; or he becomes a man or an yaksha through his will. He can also take the form of a lion, tiger, elephant, or horse through his own will. The yogin becoming the great Lord can live as long as he likes. There is difference only in the modes of procedure but the result is the same.
“Place the left heel pressed on the anus, stretch the right leg and hold it firmly with both hands. Place the head on the breast and inhale the air slowly. Restrain the breath as long as you can and then slowly breathe out. After practising it with the left foot, practise it with the right. Place the foot that was stretched before on the thigh. This is mahābanḍha and should be practised on both sides. The yogin sitting in mahābanḍha and having inhaled the air with intent mind, should stop the course of vāyu (inside) by means of the throat-muḍrā, and occupying the two sides (of the throat) with speed. This is called mahāveḍha and is frequently practised by the siḍḍhas. With the tongue thrust into the interior cavity of the head (or throat) and with the eyes intent on the spot between the eyebrows, this is called khecharīmuḍrā. Contracting the muscles of the neck and placing the head with a firm will on the breast, this is called the jālanḍhara (banḍha) and is a lion to the elephant of death. That banḍha by which prāna flies through Sushumnā is called uddiyāṇabanḍha by the yogins. Pressing the heel firmly against the anus, contracting the anus and drawing up the apāna, this is said to be yonibanḍha. Through mūlabanḍha, prāṇa and apāna as well as nāḍa and binḍu are united and gives success in yoga: there is no doubt about this. To one practising in a reversed manner (or on both sides) which destroys all diseases, the gastric fire is increased. Therefore a practitioner should collect a large quantity of provisions, (for) if he takes a small quantity of food, the fire (within) will consume his body in a moment.
“On the first day, he should stand on his head with the feet raised up for a moment. He should increase this period gradually every day. Wrinkles and greyness of hair will disappear within three months. He who practises only for a period of a yāma (twenty-four minutes) every day conquers time. He who practises vajrolī becomes a yogin and the repository of all siḍḍhis. If the yoga siḍḍhis are ever to be attained, he only has them within his reach. He knows the past and the future and certainly moves in the air. He who drinks of the nectar thus is rendered immortal day by day. He should daily practise vajrolī. Then it is called amarolī. Then he obtains the rājayoga and certainly he does not meet with obstacles. When a yogin fulfils his action by rājayoga, then he certainly obtains discrimination and indifference to objects. Vishṇu, the great yogin, the grand one of great austerities and the most excellent Purusha is seen as a lamp in the path of truth.
“That breast from which one suckled before (in his previous birth) he now presses (in love) and obtains pleasure. He enjoys the same genital organ from which he was born before. She who was once his mother will now be wife and she who is now wife is (or will be) verily mother. He who is now father will be again son, and he who is now son will be again father. Thus are the egos of this world wandering in the womb of birth and death like a bucket in the wheel of a well and enjoying the worlds. There are the three worlds, three veḍas, three sanḍhyās, (morning, noon and evening), three svaras (sounds), three agnis, and guṇas, and all these are placed in the three letters (Om). He who understands that which is indestructible and is the meaning of the three (Om)—by him are all these worlds strung. This is the Truth, the supreme seat. As the smell in the flower, as the ghee in the milk, as the oil in the gingelly seed and as the gold in the quartz, so is the lotus situated in the heart. Its face is downwards and its stem upwards. Its binḍu is downwards and in its centre is situated manas. By the letter A, the lotus becomes expanded; by the letter U, it becomes split (or opened), by the letter M, it obtains nāda; and the arḍhamāṭrā (half-metre) is silence. The person engaged in yoga obtains the the supreme seat, which is like a pure crystal, which is without parts and which destroys all sins. As a tortoise draws its hands and head within itself, so drawing in air thus and expelling it through the nine holes of the body, he breathes upwards and forwards. Like a lamp in an air-tight jar which is motionless, so that which is seen motionless through the process of yoga in the heart and which is free from turmoil, after having been drawn from the nine holes, is said to be Āṭmā alone.”
ḌHYĀNABINḌU-UPANISHAḌ1 OF SĀMAVEḌA
Even if sin should accumulate to a mountain extending over many yojanas (distance), it is destroyed by ḍhyānayoga. At no time has been found a destroyer of sins like this. Bījākshara (seed-letter) is the supreme binḍu. Nāḍa (spiritual sound) is above it. When that nāḍa ceases along with letter, than the nāḍa-less is supreme state. That yogin who considers as the highest that which is above nāḍa, which is anāhaṭa,2 has all his doubts destroyed. If the point of a hair be divided into one-hundred thousand parts, this (nāḍa) is one-half of that still further divided; and when (even) this is absorbed, the yogin attains to the stainless Brahman. One who is of a firm mind and without the delusion (of sensual pleasures) and ever resting in Brahman, should see like the string (in a rosary of beads) all creatures (as existing) in Āṭmā like odour in flowers, ghee in milk, oil in gingelly seeds and gold in quartz. Again just as the oil depends for its manifestation upon gingelly seeds and odour upon flowers, so does the Purusha depend for its existence upon the body, both external and internal. The tree is with parts and its shadow is without parts but with and without parts, Āṭmā exists everywhere.
The one akshara (letter Om) should be contemplated upon as Brahman by all who aspire for emancipation. Pṛṭhivī, agni, ṛgveḍa, bhūḥ and Brahmā—all these (are absorbed) when Akāra (A), the first amśa (part) of praṇava (Om) becomes absorbed. Anṭariksha, yajurveḍa, vāyu, bhuvaḥ and Vishṇu, the Janārḍana—all these (are absorbed) when Ukāra (U), the second amśa of praṇava becomes absorbed. Ḍyur, sun, sāmaveḍa, suvaḥ and Maheśvara—all these (are absorbed) when Makāra (M), the third amśa of praṇava becomes absorbed. Akāra is of (pīṭa) yellow colour and is said to be of rajoguṇa; Ukāra is of white colour and of saṭṭvaguṇa; Makāra is of dark colour and of ṭamoguṇa. He who does not know Omkāra as having eight aṅgas (parts), four pāḍas (feet), three sṭhānas (seats) and five ḍevaṭās (presiding deities) is not a Brāhmaṇa. Praṇava is the bow. Āṭmā is the arrow and Brahman is said to be the aim. One should aim at it with great care and then he, like the arrow, becomes one with It. When that Highest is cognised, all karmas return (from him, viz., do not affect him). The Veḍas have Omkāra as their cause. The swaras (sounds) have Omkara as their cause. The three worlds with (all) the locomotive and the fixed (ones in them) have Omkāra as their cause. The short (accent of Om) burns all sins, the long one is decayless and the bestower of prosperity. United with arḍhamāṭrā (half-metre of Om), the praṇava becomes the bestower of salvation. That man is the knower of the Veḍas who knows that the end (viz., arḍhamāṭrā) of praṇava should be worshipped (or recited) as uninterrupted as the flow of oil and (resounding) as long as the sound of a bell. One should contemplate upon Omkāra as Īśvara resembling an unshaken light, as of the size of a thumb and as motionless in the middle of the pericarp of the lotus of the heart. Taking in vāyu through the left nostril and filling the stomach with it, one should contemplate upon Omkāra as being in the middle of the body and as surrounded by circling flames. Brahmā is said to be inspiration; Vishṇu is said to be cessation (of breath), and Ruḍra is said to be expiration. These are the ḍevaṭās of prāṇāyāma. Having made Āṭmā as the (lower) araṇi (sacrificial wood) and praṇava as the upper araṇi, one should see the God in secret through the practice of churning which is ḍhyāna. One should practise restraint of breath as much as it lies in his power along with (the uttering of) Omkāra sound, until it ceases completely. Those who look upon Om as of the form of Hamsa staying in all, shining like crores of suns, being alone, staying in gamāgama (ever going and coming) and being devoid of motion—at last such persons are freed from sin. That manas which is the author of the actions (viz.), creation, preservation and destruction of the three worlds, is (then) absorbed (in the supreme One). That is the highest state of Vishṇu.
The lotus of the heart has eight petals and thirty-two filaments. The sun is in its midst: the moon is in the middle of the sun. Agni is in the middle of the moon: the prabhā (spiritual light) is in the middle of agni. Pītha (seat or centre) is in the midst of prabhā, being set in diverse gems. One should meditate upon the stainless Lord Vāsuḍeva as being (seated) upon the centre of Pītha, as having Śrīvaṭsa1 (black mark) and Kausṭubha (garland of gems) on his chest and as adorned with gems and pearls resembling pure crystal in lustre and as resembling crores of moons in brightness. He should meditate upon Mahā-Vishṇu as above or in the following manner. (That is) he should meditate with inspiration (of breath) upon Mahā-Vishṇu as resembling the aṭasī flower and as staying in the seat of navel with four hands; then with restraint of breath, he should meditate in the heart upon Brahmā, the Grandfather as being on the lotus with the gaura (pale-red) colour of gems and having four faces: then through expiration, he should meditate upon the three-eyed Śiva between the two eyebrows shining like the pure crystal, being stainless, destroying all sins, being in that which is like the lotus facing down with its flower (or face) below and the stalk above or like the flower of a plantain tree, being of the form of all Veḍas, containing one hundred petals and one hundred leaves and having the pericarp full-expanded. There he should meditate upon the sun, the moon and the agni, one above another. Passing above through the lotus which has the brightness of the sun, moon and agni, and taking its Hrīm bīja (letter), one leads his Āṭmā firmly. He is the knower of Veḍas who knows the three seats, the three māṭrās, the three Brahmās, the three aksharas (letters) and the three mātrās associated with the arḍhamāṭrā. He who knows that which is above binḍu, nāḍa and kalā as uninterrupted as the flow of oil and (resounding) as long as the sound of a bell—that man is a knower of the Veḍas. Just as a man would draw up (with his mouth) the water through the (pores of the) lotus-stalk, so the yogin treading the path of yoga should draw up the breath. Having made the lotus-sheath of the form of arḍhamāṭrā, one should draw up the breath through the stalk (of the nādis Sushumnā, Idā and Piṅgalā) and absorb it in the middle of the eyebrows. He should know that the middle of the eyebrows in the forehead which is also the root of the nose is the seat of nectar. That is the great place of Brahman.
Postures, restraint of breath, subjugation of the senses ḍhāraṇā, ḍhyāna and samāḍhi are the six parts of yoga. There are as many postures as there are living creatures; and Maheśvara (the great Lord) knows their distinguishing features. Siḍḍha, bhaḍra, simha and paḍma are the four (chief) postures. Mūlādhāra is the first chakra. Svādhishthāna is the second. Between these two is said to be the seat of yoni (perineum), having the form of Kāma (God of love). In the Ādhāra of the anus, there is the lotus of four petals. In its midst is said to be the yoni called Kāma and worshipped by the siḍḍhas. In the midst of the yoni is the Liṅga facing the west and split at its head like the gem. He who knows this, is a knower of the Veḍas. A four-sided figure is situated above agni and below the genital organ, of the form of molten gold and shining like streaks of lightning. Prāṇa is with its sva (own) sound, having Svāḍhishthāna as its aḍhishthāna (seat), (or since sva or prāṇa arises from it). The chakra Svāḍhishthāna is spoken of as the genital organ itself. The chakra in the sphere of the navel is called Maṇipūraka, since the body is pierced through by vāyu like maṇis (gems) by string. The jīva (ego) urged to actions by its past virtuous and sinful karmas whirls about in this great chakra of twelve1 spokes, so long as it does not grasp the truth. Above the genital organ and below the navel is kanḍa of the shape of a bird’s egg. There arise (from it) nādis seventy-two thousand in number. Of these seventy-two are generally known. Of these, the chief ones are ten and carry the prāṇas. Idā, Piṅgalā, Sushumnā, Gānḍhārī, Hasṭijihvā, Pūshā, Yaśasvinī, Alambusā, Kuhūh and Śāṅkhinī are said to be the ten. This chakra of the nādis should ever be known by the yogins. The three nādis Ida, Piṅgalā and Sushumnā are said to carry prāṇa always and have as their ḍevaṭās, moon, sun and agni. Idā is on the left side and Piṅgalā on the right side, while the Sushumnā is in the middle. These three are known to be the paths of prāṇa. Prāṇa, Apāna, Samāna, Udāna, and Vyāna; Nāga, Kūrma, Kṛkara, Ḍevaḍaṭṭa and Ḍhanañjaya; of these, the first five are called prāṇas, etc., and last five Nāga, etc. are called vāyus (or sub-prāṇas). All these are situated (or run along) the one thousand nādis, (being) in the form of (or producing) life. Jīva which is under the influence of prāṇa and apāna goes up and down. Jīva on account of its ever moving by the left and right paths is not visible. Just as a ball struck down (on the earth) with the bat of the hand springs up, so jīva ever tossed by prāṇa and apāna is never at rest. He is knower of yoga who knows that prāṇa always draws itself from apāna and apāna draws itself from prāṇa, like a bird (drawing itself from and yet not freeing itself) from the string (to which it is tied).
The jīva comes out with the letter Ha and gets in again with the letter Sa. Thus jīva always utters the manṭra ‘Hamsa,’ ‘Hamsa’. The jīva always utters the manṭra twenty-one thousand and six hundred times in one day and night. This is called Ajapā Gāyaṭrī and is ever the bestower of nirvāṇa to the yogins. Through its very thought, man is freed from sins. Neither in the past nor in the future is there a science equal to this, a japa equal to this or a meritorious action equal to this. Parameśvarī (viz., kuṇdalinī śakṭi) sleeps shutting with her mouth that door which leads to the decayless Brahma-hole. Being aroused by the contact of agni with manas and prāṇa, she takes the form of a needle and pierces up through Sushumnā. The yogin should open with great effort this door which is shut. Then he will pierce the door to salvation by means of kuṇdalinī. Folding firmly the fingers of the hands, assuming firmly the Paḍma posture, placing the chin firmly on the breast and fixing the mind in ḍhyāna, one should frequently raise up the apāna, fill up with air and then leave the prāṇa. Then the wise man gets matchless wisdom through (this) śakṭi. That yogin who assuming Paḍma posture worships (i.e., controls) vāyu at the door of the nādis and then performs restraint of breath is released without doubt. Rubbing off the limbs the sweat arising from fatigue, abandoning all acid, bitter and saltish (food), taking delight in the drinking of milk and rasa, practising celibacy, being moderate in eating and ever bent on yoga, the yogin becomes a siḍḍha in little more than a year. No inquiry need be made concerning the result. Kuṇdalinī śakṭi, when it is up in the throat, makes the yogi get siḍḍhi. The union of prāṇa and apāna has the extinction of urine and fæces.
One becomes young even when old through performing mūlabanḍha always. Pressing the yoni by means of the heels and contracting the anus and drawing up the apāna—this is called mūlabanḍha. Uddiyāṇa banḍha is so called because it is (like) a great bird that flies up always without rest. One should bring the western part of the stomach above the navel. This Uddiyāṇa banḍha is a lion to the elephant of death, since it binds the water (or nectar) of the ākāś which arises in the head and flows down. The Jālanḍhara banḍha is the destroyer of all the pains of the throat. When this Jālanḍhara banḍha which is destroyer of the pains of the throat is performed, then nectar does not fall on agni nor does the vāyu move. When the tongue enters backwards into the hole of the skull, then there is the muḍrā of vision latent in the eyebrow called khecharī. He who knows the muḍrā, khecharī has not disease, death, sleep, hunger, thirst, or swoon. He who practises this muḍrā is not affected by illness or karma; nor is he bound by the limitations of time. Since chiṭṭa moves in the kha (ākāś) and since the tongue has entered (in the muḍrā) kha (viz., the hole in the mouth), therefore the muḍrā is called khecharī and worshipped by the siḍḍhas. He whose hole (or passage) above the uvula is closed (with the tongue backwards) by means of khecharīmuḍrā never loses his virility, even when embraced by a lovely woman. Where is the fear of death, so long as the binḍu (virility) stays in the body. Binḍu does not go out of the body, so long as the khecharīmuḍra is practised. (Even) when bindu comes down to the sphere of the perineum, it goes up, being prevented and forced up by violent effort through yonimuḍrā. This binḍu is twofold, white and red. The white one is called śukla and the red one is said to contain much rajas. The rajas which stays in yoni is like the colour of a coral. The binḍu stays in the seat of the genital organs. The union of these two is very rare. Binḍu is śiva and rajas is śakti. Binḍu is the moon and rajas is the sun. Through the union of these two is attained the highest body; when rajas is roused up by agitating the śakṭi through vāyu which unites with the sun, thence is produced the divine form. Śukla being united with the moon and rajas with the sun, he is a knower of yoga who knows the proper mixture of these two. The cleansing of the accumulated refuse, the unification of the sun and the moon and the complete drying of the rasas (essences), this is called mahāmuḍrā. Placing the chin on the breast, pressing the anus by means of the left heel, and seizing (the toe of) the extended right leg by the two hands, one should fill his belly (with air) and should slowly exhale. This is called mahāmuḍrā, the destroyer of the sins of men.
Now I shall give a description of Āṭmā. In the seat of the heart is a lotus of eight petals. In its centre is jīvāṭmā of the form of jyoṭis and atomic in size, moving in a circular line. In it is located everything. It knows everything. It does everything. It does all these actions attributing everything to its own power, (thinking) I do, I enjoy, I am happy, I am miserable, I am blind, I am lame, I am deaf, I am mute, I am lean, I am stout, etc. When it rests on the eastern petal which is of śveta (white) colour, then it has a mind (or is inclined) to ḍharma with bhakṭi (devotion). When it rests on the southeastern petal, which is of rakṭa (blood colour), then it is inclined to sleep and laziness. When it rests on the southern petal, which is of kṛshṇa (black) colour, then it is inclined to hate and anger. When it rests on the south-western petal which is of nīla (blue) colour, then it gets desire for sinful or harmful actions. When it rests on the western petal which is of crystal colour, then it is inclined to flirt and amuse. When it rests on the north-western petal which is of ruby colour, then it has a mind to walk, rove and have vairāgya (or be indifferent). When it rests on the northern petal which is pīṭa (yellow) colour, then it is inclined to be happy and to be loving. When it rests on the north-eastern petal which is of vaidūrya (lapis lazuli) colour, then it is inclined to amassing money, charity and passion. When it stays in the interspace between any two petals, then it gets the wrath arising from diseases generated through (the disturbance of the equilibrium of) vāyu, bile and phlegm (in the body). When it stays in the middle, then it knows everything, sings, dances, speaks and is blissful. When the eye is pained (after a day’s work), then in order to remove (its) pain, it makes first a circular line and sinks in the middle. The first line is of the colour of banḍhūka flower (Bassia). Then is the state of sleep. In the middle of the state of sleep is the state of dream. In the middle of the state of dream, it experiences the ideas of perception, Veḍas, inference, possibility, (sacred) words, etc. Then there arises much fatigue. In order to remove this fatigue, it circles the second line and sinks in the middle. The second is of the colour of (the insect) Indragopa (of red or white colour). Then comes the state of dreamless sleep.
During the dreamless sleep, it has only the thought connected with Parameśvara (the highest Lord) alone. This state is of the nature of eternal wisdom. Afterwards it attains the nature of the highest Lord (Parameśvara). Then it makes a round of the third circle and sinks in the middle. The third circle is of the colour of paḍmarāga (ruby). Then comes the state of ṭurya (the fourth). In ṭurya, there is only the connection of Paramāṭmā. It attains the nature of eternal wisdom. Then one should gradually attain the quiescence of buḍḍhi with self-control. Placing the manas in Āṭmā, one should think of nothing else. Then causing the union of prāṇa and apāna, he concentrates his aim upon the whole universe being of the nature of Āṭmā. Then comes the state of ṭuryāṭīṭa (viz., that state beyond the fourth). Then everything appears as bliss. He is beyond the pairs (of happiness and pains, etc.). He stays here as long as he should wear his body. Then he attains the nature of Paramāṭmā and attains emancipation through this means. This alone is the means of knowing Āṭmā.
When vāyu (breath) which enters the great hole associated with a hall where four roads meet gets into the half of the well-placed triangle,1 then is Achyuṭa (the indestructible) seen. Above the aforesaid triangle, one should meditate on the five bīja (seed) letters of (the elements) pṛṭhivi, etc., as also on the five prāṇas, the colour of the bījas and their position. The letter य2 is the bīja of prāṇa and resembles the blue cloud. The letter र is the bīja of agni, is of apāna and resembles the sun. The letter ल is the bīja of pṛṭhivī, is of vyāna and resembles bandhūka flower. The letter व is the bīja of jīva (or vayu), is of uḍāna and is of the colour of the conch. The letter ह is the bīja of ākāś, is of samāna, and is of the colour of crystal. Prāṇa stays in the heart, navel, nose, ear, foot, finger, and other places, travels through the seventy-two thousand nādis, stays in the twenty-eight crores of hair-pores and is yet the same everywhere. It is that which is called jīva. One should perform the three, expiration, etc., with a firm will and great control: and drawing in everything (with the breath) in slow degrees, he should bind prāṇa and apāna in the cave of the lotus of the heart and utter praṇava, having contracted his throat and the genital organ. From the Mūlāḍhāra (to the head) is the Sushumnā resembling the shining thread of the lotus. The nāḍa is located in the Vīṇāḍaṇda (spinal column); that sound from its middle resembles (that of) the conch, etc. When it goes to the hole of the ākāś, it resembles that of the peacock. In the middle of the cave of the skull between the four doors shines Āṭmā, like the sun in the sky. Between the two bows in the Brahma-hole, one should see Purusha with śakṭi as his own Āṭmā. Then his manas is absorbed there. That man attains kaivalya who understands the gems, moonlight, nāḍa, binḍu, and the seat of Maheśvara (the great Lord).
Thus is the Upanishaḍ.
HAMSA1 -UPANISHAḌ OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Gauṭama addressed Sanaṭkumāra thus: “O Lord, thou art the knower of all ḍharmas and art well versed in all Śāsṭras, pray tell me the means by which I may obtain a knowledge of Brahmaviḍyā. Sanaṭkumāra replied thus:
“Hear, O Gauṭama, that Ṭaṭṭva as expounded by Pārvaṭī after inquiring into all ḍharmas and ascertaining Śiva’s opinion. This treatise on the nature of Hamsa which gives the fruit of bliss and salvation and which is like a treasure to the yogin, is (a) very mystic (science) and should not be revealed (to the public).
“Now we shall explain the true nature of Hamsa and Paramahamsa for the benefit of a brahmachārin (a seeker after Brahman or celibate), who has his desires under control, is devoted to his guru and always contemplates (as) Hamsa, and realises thus: It (Hamsa) is permeating all bodies like fire (or heat) in all kinds of wood or oil in all kinds of gingelly seeds. Having known (It) thus, one does not meet with death.
“Having contracted the anus (with the heels pressed against it), having raised the vāyu (breath) from (Mūla)2 Āḍhāra (chakra), having made circuit thrice round Svāḍhishthāna, having gone to Maṇipūraka, having crossed Anāhaṭa, having controlled Prāṇa in Viśuḍḍhi and then having reached Ājñā, one contemplates in Brahmaranḍhra (in the head), and having meditated there always ‘I am of three māṭrās,’ cognises (his Self) and becomes formless. The Śisna1 (penis) has two sides (left and right from head to foot). This is that Paramahamsa (Supreme Hamsa or Higher Self) having the resplendence of crores of suns and by whom all this world is pervaded.
“It (this Hamsa which has buḍḍhi as vehicle)2 has eight-fold vṛṭṭi. (When it is) in the eastern3 petal, there is the inclination (in a person) to virtuous actions; in the south-eastern petal, there arise sleep, laziness, etc.; in the southern, there is the inclination to cruelty; in the south-western, there is the inclination to sins; in the western, there is the inclination to sensual sport; in the north-western, there arise the desire of walking, and others; in the northern, there arises the desire of lust; in the north-eastern, there arises the desire of amassing money; in the middle (or the interspaces between the petals), there is the indifference to material pleasures. In the filament (of the lotus), there arises the waking state; in the pericarp, there arises the svapna (dreaming state); in the bīja (seed of pericarp), there arises the sushupṭi (dreamless sleeping state); when leaving the lotus, there is the ṭurya (fourth state). When Hamsa is absorbed in Nāḍa (spiritual sound), the state beyond the fourth is reached. Nāḍa (which is at the end of sound and beyond speech and mind) is like a pure crystal extending from (Mūla) Ādhāra to Brahmaranḍhra. It is that which is spoken of as Brahmā and Paramāṭmā.
“(Here the performance of Ajapā Gāyaṭrī is given).
“Now Hamsa is the ṛshi; the metre is Avyakṭā Gāyaṭrī; Paramahamsa is the ḍevaṭā (or presiding deity) ‘Ham’ is the bīja; ‘Sa’ is the śakṭī; So’ham is the kīlaka.4 Thus there are six. There are 21,600 Hamsas (or breaths)1 in a day and night. (Salutation2 to) Surya, Soma, Nirañjana (the stainless) and Nirābhāsa (the universeless). Ajapāmānṭra. (May) the bodiless and subtle one guide3 (or illuminate my understanding). Vaushat to Agni-Soma. Then Aṅganyāsas and Karanyāsas occur (or should be performed after the manṭras as they are performed before the manṭras) in the heart and other (seats). Having done so, one should contemplate upon Hamsa as the Āṭmā in his heart. Agni and Soma are its wings (right and left sides); Omkāra is its head; Ukāra and binḍu are the three eyes4 and face respectively; Ruḍra and Ruḍrāṇī (or Ruḍra’s wife) are the feet kanthaṭa (or the realisation of the oneness of jīvāṭmā or Hamsa, the lower self with Paramāṭmā or Paramahamsa, the Higher Self) is done in two ways, (samprajñāṭa5 and asamprajñāṭa).
“After that, Unmanī6 is the end of the Ajapā (manṭra). Having thus reflected upon manas by means of this (Hamsa), one hears Nāḍa after the uttering of this japa (manṭra) a crore of times. It (Nāḍa) is (begun to be heard as) of ten kinds. The first is chini (like the sound of that word); the second is chini-chini; the third is the sound of bell; the fourth is that of conch; the fifth is that of ṭanṭri (lute); the sixth is that sound of ṭāla (cymbals); the seventh is that of flute; the eighth is that of bheri (drum); the ninth is that of mṛḍaṅga (double drum); and the tenth is that of clouds (viz., thunder). He may experience the tenth without the first nine sounds (through the initiation of a guru). In the first stage, his body becomes chini-chini; in the second, there is the (bhañjana) breaking (or affecting) in the body; in the third, there is the (bheḍana) piercing; in the fourth, the head shakes; in the fifth, the palate produces saliva; in the sixth, nectar is attained; in the seventh, the knowledge of the hidden (things in the world) arises; in the eighth, Parāvāk is heard; in the ninth, the body becomes invisible and the pure divine eye is developed; in the tenth, he attains Parabrahman in the presence of (or with) Āṭmā which is Brahman. After that, when manas is destroyed, when it which is the source of saṅkalpa and vikalpa disappears, owing to the destruction of these two, and when virtues and sins are burnt away, then he shines as Saḍāśiva of the nature of Śakṭi pervading everywhere, being effulgence in its very essence, the immaculate, the eternal, the stainless and the most quiescent Om. Thus is the teaching of the Veḍas; and thus is the Upanishaḍ.”
AMṚṬANĀḌA-UPANISHAḌ1 OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
The wise, having studied the Śāsṭras and reflected on thom again and again and having come to know Brahman, should abandon them all like a firebrand. Having ascended the car of Om with Vishṇu (the Higher Self) as the charioteer, one wishing to go to the seat of Brahmaloka intent on the worship of Ruḍra, should go in the chariot so long as he can go. Then abandoning the car, he reaches the place of the Lord of the car. Having given up māṭrā, liṅga,2 and paḍa,3 he attains the subtle paḍa (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by means of the letter M without the svara (accent). That is called praṭyāhāra when one merely thinks of the five objects of sense, such as sound, etc., as also the very unsteady mind as the reins of Āṭmā. Praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), ḍhyāna (contemplation), prāṇāyāma (control of breath), ḍhāraṇā (concentration), tārka4 and samāḍhi are said to be the six parts of yoga. Just as the impurities of mountain-minerals are burnt by the blower, so the stains committed by the organs are burned by checking prāṇa. Through prāṇāyāmas should be burnt the stains; through dhāraṇā, the sins; through praṭyāhāra, the (bad) associations; and through ḍhyāna, the godless qualities. Having destroyed the sins, one should think of Ruchira (the shining). Ruchira (cessation), expiration and inspiration—these three are prāṇāyāma of (rechaka, pūraka and kumbhaka) expiration, inspiration and cessation of breath. That is called (one) prāṇāyāma when one repeats with a prolonged (or elongated) breath three times the Gāyaṭrī with its vyāhṛṭis and Praṇava (before it) along with the śiras1 (the head) joining after it. Raising up the vāyu from the ākāś (region, viz., the heart) and making the body void (of vāyu) and empty and uniting (the soul) to the state of void, is called rechaka (expiration). That is called pūraka (inspiration) when one takes in vāyu, as a man would take water into his mouth through the lotus-stalk. That is called kumbhaka (cessation of breath) when there is no expiration or inspiration and the body is motionless, remaining still in one state. Then he sees forms like the blind, hears sounds like the deaf and sees the body like wood. This is the characteristic of one that has attained much quiescence. That is called ḍhāraṇā when the wise man regards the mind as saṅkalpa and merging saṅkalpa into Āṭmā, contemplates upon his Āṭmā (alone). That is called ṭārka when one makes inference which does not conflict with the Veḍas. That is called samāḍhi in which one, on attaining it, thinks (all) equal.
Seating himself on the ground on a seat of kuśa grass which is pleasant and devoid of all evils, having protected himself mentally (from all evil influences), uttering raṭha-maṇdala,2 assuming either paḍma, svasṭika, or bhaḍra posture or any other which can be practised easily, facing the north and closing the nostril with the thumb, one should inspire through the other nostril and retain breath inside and preserve the Agni (fire). Then he should think of the sound (Om) alone. Om, the one letter is Brahman; Om should not be breathed out. Through this divine manṭra (Om), it should be done many times to rid himself of impurity. Then as said before, the manṭra-knowing wise should regularly meditate, beginning with the navel upwards in the gross, the primary (or less) gross and subtle (states). The greatly wise should give up all (sight) seeing across, up or down, and should practise yoga always being motionless and without tremor. The union as stated (done) by remaining without tremor in the hollow stalk (viz., Sushumnā) alone is ḍhāraṇā. The yoga with the ordained duration of twelve māṭrās is called (ḍhāraṇā). That which never decays is Akshara (Om) which is without ghosha (third, fourth, and fifth letters from K), consonant, vowel, palatal, guttural, nasal, letter R and sibilants. Prāṇa travels through (or goes by) that path through which this Akshara (Om) goes. Therefore it should be practised daily, in order to pass along that (course). It is through the opening (or hole) of the heart, through the opening of vāyu (probably navel), through the opening of the head and through the opening of moksha. They call it bila (cave), sushira (hole), or maṇdala (wheel).1
(Then about the obstacles of yoga). A yogin should always avoid fear, anger, laziness, too much sleep or waking and too much food or fasting. If the above rule be well and strictly practised each day, spiritual wisdom will arise of itself in three months without doubt. In four months, he sees the ḍevas; in five months, he knows (or becomes) Brahmanishtha; and truly in six months he attains Kaivalya at will. There is no doubt.
That which is of the earth is of five māṭrās (or it takes five māṭrās to pronounce Pārṭhiva-Praṇava). That which is of water is of four māṭrās; of agni, three māṭrās; of vāyu, two; and of ākāś, one. But he should think of that which is with no māṭrās. Having united Āṭmā with manas, one should contemplate upon Āṭmā by means of āṭmā. Prāṇā is thirty2 digits long. Such is the position (or range) of prāṇas. That is called Prāṇa which is the seat of the external prāṇas. The breaths by day and night are numbered as 1,13,180.1 (Of the prāṇas) the first (viz.,) Prāṇa is pervading the heart; Apāna, the anus; Samāna, the navel; Uḍāna, the throat; and Vyāna, all parts of the body. Then come the colours of the five prāṇas in order. Prāṇa is said to be of the colour of a blood-red gem (or coral); Apāna which is in the middle is of the colour of Inḍragopa (an insect of white or red colour); Samāna is between the colour of pure milk and crystal (or oily and shining), between both (Prāṇa and Apāna): Uḍāna is apāṇdara (pale white); and Vyāna resembles the colour of archis (or ray of light). That man is never reborn wherever he may die, whose breath goes out of the head after piercing through this maṇdala (of the pineal gland). That man is never reborn.
VARĀHA1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
The great sage Ṛbhu performed penance for twelve ḍeva (divine) years. At the end of the time, the Lord appeared before him in the form of a boar. He said: “Rise, rise and choose your boon.” The sage got up and having prostrated himself before him said: “O Lord, I will not, in my dream, wish of thee those things that are desired by the worldy. All the Veḍas, Śāsṭras, Iṭihāsas2 and all the hosts of other sciences, as well as Brahmā and all the other Ḍevas, speak of emancipation as resulting from a knowledge of thy nature. So impart to me that science of Brahman which treats of thy nature.”
Then the boar-shaped Bhagavān (Lord) said: “Some disputants hold that there are twenty-four ṭaṭṭvas (principles) and some thirty-six, whilst others maintain that there are ninety-six. I shall relate them in their order. Listen with an attentive mind. The organs of sense are five, viz.: ear, skin, eye and others. The organs of action are five, viz.: mouth, hand, leg and others. Prāṇas (vital airs) are five;3 sound and others (viz., rudimentary principles) are five.4 Manas, buḍḍhi, chiṭṭa and ahaṅkāra are four;5 thus those that know Brahman know these to be the twenty-four ṭaṭṭvas. Besides these, the wise hold the quintuplicated elements to be five, viz.: earth, water, fire, vāyu and ākāś; the bodies to be three, viz.: the gross, the subtle and the kāraṇa or causal; the states of consciousness to be three, viz.: the waking, the dreaming and the dreamless sleeping. The munis know the total collection of ṭaṭṭvas to be thirty-six (coupled with jīva).
“With these ṭaṭṭvas, there are six changes, viz.: existence, birth, growth, transformation, decay and destruction. Hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, old age and death are said to be the six infirmities. Skin, blood, flesh, fat, marrow and bones are said to be the six sheaths. Passion, anger, avarice, delusion, pride and malice are the six kinds of foes. Viśva, Ṭaijasa and Prājña1 are the three aspects of the jīva. Saṭṭva, rajas and ṭamas are the three guṇas (qualities). Prārabḍha,2 sañchiṭa and āgāmin are the three karmas. Talking, lifting, walking, excreting and enjoying are the five actions (of the organs of action); and there are also thought, certainty, egoism, compassion, memory (functions of manas, etc.,), complacency, sympathy and indifference: ḍik (the quarters), Vāyu, Sun, Varuṇa,3 Aśvini ḍevas,4 Agni, Inḍra, Upenḍra,5 and Mṛṭyu (death): and then the moon, the four-faced Brahmā, Ruḍra, Ksheṭrajña,6 and Īśvara. Thus these are the ninety-six ṭaṭṭvas. Those that worship, with devotion, me of the form of boar, who am other than the aggregate of these ṭaṭṭvas and am without decay are released from ajñāna and its effects and become jīvanmukṭas. Those that know these ninety-six ṭaṭṭvas will attain salvation in whatever order of life they may be, whether they have matted hair or are of shaven head or have (only) their tuft of hair on.7 There is no doubt of this. Thus ends the first chapter.”
The great Ṛbhu (again) addressed the Lord of Lakshmī of the form of boar thus: “O Lord, please initiate me into the supreme Brahmaviḍyā (or science).” Then the Lord who removes the miseries of his devotees being thus questioned, answered thus: “Through (the right observance of) the duties of one’s own caste and orders of life, through religious austerities and through the pleasing of the guru (by serving him rightly), arise to persons the four, vairāgya, etc. They are the discrimination of the eternal from the non-eternal; indifference to the enjoyments of this and the other worlds; the acquisition of the six virtues, śama,1 etc., and the longing after liberation. These should be practised. Having subdued the sensual organs and having given up the conception of ‘mine’ in all objects, you should place your consciousness of ‘I’ in (or identify yourself with) me, who am the witness Chaiṭanya (consciousness). To be born as a human being is difficult—more difficult it is to be born as a male being—and more so is it to be born as a Brāhman. Even then, if the fool does not cognise through the hearing,2 etc., of veḍānṭa, the true nature of the Sachchiḍānanḍa (of Brahman) that is all-pervading, and that is beyond all caste and orders of life, when will he obtain moksha? I alone am happiness. There is none other. If there is said to be another, then it is not happiness. There is no such thing as love, except on my account. The love that is on account of me is not natural to me. As I am the seat of supreme love, that ‘I am not’ is not. He who is sought after by all, saying “I should become such,” is myself, the all-pervading. How can non-light affect Āṭmā, the self-shining which is no other than the light whence originates the words ‘I am not light’. My firm conviction is, whoever knows for certain that (Āṭmā) which is self-shining and has itself no basis (to rest upon), is one of vijñāna.
“The universe, jīva, Īśvara, māya and others do not really exist, except my full Āṭmā. I have not their characteristics. Karma which has ḍhāraṇā and other attributes and is of the form of darkness and ajñāna is not fit to touch (or affect) me, who am Āṭmā, the self-resplendent. That man who sees (his) Āṭmā which is all-witness and is beyond all caste and orders of life as of the nature of Brahman, becomes himself Brahman. Whoever sees, through the evidence of veḍānṭa, this visible universe as the Supreme Seat which is of the form of light, attains moksha at once. When that knowledge which dispels the idea that this body (alone) is Āṭmā, arises firmly in one’s mind as was before the knowledge that this body (alone) is Āṭmā, then that person, even though he does not desire moksha, gets it. Therefore how will a person be bound by karma, who always enjoys the bliss of Brahman which has the characteristics of Sachchiḍānanḍa, and which is other than ajñāna? Persons with spiritual eyes see Brahman, that is the witness of the three states that has the characteristics of be-ness, wisdom and bliss, that is the underlying meaning of the words ‘Thou’ (Ṭvam) and ‘I’ (Aham), and that is untouched by all the stains. As a blind man does not see the sun that is shining, so an ignorant person does not see (Brahman). Prajñāna alone is Brahman. It has truth and prajñāna as its characteristics. By thus cognising Brahman well, a person becomes immortal. One who knows his own Āṭmā as Brahman, that is bliss, and without duality and guṇas (qualities), and that is truth and absolute consciousness is not afraid of anything. That which is consciousness alone which is all-pervading, which is eternal, which is all-full, which is of the form of bliss, and which is indestructible, is the only true Brahman. It is the settled determination of Brahmajñānīs that there is naught else but that. As the world appears dark to the blind and bright to those having good eyes, so this world full of manifold miseries to the ignorant is full of happiness to the wise. In me, of the form of boar, who am infinite and the Bliss of absolute Consciousness, if there is the conception of non-dualism, where then is bondage? And who is the one to be emancipated? The real nature of all embodied objects is ever the absolute Consciousness. Like the pot seen by the eyes, the body and its aggregates are not (viz., do not really exist). Knowing, as Āṭmā, all the locomotive and fixed worlds that appear as other than Āṭmā, meditate upon them as ‘It I am’. Such a person then enjoys his real nature. There is no other to be enjoyed than one-Self. If there is anything that is, then Brahman alone has that attribute. One who is perfect in Brahmajñāna, though he always sees this established universe, does not see it other than his Āṭmā. By cognising clearly my form, one is not trammelled by karma. He is an undaunted person who by his own experience cognises as his own real nature all (the universe and Brahman) that is without the body and the organs of sense—that is the allwitness—that is the one noumenal vijñāna, that is the blissful Āṭmā (as contrasted with jīvāṭmā or the lower self) and that is the self-resplendent. He is one that should be known as ‘I’ (myself). O Ṛbhu, may you become He. After this, there will be never any experience of the world. Thereafter there will always be the experience of the wisdom of one’s own true nature. One who has thus known fully Āṭmā has neither emancipation nor bondage. Whoever meditates, even for one muhūrṭa (48 minutes) through the cognition of one’s own real form, upon Him who is dancing as the all-witness, is released from all bondage. Prostrations—prostrations to me who am in all the elements, who am the Chiḍāṭmā (viz, Āṭmā of the nature of wisdom) that is eternal and free and who am the Praṭyagāṭmā. O Ḍevaṭā, you are I. I am you. Prostrations on account of myself and yourself who are infinite and who are Chiḍāṭmā, myself being the supreme Īśa (Lord) and yourself being Śiva (of a beneficent nature). What should I do? Where should I go? What should I reject? (Nothing, because) the universe is filled by me as with the waters of the universal deluge. Whoever gives up (fond) love of the external, love of the internal and love of the body and thus gives up all associations, is merged in me. There is no doubt about it. That Paramahamsa (ascetic) who, though living in the world, keeps aloof from human congregation as from serpent, who regards a beautiful woman as a (living) corpse and the endless sensual objects as poison, and who has abandoned all passion and is indifferent towards all objects is no other than Vāsuḍeva,1 (viz.,) myself. This is saṭya (truth). This is nothing but truth. It is truth alone that is now said. I am Brahman, the truth. There is naught else but I.
“(The word) ‘upavāsa’ (lit., dwelling near) signifies the dwelling near (or union) of jīvāṭmā and Paramāṭmā and not (the religious observance as accepted by the world of) emaciating the body through fasts. To the ignorant, what is the use of the mere drying up of the body? By beating about the hole of a snake, can we be said to have killed the big snake within. A man is said to attain paroksha (indirect) wisdom when he knows (theoretically) that there is Brahman; but he is said to attain sākshāṭkāra (direct cognition) when he knows (or realises) that he is himself Brahman. When a yogin knows his Āṭmā to be the Absolute, then he becomes a jīvanmukṭa. To mahāṭmās, to be always in the state ‘I am Brahman’ conduces to their salvation. There are two words for bondage and moksha. They are ‘mine’ and ‘not mine’. Man is bound by ‘mine’, but he is released by ‘not mine’. He should abandon all the thoughts relating to externals and so also with reference to internals. O Ṛbhu having given up all thoughts, you should rest content (in your Āṭmā) ever.
“The whole of the universe is caused through saṅkalpa alone. It is only through saṅkalpa that the universe manifests. Having abandoned the universe, which is of the form of saṅkalpa and having fixed your mind upon the nirvikalpa (one which is changeless), meditate upon my abode in your heart. O most intelligent being, pass your time in meditating upon me, glorifying me in songs, talking about me to one another and thus devoting yourself entirely to me as the Supreme. Whatever is chiṭ (consciousness) in the universe is only Chinmāṭra. This universe is Chinmaya only. You are Chiṭ. I am Chiṭ: contemplate upon the worlds also as Chiṭ. Make the desires nil. Always be without any stain. How then can the bright lamp of Āṭmic vijñāna arising through the Veḍas be affected by the karma arising from the ignorance of the actor and the agent? Having given up not-Āṭmā and being in the world unaffected by it, delight only in the Chinmāṭra within, ever intent on the One. As the ākāś of the pot and that of the house are both located in the all-pervading ākāś, so the jīvas and Īśvara are only evolved out of me, the Chidākāś (the one ākāś of universal consciousness). So that which did not exist before the evolution of Āṭmās (jīvas and Īśvara) and that which is rejected at the end (viz., universal deluge) is called māyā by Brahmajñānīs through their discrimination. Should māyā and its effects (the universe) be annihilated, there is no state of Īśvara, there is no state of jīva. Therefore like the ākāś without its vehicle, I am the immaculate and Chit.
“The creation, sentient as well as non-sentient from īkshaṇā (thinking) to praveśa (entry) (as stated in Chhānḍogya-Upanishaḍ, Prapāthaka VI, Khaṇdas ii and iii) of those having the forms of jīvas and Īśvara is due to the creation (or illusion) of Īśvara; while the samsāra (worldly existence) from the waking state to salvation is due to the creation of jīva. So the karmas ordained in the sacrifice (called) Ṭriṇāchaka (so called after Nachikeṭas of Katha-Upanishaḍ) to yoga are dependent upon the illusion of Īśvara; while (the systems from) Lokāyaṭa (atheistical system) to sāṅkhya rest on the illusion of jīva. Therefore aspirants after salvation should never make their heads enter into the field of controversy regarding jīva and Īśvara. But with an undisturbed mind, the ṭaṭṭvas of Brahman should be investigated. Those who do not cognise the ṭaṭṭva of the secondless Brahman are all deluded persons only. Whence (then) is salvation to them? Whence then is happiness (to them) in this universe? What if they have the thoughts of the superiority and inferiority (of Īśvara and jīva)? Will sovereignty and mendicancy (experienced by a person) in the dreaming state affect him in his waking state? When buḍḍhi is absorbed in ajñāna, then it is termed, by the wise, sleep. Whence then is sleep to me who have not ajñāna and its effects? When buḍḍhi is in full bloom, then it is said to be the jāgraṭ (waking state). As I have no changes, etc., there is no waking state to me. The moving about of buḍḍhi in the subtle nādis constitutes the dreaming state. In me without the act of moving about, there is no dreaming. Then at the time of sushupṭi when all things are absorbed, enveloped by ṭamas, he then enjoys the highest bliss of his own nature in an invisible state. If he sees everything as Chiṭ without any difference, he alone is an actual vijñānī. He alone is Śiva. He alone is Hari. He alone is Brahmā. This mundane existence which is an ocean of sorrow, is nothing but a long-lived dream, or an illusion of the mind or a long-lived reign of the mind. From rising from sleep till going to bed, the one Brahman alone should be contemplated upon. By causing to be absorbed this universe which is but a super-imposition, the chiṭṭa partakes of my nature. Having annihilated all the six powerful enemies, through their destruction become the non-dual One like the scent-elephant. Whether the body perishes now or lasts the age of moon and stars, what matters it to me having Chiṭ alone as my body? What matters it to the ākāś in the pot, whether it (the pot) is destroyed now or exists for a long time. While the slough of a serpent lies cast off lifeless in its hole, it (the serpent) does not evince any affection towards it. Likewise the wise do not identify themselves with their gross and subtle bodies. If the delusive knowledge (that the universe is real) with its cause should be destroyed by the fire of āṭmajñāna, the wise man becomes bodiless, through the idea ‘It (Brahman) is not this; It is not this.’ Through the study of Śāsṭras, the knowledge of reality (of the universe) perishes. Through direct perception of truth, one’s fitness for action (in this universe) ceases. With the cessation of prārabḍha (the portion of the past karma which is being enjoyed in this life), the destruction of the manifestation (of the universe) takes place. Māyā is thus destroyed in a threefold manner. If within himself no identification (of jīva) with Brahman takes place, the state (of the separateness) of jīva does not perish. If the non-dual one is truly discerned, then all affinities (for objects) cease. With the cessation of prārabḍha (arising from the cessation of affinities), there is that of the body. Therefore it is certain that māyā perishes thus entirely.
“If it is said that all the universe is, that Brahman alone is that is of the nature of Saṭ. If it is said that the universe shines, then it is Brahman alone that shines. (The mirage of) all the water in an oasis is really no other than the oasis itself. Through inquiry of one’s Self, the three worlds (above, below and middle) are only of the nature of Chiṭ. In Brahman, which is one and alone, the essence of whose nature is absolute Consciousness and which is remote from the differences of jīva, Īśvara and guru, there is no ajñāna. Such being the case, where then is the occasion for the universe there? I am that Brahman which is all full. While the full moon of wisdom is robbed of its lustre by the rāhu (one of the two nodes of the moon) of delusion, all actions1 such as the rites of bathing, alms-giving and sacrifice performed during the time of eclipse are all fruitless. As salt dissolved in water becomes one, so if Āṭmā and manas become identified, it is termed samāḍhi. Without the grace of a good (perfect) guru, the abandonment of sensual objects is very difficult of attainment; so also the perception of (divine) truth and the attainment of one’s true state. Then the state of being in one’s own self shines of its own accord in a yogin in whom jñānaśakṭi2 has dawned and who has abandoned all karmas. The (property of) fluctuation is natural to mercury and mind. If either mercury is bound (or consolidated) or mind is bound (or controlled), what then on this earth cannot be accomplished? He who obtains mūrchchhā3 cures all diseases. The dead are brought to life again. He who has bound (his mind or mercury) is able to move in the air. Therefore mercury and mind confer upon one the state of Brahman. The master of inḍriyas (the organs) is manas (mind). The master of manas is prāṇa. The master of prāṇa is laya (absorption yoga). Therefore laya-yoga should be practised. To the yogins, laya (-yoga) is said to be without actions and changes. This laya (absorption) of mind which is above speech and in which one has to abandon all saṅkalpas and to give up completely all actions, should be known through one’s own (experience). As an actress, though subject (or dancing in harmony) to music, cymbals and other musical instruments of time, has her mind intent upon the protection of the pot on her head, so the yogin, though intent for the time being upon the hosts of objects, never leaves off the mind contemplating on Brahman. The person who desires all the wealth of yoga should, after having given up all thoughts, practise with a subdued mind concentration on nāḍa (spiritual sound) alone.”
“The One Principle cannot at any time become of manifold forms. As I am the partless, there is none else but myself. Whatever is seen and whatever is heard is no other than Brahman. I am that Parabrahman, which is the eternal, the immaculate, the free, the one, the undivided bliss, the non-dual, the truth, the wisdom, and the endless. I am of the nature of bliss; I am of undivided wisdom; I am the supreme of the supreme; I am the resplendent absolute Consciousness. As the clouds do not touch the ākāś, so the miseries attendant on mundane existence do not affect me. Know all to be happiness through the annihilation of sorrow and all to be of the nature of saṭ (be-ness) through the annihilation of asaṭ (not-be-ness). It is only the nature of Chiṭ (Consciousness) that is associated with this visible universe. Therefore my form is partless. To an exalted yogin, there is neither birth nor death, nor going (to other spheres), nor returning (to earth); there is no stain or purity or knowledge but (the universe) shines to him as absolute Consciousness. Practise always silence ‘I am (viz., that you yourself are) Parabrahman’ which is truth and absolute Consciousness, which is undivided and non-dual, which is invisible, which is stainless, which is pure, which is secondless, and which is beneficent. It (Brahman) is not subject to birth and death, happiness and misery. It is not subject to caste, law, family and goṭra (clan). Practise silence—I am Chiṭ which is the vivarṭa-upāḍāna1 (viz., the illusory cause) of the universe. Always practise silence—I am (viz., you are) the Brahman, that is the full, the secondless, the undivided consciousness which has neither the relationship nor the differences existing in the universe and which partakes of the essence of the non-dual and the supreme Saṭ and Chiṭ.
“That which always is and that which preserves the same nature during the three periods of time, unaffected by anything, is my eternal form of Saṭ. Even the state of happiness which is eternal without upāḍhis (vehicles) and which is superior to all the happiness derivable from sushupṭi is of my bliss only. As by the rays of the sun, thick gloom is soon destroyed, so darkness, the cause of rebirth is destroyed by Hari (Vishṇu) viz., the sun’s lustre. Through the contemplation and worship of my (Hari’s) feet, every person is delivered from his ignorance. The means of destroying deaths and births is only through the contemplation of my feet. As a lover of wealth praises a wealthy man, so if with earnestness a person praises the Cause of the universe, who will not be delivered from bondage?
“As in presence of the sun the world of its own accord begins to perform its actions, so in my presence all the worlds are animated to action. As to the mother-of-pearl, the illusory conception of silver is falsely attributed, so to me is falsely attributed through māyā this universe which is composed of mahaṭ, etc. I am not with those differences that are (observable) in the body of low caste men, the body of cow, etc., the fixed ones, the bodies of brāhmaṇas and others. As to a person, even after being relieved from the misconception of the directions, the (same misconception of) direction continues (as before), just so is to me the universe though destroyed by vijñāna. Therefore the universe is not. I am neither the body nor the organs of sense and action, nor prāṇas, nor manas, nor buḍḍhi, nor ahaṅkāra, nor chiṭṭa, nor māyā, nor the universe including ākāś and others. Neither am I the actor, the enjoyer, nor he who causes the enjoyment. I am Brahman that is Chiṭ, Saṭ and Ānanḍa alone and that is Janārḍana (Vishṇu).
“As, through the fluctuation of water, the sun (reflected therein) is moved, so Āṭmā arises in this mundane existence through its mere connection with ahaṅkāra. This mundane existence has chiṭṭa as its root. This (chiṭṭa) should be cleansed by repeated effort. How is it you have your confidence in the greatness of chiṭṭa? Alas, where is all the wealth of the kings! Where are the Brahmās? Where are all the worlds? All old ones are gone. Many fresh evolutions have occurred. Many crores of Brahmās have passed away. Many kings have flitted away like particles of dust. Even to a jñānī, the love of the body may arise through the asura (demoniacal) nature. If the asura nature should arise in a wise man, his knowledge of truth becomes fruitless. Should rajas and others generated in us be burnt by the fire of discriminative (divine) wisdom, how can they germinate again? Just as a very intelligent person delights in the shortcomings of another, so if one finds out his own faults (and corrects them) who will not be relieved from bondage? O Lord of munis, only he who has not āṭmajñāna and who is not an emancipated person, longs after siḍḍhis. He attains such siḍḍhis through medicine,1 (or wealth), manṭras, religious works, time and skill. In the eyes of an āṭmajñānī, these siḍḍhis are of no importance. One who has become an āṭmajñānī, one who has his sight solely on āṭmā, and one who is content with Āṭmā (the higher self) through (his) āṭmā (or the lower self), never follows (the dictates of) aviḍyā. Whatever exists in this world, he knows to be of the nature of aviḍyā. How then will an āṭmajñānī who has relinquished aviḍyā be immersed in (or affected by) it. Though medicine, manṭras, religious work, time and skill (or mystical expressions) lead to the development of siḍḍhis, yet they cannot in any way help one to attain the seat of Paramāṭmā. How then can one who is an āṭmajñānī and who is without his mind be said to long after siḍḍhis, while all the actions of his desires are controlled?”
On another occasion Niḍāgha asked Lord Ṛbhu to enlighten him as to the characteristics of jīvanmukti.1 To which Ṛbhu replied in the affirmative and said the following:
“In the seven bhūmikās or (stages of development of wisdom) there are four kinds of jīvanmukṭas.1 Of these the first stage2 is śubhechchhā (good desire); the second is vichāraṇā (inquiry); the third is ṭanumānasī (or pertaining to the thinned mind); the fourth is saṭṭvāpaṭṭi (the attainment of saṭṭva); the fifth is asamsakṭi (non-attachment); the sixth is the paḍārṭhabhāvanā (analysis of objects) and the seventh is the ṭurya (fourth or final stage). The bhūmikā which is of the form of praṇava (Om) is formed of (or is divided into) akāra—A, ukāra—U, makāra—M, and arḍhamāṭrā. Akāra and others are of four kinds on account of the difference of sṭhūla (gross), sūkshma (subtle), bīja (seed or causal), and sākshī (witness). Their avasṭhās are four: waking, dreaming, dreamless sleeping and ṭurya (fourth). He who is in (or the entity that identifies itself with) the waking state in the gross amśa (essence or part) of akāra is named Viśva; in the subtle essence, he is termed Ṭaijasa; in the bīja essence, he is termed Prājña; and in the sākshī essence, he is termed Ṭurya.
“He who is in the dreaming state (or the entity which identifies itself with the dreaming state) in the gross essence of ukāra is Viśva; in the subtle essence, he is termed Ṭaijasa; in the bīja essence, is termed Prājña; and in the sākshī essence, he is termed Ṭurya.
“He who is in the sushupṭi state in the gross essence of makāra is termed Viśva; in the subtle essence, Ṭaijasa; in the bīja essence, he is termed Prājña; and in the sākshī essence, he is termed Ṭurya.
“He who is in ṭurya state in the gross essence of arḍhamāṭrā is termed Ṭurya-viśva. In the subtle, he is termed Ṭaijasa; in the bīja essence, he is termed Prājña; and in the sākshī essence, he is termed Ṭurya-ṭurya.
“The ṭurya essence of akāra is (or embraces) the first, second and third (bhūmikās or stages of the seven). The ṭurya essence of ukāra embraces the fourth bhūmikā. The ṭurya essence of makāra embraces the fifth bhūmikā. The ṭurya essence of arḍhamāṭrā is the sixth stage. Beyond this, is the seventh stage.
“One who functions in the (first) three bhūmikās is called mumukshu; one who functions in the fourth bhūmikā is called a brahmaviṭ; one who functions in the fifth bhūmikā is called a brahmaviḍvara; one who functions in the sixth bhūmikā is called a brahmaviḍvarīya; and one in the seventh bhūmikā is called a brahmaviḍvarishtha. With reference to this, there are ślokas. They are:
“ ‘Śubhechchhā is said to be the first jñānabhūmi (or stage of wisdom); vichāraṇā, the second; ṭanumānasī, the third; saṭṭvāpaṭṭi, the fourth; then come asamsakṭi as the fifth, paḍārṭhabhāvanā as the sixth and ṭurya as the seventh.’
“The desire that arises in one through sheer vairāgya (after resolving) ‘Shall I be ignorant? I will be seen by the Śāsṭras and the wise (or I will study the books and be with the wise)’ is termed by the wise as Śubhechchhā. The association with the wise and Śāsṭras and the following of the right path preceding the practice of indifference is termed vichāraṇā. That stage wherein the hankering after sensual objects is thinned through the first and second stages is said to be ṭanumānasī. That stage wherein having become indifferent to all sensual objects through the exercise in the (above) three stages, the purified chiṭṭa rests on Āṭmā which is of the nature of saṭ is called saṭṭvāpaṭṭi. The light (or manifestation) of saṭṭvaguṇa that is firmly rooted (in one) without any desire for the fruits of actions through the practice in the above four stages is termed asamsakṭi. That stage wherein through the practice in the (above) five stages one, having found delight in Āṭmā, has no conception of the internals or externals (though before him) and engages in actions only when impelled to do so by others is termed paḍārṭhabhāvanā, the sixth stage. The stage wherein after exceedingly long practice in the (above) six stages one is (immovably) fixed in the contemplation of Āṭmā alone without the difference (of the universe) is the seventh stage called ṭurya. The three stages beginning with Śubhechchā are said to be attained with (or amidst) differences and non-differences. (Because) the universe one sees in the waking state he thinks to be really existent. When the mind is firmly fixed on the non-dual One and the conception of duality is put down, then he sees this universe as a dream through his union with the fourth stage. As the autumnal cloud being dispersed vanishes, so this universe perishes. O Niḍāgha, be convinced that such a person has only saṭṭva remaining. Then having ascended the fifth stage called sushupṭipaḍa (dreamless sleeping seat), he remains simply in the non-dual state, being freed from all the various differences. Having always introvision though ever participating in external actions, those that are engaged in the practice of this (sixth stage) are seen like one sleeping when fatigued (viz., being freed from all affinities). (Lastly) the seventh stage which is the ancient and which is called gūdhasupṭi1 is generally attained. Then one remains in that secondless state without fear and with his consciousness almost annihilated where there is neither saṭ nor asaṭ, neither self nor not-self. Like an empty pot in the ākāś, there is void both within and without; like a filled vessel in the midst of an ocean, he is full both within and without. Do not become either the knower or the known. May you become the Reality which remains after all thoughts are given up. Having discarded (all the distinctions of) the seer, the sight and the seen with their affinities, meditate solely upon Āṭmā which shines as the supreme Light.
“He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa (emancipated person) in whom, though participating in the material concerns of the world, the universe is not seen to exist like the invisible ākāś. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa, the light of whose mind never sets or rises in misery or happiness, and who does not seek to change what happens to him (viz., either to diminish his misery or increase his happiness). He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa who though in his sushupṭi is awake and to whom the waking state is unknown and whose wisdom is free from the affinities (of objects).
“He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa whose heart is pure like ākāś, though acting (as if) in consonance to love, hatred, fear and others. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa who has not the conception of his being the actor and whose buḍḍhi is not attached to material objects, whether he performs actions or not. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa, of whom people are not afraid, who is not afraid of people and who has given up joy, anger and fear. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa who, though participating in all the illusory objects, is cool amidst them and is a full Āṭmā, (being) as if they belonged to others. O muni, he is called a jīvanmukṭa who, having eradicated all the desires of his chiṭṭa, is (fully) content with me who am the Āṭmā of all. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa who rests with an unshaken mind in that all pure abode which is Chinmāṭrā and free from all the modifications of chiṭṭa. He is said to be a jīvanmukṭa in whose chiṭṭa do not dawn (the distinctions of) the universe, I, he, thou and others that are visible and unreal. Through the path of the guru and Śāsṭras, enter soon Saṭ—the Brahman that is immutable, great, full and without objects—and be firmly seated there. Śiva alone is Guru; Śiva alone is Veḍas; Śiva alone is Lord; Śiva alone is I; Siva alone is all. There is none other than Śiva. The undaunted Brāhmaṇa having known Him (Śiva) should attain wisdom. One need not utter many words as they but injure the organ of speech.
“(The Ṛshi) Śuka1 is a mukṭa (emancipated person). (The Ṛshi) Vāmaḍeva is a mukṭa. There are no others (who have attained emancipation) than through these (viz., the two paths of these two Ṛshis). Those brave men who follow the path of Śuka in this world become saḍyomukṭas (viz., emancipated) immediately after (the body wers away); while those who always follow the path of veḍānṭa in this world are subject again and again to rebirths and attain krama (gradual) emancipation, through yoga, sāṅkhya and karmas associated with saṭṭva (guṇa). Thus there are two paths laid down by Lord of Ḍevas (viz.,) the Śuka and Vāmaḍeva paths. The Śuka path is called the bird’s path: while the Vāmaḍevā path is called the ant’s path.1 Those persons that have cognised the true nature of their Āṭmā through the mandatory and prohibitory injunctions (of the Veḍas), the inquiry into (the true meaning of) mahāvākyas (the sacred sentences of the Veḍas), the samāḍhi of sāṅkhya yoga or asamprajñāṭa samāḍhi2 and that have thereby purified themselves, attain the supreme seat through the Śuka path. Having, through hathayoga3 practice with the pain caused by yama, postures, etc., become liable to the ever recurring obstacles caused by aṇimā and other (siḍḍhis) and having not obtained good results, one is born again in a great family and practises yoga through his previous (kārmic) affinities. Then through the practice of yoga during many lives, he attains salvation (viz.,) the supreme seat of Vishṇu through the Vāmaḍeva path. Thus there are two paths that lead to the attainment of Brahman and that are beneficent. The one confers instantaneous salvation and the other confers gradual salvation.
“To one that sees (all) as the one (Brahman), where is delusion? Where is sorrow? Those that are under the eyes of those whose buḍḍhi is solely occupied with the truth (of Brahman) that is the end of all experience are released from all heinous sins. All beings inhabiting heaven and earth that fall under the vision of Brahmaviṭs are at once emancipated from the sins committed during many crores of births.”
Then Niḍāgha asked Lord Ṛbhu to enlighten him as to the rules (to be observed) in the practice of Yoga. Accordingly He (the Lord) said thus:
“The body is composed of the five elements. It is filled with five maṇdalas (spheres).1 That which is hard is Pṛṭhivī (earth), one of them; that which is liquid is Apas; that which is bright is Ṭejas (fire); motion is the property of Vāyu; that which pervades everywhere is Ākāś. All these should be known by an aspirant after Yoga. Through the blowing of Vāyumaṇdala in this body, (there are caused) 21,600 breaths every day and night. If there is a diminution in the Pṛṭhivīmaṇdala, there arise folds in the body; if there is diminution in the essence of Āpas, there arises gradually greyness of hair; if there is diminution in the essence of Ṭejas, there is loss of hunger and lustre; if there is diminution in the essence of Vāyu, there is incessant tremor; if there is diminution in the essence of Ākāś, one dies. The jīviṭa (viz., Prāṇa) which possesses these elements having no place to rest (in the body) owing to the diminution of the elements, rises up like birds flying up in the air. It is for this reason that it is called Uḍyāna (lit., flying up). With reference to this, there is said to be a banḍha (binding, also meaning a posture called Uddiyāṇabandha, by which this flight can be arrested). This Uddiyāṇabanḍha2 is to (or does away with) death, as a lion to an elephant. Its experience is in the body, as also the banḍha. Its binding (in the body) is hurtful. If there is agitation of Agni (fire) within the belly, then there will be caused much of pain. Therefore this (Uddiyāṇabanḍha) should not be practised by one who is hungry or who has urgency to make water or void excrement. He should take many times in small quantities proper and moderate food. He should practise Manṭrayoga,1 Layayoga and Hathayoga, through mild, middling and transcendental methods (or periods) respectively. Laya, Manṭra, and Hathayogas have each (the same) eight subservients. They are yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, praṭyāhāra, ḍhāraṇā, ḍhyāna, and samāḍhi.2 (Of these), yama is of ten kinds. They are non-injury, truth, non-coveting, continence, compassion, straightforwardness, patience, courage, moderate eating, and purity (bodily and mental). Niyama is of ten kinds. They are ṭapas (religious austerities), contentment, belief in the existence of God or Veḍas, charity, worship of Īśvara (or God), listening to the exposition of religious doctrines, modesty, a (good) intellect, japa (muttering of prayers), and vraṭa (religious observances). There are eleven postures beginning with chakra. Chakra, paḍma, kūrma, mayūra, kukkuta, vīra, svasṭika, bhaḍra, simha, mukṭa, and gomukha, are the postures enumerated by the knowers of yoga. Placing the left ankle on the right thigh and the right ankle on the left thigh, and keeping the body erect (while sitting) is the posture “Chakra”. Prāṇāyāma should be practised again and again in the following order, viz., inspiration, restraint of breath and expiration. The prāṇāyāma is done through the nādis (nerves). Hence it is called the nādis themselves.
“The body of every sentient being is ninety-six digits long. In the middle of the body, two digits above the anus and two digits below the sexual organ, is the centre of the body (called Mūlāḍhāra or sacral plexus). Nine digits above the genitals, there is kanḍa of nādis which revolves oval-shaped, four digits high and four digits broad. It is surrounded by fat, flesh, bone, and blood. In it, is situate a nādī-chakra (wheel of nerves) having twelve spokes. Kuṇdalī by which this body is supported is there. It is covering by its face the Brahmaranḍhra (viz., Brahmā’s hole) of Sushumnā. (By the side) of Sushumnā dwell the nādis Alambusā and Kuhūḥ. In the next two (spokes) are Vāruṇā and Yaśasvinī. On the spoke south of Sushumnā is, in regular course, Piṅgalā. On the next two spokes, are Pūsha and Payasvinī. On the spoke west of Sushumnā is the nādi called Sarasvaṭī. On the next two spokes are Śāṅkhinī and Gānḍhārī. To the north of Sushumnā dwells Idā; in the next is Hasṭijihvā; in the next is Viśvoḍarā. In these spokes of the wheel, the twelve nādis carry the twelve vāyus from left to right (to the different parts of the body). The nādis are like (i.e., woven like the warp and woof of) cloth. They are said to have different colours. The central portion of the cloth (here the collection of the nādis) is called the Nābhichakra (navel plexus). Jvalantī, Nāḍarūpiṇī, Pararanḍhrā, and Sushumnā are called the (basic) supports of nāḍa (spiritual sound). These four nādis are of ruby colour. The central portion of Brahmaranḍhra is again and again covered by Kuṇdalī. Thus ten vāyus move in these nādis. A wise man who has understood the course of nādis and vāyus should, after keeping his neck and body erect with his mouth closed, contemplate immovably upon Ṭuryaka (Āṭmā) at the tip of his nose, in the centre of his heart and in the middle of binḍu,1 and should see, with a tranquil mind through the (mental) eyes, the nectar flowing from there. Having closed the anus and drawn up the vāyu and caused it to rise through (the repetition of) praṇava (Om), he should complete with Śrī bīja. He should contemplate upon his Āṭmā as Śrī (or Parāśakṭi) and as being bathed by nectar. This is kālavañchana (lit., time illusion). It is said to be the most important of all. Whatever is thought of by the mind is accomplished by the mind itself. (Then) agni (fire) will flame in jala (water) and in the flame (of agni) will arise the branches and blossoms. Then the words uttered and the actions done regarding the universe, are not in vain. By checking the binḍu in the path, by making the fire flame up in the water and by causing the water to dry up, the body is made firm. Having contracted simultaneously the anus and yoni (the womb) united together, he should draw up Apāna and unite with it Samāna. He should contemplate upon his Āṭmā as Śiva and then as being bathed by nectar. In the central part of each spoke, the yogin should commence to concentrate bala (will or strength). He should try to go up by the union of Prāṇa and Apāna. This most important yoga brightens up in the body the path of siḍḍhis. As a dam across the water serves as an obstacle to the floods, so it should ever be known by the yogins that the chhāyā of the body is (to jīva). This banḍha is said of all nādis. Through the grace of this banḍha, the Ḍevaṭā (goddess) becomes visible. This banḍha of four feet serves as a check to the three paths. This brightens up the path through which the siḍḍhas obtained (their siḍḍhis). If with Prāṇa is made to rise up soon Uḍāna, this baṇdha checking all nādis goes up. This is called Samputayoga or Mūlabanḍha. Through the practising of this yoga, the three banḍhas are mastered. By practising day and night intermittingly or at any convenient time, the vāyu will come under his control. With the control of vāyu, agni (the gastric fire) in the body will increase daily. With the increase of agni, food, etc., will be easily digested. Should food be properly digested, there is increase of rasa (essence of food). With the daily increase of rasa, there is the increase of ḍhāṭus (spiritual substances). With the increase of ḍhāṭus, there is the increase of wisdom in the body. Thus all the sins collected together during many crores of births are burnt up.
“In the centre of the anus and the genitals, there is the triangular Mūlāḍhāra. It illumines the seat of Śiva of the form of binḍu. There is located the Parāśakṭi named kuṇdalinī. From that seat, vāyu arises. From that seat, agni becomes increased. From that seat, binḍu originates and nāḍa becomes increased. From that seat, Hamsa is born. From that seat, manas is born. The six chakras beginning with Mūlāḍhāra are said to be the seat of Śakṭi (Goddess). From the neck to the top of the head is said to the seat of Śambhu (Śiva). To the nādis, the body is the support (or vehicle); to Prāṇa, the nādis are the support; to jīva, Prāṇa is the dwelling place; to Hamsa, jīva is the support; to Śakṭi, Hamsa is the seat and the locomotive and fixed universe.
“Being without distraction and of a calm mind, one should practise prāṇāyāma. Even a person who is well-skilled in the practice of the three banḍhas should try always to cognise with a true heart that Principle which should be known and is the cause of all objects and their attributes. Both expiration and inspiration should (be stopped and made to) rest in restraint of breath (alone). He should depend solely on Brahman which is the highest aim of all visibles. (The giving out of) all external objects is said to be rechaka (expiration). The (taking in of the) spiritual knowledge of the Śāstras is said to be pūraka (inspiration) and (the keeping to oneself of) such knowledge is said to be kumbhaka (or restraint of breath). He is an emancipated person who practises thus such a chitṭa. There is no doubt about it. Through kumbhaka, it (the mind) should be always taken up, and through kumbhaka alone it should be filled up within. It is only through kumbhaka that kumbhaka should be firmly mastered. Within it is Paramaśiva. That (vāyu) which is non-motionless should be shaken again through kaṇtha-muḍrā (throat-posture). Having checked the course of vāyu, having become perfect in the practice of expiration and restraint of breath and having planted evenly on the ground the two hands and the two feet, one should pierce the four seats through vāyu through the three yogas. He should shake Mahāmeru with the (aid of) prakotis (forces)1 at the mouth of vāyu. The two putas (cavities) being drawn, vāyu throbs quickly. The union of moon, sun and agni should be known on account of nectar. Through the motion of Meru, the ḍevaṭās who stay in the centre of Meru move. At first in his Brahma-granṭhi, there is produced soon a hole (or passage). Then having pierced Brahma-granṭhi, he pierces Vishṇu-granṭhi: then he pierces Ruḍra-granṭhi. Then to the yogin comes veḍha2 (piercing) through his liberation from the impurities of delusion, through the religious ceremonies (performed) in various births, through the grace of gurus and ḍevaṭās and through the practice of yoga.
1 “In the maṇdala (sphere or region) of Sushumnā (situated between Idā and Piṅgalā, vāyu should be made to rise up through the feature known as Muḍrā-banḍha. The short pronunciation (of Praṇava) frees (one) from sins: its long pronunciation confers (on one) moksha. So also its pronunciation in āpyāyana or pluṭa svara (tone). He is a knower of Veḍa, who through the above-mentioned three ways of pronunciation knows the end of Praṇava which is beyond the power of speech, like the never-ceasing flow of oil or the long-drawn bell-sound. The short svara goes to binḍu. The long svara goes to brahmaranḍhra: the pluta to ḍvāḍaśānṭa (twelfth centre). The manṭras should be uttered on account of getting manṭra siḍḍhis. This Praṇava (Om) will remove all obstacles. It will remove all sins. Of this, are four bhūmikās (states) predicated, viz., ārambha, ghata, parichaya, and nishpatṭi. Ārambha is that state in which one having abandoned external karmas performed by the three organs (mind, speech and body), is always engaged in mental karma only. It is said by the wise that the ghata state is that in which vāyu having forced an opening on the western side and being full, is firmly fixed there. Parichaya state is that in which vāyu is firmly fixed to ākāś, neither associated with jīva nor not, while the body is immovable. It is said that nishpaṭṭi state is that in which there take place creation and dissolution through Āṭmā or that state in which a yogin having become a jīvanmukṭa performs yoga without effort.
“Whoever recites this Upanishaḍ becomes immaculate like agni. Like vāyu, he becomes pure. He becomes freed from the sin of drinking alcohol. He becomes freed from the sins of the theft of gold. He becomes a jīvanmukṭa. This is what is said by the Ṛgveḍa. Like the eye pervading the ākāś (seeing without effort everything above), a wise man sees (always) the supreme seat of Vishṇu. The brāhmaṇas who have always their spiritual eyes wide open praise and illuminate in diverse ways the spiritual seat of Vishṇu.
“Om, thus is the Upanishaḍ.”
MAṆDALABRĀHMAṆA-UPANISHAḌ1 OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Om. The great muni Yājñavalkya went to Āḍiṭyaloka (the sun’s world) and saluting him (the Purusha of the sun) said: “O reverend sir, describe to me the Āṭma-ṭaṭṭva (the ṭaṭṭva or truth of Āṭmā).”
(To which,) Nārāyaṇa (viz., the Purusha of the sun) replied: “I shall describe the eightfold yoga together with Jñāna. The conquering of cold and heat as well as hunger and sleep, the preserving of (sweet) patience and unruffledness ever and the restraining of the organs (from sensual objects)—all these come under (or are) yama. Devotion to one’s guru, love of the true path, enjoyment of objects producing happiness, internal satisfaction, freedom from association, living in a retired place, the controlling of the manas and the not longing after the fruits of actions and a state of vairāgya—all these consitute niyama. The sitting in any posture pleasant to one and clothed in tatters (or bark) is prescribed for āsana (posture). Inspiration, restraint of breath and expiration, which have respectively 16, 64 and 32 (māṭrās) constitute prāṇāyāma (restraint of breath). The restraining of the mind from the objects of senses is praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses). The contemplation of the oneness of consciousness in all objects is ḍhyāna. The mind having been drawn away from the objects of the senses, the fixing of the chaiṭanya (consciousness) (on one alone) is ḍhāraṇā. The forgetting of oneself in ḍhyāna is samāḍhi. He who thus knows the eight subtle parts of yoga attains salvation.
“The body has five stains (viz.,) passion, anger, outbreathing, fear, and sleep. The removal of these can be effected respectively by absence of saṅkalpa, forgiveness, moderate food, carefulness, and a spiritual sight of ṭaṭṭvas. In order to cross the ocean of samsāra where sleep and fear are the serpents, injury, etc., are the waves, ṭṛshṇā (thirst) is the whirlpool, and wife is the mire, one should adhere to the subtle path and overstepping ṭaṭṭva1 and other guṇas should look out for Ṭāraka.2 Ṭāraka is Brahman which being in the middle of the two eyebrows, is of the nature of the spiritual effiulgence of Sachchiḍānanḍa. The (spiritual) seeing through the three lakshyas (or the three kinds of introvision) is the means to. It (Brahman). Sushumnā which is from the mūlāḍhāra to brahmaranḍhra has the radiance of the sun. In the centre of it, is kuṇdalinī shining like crores of lightning and subtle as the thread in the lotus-stalk. Ṭamas is destroyed there. Through seeing it, all sins are destroyed. When the two ears are closed by the tips of the forefingers, a phūṭkāra (or booming) sound is heard. When the mind is fixed on it, it sees a blue light between the eyes as also in the heart. (This is anṭarlakshya or internal introvison). In the bahirlakshya (or external introvision) one sees in order before his nose at distance of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 digits, the space of blue colour, then a colour resembling śyāma (indigo-black) and then shining as rakṭa (red) wave and then with the two pīṭa (yellow and orange red) colours. Then he is a yogin. When one looks at the external space, moving the eyes and sees streaks of light at the corners of his eyes, then his vision can be made steady. When one sees jyoṭis (spiritual light) above his head 12 digits in length, then he attains the state of nectar. In the maḍhyalakshya (or the middle one), one sees the variegated colours of the morning as if the sun, the moon and the fire had joined together in the ākāś that is without them. Then he comes to have their nature (of light). Through practice, he becomes one with ākāś, devoid of all guṇas and peculiarities. At first ākāś with its shining stars becomes to him Paraākāś as dark as ṭamas itself, and he becomes one with Paraākāś shining with stars and deep as ṭamas. (Then) he becomes one with Mahā-ākāś resplendent (as) with the fire of the deluge. Then he becomes one with Ṭaṭṭva-ākāś, lighted with the brightness which is the highest and the best of all. Then he becomes one with Sūrya-ākāś (sun-ākāś) brightened by a crore of suns. By practising thus, he becomes one with them. He who knows them becomes thus.
“Know that yoga is twofold through its division into the pūrva (earlier) and the uṭṭara (later). The earlier is ṭāraka and the later is amanaska (the mindless). Ṭāraka is divided into mūrṭi (with limitation) and amūrṭi (without limitation). That is mūrṭi ṭāraka which goes to the end of the senses (or exists till the senses are conquered). That is amūrṭi tāraka which goes beyond the two eyebrows (above the senses). Both these should be performed through manas. Anṭarḍṛshti (internal vision) associated with manas comes to aid ṭāraka. Ṭejas (spiritual light) appears in the hole between the two eyebrows. This ṭāraka is the earlier one. The later is amanaska. The great jyoṭis (light)1 is above the root of the palate. By seeing it, one gets the siḍḍhis aṇimā, etc. Śāmbhavīmuḍrā occurs when the lakshya (spiritual vision) is internal while the (physical) eyes are seeing externally without winking. This is the great science which is concealed in all the ṭanṭras. When this is known, one does not stay in samsāra. Its worship (or practice) gives salvation. Anṭarlakshya is of the nature of Jalajyoṭis (or waterjyoṭis). It is known by the great Ṛshis and is invisible both to the internal and external senses.
“Sahasrāra (viz., the thousand-petalled lotus of the pineal gland) Jalajyoṭis1 is the anṭarlakshya. Some say the form of Purusha in the cave of buḍḍhi beautiful in all its parts is anṭarlakshya. Some again say that the all-quiescent Nīlakaṇtha accompanied by Umā (his wife) and having five mouths and latent in the midst of the sphere in the brain is anṭarlakshya. Whilst others say that the Purusha of the dimension of a thumb is anṭarlakshya. A few again say anṭarlakshya is the One Self made supreme through introvision in the state of a jīvanmukṭa. All the different statements above made pertain to Āṭmā alone. He alone is a Brahmanishtha who sees that the above lakshya is the pure Āṭmā. The jīva which is the twenty-fifth ṭaṭṭva, having abandoned the twenty-four ṭaṭṭvas, becomes a jīvanmukṭa through the conviction that the twenty-sixth ṭaṭṭva (viz.,) Paramāṭmā is ‘I’ alone. Becoming one with anṭarlakshya (Brahman) in the emancipated state by means of anṭarlakshya (introvision), jīva becomes one with the partless sphere of Paramākāś.
“Thus ends the first Brāhmaṇa.”
Then Yājñavalkya asked the Purusha in the sphere of the sun: “O Lord, anṭarlakshya has been described many times, but it has never been understood by me (clearly). Pray describe it to me.” He replied: “It is the source of the five elements, has the lustre of many (streaks of) lightning, and has four seats having (or rising from) ‘That’ (Brahman). In its midst, there arises the manifestation of ṭaṭṭva. It is very hidden and unmanifested. It can be known (only) by one who has got into the boat of jñāna. It is the object of both bahir and anṭar (external and internal) lakshyas. In its midst is absorbed the whole world. It is the vast partless universe beyond Nāḍa, Binḍu and Kalā. Above it (viz., the sphere of agni) is the sphere of the sun; in its midst is the sphere of the nectary moon; in its midst is the sphere of the partless Brahma-ṭejas (or the spiritual effulgence of Brahman). It has the brightness of Śukla (white light)1 like the ray of lightning. It alone has the characteristic of Śāmbhavī. In seeing this, there are three kinds of ḍṛshti (sight), viz., amā (the new moon), praṭipaṭ (the first day of lunar fortnight), and pūrṇimā (the full moon). The sight of amā is the one (seen) with closed eyes. That with half opened eyes is praṭipaṭ; while that with fully opened eyes is pūrṇimā. Of these, the practice of pūrṇimā should be resorted to. Its lakshya (or aim) is the tip of the nose. Then is seen a deep darkness at the root of the palate. By practising thus, a jyoṭis (light) of the form of an endless sphere is seen. This alone is Brahman, the Sachchiḍānanḍa. When the mind is absorbed in bliss thus naturally produced, then does Śāmbhavī take place. She (Śāmbhavī) alone is called Khecharī. By practising it (viz., the muḍrā), a man obtains firmness of mind. Through it, he obtains firmness of vāyu. The following are the signs: first it is seen like a star; then a reflecting (or dazzling) diamond;2 then the sphere of full moon; then the sphere of the brightness of nine gems; then the sphere of the midday sun; then the sphere of the flame of agni (fire); all these are seen in order.
“(Thus much for the light in pūrva or first stage.) Then there is the light in the western direction (in the uṭṭara or second stage). Then the lustres of crystal, smoke, binḍu, nāḍa, kalā, star, firefly, lamp, eye, gold, and nine gems, etc. are seen. This alone is the form of Praṇava. Having united Prāṇa and Apāna and holding the breath in kumbhaka, one should fix his concentration at the tip of his nose and making shaṇmukhi3 with the fingers of both his hands, one hears the sound of Praṇava (Om) in which manas becomes absorbed. Such a man has not even the touch of karma. The karma of (Sanḍhyāvanḍana or the daily prayers) is verily performed at the rising or setting of the sun. As there is no rising or setting (but only the ever shining) of the sun of Chiṭ (the higher consciousness) in the heart of a man who knows thus, he has no karma to perform. Rising above (the conception of) day and night through the annihilation of sound and time, he becomes one with Brahman through the all-full jñāna and the attaining of the state of unmanī (the state above manas). Through the state of unmanī, he becomes amanaska (or without manas).
“Not being troubled by any thoughts (of the world) then constitutes the ḍhyāna.1 The abandoning of all karmas constitutes āvāhana (invocation of god). Being firm in the unshaken (spiritual) wisdom constitutes āsana (posture). Being in the state of unmanī constitutes the pāḍya (offering of water for washing the feet of god). Preserving the state of amanaska (when manas is offered as sacrifice) constitutes the arghya (offering of water as oblation generally). Being in state of eternal brightness and shoreless nectar constitutes snāna (bathing). The contemplation of Āṭmā as present in all constitutes (the application to the idol of) sandal. The remaining in the real state of the ḍṛk (spiritual eye) is (the worshipping with) akshaṭa (non-broken rice). The attaining of Chiṭ (consciousness) is (the worshipping with) flower. The real state of agni (fire) of Chiṭ is the ḍhūpa (burning of incense). The state of the sun of Chiṭ is the ḍīpa (light waved before the image). The union of oneself with the nectar of full moon is the naivēḍya (offering of food, etc.).2 The immobility in that state (of the ego being one with all) is praḍakshiṇa (going round the image). The conception of ‘I am He’ is namaskāra (prostration). The silence (then) is the sṭuṭi (praise). The all-contentment (or serenity then) is the visarjana (giving leave to god or finishing worship). (This is the worship of Āṭmā by all Rāja-yogins). He who knows this knows all.
“When the ṭriputi1 are thus dispelled, he becomes the kaivalya jyoṭis without bhāva (existence) or abhāva (nonexistence), full and motionless, like the ocean without the tides or like the lamp without the wind. He becomes a brahmaviṭ (knower of Brahmȧn) by cognising the end of the sleeping state, even while in the waking state. Though the (same) mind is absorbed in sushupṭi as also in samāḍhi, there is much difference between them. (In the former case) as the mind is absorbed in ṭamas, it does not become the means of salvation, (but) in samāḍhi as the modifications of ṭamas in him are rooted away, the mind raises itself to the nature of the Partless. All that is no other than Sākshi-Chaiṭanya (witness-consciousness or the Higher Self) into which the absorption of the whole universe takes place, inasmuch as the universe is but a delusion (or creation) of the mind and is therefore not different from it. Though the universe appears perhaps as outside of the mind, still it is unreal. He who knows Brahman and who is the sole enjoyer of brāhmic bliss which is eternal and has dawned once (for all in him)—that man becomes one with Brahman. He in whom saṅkalpa perishes has got mukṭi in his hand. Therefore one becomes an emancipated person through the contemplation of Paramāṭmā. Having given up both bhāva and abhāva, one becomes a jīvanmukṭa by leaving off again and again in all states jñāna (wisdom) and jñeya (object of wisdom), ḍhyāna (meditation) and ḍhyeya (object of meditation), lakshya (the aim) and alakshya (non-aim), ḍṛśya (the visible) and aḍṛśya (the nonvisible and ūha (reasoning) and apoha (negative reasoning).2 He who knows this knows all.
“There are five avasṭhās (states), viz.: jāgraṭ (waking), svapna (dreaming), sushupṭi (dreamless sleeping), the ṭurya (fourth) and ṭuryāṭīṭa (that beyond the fourth). The jīva (ego) that is engaged in the waking state becomes attached to the pravṛṭṭi (worldly) path and is the participator of naraka (hell) as the fruit of sins. He desires svarga (heaven) as the fruit of his virtuous actions. This very same person becomes (afterwards) indifferent to all these saying, “Enough of the births tending to actions, the fruits of which tend to bondage till the end of this mundane existence.” Then he pursues the nivṛṭṭi (return) path with a view to attain emancipation. And this person then takes refuge in a spiritual instructor in order to cross this mundane existence. Giving up passion and others, he does only those he is asked to do. Then having acquired the four sāḍhanas (means to salvation), he attains, in the middle of the lotus of his heart, the Reality of anṭarlakshya that is but the Saṭ of Lord and begins to recognise (or recollect) the bliss of Brahman which he had left (or enjoyed) in his sushupṭi state. At last he attains this state of discrimination (thus): ‘I think I am the non-dual One only. I was in ajñāna for some time (in the waking state and called therefore Viśva). I became somehow (or involuntarily) a Ṭaijasa (in the dreaming state) through the reflection (in that state) of the affinities of the forgotten waking state; and now I am a Prājña through the disappearance of those two states. Therefore I am one only. I (appear) as more than one through the differences of state and place. And there is nothing of differentiation of class besides me.’ Having expelled even the smack of the difference (of conception) between ‘I’ and ‘That’ through the thought ‘I am the pure and the secondless Brahman’, and having attained the path of salvation which is of the nature of Parabrahman, after having become one with It through the ḍhyāna of the sun’s sphere as shining with himself, he becomes fully ripened for getting salvation. Saṅkalpa and others are the causes of the bondage of the mind; and the mind devoid of these becomes fit for salvation. Possessing such a mind free from all (saṅkalpa, etc.,) and withdrawing himself from the outer world of sight and others and so keeping himself out of the odour of the universe, he looks upon all the world as Āṭmā, abandons the conception of ‘I’, thinks ‘I am Brahman’ and considers all these as Āṭmā. Through these, he becomes one who has done his duty.
“The yogin is one that has realised Brahman that is all-full beyond ṭurya. They (the people) extol him as Brahman; and becoming the object of the praise of the whole world, he wanders over different countries. Placing the binḍu in the ākāś of Paramāṭmā and pursuing the path of the partless bliss produced by the pure, secondless, stainless, and innate yoga sleep of amanaska, he becomes an emancipated person. Then the yogin becomes immersed in the ocean of bliss. When compared to it, the bliss of Inḍra and others is very little. He who gets this bliss is the supreme yogin.
“Thus ends the second Brāhmaṇa.”
The great sage Yājñavalkya then asked the Purusha in the sphere (of the sun): “O Lord, though the nature of amanaska has been defined (by you), yet I forget it (or do not understand it clearly). Therefore pray explain it again to me.” Accordingly the Purusha said: “This amanaska is a great secret. By knowing this, one becomes a person who has done his duty. One should look upon it as Paramāṭmā, associated with Śāmbhavīmuḍrā and should know also all those that can be known through a (thorough) cognition of them. Then seeing Parabrahman in his own Āṭmā as the Lord of all, the immeasurable, the birthless, the auspicious, the supreme ākāś, the supportless, the secondless the only goal of Brahmā, Vishṇu and Ruḍra and the cause of all and assuring himself that he who plays in the cave (of the heart) is such a one, he should raise himself above the dualities of existence and non-existence; and knowing the experience of the unmanī of his manas, he then attains the state of Parabrahman which is motionless as a lamp in a windless place, having reached the ocean of brāhmic bliss by means of the river of amanaska-yoga through the destruction of all his senses. Then he resembles a dry tree. Having lost all (idea of) the universe through the disappearance of growth, sleep, disease, expiration and inspiration, his body being always steady, he comes to have a supreme quiescence, being devoid of the movements of his manas and becomes absorbed in Paramāṭmā. The destruction of manas takes place after the destruction of the collective senses, like the cow’s udder (that shrivels up) after the milk has been drawn. It is this that is amanaska. By following this, one becomes always pure and becomes one that has done his duty, having been filled with the partless bliss by means of the path of ṭāraka-yoga through the initiation into the sacred sentences ‘I am Paramāṭmā,’ ‘That art thou,’ ‘I am thou alone,’ ‘Thou art I alone,’ etc.
“When his manas is immersed in the ākāś and he becomes all-full, and when he attains the unmanī state, having abandoned all his collective senses, he conquers all sorrows and impurities through the partless bliss, having attained the fruits of kaivalya, ripened through the collective merits gathered in all his previous lives and thinking always ‘I am Brahman,’ becomes one that has done his duty. ‘I am thou alone. There is no difference between thee and me owing to the fullness of Paramāṭmā.’ Saying thus, he (the Purusha of the sun) embraced his pupil1 and made him understand it.
“Thus ends the third Brāhmaṇa.”
Then Yājñavalkya addressed the Purusha in the sphere (of the sun) thus: “Pray explain to me in detail the nature of the fivefold division of ākāś.” He replied: “There are five (viz): ākāś, parākāś, mahākāś, sūryākāś, and paramākāś. That which is of the nature of darkness, both in and out is the first ākāś. That which has the fire of the deluge, both in and out is truly mahākāś. That which has the brightness of the sun, both in and out is sūryākāś. That brightness which is indescribable, all-pervading and of the nature of unrivalled bliss is paramākāś. By cognising these according to this description, one becomes of their nature. He is a yogin only in name, who does not cognise well the nine chakras, the six āḍhāras, the three lakshyas and the five ākāś. Thus ends the fourth Brāhmaṇa.”
“The manas influenced by worldly objects is liable to bondage; and that (manas) which is not so influenced by these is fit for salvation. Hence all the world becomes an object of chiṭṭa; whereas the same chiṭṭa when it is supportless and well-ripe in the state of unmanī, becomes worthy of laya (absorption in Brahman). This absorption you should learn from me who am the all-full. I alone am the cause of the absorption of manas. The manas is within the jyoṭis (spiritual light) which again is latent in the spiritual sound which pertains to the anāhaṭa (heart) sound. That manas which is the agent of creation, preservation, and destruction of the three worlds—that same manas becomes absorbed in that which is the highest seat of Vishṇu; through such an absorption, one gets the pure and secondless state, owing to the absence of difference then. This alone is the highest truth. He who knows this, will wander in the world like a lad or an idiot or a demon or a simpleton. By practising this amanaska, one is ever contented, his urine and fæces become diminished, his food becomes lessened: he becomes strong in body and his limbs are free from disease and sleep. Then his breath and eyes being motionless, he realises Brahman and attains the nature of bliss.
“That ascetic who is intent on drinking the nectar of Brahman produced by the long practice of this kind of samāḍhi, becomes a paramahamsa (ascetic) or an avaḍhūṭa (naked ascetic). By seeing him, all the world becomes pure, and even an illiterate person who serves him is freed from bondage. He (the ascetic) enables the members of his family for one hundred and one generations to cross the ocean of samsāra; and his mother, father, wife, and children—all these are similarly freed. Thus is the Upanishaḍ. Thus ends the fifth Brāhmaṇa.”
NĀḌABINḌU1 -UPANISHAḌ OF ṚGVEḌA
The syllable A is considered to be its (the bird Om’s) right wing, U, its left: M2 , its tail; and the arḍhamāṭrā (half-metre) is said to be its head.
The (rājasic and ṭāmasic) qualities, its feet upwards (to the loins); saṭṭva, its (main) body;3 ḍharma is considererd to be its right eye, and aḍharma, its left.
The Bhūrloka is situated in its feet; the Bhuvarloka, in its knees; the Suvarloka, in its loins; and the Maharloka, in its navel.
In its heart is situate the Janoloka; the ṭapoloka in its throat, and the Saṭyaloka in the centre of the forehead between the eyebrows.
Then the māṭrā (or manṭra) beyond the Sahasrāra (thousand-rayed) is explained (viz.,) should be explained.
An adept in yoga who bestrides the Hamsa (bird) thus (viz., contemplates on Om) is not affected by kārmic influences or by tens of crores of sins.4
The first māṭrā has agni as its ḍevaṭā (presiding deity); the second, vāyu as its ḍevaṭā; the next māṭrā is resplendent like the sphere of the sun and the last, the Arḍhamāṭrā the wise know as belonging to Varuṇa (the presiding deity of water).
Each of these māṭrās has indeed three kalās (parts). This is called Omkāra. Know it by means of the ḍhāraṇās, viz., concentration on each of the twelve kalās, or the variations of the māṭrās produced by the difference of svaras or intonation). The first māṭrā is called ghoshiṇī; the second, viḍyunmālī (or viḍyunmāṭrā); the third, paṭaṅginī; the fourth, vāyuveginī; the fifth, nāmaḍheya; the sixth, ainḍrī; the seventh, vaishṇavī; the eighth, śāṅkarī; the ninth, mahaṭī; the tenth, ḍhṛṭi (ḍhruva, Calcutta ed.); the eleventh, nārī (mauni, Calcutta ed.); and the twelfth, brāhmī.1
If a person happens to die in the first māṭrā (while contemplating on it), he is born again as a great emperor in Bhāraṭavarsha.
If in the second māṭrā, he becomes an illustrious yaksha; if in the third māṭrā, a viḍyāḍhara; if in the fourth, a ganḍharva (these three being the celestial hosts).
If he happens to die in the fifth, viz., arḍhamāṭrā, he lives in the world of the moon, with the rank of a ḍeva greatly glorified there.
If in the sixth, he merges into Inḍra; if in the seventh, he reaches the seat of Vishṇu; if in the eighth, Ruḍra, the Lord of all creatures.
If in the ninth, in Maharloka; if in the tenth, in Janoloka (Ḍhruvaloka, Calcutta ed.); if in the eleventh, Ṭapoloka, and if in the twelfth, he attains the eternal2 state of Brahmā.
That which is beyond these, (viz.,) Parabrahman which is beyond (the above māṭrās), the pure, the all-pervading, beyond kalās, the ever resplendent and the source of all jyoṭis (light) should be known.
1 When the mind goes beyond the organs and the guṇās and is absorbed, having no separate existence and no mental action, then (the guru) should instruct him (as to his further course of development).
That person always engaged in its contemplation and always absorbed in it should gradually leave off his body (or family) following the course of yoga and avoiding all intercourse with society.
Then he, being freed from the bonds of karma and the existence as a jīva and being pure, enjoys the supreme bliss by his attaining of the state of Brahmā.2
O intelligent man, spend your life always in the knowing of the supreme bliss, enjoying the whole of your prārabḍha (that portion of past karma now being enjoyed) without making any complaint (of it).
Even after āṭmajñāna (knowledge of Āṭmā or Self) has awakened (in one), prārabḍha does not leave (him); but he does not feel prārabḍha after the dawning of ṭaṭṭvajñāna3 (knowledge of ṭaṭṭva or truth) because the body and other things are asaṭ (unreal), like the things seen in a dream to one on awaking from it.
That (portion of the) karma which is done in former births, and called prārabdha does not at all affect the person (ṭaṭṭvajñānī), as there is no rebirth to him.
As the body that exists in the dreaming state is untrue, so is this body. Where then is rebirth to a thing that is illusory? How can a thing have any existence, when there is no birth (to it)?
As the clay is the material cause of the pot, so one learns from Veḍānṭa that ajñāna is the material cause of the universe: and when ajñāna ceases to exist, where then is the cosmos?
As a person through illusion mistakes a rope for a serpent, so the fool not knowing Saṭya (the eternal truth) sees the world (to be true.)
When he knows it to be a piece of rope, the illusory idea of a serpent vanishes.
So when he knows the eternal substratum of everything and all the universe becomes (therefore) void (to him), where then is prārabḍha to him, the body being a part of the world? Therefore the word prārabḍha is accepted to enlighten the ignorant (only).
Then as prārabḍha has, in course of time, worn out, he who is the sound resulting from the union of Praṇava with Brahman who is the absolute effulgence itself, and who is the bestower of all good, shines himself like the sun at the dispersion of the clouds.
The yogin being in the siḍḍhāsana (posture) and practising the Vaishṇavīmuḍrā should always hear the internal sound through the right ear.
The sound which he thus practises makes him deaf to all external sounds. Having overcome all obstacles, he enters the ṭurya state within fifteen days.
In the beginning of his practice, he hears many loud sounds. They gradually increase in pitch and are heard more and more subtly.
At first, the sounds are like those proceeding from the ocean, clouds, kettle-drum, and cataracts: in the middle (stage) those proceeding from marḍala (a musical instrument), bell, and horn.
At the last stage, those proceeding from tinkling bells, flute, vīṇā (a musical instrument), and bees. Thus he hears many such sounds more and more subtle.
When he comes to that stage when the sound of the great kettle-drum is being heard, he should try to distinguish only sounds more and more subtle.
He may change his concentration from the gross sound to the subtle, or from the subtle to the gross, but he should not allow his mind to be diverted from them towards others.
The mind having at first concentrated itself on any one sound fixes firmly to that and is absorbed in it.
It (the mind) becoming insensible to the external impressions, becomes one with the sound as milk with water, and then becomes rapidly absorbed in chiḍākāś (the ākāś where Chiṭ prevails).
Being indifferent towards all objects, the yogin having controlled his passions, should by continual practice concentrate his attention upon the sound which destroys the mind.
Having abandoned all thoughts and being freed from all actions, he should always concentrate his attention on the sound, and (then) his chiṭṭa becomes absorbed in it.
Just as the bee drinking the honey (alone) does not care for the odour, so the chiṭṭa which is always absorbed in sound, does not long for sensual objects, as it is bound by the sweet smell of nāḍa and has abandoned its flitting nature.
The serpent chiṭṭa through listening to the nāḍa is entirely absorbed in it, and becoming unconscious of everything concentrates itself on the sound.
The sound serves the purpose of a sharp goad to control the maddened elephant—chiṭṭa which roves in the pleasure-garden of the sensual objects.
It serves the purpose of a snare for binding the deer—chiṭṭa. It also serves the purpose of a shore to the ocean waves of chiṭṭa.
The sound proceeding from Praṇava which is Brahman is of the nature of effulgence; the mind becomes absorbed in it; that is the supreme seat of Vishṇu.
The sound exists till there is the ākāśic conception (ākāśa-saṅkalpa). Beyond this, is the (aśabḍa) soundless Parabrahman which is Paramāṭmā.
The mind exists so long as there is sound, but with its (sound’s) cessation, there is the state called unmanī of manas (viz., the state of being above the mind).
This sound is absorbed in the Akshara (indestructible) and the soundless state is the supreme seat.
The mind which along with Prāṇa (Vāyu) has (its) kārmic affinities destroyed by the constant concentration upon nāḍa is absorbed in the unstained One. There is no doubt of it.
Many myriads of nāḍas and many more of binḍus—(all) become absorbed in the Brahma-Praṇava sound.
Being freed from all states and all thoughts whatever, the yogin remains like one dead. He is a mukṭa. There is no doubt about this.
After that, he does not at any time hear the sounds of conch or ḍunḍubhi (large kettle-drum).
The body in the state of unmanī is certainly like a log and does not feel heat or cold, joy or sorrow.
The yogin’s chiṭṭa having given up fame or disgrace is in samāḍhi above the three states.
Being freed from the waking and the sleeping states, he attains to his true state.
When the (spiritual) sight becomes fixed without any object to be seen, when the vāyu (prāṇa) becomes still without any effort, and when the chiṭṭa becomes firm without any support, he becomes of the form of the internal sound of Brahma-Praṇava.
Such is the Upanishaḍ.
YOGAKUṆDALĪ1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
Chiṭṭa2 has two causes, vāsanās and (prāṇa) vāyu. If one of them is controlled, then both are controlled. Of these two, a person should control (prāṇa) vāyu always through moderate food, postures, and thirdly śakṭi-chāla.3 I shall explain the nature of these. Listen to it, O Gauṭama. One should take a sweet and nutritious food,4 leaving a fourth (of his stomach) unfilled) in order to please Śiva (the patron of yogins). This is called moderate food. Posture herein required is of two kinds, paḍma and vajra. Placing the two heels over the two opposite thighs (respectively) is the paḍma (posture) which is the destroyer of all sins. Placing one heel below the mūlakanḍa5 and the other over it and sitting with the neck, body and head erect is the vajra posture. The śakti (mentioned above) is only kuṇdalinī. A wise man should take it up from its place (viz., the navel, upwards) to the middle of the eyebrows. This is called śakṭi-chāla. In practising it, two things are necessary, Sarasvatīchālana1 and the restraint of prāṇa (breath). Then through practice, kuṇdalinī (which is spiral) becomes straightened. Of these two, I shall explain to you first Sarasvaṭī-chālana. It is said by the wise of old that Sarasvaṭī is no other than Arunḍhaṭī.2 It is only by rousing her up that kuṇdalinī is roused. When prāṇa (breath) is passing through (one’s) Idā (left nostril), he should assume firmly paḍma-posture and should lengthen (inwards) 4 digits the ākāś of 12 digits.3 Then the wise man should bind the (sarasvaṭī) nādi by means of this lengthened (breath) and holding firmly together (both his ribs near the navel) by means of the forefingers and thumbs of both hands, (one hand on each side) should stir up kuṇdalinī with all his might from right to left often and often; for a period of two muhūrṭas (48 minutes), he should be stirring it up fearlessly. Then he should draw up a little when kuṇdalinī enters sushumnā. By this means, kuṇdalinī enters the mouth of sushumnā. Prāṇa (also) having left (that place) enters of itself the sushumnā (along with kuṇdalinī). By compressing the neck, one should also expand the navel. Then by shaking sarasvaṭī, prāṇa goes above (to) the chest. Through the contraction of the neck, prāṇa goes above from the chest. Sarasvaṭī who has sound in her womb should be shaken (or thrown into vibration) each day. Therefore by merely shaking it, one is cured of diseases. Gulma (a splenetic disease), jaloḍara (dropsy), plīha (a splenetic disease) and all other diseases arising within the belly, are undoubtedly destroyed by shaking this Śakṭī.
I shall now briefly describe to you prāṇāyāma. Prāṇa is the vāyu that moves in the body and its restraint within is known as kumbhaka. It is of two kinds, sahiṭa and kevala.4 One should practise sahiṭa till he gets kevala. There are four bheḍas (lit., piercings or divisions) viz., sūrya, ujjāyī, śīṭalī, and bhasṭrī. The kumbhaka associated with these four is called sahiṭa kumbhaka.
Being seated in the paḍma posture upon a pure and pleasant seat which gives ease and is neither too high nor too low, and in a place which is pure, lovely and free from pebbles, etc., and which for the length of a bow is free from cold, fire, and water, one should shake (or throw into vibration) Sarasvaṭī; slowly inhaling the breath from outside, as long as he desires, through the right nostril, he should exhale it through the left nostril. He should exhale it after purifying his skull (by forcing the breath up). This destroys the four kinds of evils caused by vāyu as also by intestinal worms. This should be done often and it is this which is spoken of as sūryabheḍa.
Closing the mouth and drawing up slowly the breath as before with the nose through both the nādis (or nostrils) and retaining it in the space between the heart and the neck, one should exhale it through the left nostril. This destroys the heat caused in the head as well as the phlegm in the throat. It removes all diseases, purifies his body and increases the (gastric) fire within. It removes also the evils arising in the nādis, jaloḍara (waterbelly or dropsy) and ḍhāṭus. This kumbhaka is called ujjāyī and may be practised (even) when walking or standing.
Drawing up the breath as before through the tongue with (the hissing sound of) स and retaining it as before, the wise man should slowly exhale it through (both) the nostrils. This is called śīṭalī kumbhaka and destroys diseases, such as gulma, plīha, consumption, bile, fever, thirst, and poison.
Seated in the paḍma posture with belly and neck erect, the wise man should close the mouth and exhale with care through the nostrils. Then he should inhale a little with speed up to the heart, so that the breath may fill the space with noise between the neck and skull. Then he should exhale in the same way and inhale often and often. Just as the bellows of a smith are moved (viz., stuffed with air within and then the air is let out), so he should move the air within his body. If the body gets tired, then he should inhale through the right nostril. If his belly is full of vāyu, then he should press well his nostrils with all his fingers except his forefinger, and performing kumbhaka as before, should exhale through the left nostril. This frees one from diseases of fire in (or inflammation of) the throat, increases the gastric fire within, enables one to know the kuṇdalinī, produces purity removing sins, gives happiness and pleasure and destroys phlegm which is the bolt (or obstacle) to the door at the mouth of brahmanādi (viz., sushumnā). It pierces also the three granṭhis1 (or knots) differentiated through the three guṇas. This kumbhaka is known as bhasṭrī and should especially be performed.
Through these four ways when kumbhaka is near (or is about to be performed), the sinless yogin should practise the three banḍhas.2 The first is called mūlabanḍha. The second is called uddiyāṇa, and the third is jālanḍhara. Their nature will be thus described. Apāna (breath) which has a downward tendency is forcẹd up by one bending down. This process is called mūlabanḍha. When apāna is raised up and reaches the sphere of agni (fire), then the flame of agni grows long, being blown about by vāyu. Then agni and apāna come to (or commingle with) prāṇa in a heated state. Through this agni which is very fiery, there arises in the body the flaming (or the fire) which rouses the sleeping kuṇdalinī through its heat. Then this kuṇdalinī makes a hissing noise, becomes erect like a serpent beaten with stick and enters the hole of brahmanādi (sushumnā). Therefore yogins should daily practise mūlabanḍha often. Uddiyāṇa should be performed at the end of kumbhaka and at the beginning of expiration. Because prāṇa uddīyaṭē (viz., goes up) the sushumnā in this banḍha, therefore it called uddiyāṇa by the yogins. Being seated in the vajra posture and holding firmly the two toes by the two hands, he should press at the kanḍa and at the place near the two ankles. Then he should gradually upbear the ṭāna3 (thread or nādi) which is on the western side first to uḍara (the upper part of the abdomen above the navel), then to the heart and then to the neck. When prāṇa reaches the sanḍhi (junction) of navel, slowly it removes the impurities (or diseases) in the navel. Therefore this should be frequently practised. The banḍha called jālanḍhara should be practised at the end of kumbhaka. This jālanḍhara is of the form of the contraction of the neck and is an impediment to the passage of vāyu (upwards). When the neck is contracted at once by bending downwards (so that the chin may touch the breast), prāṇa goes through brahmanādi on the western ṭāna in the middle. Assuming the seat as mentioned before, one should stir up sarasvaṭī and control prāṇa. On the first day kumbhaka should be done four times; on the second day it should be done ten times, and then five times separately; on the third day, twenty times will do, and afterwards kumbhaka should be performed with the three banḍhas and with an increase of five times each day.
Diseases are generated in one’s body through the following causes, viz., sleeping in daytime, late vigils over night, excess of sexual intercourse, moving in crowd, the checking of the discharge of urine and fæces, the evil of unwholesome food and laborious mental operation with prāṇa. If a yogin is afraid of such diseases (when attacked by them), he says, “my diseases have arisen from my practice of yoga.” Then he will discontinue this practice. This is said to be the first obstacle to yoga. The second (obstacle) is doubt; the third is carelessness; the fourth, laziness; the fifth, sleep; the sixth, the not leaving of objects (of sense); the seventh, erroneous perception; the eighth, sensual objects; the ninth, want of faith;1 and the tenth, the failure to attain the truth of yoga. A wise man should abandon these ten obstacles after great deliberation. The practice of prāṇāyāma should be performed daily with the mind firmly fixed on Truth. Then chiṭṭa is absorbed in sushumnā, and prāṇa (therefore) never moves. When the impurities (of chiṭṭa) are thus removed and prāṇa is absorbed in sushumnā, he becomes a (true) yogin. Apāna, which has a downward tendency should be raised up with effort by the contraction (of the anus), and this is spoken of as mūlabanḍhā. Apāna thus raised up mixes with agni and then they go up quickly to the seat of prāṇa. Then prāṇa and apāna uniting with one another go to kuṇdalinī, which is coiled up and asleep. Kuṇdalinī being heated by agni and stirred up by vāyu, extends her body in the mouth of sushumnā, pierces the brahmagranṭhi formed of rajas, and flashes at once like lightning at the mouth of sushumnā. Then it goes up at once through vishṇūgranthi to the heart. Then it goes up through ruḍragranṭhi and above it to the middle of the eyebrows; having pierced this place, it goes up to the maṇdala (sphere) of the moon. It dries up the moisture produced by the moon in the anāhaṭachakra having sixteen petals.1 When the blood is agitated through the speed of prāṇa, it becomes bile from its contact with the sun, after which it goes to the sphere of the moon where it becomes of the nature of the flow of pure phlegm. How does it (blood) which is very cold become hot when it flows there? (Since) at the same time the intense white form of moon is speedily heated.2 Then being agitated, it goes up. Through taking in this, chiṭṭa which was moving amidst sensual objects externally, is restrained there. The novice enjoying this high state attains peace and becomes devoted to Āṭmā. Kuṇdalinī assumes the eight3 forms of prakṛṭi (matter) and attains Śiva by encircling him and dissolves itself in Śiva. Thus rajas-śukla4 (seminal fluid) which rises up goes to Śiva along with maruṭ (vāyu); prāṇa and apāna which are always produced become equal. Prāṇas flow in all things, great and small, describable or indescribable, as fire in gold. Then this body which is āḍhibhauṭika (composed of elements) becomes āḍhiḍaivaṭa (relating to a tutelar deity) and is thus purified. Then it attains the stage of aṭivāhika.5 Then the body being freed from the inert state becomes stainless and of the nature of Chiṭ. In it, the aṭivāhika becomes the chief of all, being of the nature of That. Like the conception of the snake in a rope, so the idea of the release from wife and samsāra is the delusion of time. Whatever appears is unreal. Whatever is absorbed is unreal. Like the illusory conception of silver in the mother-of-pearl, so is the idea of man and woman. The microcosm and the macrocosm are one and the same; so also the liṅga and sūṭrāṭma, svabhāva (substance) and form and the self-resplendent light and Chiḍāṭmā.
The Śakṭi named kuṇdalinī, which is like a thread in the lotus and is resplendent, is biting with the upper end of its hood (namely, mouth) at the root of the lotus the mūlakanḍa. Taking hold of its tail with its mouth, it is in contact with the hole of brahmaranḍhra (of sushumnā). If a person seated in the paḍma posture and having accustomed himself to the contraction of his anus makes his vāyu go upward with the mind intent on kumbhaka, then agni comes to svāḍhishthāna flaming, owing to the blowing of vāyu. From the blowing of vāyu and agni, the chief (kuṇdalinī) pierces open the brahmagranṭhi and then vishṇugranṭhi. Then it pierces ruḍragranṭhi, after that, (all) the six lotuses (or plexuses). Then Śakṭi is happy with Śiva in sahasrāra kamala (1,000 lotuseś seat or pineal gland). This should be known as the highest avasṭhā (state) and it alone is the giver of final beatitude. Thus ends the first chapter.
I shall hereafter describe the science called khecharī which is such that one who knows it is freed from old age and death in this world. One who is subject to the pains of death, disease and old age should, O sage, on knowing this science make his mind firm and practise khecharī. One should regard that person as his guru on earth who knows khecharī, the destroyer of old age and death, both from knowing the meaning of books and practice, and should perform it with all his heart. The science of khecharī is not easily attainable, as also its practice. Its practice and melana1 are not accomplished simultaneously. Those that are bent upon practice alone do not get melana. Only some get the practice, O Brāhman, after several births, but melana is not obtained even after a hundred births. Having undergone the practice after several births, some (solitary) yogin gets the melana in some future birth as the result of his practice. When a yogin gets this melana from the mouth of his guru, then he obtains the siḍḍhis mentioned in the several books. When a man gets this melana through books and the significance, then he attains the state of Śiva freed from all rebirth. Even gurus may not be able to know this without books. Therefore this science is very difficult to master. An ascetic should wander over the earth so long as he fails to get this science, and when this science is obtained, then he has got the siḍḍhi in his hand (viz., mastered the psychical powers). Therefore one should regard as Achyuṭa (Vishṇu) the person who imparts the melana, as also him who gives out the science. He should regard as Śiva him who teaches the practice. Having got this science from me, you should not reveal it to others. Therefore one who knows this should protect it with all his efforts (viz., should never give it out except to persons who deserve it). O Brāhman, one should go to the place where lives the guru, who is able to teach the divine yoga and there learn from him the science khecharī, and being then taught well by him, should at first practise it carefully. By means of this science, a person will attain the siḍḍhi of khecharī. Joining with khecharī śakṭi (viz., kuṇdalinī śakṭi) by means of the (science) of khecharī which contains the bīja (seed of letter) of khecharī, one becomes the lord of khecharas (Ḍevas) and lives always amongst them. Khecharī bīja (seed-letter) is spoken of as agni encircled with water and as the abode of khecharas (Ḍevas). Through this yoga, siḍḍhi is mastered. The ninth (bīja) letter of somāmśa (soma or moon part) should also be pronounced in the reverse order. Then a letter composed of three amśas of the form of moon has been described; and after that, the eighth letter should be pronounced in the reverse order; then consider it as the supreme and its beginning as the fifth, and this is said to the kūta (horns) of the several bhinnas (or parts) of the moon.1 This which tends to the accomplishment of all yogas, should be learnt through the initiation of a guru. He who recites this twelve times every day, will not get even in sleep that māyā (illusion) which is born in his body and which is the source of all vicious deeds. He who recites this five lakhs of times with very great care—to him the science of khecharī will reveal itself. All obstacles vanish and the ḍevas are pleased. The destruction of valīpaliṭa (viz., wrinkle and greyness of hair) will take place without doubt. Having acquired this great science, one should practise it afterwards. If not, O Brāhman, he will suffer without getting any siḍḍhi in the path of khecharī. If one does not get this nectarlike science in this practice, he should get it in the beginning of melana and recite it always; (else) one who is without it never gets siḍḍhi. As soon as he gets this science, he should practise it; and then the sage will soon get the siḍḍhi. Having drawn out the tongue from the root of the palate, a knower of Āṭmā should clear the impurity (of the tongue) for seven days according to the advice of his guru. He should take a sharp knife which is oiled and cleaned and which resembles the leaf of the plant snuhī (“Euphorbia antiquorum”) and should cut for the space of a hair (the frænum Lingui). Having powdered sainḍhava (rock-salt) and paṭhya (sea-salt), he should apply it to the place. On the seventh day, he should again cut for the space of a hair. Thus for the space of six months, he should continue it always gradually with great care. In six months, Śiro-banḍha (banḍha at the head),1 which is at the root of the tongue is destroyed. Then the yogin who knows timely action should encircle with Śīro-vasṭra (lit., the cloth of the head) the Vāk-Īśvarī (the deity presiding over speech) and should draw (it) up. Again by daily drawing it up for six months, it comes, O sage, as far as the middle of the eyebrows and obliquely up to the opening of the ears; having gradually practised, it goes to the root of the chin. Then in three years, it goes up easily to the end of the hair (of the head). It goes up obliquely to Śākha1 and downwards to the well of the throat. In another three years, it occupies brahmaranḍhra and stops there without doubt. Crosswise it goes up to the top of the head and downwards to the well of the throat. Gradually it opens the great adamantine door in the head. The rare science (of khecharī) bīja has been explained before. One should perform the six aṅgas (parts) of this manṭra by pronouncing it in six different intonations. One should do this in order to attain all the siḍḍhis; and this karanyāsam2 should be done gradually and not all at a time, since the body of one who does it all at once will soon decay. Therefore it should be practised, O best of sages, little by little. When the tongue goes to the brahmaranḍhra through the outer path, then one should place the tongue after moving the bolt of Brahmā which cannot be mastered by the ḍevas. On doing this for three years with the point of the finger, he should make the tongue enter within: then it enters brahmaḍvāra (or hole). On entering the brahmaḍvāra, one should practise maṭhana (churning) well. Some intelligent men attain siḍḍhi even without maṭhana. One who is versed in khecharī manṭra accomplishes it without maṭhana. By doing the japa and maṭhana, one reaps the fruits soon. By connecting a wire made of gold, silver or iron with the nostrils by means of a thread soaked in milk, one should restrain his breath in his heart and seated in a convenient posture with his eyes concentrated between his eyebrows, he should perform maṭhana slowly. In six months, the state of maṭhana becomes natural like sleep in children. And it is not advisable to do maṭhana always. It should be done (once) only in every month. A yogin should not revolve his tongue in the path. After doing this for twelve years, siḍḍhi is surely obtained. Then he sees the whole universe in his body as not being different from Āṭmā. This path of the ūrḍhvakuṇdalinī (higher kuṇdalinī), O chief of kings, conquers the macrocosm. Thus ends the second chapter.
Melanamanṭra.— (Hrīm), भं (bham), सं (sam), षं (sham), फं (pham), सं (sam), and (ksham).
The lotus-born (Brahmā) said:
O Śaṅkara, (among) new moon (the first day of the lunar fortnight) and full moon, which is spoken of as its (manṭra’s) sign? In the first day of lunar fortnight and during new moon and full moon (days), it should be made firm and there is no other way (or time). A man longs for an object through passion and is infatuated with passion for objects. One should always leave these two and seek the Nirañjana (stainless). He should abandon everything else which he thinks is favourable to himself. Keeping the manas in the midst of śakṭi, and śakṭi in the midst of manas, one should look into manas by means of of manas. Then he leaves even the highest stage. Manas alone is the binḍu, the cause of creation and preservation. It is only through manas that binḍu is produced, like the curd from milk. The organs of manas is not that which is situated in the middle of banḍhana. Banḍhana is there where Śakti is between the sun and moon. Having known sushumnā and its bheḍa (piercing) and making the vāyu go in the middle, one should stand in the seat of binḍu, and close the nostrils. Having known vāyu, the above-mentioned binḍu and the saṭṭva-prakṛṭi as well as the six chakras, one should enter the sukha-maṇdala (viz., the sahasrāra or pineal gland, the sphere of happiness). There are six chakras. Mūlāḍhāra is in the anus; svāḍhishthāna is near the genital organ; maṇipūraka is in the navel; anāhaṭa is in the heart; viśuḍḍhi is at the root of the neck and ājñā is in the head (between the two eyebrows). Having known these six maṇdalas (spheres), one should enter the sukhamaṇdala (pineal gland), drawing up the vāyu and should send it (vāyu) upwards. He who practises thus (the control of) vāyu becomes one with brahmāṇda (the macrocosm). He should practise (or master) vāyu, binḍu, chiṭṭa, and chakra.
Yogins attain the nectar of equality through samāḍhi alone. Just as the fire latent in (sacrificial) wood does not appear without churning, so the lamp of wisdom does not arise without the abhyāsa yoga (or practice of yoga). The fire placed in a vessel does not give light outside. When the vessel is broken, its light appears without. One’s body is spoken of as the vessel, and the seat of “That” is the fire (or light) within; and when it (the body) is broken through the words of a guru, the light of brahmajñāna becomes resplendent. With the guru as the helmsman, one crosses the subtle body and the ocean of samsāra through the affinities of practice. That vāk1 (power of speech) which sprouts in parā, gives forth two leaves in paśyanṭī, buds forth in maḍhyamā and blossoms in vaikharī—that vāk which has before been described, reaches the stage of the absorption of sound, reversing the above order (viz., beginning with vaikharī, etc). Whoever thinks that He who is the great lord of that vāk, who is the undifferentiated and who is the illuminator of that vāk is Self; whoever thinks over thus, is never affected by words, high or low (or good or bad). The three (aspects2 of consciousness), viśva, ṭȧijasa, and prājña (in man), the three Virāṭ, Hiraṇyagarbha, and Īśvara in the universe, the egg of the universe, the egg of man3 and the seven worlds—all these in turn are absorbed in Praṭyagāṭma through the absorption of their respective upāḍhis (vehicles). The egg being heated by the fire of jñāna is absorbed with its kāraṇa (cause) into Paramāṭmā (Universal Self). Then it becomes one with Parabrahman. It is then neither steadiness nor depth, neither light nor darkness, neither describable nor distinguishable. Saṭ (Be-ness) alone remains. One should think of Āṭmā as being within the body like a light in a vessel. Āṭmā is of the dimensions of a thumb, is a light without smoke and without form, is shining within (the body) and is undifferentiated and immutable.
The Vijñāna Āṭmā that dwells in this body is deluded by māyā during the states of waking, dreaming, and dreamless sleep; but after many births, owing to the effect of good karma, it wishes to attain its own state. Who am I? How has this stain of mundane existence accrued to me? What becomes in the dreamless sleep of me who am engaged in business in the waking and dreaming states? Just as a bale of cotton is burnt by fire, so the Chiḍābhāsa1 which is the result of non-wisdom, is burnt by the (wise) thoughts like the above and by its own supreme illumination. The outer burning (of body as done in the world) is no burning at all. When the wordly wisdom is destroyed, Praṭyagāṭma that is in the ḍahara (ākāś or ether of the heart) obtains vijñāna, diffusing itself everywhere and burns in an instant jñānamaya and manomaya (sheaths). After this, He himself shines always within, like a light within a vessel.
That muni who contemplates thus till sleep and till death is to be known as a jīvanmukṭa. Having done what ought to be done, he is a fortunate person. And having given up (even) the state of a jīvanmukṭa, he attains viḍehamukṭi (emancipation in a disembodied state), after his body wears off. He attains the state, as if of moving in the air. Then That alone remains which is soundless, touchless, formless, and deathless, which is the rasa (essence), eternal, and odourless, which has neither beginning nor end, which is greater than the great, and which is permanent, stainless, and decayless.
Thus ends the Upanishaḍ.
Printed by Annie Besant at the Vasanṭā Press, Adyar, Madras.
[1 ]Under yama and niyama Paṭañjali has five kinds only.
[1 ]In the explanation one more posture is introduced.
[1 ]In Varāha Upanishaḍ and later on, this is named “Kanḍha”. Herein is described the web of life.
[1 ]This should be perhaps—between Piṅgalā and Payasvinī is Pūshā.
[2 ]Yasasvinī should be “Sāṅkhinī.”
[1 ]Here the process of digestion of food is described.
[1 ]Both by physical protection and that of mantras to scare away evil spirits.
[2 ]He is the son of Siva, having an elephant’s face symbolical of wisdom. He is considered as the remover of all obstacles, and as such is he invoked and worshipped in the beginning of every religious rite.
[3 ]Idā and Piṅgalā are the two nādis upon which our breaths alternate from the left nostril to the right and vice versa and between which is Sushumnā. Hence these two terms are applied to and mean the left and right nostrils.
[4 ]According to Yogaṭatṭva-Upanishad, a mātrā is the time occupied in circling the knee once with the palm of the hand and filliping the fingers.
[5 ]According to Varāha-Upanishaḍ the seat of fire is the mūlāḍhāra (sacral plexus).
[6 ]The original is not clear. It says, “For the space of 3, 4, 3, 4, 7, 3 and 4 months” which when added becomes 28.
[1 ]According to the Mantra Sāsṭra, Prāṇayāma is performed through the letters of Samskṛṭ alphabet, the vowels corresponding to inspiration, etc.
[2 ]These are the Goddesses representing Sakṭi and being the wives of Brahmā, Vishṇu, and Ruḍra.
[1 ]This passage clearly indicates the dreadful consequences of the performance of Prāṇāyāma rashly and without a guru.
[2 ]As already pointed out, the Sushumnā nādi is between Idā and Pingalā. If Prāṇa which alternates ordinarily between Idā and Piṅgalā is restrained by long kumbhaka, then it along with the soul, its attendant will enter the Sushumnā (central nādi) at one of the three places where it yields space for entrance through such restraint of breath and in the navel, from the Sarasvati nādi on the west. After such entry it is that the yogin becomes dead to the world, being in the state called trance.
[1 ]Through such and other methods of Prānāyāma prescribed in this passage and the subsequent ones, chronic diseases that defy European doctors will be rooted out.
[2 ]He becomes an Ūrḍhva-rētas—his vital energy goes up.
[1 ]There are six centres of energy in the body (mūlāḍhāra, sacral plexus, etc.), which are presided over by six saktis (goddesses of energy).
[1 ]This twelfth centre is identified by some with the pituitary body in the head, there being six centres in the brain besides the six below the brain.
[1 ]Lit., binding the air up the throat.
[1 ]These correspond severally to the several directions and the devatās presiding over them, corresponding respectively to east, south-east, south, south-west, west, north-west, north, and north-east.
[2 ]The fourteen worlds, lokas and talas are referred to: the order in talas seems to be wrong, Ṭalaṭala should be in the middle.
[1 ]Some texts leave the words “and yoga”.
[1 ]These relate to the Gāyaṭrī manṭras depending upon sound.
[2 ]These relate to the Gāyaṭrī manṭras depending upon sound.
[3 ]According to Bhāgavaṭa, he is one of the minor incarnations of Vishṇu.
[1 ]An animal said to have eight legs and to be stronger than lion.
[1 ]Lit., “with guṇas” and “without guṇas”.
[1 ]The Upanishad of the seed of meditation.
[2 ]Of the heart.
[1 ]The black mark on the breast standing for Mūlaprakṛṭi and the garland for the five elements.
[1 ]In other places, it is ten.
[1 ]Probably it refers to the triangle of the initiates.
[2 ]There seems to be some mistake in the original.
[1 ]This word “Hamsa” is very mysterious and has manifold meanings according to different standpoints. It is composed of Ham (or Aham) and Sa (ha), which mean “I” (am) “that”. In its highest sense, it is Kālahamsa (or Parabrahman). It is also Brahmā when he has Hamsa (or swan) as the vehicle or Hamsa-vāhana. When Hamsa which is the manifestation of Prāṇa is applied to the human breath, we are said to exhale with Ha and to inhale with Sa. It is also called Ajapā-Gāyatrī.
[2 ]The different chakras of those that are above the anus, in the genitals, navel, heart, and throat, between the eyebrows and in the head.
[1 ]This is omitted in the Calcutta edition and seemingly makes no sense here.
[2 ]This is how a commentator explains.
[3 ]This refers to the different petals in the heart. Vide the same in Nāraḍa-Parivrājaka and Ḍhyānabindu Upanishaḍs.
[4 ]Kīlaka means wedge. In the Ajapā mantra ‘Hamsa-so’ham’, So’ham is the wedge to which the whole mantra is fastened.
[1 ]One commentator gives the table for 21,600 thus: 60 breaths make one Prāṇa; 6 Prānas, one nādi; and 60 nādis, one day and night.
[2 ]The words are Sūryāya, Somāya, Nirañjanāya, Nirabhāsāya. It is with the pronunciation of these words that the different places in the body are touched, viz., Aṅganyāsas and Karanyāsas are performed. The first word is pointed to the heart with the thumb; the second, to the head, and the third, to the hair of the head. With the last, a kavacha (armour) is made by circling the fingers round the head and then circling one hand over another. This process is carried on again after the pronunciation of Ajapā mantra which follows. Here Soma (moon) is that which is united with Umā or the emblem of the union of the lower and higher Selves. Sūrya or Sun is the causer of the state of one-ness.
[3 ]As it stands, it means “the bodiless, the subtle and the guide. The original is Atanu Sukshmam Prachoḍayāt.
[4 ]The three eyes are the two eyes commonly now in use with the Divine eye.
[5 ]Contemplation with an object as seed and the seedless one.
[6 ]A state above manas or when manas is transcended.
[1 ]The Upanishad treating of Nāda spiritual sound) which is Amrta (nectar). Here Prāṇas are spoken of, as they produce Nāda within and without.
[2 ]It is said to be the subtle, gross and other microcosmic bodies. It also means sign.
[3 ]It is said to be the macrocosmic bodies of Virāt, etc. It means a word or letter.
[4 ]In this classification, tārka is introduced newly. It means; the examination of the mind being attracted to objects and knowing that siddhis are impediments to progress.
[1 ]The vyāhṛṭis are Bhūh, Bhuvah, etc., and the head is Om, Āpo, etc.
[2 ]Lit., car-circle which is a mystical chakra or diagram for invoking the ḍevatā; but some commentators make raṭha mean Om: and maṇdala, the circle of Siva.
[1 ]There are four openings in the body; three from which the astral, the lower mental and the higher mental bodies escape: the last being of ṭurya.
[2 ]As measured by the width of the middle finger: Yājñavalkya says, Prāṇa is 12 digits beyond the body.
[1 ]One commentator makes it thus. Taking 21,600 for each of the five Prānas we get 1,08,000: for the five sub-prāṇas, 5×1036 is 5,180. Hence the total is 1,13,180. Another commentator makes it 21,600 alone.
[1 ]This means boar and refers to the incarnation of Vishṇu as a boar.
[2 ]Books such as Mahābhāraṭa and Rāmāyaṇa.
[3 ]Prāṇa, Apāna, Uḍāna, Vyāna and Samāna, having their respective places and functions in the body.
[4 ]Sound, touch, form, taste and odour.
[5 ]Producing respectively uncertainty, certain knowledge, fluctuation of thought, and egoism and having certain centres in the body.
[1 ]In the states of waking, dreaming and dreamless sleeping.
[2 ]Being past karmas now being enjoyed, past karmas being in store to be enjoyed hereafter and the karmas now produced to be enjoyed hereafter.
[3 ]Presiding over water or tongue.
[4 ]Presiding over odour or nose.
[5 ]Presiding over leg or nether world.
[6 ]Vide the translation of Sarvasāra-Upanishaḍ.
[7 ]This refers to the several class of persons in different modes of life who wear their hair in different ways as yogins, ascetics and so on.
[1 ]Meaning respectively mental restraint, bodily restraint, the renunciation or practising of works without reference to their fruits, endurance of heart and soul, etc., faith and settled peace of mind.
[2 ]Meaning meditation and reflection thereon.
[1 ]Viz., Vishṇu, the Lord of all persons.
[1 ]During the solar and lunar eclipses, these rites are done by the Hinḍūs.
[2 ]Of the six saktis, she is one that gives wisdom.
[3 ]Either controlling the breath through prāṇāyāma or the consolidation of mercury through some means, leading in both cases to siḍḍhis, etc.
[1 ]Of the two causes of the universe, Spirit is the nimiṭṭa (instrumental) cause while matter is the upāḍāna (material) cause. This material cause is again subdivided into three: viz., ārambha (initial), pariṇāma (changed) and vivarta (illusory). The first or material cause may be exemplified by the cotton or woollen thread being the initial material cause of cloth or dresses which are woven out of these threads without changing the threads; the second by milk being the changed cause of curd, since a change takes place in the milk which becomes curd; the third by a serpent being the illusory cause of a rope, for here through illusion we mistake the rope for the serpent.
[1 ]The mystio Hindū Tamil books teem with works on medicine through which the higher siḍḍhis can be developed.
[1 ]Jīvanmukti is emancipation. Jīvanmukṭas are those that have attained emancipation.
[2 ]This word and others are explained in full later on in the text.
[1 ]Lit., secret sleep.
[1 ]Suka is a Ṛshi, the son of the present Vyāsa and the narrator of Bhāgavaṭa Purāṇa. Vāmaḍeva is also a Ṛshi.
[1 ]Bird’s path, like birds which fly at once to the place they intend to go; Ant’s path, like ants which move slowly.
[2 ]It is that of intense self-absorption when one loses his consciousness of individuality.
[3 ]Hathayoga, as stated in Paṭañjali’s Yoga Philosophy.
[1 ]There are either the five elements or Mūlādhāra (sacral plexus), Svādhishthāna (epigastric or prostatic plexus), Manipūraka (solar plexus), Anāhata (cardiac plexus) and Visuddhi (laryngeal or pharyngeal plexus). These are situated respectively in the anus, the genital organs, navel, heart and throat. The last or the sixth plexus is omitted here, as the five plexuses mentioned above correspond to the five elements. This chapter treating of yoga is very mystical.
[2 ]This is one of the postures treated of in Siva Samhiṭa and other books.
[1 ]There are four kinds of yoga—the fourth being Rājayoga. Mantrayoga is that in which perfection is obtained through the pronunciation of mantras. Layayoga is that in which perfection is obtained through laya (absorption).
[2 ]They mean respectively forbearance, religious restraint, posture, restraint of breath, subjugation of the senses, contemplation, meditation, and intense self-absorption.
[1 ]Lit., germ.
[1 ]It is mystic here and later on.
[2 ]He has pierced all the granṭhis and hence becomes a master of vedha.
[1 ]There are the three kinds of pronunciation with 1 māṭrā, 2 mātrās and 3 mātrās. They are respectively hrasva, ḍīrgha and pluta which may be translated as short, long and very long.
[1 ]Mandala means sphere. As the Purusha in the maṇdala or sphere of the sun gives out this Upanishad to Yājñavalkya, hence it is called Maṇdala-Brāhmaṇa. It is very mystic. There is a book called Rājayoga Bhāshya which is a commentary thereon; in the light of it which is by some attributed to Srī Saṅkarāchārya, notes are given herein.
[1 ]Comm.: Rising above the seven Prāṇas, one should with introvision cognise in the region of Ākās, Ṭamas and should then make Ṭamas get into Rajas, Rajas into Saṭtva, Sattva into Nārāyana and Nārāyaṇa, into the Supreme One.
[2 ]Ṭaraka is from ṭṛ., to cross, as it enables one to cross samsāra. The higher vision is here said to take place in a centre between the eyebrows—probably in the brain.
[1 ]The commentator puts it as 12 digits above the root of the palate—perhaps the Ḍvāḍasānṭa or twelfth centre corresponding to the pituitary body.
[1 ]The commentator to support the above that antarlakshya, viz., Brahman is jala- or water-jyoṭis quotes the Prāṇāyāma-Gāyatrī which says: “Om Āpo-jyotī-raso’amṛtam-Brahma, etc.”—Āpo-jyoṭis or water-jyotis is Brahman.
[1 ]Comm. Sukla is Brahman.
[2 ]The original is, ‘Vajra-Darpaṇam.’
[3 ]Shaṇmukhi is said to be the process of hearing the internal sound by closing the two ears with the two thumbs, the two eyes with the two forefingers, the two nostrils with the two middle fingers, and the mouth with the remaining two fingers of both hands.
[1 ]In this paragraph, the higher or secret meaning is given of all actions done in the pūjā or worship of God in the Hinḍū houses as well as temples. Regarding the clothing of the idol which is left out here, the commentator explains it as āvaraṇa or screen.
[2 ]Here also the commentator brings in nīrājana or the waving of the light before the image. That is according to him, the ides, “I am the self-shining.”
[1 ]The Ṭriputi are the three, the knower, the known and the knowledge. Comm.: Dhyāna and others stated before wherein the three distinctions are made.
[2 ]Ūha and apoha—the consideration of the pros and cons.
[1 ]This is a reference to the secret way of imparting higher truth.
[1 ]Lit., Sound-seed.
[2 ]The commentator says that M is the last letter and hence tail and arḍhamātrā is the head, as it enables one to attain to higher worlds.
[3 ]Another reading is: The qualities are its feet, etc., and Ṭaṭtva is its body.
[4 ]Comm.: Since this mantra has already occurred in the preceding Khaṇda of the same sākhā, it is simply referred in the text. The mantra is:
[1 ]Comm. The four mātrās are subdivided into twelve by their having each three svaras, Udātta, Anudātta, and Svarīta. Here the author goes on to give the names of the twelve kalās and shows the method of practising Dhāraṇā on each. Ghoshiṇī is that which gives Prajña Vidyunmālī is that which secures entrance into the loka of Vidyunmālī, the king of the yakshas: Pataṅginī is that which confers the power of movement through air like the bird Paṭanginī; Vāyuvegiṅī is that which gives the power of moving very rapidly. Nāmadheya means that which confers existence in Pitrloka: Aindrī in Indraloka. Vaishnavī and Sānkarī in Vishnu and Siva-lokas respectively: Maunī to the loka of Munis or Janoloka and Brāhmī to Brahmaloka.
[2 ]Eternal here means the lifetime of Brahmā.
[1 ]Another edition says he should enter through yoga the incomparable and quiescent Siva.
[2 ]Here the Calcutta edition stops.
[3 ]Ṭattvajñāna is the discrimination of the tattvas of this universe and man. Ātmajñāna—the discrimination of Āṭmā or the Self in man.
[1 ]In this Upanishad are stated the ways by which the Kuṇdalīnī power is roused from the navel upwards to the middle of the eyebrows and then up to sahasrāra in the head: this being one of the important works of an adept to master the forces of nature.
[2 ]Chitṭa is the flitting aspect of Antaḥkarana.
[3 ]Lit., the moving of sakti which is Kuṇdalinī.
[4 ]Regarding the quantity to be taken, one should take of solid food half of his stomach: of liquid food, one quarter, leaving the remaining quarter empty for the air to percolate.
[5 ]Mūlakanḍa is the root of kanḍa, the genital organ.
[1 ]The moving of sarasvatī nādi situated on the west of the navel among the 14 nādis (Vide Vāraha and other Upanishads).
[2 ]Sarasvatī is called also Arundhatī who is literally one that helps good actions being done and the wife of Ṛshi Vasishtha—also the star that is shown to the bride on marriage occasions.
[3 ]In exhalation, prāna goes out 16 digits and in inhalation, goes in only for 12, thus losing 4. But if inhaled for 16, then the power is aroused.
[4 ]Lit., associated with and alone. Vide Sāṇdilya-Upanishaḍ.
[1 ]They are Brahmagranthi, Vishṇugranthi, and Rudragranthi.
[2 ]Bandhas are oertain kinds of position of the body.
[3 ]This probably refers to Sarasvaṭī Nādi.
[1 ]The text is Anākhiam which has no sense. It has been translated as Anāstha.
[1 ]Twelve seems to be the right number of petals in the anāhata-chakra of the heart; but the moon is probably meant having sixteen rays.
[2 ]The passages here are obscure.
[3 ]They are Mūlaprakrti, Mahat, Ahankāra and the five elements.
[4 ]Here it is the astral seminal fluid which, in the case of a neophyte, not having descended to a gross fluid through the absence of sexual desire, rises up being conserved as a spiritual energy.
[5 ]A stage of being able to convey to other bodies the deity appointed by God to help in the conveying of sūkshma (subtle) body to other bodies at the expiry of good actions which contribute to the enjoyment of material pleasures (vide Apte’s Dictionary).
[1 ]Melana is lit., joining. This is the key to this science which seems to be kept profoundly secret and revealed by adepts only at initiation, as will appear from the subsequent passages in this Upanishaḍ.
[1 ]All these are very mystic.
[1 ]Probably it here means some part below the skull.
[2 ]Certain motions of the fingers and hands in the pronunciation of manṭras.
[1 ]Vāk is of four kinds (as said here) parā, pasyantī, madhyamā, and vaikharī. Vaikharī being the lowest and the grossest of sounds, and parā being the highest. In evolution vāk begins from the highest to the lowest and in involution it takes a reverse order, to merge into the highest subtle sound (Parā).
[2 ]The first three aspects of consciousness refer to the gross, subtle, and kāraṇa bodies of men, while the second three aspects refer to the three bodies of the universe. This is from the standpoint of the three bodies.
[3 ]The egg of man—this shows that man in his formation is and appears as an egg, just as the universe is, and appears as an egg.
[1 ]It is the consciousness that becomes distorted and is unable to cognise itself through the bodies.