Front Page Titles (by Subject) I: VEDANTA-UPANISHADS - Thirty Minor Upanishads
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I: VEDANTA-UPANISHADS - Misc (Upanishads), Thirty Minor Upanishads 
Thirty Minor Upanishads, trans. K. Narayanasvami Aiyar (Madras: Printed by Annie Besant at the Vasanta Press, 1914).
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MUKṬIKOPANISHAḌ OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Addressing with devotion and obedience Śri-Rāma—the Lord Hari, at the end of His Samāḍhi, who being Himself changeless is the witness of the thousands of changes of Buḍḍhi, and who ever rests in Swarūpa-Ḍhyāna (the meditation on Reality) while seated under the bejewelled dome of the palace in the lovely city of Ayoḍhyā, in the midst of Sīṭā, Bharaṭa and Soumiṭri (Lakshmaṇa) Śaṭrughna and others, eulogised day and night by Sanaka and other hosts of Munis, as well as by Vasishtha, Śuka, and other devotees of Vishṇu—Hanūmān, after praising them, asked: “O Rāma, Thou art Paramāṭmā of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa. O foremost of the family of Raghu, I make prostrations to Thee again and again. O Rāma, I wish to know for the sake of emancipation, Thy nature as it really is. O Rāma, be Thou gracious enough to tell me that by which I shall be easily released from the bondage of mundane existence and by which I shall attain salvation.”
“O mighty-armed one, well asked: hearken then to the truth uttered by Me. I am well established in Veḍānṭa (or the end of Veḍas or knowledge). Have thou recourse to Veḍānṭa well.”
(Hanūmān again asked:)
“O foremost of Raghus, what are Veḍānṭas? where do they abide? Pray enlighten me.” (Śrī-Rāma replied:) “O Hanūmān, listen to Me. I shall truly describe to you the nature of Veḍānṭa. Through the expiratory breath of Myself—Vishṇu, the Veḍas were generated as many. Like the oil in the sesamum seeds, Veḍānṭa is well established (or latent) in the Veḍas.”
(Hanūmān asked again:)
“O Rāma, how many are the Veḍas and their branches? O Rāghava, what are the Upanishaḍs? Please, through Thy grace, tell me truly.”
“Through the divisions of Ṛgveḍa and others, the Veḍas are said to be four in number. Their branches are many. So also the Upanishaḍs. In Ṛgveḍa, there are branches, 21 in number. O son of Vāyu, there are 109 branches in Yajurveḍa. O conqueror of enemies, there are 1,000 branches in Sāmaveḍa. O best of Monkeys, there are 50 branches in Aṭharvaṇaveḍa. In each branch, there is one Upanishaḍ. Whoever with devotion to Me studies even one of the Ṛks (hymns) in these, attains the state of absorption, rare for the Munis to attain.”
“O Rāma, some excellent Munis have said there is one kind of salvation only, while others [stated that salvation is attained] through the uttering of Thy name or the initiation into Ṭāraka (Om) at Kāśī (Benares); others through Sāṅkhya-Yoga, others through the Yoga of Devotion; other Mahāṛshis through the meditation upon the meaning of Mahāvākyas (the sacred sentences of the Veḍas). Salvation is stated to be of four kinds through the divisions of Sālokya and others.”
“There is only one true emancipation. O Kapi (Monkey), even a person addicted to evil practices attains the salvation of Sālokya (My world) through the uttering of My name, but not of other worlds. Should one die in Brahma-nāḷa (the lotus-stalk—also street) in Kāśī,1 he attains My Ṭāraka (Manṭra). Such a person attains salvation without any rebirth; wherever he may die in Kāśī, Maheśwara initiates him by whispering My Ṭāraka (Manṭra) into his right ear. Such person, freed from all sins, attains My Swarūpa (Form). It is this that is termed Sālokya-Sārūpya salvation. The twice-born who is of virtuous conduct and who, without diverting his intelligence on any other, meditates upon Me, the All-Āṭmā, attains Sāmīpya (nearness) to Me.
“It is this that is termed Sālokya-Sārūpya-Sāmīpya salvation. The twice-born who according to the path opened by the teacher, meditates upon My immutable Reality attains Sāyujya (absorption) into Me, like the caterpillar into the wasp. This is the Sāyujya salvation which is productive of Brāhmic bliss and auspicious. Thus these kinds of salvation arise through the Upāsanā (worship) of Me.
“The only means by which the final emancipation is attained is through Māṇdūkya-Upanishaḍ alone, which is enough for the salvation of all aspirants. If Jñāna is not attained thereby, study the 10 Upanishaḍs; thou shalt soon attain Jñāna, and then My Seat. O son of Añjanā, if thy Jñāna is not made firm, practise (study) well the 32 Upanishaḍs. Thou shalt get release. If thou longest after Viḍehamukṭi (or disembodied salvation), study the 108 Upanishaḍs. I will truly state in order the (names of the) Upanishaḍs with their Śānṭi (purificatory Manṭras). Hearken to them. (They are:) Īśa, Kena, Katha, Praśna, Muṇda, Māṇdūkya, Ṭiṭṭiri, Aiṭareya, Chhānḍogya, Bṛhaḍāraṇyaka, Brahma, Kaivalya, Jābāla, Śweṭāśwaṭara, Hamsa, Āruṇi, Garbha, Nārāyaṇa, (Parama)-Hamsa, (Amṛṭa)-Binḍu, (Amṛṭa)-Nāḍa, (Atharva)-Śira, (Aṭharva)-Śikhā, Maiṭrāyaṇī, Kaushīṭaki, (Bṛhaṭ)-Jābāla, (Narasihma)-Ṭāpanī, Kālāgniruḍra, Maiṭreyī, Subāla, Kshurikā, Manṭrikā, Sarvasāra, Nirālamba, (Śuka)-Rahasya, Vajrasūchikā, Ṭejo-(Binḍu), Nāḍa-(Binḍu), Ḍhyāna-(Binḍu), (Brahma)-Viḍyā, Yoga-Ṭaṭṭwa, Āṭmaboḍhaka, Parivrāt (Nāraḍa-Parivrājaka), (Ṭri)-Śikhī, Sīṭā, (Yoga)-Chūdā-(Maṇi) Nirvāṇa, Maṇdala-(Brāhmaṇa), Ḍakshiṇā-(Mūrṭi), Śarabha, Skanḍa, (Tripāḍvibhūṭi)-Mahā-Nārāyaṇa, Aḍwaya-(Ṭāraka), (Rāma)-Rahasya, (Rāma)-Ṭāpanī, Vāsuḍeva, Muḍgala, Śāṇdilya, Paiṅgala, Bhikshu, Mahaṭ-Śāriraka, (Yoga)-Śikhā, Ṭurīyāṭīṭa, Sannyāsa, (Paramahamsa)-Parivrājaka, Akshamālikā, Avyakṭa, Ekākshara, (Anna)-Pūrṇā, Sūrya, Akshi, Aḍhyāṭma, Kuṇdikā, Sāviṭr, īĀṭmā, Pāśupaṭa, Parabrahma, Avaḍhūṭa, Ṭripuraṭāpanī, Ḍevī, Ṭripurā, Kara, Bhāvanā, (Ruḍra)-Hṛḍaya, (Yoga)-Kuṇdalinī, Bhasma-(Jābāla) Ruḍrāksha, Gaṇapaṭī, Ḍarśana, Tārasāra, Mahāvākya, Pañchabrahma, (Prāṇa)-Agnihoṭra, Gopāla-Ṭāpanī, Kṛshṇa, Yājñavalkya, Varāha, Śātyāyanī, Hayagrīva, Ḍaṭṭāṭreya, Gāruda, Kali-(Sanṭāraṇa), Jābāla, Soubhāgya, Saraswaṭīrahasya, Bahvricha, and Mukṭika. These 108 (Upanishaḍs) are able to do away with the three Bhāvanās [of doubt, vain thought, and false thought], conferring Jñāna and Vairāgya, and destroying the three Vāsanās [of book-lore, world and body].
“The twice-born—after learning the 108 Upanishaḍs, together with the Śānṭi as prescribed both before and after from the mouth of a Guru well versed in the observances of Veḍic knowledge and study—become Jīvanmukṭas till the destruction of their Prārabḍha; in course of time as Prārabḍha is destroyed, they attain My disembodied salvation. There is no doubt of it. O son of Vāyu, these 108 Upanishaḍs, which are the essence of all the Upanishads, and are capable of destroying all sins through their mere study, have been imparted by Me to you as a disciple. This science of the 108 Upanishaḍs taught by Me, is an occult one, and will free persons from bondage, whether they read them with or without knowledge. To gratify the desire of a supplicant, a kingdom may be given or wealth, but never shall the 108 Upanishaḍs be imparted to an atheist, an ungrateful person, one intent on vicious actions, one having no devotion towards Me, or one who loses his path in the cave of books. On no account shall they be given to one devoid of devotion. O Māruṭi, it is only after a thorough examination that they should be imparted to a disciple doing service (to a Guru), to a well-disposed son, or to one devoted to Me, following good observances, belonging to a good family, and being of good intelligence. Whoever studies or hears the 108 Upanishaḍs attains Me. There is no doubt of this. This is stated in the Ṛk (verse) thus—Viḍyā (Saraswaṭī) went to a Brāhmaṇa (and addressed him) thus: ‘Protect me. I shall be thy treasure. Do not confide me to the envious, to one not treading the right path, or to the rogue. Then I shall be potent.’ Impart this Āṭmanishtha-Viḍyā relating to Vishṇu to one after well examining him, who had studied much, is alert, intelligent, observant of the vow of celibacy, and serving [the Guru].”
Then Hanūmān asked Śrī-Rāmachanḍra to relate the Śānṭi of each Upanishaḍ according to the divisions of Ṛgveḍa and others to which they belong. To which Śrī-Rāma replied: “Aiṭareya, Kaushīṭaki, Nāḍa-(Binḍu), Āṭma-Boḍha, Nirvāṇa, Muḍgala, Akshamālikā, Ṭripurā, Soubhāgya and Bahvricha—these 10 Upanishaḍs are of Ṛgveḍa and have the Śānṭi beginning with ‘Vāṅme-Manasi, etc’. Īśa, Bṛhaḍāraṇyaka, Jābāla, Hamsa, (Parama)-Hamsa, Subāla, Manṭrikā, Nirālamba, Ṭriśikhī-Brāhmaṇa, Maṇdala-Brāhmaṇa, Aḍwaya-Ṭāraka, Paiṅgala, Bhikshu, Ṭurīyāṭīṭa, Aḍhyāṭma, Tārasāra, Yājñavalkya, Śātyāyanī, and Mukṭika—these 19 Upanishaḍs are of Śukla Yajurveḍa and have the Śānti beginning with ‘Pūrṇamaḍa, etc’.
“Katha, Ṭiṭṭiri, Brahma, Kaivalya, Śwetāśwaṭara, Garbha, Nārāyaṇa, (Amṛṭa)-Binḍu, (Amṛṭa)-Nāḍa, Kālāgniruḍra, Kshurikā, Sarvasāra, Śukarahasya, Ṭejo-(Binḍu), Ḍhyāna-(Binḍu), (Brahma)-Viḍyā, Yoga-Ṭaṭṭwa, Ḍakshiṇā-(Mūrṭi), Skanḍa, Śāriraka, (Yoga)-Śikhā, Ekākshara, Akshi, Avaḍhūṭa, Kara, (Ruḍra)-Hṛḍaya, (Yoga)-Kuṇdalinī, Pañchabrahma, (Prāṇa)-Agnihoṭra, Varāha, Kali-(Sanṭāraṇa), and Saraswaṭirahasya,—these 32 Upanishaḍs are of Kṛshṇa Yajurveḍa and have the Śānṭi beginning with ‘Sahanāvavaṭu, etc’.
“Kena, Chhānḍogya, Āruṇi, Maiṭrāyaṇī, Maiṭreyī, Vajrasūchikā, (Yoga)-Chūdā-(Maṇi), Vasuḍeva, Mahaṭ-Sannyāsa, Avyakṭa, Kuṇdikā, Sāviṭrī, Ruḍrāksha, Jābāla, Darśana, and Jābāli,—these 16 Upanishaḍs are of Sāmaveḍa and have the Śānti beginning with ‘Āpyāyantu, etc’.
“Praśna, Muṇdaka, Māṇdūkya, (Aṭharva)-Śira, (Aṭharva)-Śikhā, (Bṛhaṭ)-Jābāla, (Nṛsihma)-Ṭāpanī, (Nāraḍa-Parivrājaka), Sīṭā, Śarabha, Mahā-Nārāyaṇa, (Rāma)-Rahasya, (Rāma)-Tāpanī, Śāndilya, (Paramahamsa)-Parivrājaka, (Anna)-Pūrṇā, Sūrya, Āṭma, Pāśupaṭa, Parabrahma, Ṭripuraṭāpanī, Ḍevī, Bhāvanā, Bhasma-(Jābāla), Gaṇapaṭi, Mahāvākya, Gopāla-Ṭāpanī, Kṛshṇa, Hayagrīva, Ḍaṭṭāṭreya, and Gāruda,—these 31 Upanishaḍs of Aṭharvaṇa-Veḍa have the Śānṭi commencing with ‘Bhaḍram-Karṇebhiḥ, etc’.
“Persons desirous of emancipation and having developed the four means of salvation should, with presents in their hands, approach a Guru full of faith, of good family, proficient in Veḍas, scripture-loving, of good qualities, straightforward, intent upon the welfare of all beings, and an ocean of compassion; and after studying under him, according to the rules, the 108 Upanishaḍs, he should ever be going through the process of studying, thinking and reflecting upon them. With the cessation of the three bodies through the destruction of Prārabḍha, they attain the state of Plenum without any Upāḍhis like the ether in the pot (after the pot is broken). This is the embodied salvation, this is the final emancipation. Therefore even those in Brahmaloka through the studying of Veḍānṭa from the mouth of Brahmā attain with Him the final emancipation. Hence to all these is stated the final emancipation through the Jñāna path, and not through Karma, Sāṅkhya-Yoga, and other Upāsanās. Thus is the Upanishaḍ.”
Again Māruṭi (Hanūmān) addressed Śrī-Rāmachanḍra thus: “What is Jīvanmukṭi? what is Viḍehamukṭi? what is the authority therein? what about its perfection? what is the object of such a perfection?”
“The Ḍharma of a man’s Chiṭṭa that has the characteristics of agency and enjoyment is fraught with pains and hence tends towards bondage. The control of it (the Chiṭṭa) is Jīvanmukṭi. Viḍehamukṭi follows when through the extinction of Prārabḍha, the removal of the vehicles [of the bodies] takes place like the ether in the pot [after the pot is broken]. The authority on the points of Jīvanmukṭi and Viḍehamukṭi is the 108 Upanishaḍs. Its object [of perfection] is the attaining of eternal bliss through the removal of the pains of agency, etc. This has to be achieved through human efforts. Like progeny obtained through the Puṭrakāmeshti sacrifice, wealth in trade, or heaven through the Jyoṭishtoma sacrifice, so Jīvanmukṭi is gained through Samāḍhi arising through Veḍānṭic study, and accomplished through human efforts. It has to be won through the extinction of all Vāsanās. Regarding it, there are verses thus: ‘The efforts of man are stated to be of two kinds, those that transcend scriptures and those that are according to scriptures. Those that transcend scriptures tend to harm while those that are according to scriptures tend to Reality.’ To men, true Jñāna does not arise through the Vāsanās of the world, scripture and body. Vāsanā is divided into two, the pure and the impure. If thou art led by the pure Vāsanās, thou shalt thereby soon reach by degrees My Seat. But should the old impure Vāsanās land thee in danger, they should be overcome through efforts. This river of Vāsanās towards objects, which flows in the pure and impure paths, should be diverted to the pure path through human efforts. The impure ones have to be transmuted into the pure. That which is diverted from the impure turns towards the pure. So also the reverse. This child, Chiṭṭa has to be fondled through human efforts. O killer of enemies, it is only when through means of practice both Vāsanās quite abandon thee, that thou wilt be able to realise the effects of [such] practice. Even in the case of doubt, the pure Vāsanās alone should be practised.
“O son of Vāyu, there is nothing wrong in the increase of the pure Vāsanās. The extinction of Vāsanās, Vijñāna and the destruction of Manas [as these three] when practised together for a long time are regarded, O great and intelligent one, as fruitful. So long as these are not equally practised again and again, so long the [Supreme] Seat is not attained, even after the lapse of hundreds of years. Even should one of these [three] be practised for a long time, it will not yield its fruit like a Manṭra imperfectly done. Through the practice of these for a long time, the firm knots of the heart are cut, without doubt, like the breaking of the threads in a lotus-stalk rent in twain. The illusory Samsāric Vāsanā that has arisen through the practice of [many] hundreds of lives never perishes except through the practice of Yoga for a long time. Therefore, O Somya [disciple], after having put away to a distance the desire of enjoyment through discriminative human effort, resort to these three alone. The wise know that a mind associated with Vāsanā tends to bondage, while a mind well freed from Vāsanā is said to be an emancipated one. O Mahā-kapi [great Monkey] practise the state of a mind devoid of Vāsanā. Vāsanā perishes through well-conducted deliberation and truth. Through the absorption of Vāsanās, Manas attains quiescence like a lamp [without oil]. He whose mind, devoid of destruction, is [centred] on Me as of the nature of Chinmāṭra [consciousness alone], abandoning the Vāsanas, is no other than Myself of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa. Whether Sāmaḍhi and Karma are performed or not, one who has a supreme Chiṭṭa with a heart devoid of all desires is an emancipated person. He whose mind is freed from Vāsanās is not subject to the fruits arising from the performance or non-performance of actions, or Samāḍhi or Jñāna. Except through the entire giving up of Vāsanās and through Mouna [the observance of silence towards objects], the Supreme Seat is not attained. Though devoid of Vāsanās, the eye and other organs are involuntarily prompted to their (respective) external objects through habit. Just as the eye without any desire sees without any effort the objects that fall on it, so also the undaunted man of intelligence enters into the affairs [of the world] without any desire. O Māruṭi, the Munis know that as Vāsanā which is manifested through the consciousness of objects, which is of the nature of the object itself, and which is the cause of the origination and absorption of Chiṭṭa. This excessively fluctuating Chiṭṭa is the cause of birth, dotage and death, due to the identification of itself with objects practised firmly [for a long time]. Like the analogy of the seed and the tree, the vibration of Prāṇa arises through Vāsanā and (vice versa) the Vāsanā through the former—these forming the seed of Chiṭṭa. To the tree of Chiṭṭa, there are two seeds: the vibration of Prāṇa and Vāsanā. Should either of them perish, both perish soon. Through the actions of the world being done without attachment, through the abandoning of the [thought of the] reality of the universe and the conviction of the destructibility of the body, Vāsanā does not arise. Through the complete giving up of Vāsanā, Chiṭṭa becomes not-Chiṭṭa. When the mind does not think at all, being completely devoid of Vāsanā, then dawns the state of mindlessness which confers the great peace. So long as you are without a mind of [true] discrimination and are not a knower of the Supreme Seat, so long should you follow whatever has been decided by the teacher and the authorities of the sacred books. When your sins are burnt up and you are a knower of the Reality without any anxiety, then all the good Vāsanās even should be given up.
“The destruction of Chiṭṭa is of two kinds, that with form and that without form. [The destruction of] that with form is of the Jīvanmukṭa; (the destruction of), that without form being of the Viḍehamukṭa. O son of Vāyu, hearken to [the means of] the destruction of Chiṭṭa. That is said to be the destruction of Chiṭṭa when it, associated with all the attributes of Maiṭri (friendship) and others, becomes quiescent [without any resurrection]. There is no doubt of it. Then the Manas of a Jīvanmukṭa is free from fresh rebirth; to him, there is the destruction of Manas with form. But to the Viḍehamukṭa, there is the destruction of Manas without form. It is Manas that is the root of the tree of Samsāra with its thousands of shoots, branches, tender leaves and fruits. I think it to be Saṅkalpa alone. In order that the tree of Samsāra may wither soon, dry up its root through the quiescence of Saṅkalpa. There is only one means to control one’s mind. That is to destroy the mind as soon as it rises. That is the (great) dawn. In the case of the wise, the mind is destroyed: but in the case of the ignorant, it is indeed a fetter. So long as the mind is not destroyed through the firm practice of the One Reality, so long as Vāsanās are prancing about in the heart like Veṭāla (goblin) in the night-time. The Vāsanās of enjoyment of one who has destroyed the egoism of Chiṭṭa and controlled the organs, the enemies, decay like lotuses in mid-winter. Pressing one hand against the other, setting teeth against teeth, and forcing one limb against the other, he should first conquer his mind.
“It is not possible on the part of the one-thoughted to control the mind by sitting up again and again except through the approved means. As a vicious rutting elephant is not subject to control except through the goad, so in the matter of the control of the mind, the effective means are the attainment of spiritual knowledge, association with the wise, the entire abdication of all Vāsanās and the control of prāṇas. While such are the [prescribed] means, should persons try to control the mind through violence, they are like those that search in darkness, having thrown aside the light (in their hands). Those who endeavour to control the mind through force are but trying to bind a mad elephant with the filaments of a lotus-stalk.
To the tree of the mind having the ever-growing branches of modifications, there are two seeds. One is the fluctuation of Prāṇa, and the other is the firmness of Vāsanā. The [One] All-pervading Consciousness is agitated by the fluctuation of Prāṇa. The means of Ḍhyāna by which [the one] Jñāna is attained through the one-pointedness of the mind is now imparted to you. After duly resolving back the things originated [in the universe] with all their changes, meditate upon that which remains—[viz.], Chinmāṭra (the consciousness alone), which is also Chiḍānanḍa (conscious-bliss). The wise say that the interval experienced by Yogins after the inspiration and before the (next) expiration is [the internal] Kumbhaka cessation of breath); while the interval of complete equilibrium after expiration and before the next inspiration is the external Kumbhaka. Through the force of the practice of Ḍhyāna, the current of the modification of Manas devoid of Self that is of Brāhmic nature is said to be Samprajñāṭa Samāḍhi, while the mind with the utter quiescence of modifications that confers upon one supreme bliss is said to be Asamprajñāṭa-Samāḍhi that is dear unto Yogins. This [state] that is devoid of light, Manas and Buḍḍhi, and that is of the nature of Chiṭ (consciousness merely) is styled by the Munis Aṭaḍvyāvṛṭṭi Samāḍhi (a Samāḍhi that does not care or require the aid of another). It is Plenum above, below and in the middle, and is of the nature of Śiva (auspiciousness). This noumenal (or occult) Samāḍhi is itself Viḍhi-Mukha (sanctioned by books or Brahmā).
“The clinging to objects without previous or subsequent deliberation through intense thought [or longing] is stated to be Vāsanā. O chief of Monkeys, whatever is meditated upon by a person with ardent impetuosity without any other Vāsanā—that he soon becomes. A person that is entirely subject to Vāsanā becomes of the nature of that. When he regards this [universe] as Saṭ [the Reality], then he is subject to delusion. Because of the many strong Vāsanās, he does not abandon the nature of the universe. This person of wrong vision sees everything under infatuation like one deluded. Vāsanās are of two kinds—the pure and the impure. The impure ones are the cause of rebirth, while the pure are the destroyers of it. The impure are said by the wise to be of the nature of intense Ajñāna, associated with the great Ahaṅkāra and generative of rebirth. Of what avail is the chewing again and again of the many Śāsṭric stories to one that has abandoned the seed of rebirth, having turned it into a burnt one? O Māruṭi, thou shouldst with effort seek the effulgence within. O tiger of Monkeys, whoever, after having abandoned the visible and the invisible, is as the One alone is not a mere knower of Brahman but is Brahman itself. One who having studied the four Veḍas and the various books does not cognize the reality of Brahman is like the ladle ignorant of the taste of the dainty. Therefore what other advice of indifference can be imparted to a person that has not attained the indifference to the impure Vāsanā of delusion [or body]? This body is very impure while the one [Āṭmā] that dwells in it is very pure. When the differences between the two are [thus] known, what then may be ordained as the purification? The bondage of Vāsanā is the [real] bondage, while the destruction of Vāsanā is salvation. After wholly abandoning the Vāsanās, give up even the desire for salvation. After first giving up the Vāsanā of objects dependent upon the Vāsanā of the mind, attract unto thyself the pure Vāsanās associated with Maiṭri [friendship] and others. Though engaged in the world with these pure Vāsanās, give up them too and retire within the quiescent desires and become of the form of the longing after Chiṭ alone. Then, O Māruṭi! giving up that also associated as it is with Manas and Buḍḍhi, mayst thou now left alone become firm in Me in Samāḍhi. O son of Vāyu! always worship My Reality that is destructive of pains, without sound, touch, form, decay, taste, destruction or smell, and without name and Goṭra [clan]. I am that non-dual One (Brahman) that is of the nature of the visible (Jñāna), like unto the Ākāś, supreme, always shining, without birth, non-dual, without destruction, without attachment and pervading all. I am the All, and of the nature of salvation. One should ever meditate upon Me thus: ‘I am of the form of the visible [Jñāna], the pure, of changeless nature and have really no objects in Me. I am the ever-full Brahman, transverse and across, up and down.’ Also meditate upon Me thus: ‘I am birthless, deathless, ageless, immortal, self-shining, all-pervading, destructionless, causeless, pure beyond the effect (of the universe) and ever content.’ When one’s body becomes a prey to time, he gives up the state of Jīvanmukṭi, as the wind attains the motionless state.
“The following is said in the Ṛg [-Veḍa] also: Like the eye which is spread in the Ākāś (seeing all things without any obstacle), so the wise ever see the Supreme Seat of Vishṇu. The Brāhmaṇas that have ever the Divine vision praise in diverse ways and illumine the Supreme Seat of Vishṇu.”
Om-Ṭaṭ-Saṭ is the Upanishaḍ.
SARVASĀRA-UPANISHAḌ1 OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
[In the text, all the questions are given first and then the answers follow. But the following arrangement is adopted to facilitate reference.]
1. What is Banḍha (bondage).
Āṭmā [the Self] falsely superimposing the body and others which are not-Self upon Himself, and identifying Himself with them—this identification forms the bondage of the Self.
2. What is Moksha [emancipation]?
The freedom from that [identification] is Moksha.
3. What is Aviḍyā (Nescience)?
That which causes this identification—that indeed is Aviḍyā.
4. What is Viḍyā (knowledge)?
That which removes this identification is Viḍyā.
5. What are (meant by) the states of Jāgraṭ [the waking], Swapna [the dreaming], Sushupṭi [the dreamless sleeping] and Ṭurīya [the fourth]?
Jāgraṭ is that [state] during which Āṭmā enjoys the gross objects of senses as sound, etc., through the 14 organs2 as Manas, etc., having the sun and the rest as their presiding deities.
Swapna is that [state] during which Āṭmā experiences, through the 14 organs associated with the Vāsanās [affinities], of the waking condition, sound and other objects which are of the form of the Vāsanās created for the time being, even in the absence of [the gross] sound and the others. Āṭmā experiences Sushupṭi when it does not experience sound and other objects of sense from the cessation of the functions of the 14 organs, there being no special enjoying consciousness on account of the absence of these organs.
Ṭurīya is that state during which Āṭmā is a witness to the existence of the above-mentioned three states, though it is in itself without (their) existence and non-existence and during which it is one uninterrupted Chaiṭanya (consciousness) alone. And that Chaiṭanya is that which is connected with the three states, which is without the three states, and which is pure.
6. What are the Annamaya, Prāṇamaya, Manomaya, Vijñānamaya and Ānanḍamaya Kośas (sheaths)?
Annamaya sheath is the aggregate of the materials formed by food. When the ten Vāyus (Vital airs), Prāṇas and others, flow through the Annamaya sheath, then it is called the Prāṇamaya sheath. When Āṭmā connected with the above two sheaths performs the functions of hearing, etc., through the 14 organs of Manas and others, then it is called Manomaya sheath.
When in the (Anṭaḥ-karaṇa) internal organs connected with the above three sheaths, there arise the modifications of contemplation, meditation, etc., about the peculiarities of the sheaths, then it is called Vijñānamaya sheath.
When the self-cause Jñāna is in its Self-bliss like the banyan tree in its seed, though associated with these four sheaths caused by Ajñāna, then it is called Ānanḍamaya sheath. Āṭmā which is associated with the Upāḍhi [vehicle] of these sheaths is figuratively called Kośa.
7. What is meant by Karṭā (actor), Jīva, Pañchavarga [the five groups], Kasheṭrajña (the lord of the place), Sākshi [the witness], Kūtasṭha and Anṭaryāmin (the latent guide)?
Karṭā (the actor) is the one who possesses the body and the internal organs through their respective desires proceeding from the idea of pleasure and pain. The idea of pleasure is that modification of the mind known as love. The idea of pain is that modification of the mind known as hate. The cause of pleasure and pain are sound, touch, form, taste and odour.
Jīva is that Aḍhyāsi [deluded one] that thinks that this body, which is obtained through the effects of good and bad Karmas, is one not so obtained.
Pañchavarga (the five groups) are (1) Manas, viz., Manas, Buḍḍhi, Chiṭṭa and Ahaṅkāra (creating uncertainty, certitude, flitting thought and egoism), (2) Prāṇa, i.e., Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna Samāna and Uḍāna, (3) Saṭṭwa, i. e., Saṭṭwa, Rajas, and Ṭamas. (4) the [five] elements: earth, water, fire, Vāyu and Ākāś and (5) Ḍharma and its opposite Aḍharma.
The original Aviḍyā which has the characteristics of the above 5 groups, which does not perish without Āṭma-Jñāna, which appears eternal through the presence of Āṭmā and which is the vehicle for [the manifestation of] Āṭmā, is the seed of the Liṅga [subtle] body. It is also called Hṛḍaya-granṭhi [the heart-knot].
The Chaiṭanya [consciousness] which is reflected and shines in it is Ksheṭrajña.
Sākshi [the witness] is that conscious one that is aware of the appearance and disappearance [of the three states] of the knower, the knowledge and the known, who is himself without [or not affected by] this appearance and disappearance, and who is self-radiant.
Kūtasṭha is he who is found without exception in the Buḍḍhi of all creatures from Brahmā down to ants, and who is shining as Āṭmā and dwells as witness to the Buḍḍhi of all creatures.
Anṭaryāmin is the Āṭmā that shines as the ordainer, being within all bodies like the thread [on which] beads [are strung] and serving to know the cause of the several differences of Kūtasṭha and others associated with him.
8. Who is Praṭyagâṭmā?
He is of the nature of truth, wisdom, eternity and bliss. He has no vehicles of body. He is abstract wisdom itself, like a mass of pure gold that is devoid of the changes of bracelet, crown, etc. He is of the nature of mere consciousness. He is that which shines as Chaiṭanya and Brahman. When He is subject to the vehicle of Aviḍyā and is the meaning of the word “Ṭwam” (‘Thou’ in “Ṭaṭṭwamasi”), then He is Praṭyagāṭmā.
9. Who is Paramāṭmā?
It is He who is associated with truth, wisdom, eternity, bliss, omniscience, etc., who is subject to the vehicle of Māyā and who is the meaning of the word “Ṭaṭ” (or ‘That’ in “Ṭaṭṭwamasi”).
10. What is Brahman?
Brahman is that which is free from all vehicles, which is the Absolute Consciousness devoid of particularities, which is Saṭ (Be-ness), which is without a second, which is bliss and which is Māyā-less. It is different from characteristics of that expressed by the word “Ṭwam” (Thou) subject to Upāḍhis (vehicles), or the characteristics of ‘That’ expressed by the word “Ṭaṭ” subject to Upāḍhis. It is itself differenceless and is seen as the Seat of everything. It is the pure, the noumenal, the true and the indestructible.
And what is Saṭya (the true)?
It is the Saṭ (Be-ness) which is the aim pointed out by the Veḍas. It is that which cannot be said to be Asaṭ (not-Be-ness). It is that which is not affected by the three periods of time. It is that which continues to exist during the three periods of time. It is that which is. It is one without a second. It has not the differences of similarity or dissimilarity; or it is that which is the source of all ideas. It is that which does not perish even though space, time, matter, cause, etc., perish.
And what is Jñāna (wisdom)?
It is self-light. It is that which illuminates all. It is that Absolute Consciousness which is without any obscuration. It is that Consciousness which has no beginning or end, which is perpetual and which is the witness to all modifications and their opposites.
And what is Ananṭa (the eternal)?
It is that which is without origin and destruction. It is that which is not subject to the six changes (viz., birth, growth, manhood, decay, old age and death). It is free from all Upāḍhis. It is that Consciousness which, being all full and without destruction, permeates the created universe composed of Avyakṭa and others, like the earth in the modifications of clay, the gold in the modifications of gold, and thread in the modifications of thread.
And what is Ānanḍa (bliss)?
It is the seat of all sentient beings, like the ocean of the water, is eternal, pure, partless and non-dual, and is the sole essence of Chiḍānanḍa (consciousness-bliss).
11. Of how many kinds are substances?
There are three kinds, Saṭ (Be-ness), Asaṭ (not-Be-ness) and Miṭhyā (Illusion).
Saṭ alone is Brahman. Asaṭ is that which is not. Miṭhyā is the illusory ascription to Brahman of the universe that is not.
What is fit to be known is Brahman, the Āṭmā alone.
Brahma-Jñāna is the rooting out of all—bodies and such like—that are not Self, and the merging in Brahman, the Saṭ. The universe of Ākāś and others including Jīva is not-Āṭmā.
12. What is Māyā?
The root of this not-Āṭmā is Māyā. She appears in Brahman like clouds, etc., in the sky. She has no beginning but has an end. She is subject to proof and not-proof. She neither is; nor is not; nor is she a combination of both (Saṭ and Asaṭ). Her seat is indescribable. She has the varieties of differences as extolled by the wise. It is she that truly is not. Her nature is Ajñāna. She appears as Mūlaprakṛṭi, Guṇa-Sāmya (a state where the three Guṇas are found in equilibrium),1 Aviḍyā (Nescience) and other forms, transforming herself into the form of the universe. Thus does a knower of Brahman cognize her.
NIRĀLAMBA1 -UPANISHAḌ OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Harih-Om. I shall relate in the form of a catechism whatever should be known for the removal of all miseries that befall these ignorant creatures [men].
What is Brahman? Who is Īśwara? Who is Jīva? What is Prakṛṭi? Who is Paramāṭmā? Who is Brahmā? Who is Vishṇu? Who is Ruḍra? Who is Inḍra? Who is Yama? Who is Sūrya? Who is Chanḍra? Who are Ḍevas? Who are Rākshasas? Who are Piśāchas? Who are Manushyas? Who are Women? Who are Paśus, etc.? What is Sṭhāvara? Who are Brāhmans and others? What is Jāṭi (caste)? What is Karma? What is Akarma? What is Jñāna? What is Ajñāna? What is Sukha? What is Ḍuḥkha? What is Swarga? What is Naraka? What is Banḍha? What is Moksha? Who is Upāsya? Who is Viḍwān? Who is Mūdha? What is Āsura? What is Ṭapas? What is Paramapaḍa? What is Grāhya? What is Agrāhya? Who is Sannyāsi? Thus are the questions.
1. What is Brahman?
It is the Chaiṭanya that appears, through the aspects of Karma and Jñāna, as this vast mundane egg composed of Mahaṭ, Ahaṅkāra and the five elements, earth, water, fire, Vāyu and Akāś—that is secondless—that is devoid of all Upāḍhis [vehicles], that is full of all Śakṭis [potencies], that is without beginning and end, that is described as pure, beneficial, peaceful, and Guṇa-less and that is indescribable.
2. Who is Īśwara? and what are His characteristics? Bramhan itself, having through His Śakṭi called Prakṛṭi (matter) created the worlds and being latent in them, becomes the ruler of Buḍḍhi and Inḍriyas (organs of sense and action) as well as Brahmā (the creator) and others. Hence he is named Īśwara.
3. Who is Jīva?
Īśwara Himself, subject to the false superimposition upon Himself [of the idea] “I am the gross” through the [assumption of the] names and forms of Brahmā, Vishṇu, Ruḍra, Inḍra, and others is Jīva. Though one, he appears as many Jīvas, through the force of the different Karmas originating the bodies.
4. What is Prakṛṭi (matter)?
It is nothing else but the Śakṭi [potency] of Brahman which is of the nature of Buḍḍhi that is able to produce the many motley worlds by virtue of the mere presence of Brahman.
5. What is Paramāṭmā? The supreme Āṭmā or soul.
It is Brahman alone that is Paramāṭmā as it (the former) is far superior to bodies and others.
21. What is Jāṭi (caste)
It cannot refer to the skin, the blood, the flesh or the bone. There is no caste for Āṭmā; caste is only conventional.
22. What is Karma?
Karma is that action alone which is performed by the organs and ascribed to Āṭmā as “I do” (viz., agency being attributed to Āṭmā).
23. What is Akarma [or non-Karma]?
Akarma is the performance, without any desire for the fruits, of the daily and occasional rites, sacrifices, vows, austerities, gifts and other actions that are associated with the egoism of the actor and the enjoyer, and that are productive of bondage, rebirth, etc.
24. What is Jñāna?
It is the realisation by direct cognition of the fact that in this changing universe there is nothing but Chaiṭanya [the one life] that is Consciousness, that is of the form of the seer and the seen, pervading all things, that is the same in all, and that is not subject to changes like pot, cloth, etc. This realisation is brought about by means of the subjugation of the body and the senses, the serving of a good Guru (teacher), the hearing of the exposition of Veḍānṭic doctrines and constant meditation thereon.
25. What is Ajñāna?
It is the illusory attribution, like the snake in the rope, of many Āṭmās (souls) through the diverse Upāḍhis [or vehicles] of the angels, beasts, men, the fixed ones, females, males, castes and orders of life, bondage and emancipation, etc., to Brahman that is secondless, all-permeating and of the nature of all.
26. What is Sukha (happiness)?
It is a state of being of the nature of bliss, having cognized through experience the Reality of Sachchiḍānanḍa [or that which is be-ness, consciousness and bliss].
27. What is Ḍuḥkha (pains)?
It is the mere Saṇkalpa [or the thinking] of the objects of mundane existence [or of not-Self according to the Bombay Edition].
28. What is Swarga (heaven)?
It is the association with Saṭ [either good men or Brahman which is Saṭ, the true].
29. What is Naraka (hell)?
It is the association with that which brings about this mundane existence which is Asaṭ [the false].
30. What is Banḍha [bondage]?
Such Saṅkalpas [thoughts] as “I was born,” etc., arising from the affinities of beginningless Ajñāna form bondage.
The thought obscuration [or mental ignorance] of the mundane existence of “mine” in such as father, mother, brother, wife, child, house, gardens, lands, etc., forms bondage.
The thoughts of I-ness as actor, etc., are bondage.
The thought of the development in oneself of the eight Siḍḍhis (higher psychical powers) as Aṇimā and others1 is bondage.
The thought of propitiating the angels, men, etc., is bondage.
The thought of going through the eight means of Yoga2 practice, Yama, etc., is bondage.
The thought of performing the duties of one’s own caste and order of life is bondage.
The thought that command, fear and doubt are the attributes of [or pertain to] Āṭmā is bondage.
The thought of knowing the rules of performing sacrifices, vows, austerity and gift is bondage. Even the mere thought of desire for Moksha (emancipation) is bondage. By the very act of thought, bondage is caused.
31. What is Moksha [emancipation]?
Moksha is the (state of) the annihilation, through the discrimination of the eternal from the non-eternal, of all thoughts of bondage, like those of “mine” in objects of pleasure and pain, lands, etc., in this transitory mundane existence.
32. Who is Upāsya [or fit to be worshipped]?
That Guru (or spiritual instructor) who enables (the disciple) to attain to Brahman, the Consciousness that is in all bodies.
33. Who is Śishya (the disciple)?
The disciple is that Brahman alone that remains after the consciousness of the universe has been lost (in him) through Brāhmic wisdom.
34. Who is Viḍwān (the learned)?
It is he who has cognized the true form (or reality) of his own consciousness that is latent in all.
35. Who is Mūdha [the ignorant]?
He who has the egoistic conception of the body, caste, orders of life, actor, enjoyer and others.
36. What is Āsura [the demoniacal]?
It is the Ṭapas [austerity] practised by one inflicting trouble on the Āṭmā within through Japa [or inaudible muttering of Manṭras], abstinence from food, Agnihoṭra [the performance of the worship of fire], etc., attended with cruel desire, hatred, pain, hypocrisy and the rest for the purpose of acquiring the powers of Vishṇu, Brahmā, Ruḍra, Inḍra and others.
37. What is Ṭapas?
Ṭapas is the act of burning—through the fire of direct cognition of the knowledge that Brahman is the truth and the universe, a myth—the seed of the deep-rooted desire to attain the powers of Brahmā, etc.
38. What is Paramapaḍa [the supreme abode]?
It is the seat of the eternal and emancipated Brahman which is far superior to Prāṇas (the vital airs), the organs of sense and actions, the internal organs (of thought), the Guṇas and others, which is of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa and which is the witness to all.
39. What is Grāhya [or fit to be taken in]?
Only that Reality of Absolute Consciousness which is not conditioned by space, time or substance.
40. What is Agrāhya?
The thought that this universe is truth—this universe which is different from one’s Self and which being subject to Māyā (or illusion) forms the object of (cognition of) Buḍḍhi and the organs.
41. Who is the Sannyāsi [ascetic]?
A Sannyāsi is an ascetic who having given up all the duties of caste and orders of life, good and bad actions, etc., being freed from [the conceptions of] “I” and “mine” and having taken his refuge in Brahman alone, roams at large practising Nirvikalpa Samāḍhi and being firmly convinced of “I am Brahman” through the realisation of the meaning of such sacred (Veḍic) sentences as “Thou art That” “All this is verily Brahman” and “Here there is no manyness in the least”. He only is an emancipated person. He only is fit to be adored. He only is a Yogin. He only is a Paramahamsa. He only is an Avaḍhūṭa. He only is a Brahman. Whoever studies the Nirālamba-Upanishaḍ becomes, through the grace of Guru, pure like fire. He becomes pure like Vāyu (air). He does not return. He is not born again: nay he is not born again.
Such is the Upanishaḍ.
MAIṬREYA-UPANISHAḌ OF SĀMAVEḌA
A King named Bṛhaḍraṭha, thinking this body to be impermanent and having acquired indifference (to objects), retired to the forest, leaving his eldest son to rule over (his) kingdom. With hands uplifted and eyes fixed on the sun, he performed a severe Ṭapas (or religious austerity). At the end of a thousand days, the Lord Śākāyanya Muni, a knower of Ātmā, who was like fire without smoke, and who was as a scorching fire with his Ṭejas (spiritual lustre) approached (him) and addressed the King thus: “Rise, rise and choose a boon.” The King prostrated before him and said: “O Lord, I am not an Āṭmaviṭ (or knower of Āṭmā). Thou art a Ṭaṭṭwaviṭ, we hear. Please enlighten me about Saṭṭva (the state of Saṭ or Brahman).” (To which) the Muni replied thus: “O thou that art born of the race of Ikshwāku: To begin with, your question is difficult (of explanation): do not question me. Ask for any other thing you desire.” Thereupon the King touched the feet of Śākāyanya and recited the (following) verse:
“What is the use of these to me or any other? Oceans dry up. Mountains sink down. The positions of Ḍhruva (the Polar Star) and of trees change. Earth is drowned. The Suras (angels) run away, leaving their (respective) places. (While such is the case), I am He in reality. Therefore of what avail to me is the gratification of desires, since one who clings to the gratification of desires is found to return again and again to this Samsāra (mundane existence)? Thou art able to extricate me (out of this Samsāra). I am drowned like a frog in a dry well. Thou art my refuge.
“O Lord! this body was the result of sexual intercourse. It is without wisdom; it is hell (itself). It came out through the urinary orifice. It is linked together by bones. It is coated over with flesh. It is bound by skin. It is replete with fæces, urine, Vāyu (air), bile, phlegm, marrow, fat, serum and many other impurities. O Lord! to me in such a foul body (as this), thou art my refuge.”
Thereupon Lord Śākāyanya was pleased and addressed the King thus: “O Mahārāja, Bṛhaḍraṭha, the flag of the Ikshwāku race, thou art an Āṭmajñānī. Thou art one that has done his duty. Thou art famous by the name of Maruṭ.” At which the King asked: “O Lord! in what way, can you describe Āṭmā?” To which he replied thus: “Sound, touch, and others which seem to be Arṭha (wealth) are in fact Anarṭha (evil). The Bhūṭāṭmā (the lower Self) clinging to these, never remembers the Supreme Seat. Through Ṭapas, Saṭṭwa (quality) is acquired; through Saṭṭwa a (pure) mind is acquired; and through mind, (Parama-) Āṭmā, (the higher Self) is reached. Through attaining Āṭmā, one gets liberation. Just as fire without fuel is absorbed into its own womb, so Chiṭṭa (thought) through the destruction of its modifications is absorbed into its own womb (source). To a mind that has attained quiescence and truth, and which is not affected by sense-objects, the events that occur to it through the bondage of Karma are merely unreal. It is Chiṭṭa alone that is Samsāra. It should be cleansed with effort. Whatever his Chiṭṭa (thinks), of that nature he becomes. This is an archaic mystery. With the purifying of Chiṭṭa, one makes both good and bad Karmas to perish. One whose mind is thus cleansed attains the indestructible Bliss (through his own Self). Just as Chiṭṭa becomes united with an object that comes across it, so why should not one (be released) from bondage, when one is united with Brahman. One should meditate in the middle of the lotus of the heart, Parameśwara (the highest Lord) who is the witness to the play of Buḍḍhi, who is the object of supreme love, who is beyond the reach of mind and speech, who has no beginning or end, who is Saṭ alone being of the nature of light only, who is beyond meditation, who can neither be given up nor grasped (by the mind), who is without equal or superior, who is the permanent, who is of unshaken depth, who is without light or darkness, who is all-pervading, changeless and vehicleless, and who is wisdom of the nature of Moksha (salvation). I am He—that Paramāṭmā who is the eternal, the pure, the liberated, of the nature of wisdom, the true, the subtle, the all-pervading, the secondless, the ocean of bliss, and one that is superior to Praṭyagāṭmā (the lower Self). There is no doubt about it. How will calamity (or bondage) approach me who am depending upon my own bliss in my heart, who have put to shame the ghost of desires, who look upon this universe as (but) a jugglery and who am not associated with anything. The ignorant with their observance of the castes and orders of life obtain their fruits according to their Karmas. Men who have given up all duties of castes, etc., rest content in the bliss of their own Self. The distinctions of caste and orders of life have divisions among them, have beginning and end, and are very painful. Therefore having given up all identification with sons and as well as body, one should dwell in that endless and most supreme Bliss.”
Then Lord Maiṭreya went to Kailās and having reached it asked Him thus: “O Lord! please initiate me into the mysteries of the highest Ṭaṭṭwa.” To which Mahāḍeva replied: “The body is said to be a temple. The Jīva in it is Śiva alone. Having given up all the cast-off offerings of Ajñāna, one should worship Him with So’ham (I am He). The cognition of everything as non-different from oneself is Jñāna (wisdom). Abstracting the mind from sensual objects is Ḍhyāna (meditation). Purifying the mind of its impurities is Snāna (bathing). The subjugation of the Inḍriyas (sensual organs) is Śaucha (purification). One should drink the nectar of Brahman and beg food for maintaining the body. Having one (thought) alone, he should live in a solitary place without a second. The wise man should observe thus: then he obtains Absolution.
“This body is subject to birth and death. It is of the nature of the secretion of the father and mother. It is impure, being the seat of happiness and misery. (Therefore) bathing is prescribed for touching it. It is bound by the Ḍhāṭus (skin, blood, etc.), is liable to severe diseases, is a house of sins, is impermanent and is of changing appearance and size. (Therefore) bathing is prescribed for touching it. Foul matter is naturally oozing out always from the nine holes. It (body) contains bad odour and foul excrement. (Therefore) bathing is prescribed for touching it. It is connected (or tainted) with the child-birth impurity of the mother and is born with it. It is also tainted with death impurity. (Therefore) bathing is prescribed for touching it. (The conception of) “I and mine” is the odour arising from the besmeared dung and urine. The release from it is spoken of as the perfect purification. The (external) purification by means of water and earth is on account of the worldly. The destruction of the threefold affinities (of Śāsṭras, world and body) generates the purity for cleansing Chiṭṭa. That is called the (real) purification which is done by means of the earth and water of Jñāna (wisdom) and Vairāgya (indifference to objects).
“The conception of Aḍwaiṭa (non-dualism) should be taken in as the Bhiksha (alms-food); (but) the conception of Ḍwaiṭa (dualism) should not be taken in. To a Sannyāsī (ascetic), Bhiksha is ordained as dictated by the Śāsṭra and the Guru. After becoming a Sannyāsī, a learned man should himself abandon his native place and live at a distance, like a thief released from prison. When a person gives up Ahaṅkāra (I-am-ness) the son, wealth the brother, delusion the house, and desire the wife, there is no doubt that he is an emancipated person. Delusion, the mother is dead. Wisdom, the son is born. In this manner while two kinds of pollution have occurred, how shall we (the ascetics) observe the Sanḍhyās (conjunction periods)? The Chiṭ (consciousness) of the sun is ever shining in the resplendent Ākāś of the heart. He neither sets nor rises; while so, how shall we perform the Sanḍhyās? Ekānṭa (solitude) is that state of one without second as determined by the words of a Guru. Monasteries or forests are not solitudes. Emancipation is only for those who do not doubt. To those who doubt, there is no salvation even after many births. Therefore one should attain faith. (Mere) abandoning of the Karmas or of the Manṭras uttered at the initiation of a Sannyāsī (ascetic) will not constitute Sannyāsa. The union of Jīva (-Āṭmā) (the lower Self) and Parama (-Āṭmā) (the higher Self) at the two Sanḍhis (morning and evening) is termed Sannyāsa. Whoever has a nausea for all Īshaṇa (desires) and the rest as for vomited food, and is devoid of all affection for the body, is qualified for Sannyāsa. At the moment when indifference towards all objects arises in the mind, a learned person may take up Sannyāsa. Otherwise, he is a fallen person. Whoever becomes a Sannyāsī on account of wealth, food, clothes and fame, becomes fallen in both (as a Sannyāsī and as houesholder); (then) he is not worthy of salvation.
“The thought of (contemplation upon) Ṭaṭṭwas is the transcendental one; that of the Śāsṭras, the middling, and that of Manṭras, the lowest. The delusion of pilgrimages is the lowest of the lowest. Like one, who, having seen in water the reflection of fruits in the branches of trees, tastes and enjoys them, the ignorant without self-cognition are in vain overjoyed with (as if they reached) Brahman. That ascetic is an emancipated person who does not abandon the internal alms-taking (viz., the meditation upon the non-dual), generating Vairāgya as well as faith the wife, and wisdom the son. Those men (termed) great through wealth, age, and knowledge, are only servants to those that are great through their wisdom as also to their disciples. Those whose minds are deluded by My Māyā, however learned they may be, do not attain Me, the all-full Āṭmā, and roam about like crows, simply for the purpose of filling up their belly, well burnt up (by hunger, etc.). For one that longs after salvation, the worship of images made of stone, metals, gem, or earth, is productive of rebirth and enjoyment. Therefore the ascetic should perform his own heart-worship alone, and relinquish external worship in order that he may not be born again. Then like a vessel full to its brim in an ocean, he is full within and full without. Like a vessel void in the ether, he is void within and void without. Do not become (or differentiate between) the Āṭmā that knows or the Āṭmā that is known. Do become of the form of that which remains, after having given up all thoughts. Relinquishing with their Vāsanās the seer, the seen and the visual, worship Āṭmā alone, the resplendent supreme presence. That is the real supreme State wherein all Saṅkalpas (thoughts) are at rest, which resembles the state of a stone, and which is neither waking nor sleeping.”
“I am “I” (the Self). I am also another (the not-Self). I am Brahman. I am the Source (of all things). I am also the Guru of all worlds. I am of all the worlds. I am He. I am Myself alone. I am Siḍḍha. I am the Pure. I am the Supreme. I am. I am always He. I am the Eternal. I am stainless. I am Vijñāna. I am the Excellent. I am Soma. I am the All. I am without honour or dishonour. I am without Guṇas (qualities). I am Śiva (the auspicious). I am neither dual or non-dual. I am without the dualities (of heat or cold, etc.) I am He. I am neither existence nor non-existence. I am without language. I am the Shining. I am the Glory of void and non-void. I am the good and the bad. I am Happiness. I am without grief. I am Chaiṭanya. I am equal (in all). I am the like and the non-like. I am the eternal, the pure, and the ever felicitous. I am without all and without not all. I am Sāṭṭwika. I am always existing. I am without the number one. I am without the number two. I am without the difference of Saṭ and Asaṭ. I am without Saṅkalpa. I am without the difference of manyness. I am the form of immeasurable Bliss. I am one that exists not. I am the one that is not another. I am without body, etc. I am with asylum. I am without asylum. I am without support. I am without bondage or emancipation. I am the pure Brahman. I am He. I am without Chiṭṭa, etc. I am the supreme and the Supreme of the supreme. I am ever of the form of deliberation and yet am without deliberation. I am He. I am of the nature of the Akāra and Ukāra as also of Makāra. I am the earliest. The contemplator and contemplation I am without. I am One that cannot be contemplated upon. I am He. I have full form in all. I have the characteristics of Sachchiḍānanḍa. I am of the form of places of pilgrimages. I am the higher Self and Śiva. I am neither the thing defined nor non-defined. I am the non-absorbed Essence. I am not the measurer, the measure or the measured. I am Śiva. I am not the universe. I am the Seer of all. I am without the eyes, etc. I am the full grown. I am the Wise. I am the Quiescent. I am the Destroyer. I am without any sensual organs. I am the doer of all actions. I am One that is content with all Veḍānṭas (either books or Āṭmic Wisdom). I am the easily attainable. I have the name of one that is pleased as well as one that is not. I am the fruits of all silence. I am always of the form of Chinmāṭra (Absolute Consciousness). I am always Saṭ (Be-ness) and Chiṭ (Consciousness). I am one that has not anything in the least. I am not one that has not anything in the least. I am without the heart-Granṭhi (knot). I am the Being in the middle of the lotus. I am without the six changes. I am without the six sheaths and without the six enemies. I am within the within. I am without place and time. I am of the form of happiness having the quarters as My garment. I am the emancipated One, without bondage. I am without the “no”. I am of the form of the partless. I am the partless. I have Chiṭṭa, though released from the universe. I am without the universe. I am of the form of all light. I am the Light (Jyoṭis) in Chinmāṭra (Absolute Consciousness). I am free from the three periods (of time past, present, and future). I am without desires. I am without body. I am One that has no body. I am Guṇaless. I am alone. I am without emancipation. I am the emancipated One. I am ever without emancipation. I am without truth or untruth. I am always One that is not different from Saṭ (Be-ness). I have no place to travel. I have no going, etc. I am always of the same form. I am the Quiescent. I am Purushoṭṭama (the Lord of Souls). There is no doubt that he who has realised himself thus, is Myself. Whoever hears (this) once becomes himself Brahman, yea, he becomes himself Brahman. Thus is the Upanishaḍ.”
KAIVALYA1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
Harih-Om. Then2 Āśwalāyana went to Lord Parameshtī (Brahmā) and addressed Him thus: “Please initiate me into Brahmaviḍyā (Divine Wisdom), which is the most excellent, which is ever enjoyed by the wise, which is mystic, and by which the learned, after having soon freed themselves from all sins, reach Purusha, the Supreme of the supreme.”
To him the Grandfather (thus) replied: “Know (It) through Śraḍḍhā (faith), Bhakṭi (devotion), Ḍhyāna (meditation), and Yoga. Persons attain salvation not through Karma, progeny or wealth but through Sannyāsa (renunciation) alone. Ascetics of pure mind through (the realisation of) the meaning well-ascertained by Veḍānṭa-Vijñāna and through Śannyāsa-Yoga enter into That which is above Swarga (heaven) and is in the cave (of the heart). They all attain Paramāṭmā3 in the Brahma-world and are (finally) emancipated.
“Being seated in a pleasant posture in an unfrequented place with a pure mind, and with his neck, head, and body erect, having given up the duties of the (four) orders of life, having subjugated all the organs, having saluted his Guru with devotion, having looked upon the heart (-lotus) as being free from Rajoguṇa and as pure, and having contemplated in its (heart’s) centre Parameśwara who is always with His consort Umā, who is pure and free from sorrow, who is unthinkable and invisible, who is of endless forms, who is of the nature of happiness, who is very quiescent, who is of the form of emancipation, who is the source of Māyā, who has no beginning, middle or end, who is One, who is All-Pervading, who is Chiḍānanḍa (Consciousness-Bliss), who is formless, who is wonderful, who is the Lord (of all), who has three eyes, who has a blue neck, (Nīlakaṇtha), and who is serenity (itself)—the Muni attains Paramāṭmā, the womb of all elements, the All-Witness, and above Ṭamas. He only is Brahmā. He only is Śiva. He only is Inḍra. He only is the indestructible. He only is the Supreme. He only is the Self-Shining. He only is Vishṇū. He only is Prāṇa. He only is Time. He only is Agni (fire). He only is the moon. He only is all things that exist or will hereafter exist. He only is eternal. Having known Him, one crosses death. There is no other path to salvation. He only attains Parabrahman who sees in himself all elements and himself in all elements. There is no other means. Having constituted his body an Araṇi (the lower attritional piece of wood) and Praṇava (Om), the upper Araṇi, a wise man burns Ajñāna by the churning of meditation.
“It is only He (Paramāṭmā) who, deluded by Māyā, assumes a body with the internal organs and does everything. It is only He who in the waking state is gratified with women, food, drink, and other diverse enjoyments. In the dreaming state, the Jīva enjoys pleasures and pains in the several worlds which are created by His Māyā. In the dreamless sleeping state when all are absorbed, He, replete with Ṭamas, attains the state of happiness. Then through the force of the Karmas of previous births, that Jīva again wakes up and goes to sleep. All the diversified objects (of the universe) emanate from the Jīva, who sports in the three bodies (gross, subtle and causal). The three bodies are finally absorbed in Him who is the source of all, who is Bliss, and who is Absolute Wisdom. From Him, arise Prāṇa, Manas, all the organs of sense and action, Ākāś, Vāyu, Agni, water and the earth supporting all. Parabrahman, which is of all forms, which is the Supreme Abode of this universe, which is the most subtle of the subtle and which is eternal, is only yourself. You are only That. One who knows himself to be that Parabrahman that shines as the universe in the waking, dreaming, dreamless and other states, will be relieved from all bondage. I am that Saḍāśiva, (or the eternal happiness) who is other than the enjoyer, the enjoyed, and the enjoyment in the three seats (or bodies), and who is witness and Chinmāṭra. All emanate from Me alone. All exist in Me alone. All merge into Me alone. I am that non-dual Brahman. I am the atom of atoms; so am I the biggest (of all). I am this diversified universe. I am the oldest of all. I am Purusha. I am Īśa (the Lord). I am of the form of Jyoṭis (light) and of the form of happiness. I have neither hands nor feet. I have power unthinkable. I see without eyes. I hear without ears. I am omniscient. I have one kind of form only. None is able to know Me fully. I am always of the form of Chiṭ. I am the One that should be known through all the Veḍas. I am the Guru who revealed the Veḍānṭā. I am only He who knows the true meaning of Veḍānṭa. I have no sins or virtues. I have no destruction. I have no birth, body, organs of sense or action, or Buḍḍhi. To Me there is no earth, water or fire. There is no Vāyu; there is no Ākāś. He who thinks Paramāṭmā as being in the cave (of the heart), as having no form, as being secondless, as being the witness of all and as being neither Saṭ nor Asaṭ, attains the pure form of Paramāṭmā.
“Whoever recites this Upanishaḍ belonging to Yajurveḍa, he becomes as pure as Agni (fire). He becomes purified from the sins of theft of gold. He becomes purified from the sins of drinking alcohol. He becomes purified from the sins of murder of a Brāhman. He becomes purified from the sins of commission (of those that ought not to be done) and the sins of omission (of those that ought to be done). Therefore he becomes a follower of Brahman. Were one who has stepped beyond the duties of the four orders of life to recite (this Upanishaḍ) always or even once, he acquires the wisdom that destroys the ocean of Samsāra. Therefore having known Him, he attains the Kaivalya State (or state of isolation or emancipation)—yea, he attains the Kaivalya State.”
AMṚṬABINḌU1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
Om. Manas (mind) is said to be of two kinds, the pure and the impure. That which is associated with the thought of desire is the impure, while that which is without desire is the pure. To men, their mind alone is the cause of bondage or emancipation. That mind which is attracted by objects of sense tends to bondage, while that which is not so attracted tends to emancipation. Now inasmuch as to a mind without a desire for sensual objects there is stated to be salvation, therefore an aspirant after emancipation should render his mind ever free from all longing after material objects. When a mind freed from the desires for objects and controlled in the heart attains the reality of Āṭmā, then is it in the Supreme Seat. Till that which arises in the heart perishes, till then it (Manas) should be controlled. This only is (true) wisdom. This only is true Ḍhyāna (meditation). Other ways are but long or tedious. It (Brahman) is not at all one that can be contemplated upon. It is not one that cannot be contemplated upon. It is not capable of contemplation, (and yet) it should be contemplated upon. Then one attains Brahman that is devoid of partiality. Yoga should be associated with Swara (sound, accent). (Brahman) should be meditated upon without Swara. By meditating without Swara upon Brahman, that which is cannot become non-existent. Such a Brahman is partless, devoid of fancy and quiescent (or free from the action of mind). Whoever cognizes “I” to be that Brahman attains certainly Brahman. A wise man having known that Brahman, that is without fancy, without end, without cause, or example, beyond inference and without beginning, is emancipated. There is (for him then) no destruction, no creation, no person in bondage, no devotee, no aspirant for salvation, no emancipated person. This is the truth. Āṭmā that should be contemplated upon is One in (the three states), the waking, the dreaming, and the dreamless sleep. There is no rebirth to him who goes beyond the three states. The one Bhūṭāṭmā of all beings is in all beings. Like the moon (reflected) in water, he appears as one and as many. While a pot is being carried (from one place to another), the Ākāś (ether) that is within it is not carried (along with it). As the pot alone is carried, Jīva (within the body) may be likened to the Ākāś. Like the pot, the body has various kinds of forms. The body which perishes again and again is not conscious of its own destruction. But he (the Jīva) knows (it) always. He who is enveloped by the Māyā of sound, is never able to come to (or see) the sun (of Parabrahman) from the darkness (of ignorance). Should such darkness be cleared, then he alone sees the nondual state. Parabrahman is Śabḍākshara.1 What remains after the cessation of Śabḍa-Veḍas, that is Akshara (indestructible), should be meditated upon by a learned man who wishes to secure quiescence to his Āṭmā.
Two Viḍyās (sciences) are fit to be known, viz., Śabḍabrahman and Parabrahman. One who has completely mastered Śabḍabrahman attains Parabrahman. Having studied well the books, the learned man should persevere studiously in Jñāna (the acquisition of knowledge) and Vijñāna (Self-realisation according to such knowledge). Then he should discard the whole of the books, as a person in quest of grain gives up the straw. Though there are cows of different colours, yet their milk is of the same colour. Like milk is seen Jñāna, and like cows are seen the different kinds of forms (in the universe). As ghee is latent in milk, so is Vijñāna (Self-realisation) latent in every being. Through churning always the Manas with the churning-stick of Manas and the string of Jñāna, Parabrahman that is partless, calm and quiescent should be brought out like fire from the wood. I am that Brahman. That Vāsuḍeva who is support of all beings, who lives in all and who protects all creatures is Myself. That Vāsuḍeva is Myself.
Such is the Upanishaḍ.
ĀṬMABOḌHA1 UPANISHAḌ OF ṚGVEḌA
Om. Prostrations to Nārāyaṇa wearing conch, discus, and mace,2 by whom the Yogī is released from the bondage of the cycle of rebirth through the utterance of Him who is of the form of Praṇava, the Om, composed of the three letters A, U, and M, who is the uniform bliss and who is the Brahmapurusha (all-pervading Purusha). Om. Therefore the reciter of the Manṭra “Om-namo-Nārāyaṇāya” reaches the Vaikuṇtha world. It is the heart-Kamala (lotus), viz., the city of Brahman. It is effulgent like lightning, shining like a lamp. It is Brahmaṇya (the presider over the city of Brahman) that is the son of Ḍevakī. It is Brahmaṇya that is Maḍhusūḍana (the killer of Maḍhu). It is Brahmaṇya that is Puṇdarīkāksha (lotus-eyed). It is Brahmaṇya, Vishṇu that is Achyuṭa (the indestructible). He who meditates upon that sole Nārāyaṇa who is latent in all beings, who is the causal Purusha, who is causeless, who is Parabrahman, the Om, who is without pains and delusion and who is all-pervading—that person is never subject to pains. From the dual, he becomes the fearless non-dual. Whoever sees this (world) as manifold (with the differences of I, you, he, etc.), passes from death to death. In the centre of the heart-lotus is Brahman, which is the All, which has Prājñā as Its eye and which is established in Prajñāna3 alone. To creatures, Prajñāna is the eye and Prājñā is the seat. It is Prajñāna alone that is Brahman. A person who meditates (thus), leaves this world through Prajñāna, the Āṭmā and ascending attains all his desires in the Supreme Swarga deathless. Oh! I pray Thee, place me in that nectar-everflowing unfailing world where Jyoṭis (the light) always shines and where one is revered. (There is no doubt) he attains nectar also. Om-namaḥ.
I am without Māyā. I am without compare. I am solely the thing that is of the nature of wisdom. I am without Ahaṅkāra (I-am-ness). I am without the difference of the universe, Jīva and Īśwara. I am the Supreme that is not different from Praṭyagāṭmā (individual Āṭmā). I am with ordinances and prohibitions destroyed without remainder. I am with Āśramas (observances of life) well given up. I am of the nature of the vast and all-full wisdom. I am one that is witness and without desire. I reside in My glory alone. I am without motion. I am without old age—without destruction—without the differences of My party or another. I have wisdom as chief essence. I am the mere ocean of bliss called salvation. I am the subtle. I am without change. I am Āṭmā merely, without the illusion of qualities. I am the Seat devoid of the three Guṇas. I am the cause of the many worlds in (My) stomach. I am the Kūtasṭha-Chaiṭanya (supreme Cosmic-mind). I am of the form of the Jyoṭis (light) free from motion. I am not one that can be known by inference. I alone am full. I am of the form of the stainless salvation. I am without limbs or birth. I am the essence which is Saṭ itself. I am of the nature of the true wisdom without limit. I am the state of excellent happiness. I am One that cannot be differentiated. I am the all-pervading and without stain. I am the limitless and endless Saṭṭwa alone. I am fit to be known through Veḍānṭa. I am the one fit to be worshipped. I am the heart of all the worlds. I am replete with Supreme Bliss. I am of the nature of happiness, which is Supreme Bliss. I am pure, secondless, and eternal. I am devoid of beginning. I am free from the three bodies (gross, subtle, and causal). I am of the nature of wisdom. I am the emancipated One. I have a wondrous form. I am free from impurity. I am the One latent (in all). I am the equal Āṭmā of eternal Vijñāna. I am the refined Supreme Truth. I am of the nature of Wisdom-Bliss alone.
Though I cognize as the secondless Āṭmā by means of discriminative wisdom and reason, yet is found the relation between bondage and salvation. Though to Me the universe is gone, yet it shines as true always. Like the truth in the (illusory conception of a) snake, etc., in the rope, so the truth of Brahman alone is, and is the substratum on which this universe is playing. Therefore the universe is not. Just as sugar is found permeating all the sugar-juice (from which the sugar is extracted), so I am full in the three worlds in the form of the non-dual Brahman. Like the bubbles, waves, etc., in the ocean, so all beings, from Brahmā down to worm, are fashioned in Me; just as the ocean does not long after the motion of the waves, so to Me, there is no longing after sensual happiness, being Myself of the form of (spiritual) Bliss. Just as in a wealthy person the desire for poverty does not arise, so in Me who am immersed in Brāhmic Bliss, the desire for sensual happiness cannot arise. An intelligent person who sees both nectar and poison rejects poison; so having cognized Āṭmā, I reject those that are not-Āṭmā. The sun that illuminates the pot (both within and without) is not destroyed with the destruction of the pot; so the Sākshī (witness) that illuminates the body is not destroyed with the destruction of the body. To Me there is no bondage; there is no salvation, there are no books, there is no Guru; for these shine through Māyā and I have crossed them and am secondless. Let Prāṇas (vital airs) according to their laws be fluctuating. Let Manas (mind) be blown about by desire. How can pains affect Me who am by nature full of Bliss? I have truly known Āṭmā. My Ajñāna has fled away. The egoism of actorship has left Me. There is nothing I should yet do. Brāhman’s duties, family, Goṭra (clan), name, beauty, and class—all these belong to the gross body and not to Me who am without any mark (of body). Inertness, love, and joy—these attributes appertain to the causal body and not to Me, who am eternal and of changeless nature. Just as an owl sees darkness only in the sun, so a fool sees only darkness in the self-shining Supreme Bliss. Should the clouds screen the eyesight, a fool thinks there is no sun; so an embodied person full of Ajñāna thinks there is no Brahman. Just as nectar which is other than poison does not commingle with it, so I, who am different from inert matter, do not mix with its stains. As the light of a lamp, however small, dispels immense darkness, so wisdom, however slight, makes Ajñāna, however immense, to perish. Just as (the delusion) of the serpent does not exist in the rope in all the three periods of time (past, present, and future), so the universe from Ahaṅkāra (down) to body does not exist in Me who am the non-dual One. Being of the nature of Consciousness alone, there is not inertness in Me. Being of the nature of Truth, there is not non-truth to Me. Being of the nature of Bliss, there is not sorrow in Me. It is through Ajñāna that the universe shines as truth.
Whoever recites this Āṭmaboḍha-Upanishaḍ for a Muhūrṭa (48 minutes) is not born again—yea, is not born again.
SKANḌA1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
Om. O Mahāḍeva (Lord of Ḍevas), I am indestructible through a small portion of Thy grace. I am replete with Vijñāna. I am Śiva (Bliss). What is higher than It? Truth does not shine as such on account of the display of the anṭaḥkaraṇa (internal organs). Through the destruction of the anṭaḥkaraṇa, Hari abides as Samviṭ (Consciousness) alone. As I also am of the form of Samviṭ, I am without birth. What is higher than It? All inert things being other (than Āṭmā) perish like dream. That Achyuṭa (the indestructible or Vishṇu), who is the seer of the conscious and the inert, is of the form of Jñāna. He only is Mahāḍeva. He only is Mahā-Hari (Mahāvishṇu). He only is the Jyoṭis of all Jyoṭis (or Light of all lights). He only is Parameśvara. He only is Parabrahman. That Brahman I am. There is no doubt (about it). Jīva is Śiva. Śiva is Jīva. That Jīva is Śiva alone. Bound by husk, it is paddy; freed from husk, it is rice. In like manner Jīva is bound (by karma). If karma perishes, he (Jīva) is Saḍāśiva. So long as he is bound by the bonds of karma, he is Jīva. If freed from its bonds, then he is Saḍāśiva. Prostrations on account of Śiva who is of the form of Vishṇu, and on account of Vishṇu who is of the form of Śiva. The heart of Vishṇu is Śiva. The heart of Śiva is Vishṇu. As I see no difference2 (between these two), therefore to me are prosperity and life. There is no difference—between Śiva and Keśava (Vishṇu). The body is said to be the divine temple. The Śiva (in the body) is the God Saḍāśiva1 (in the temple).
Having given up the cast-off offerings of ajñāna, one should worship Him with the thought “I am He”. To see (oneself) as not different (from Him) is (jñāna) wisdom. To make the mind free from sensual objects is ḍhyāna (meditation). The giving up of the stains of the mind is snāna (bathing). The subjugation of the senses is śoucha (cleansing). The nectar of Brahman should be drunk. For the upkeep of the body, one should go about for alms and eat. He should dwell alone in a solitary place without a second. He should be with the sole thought of the non-dual One. The wise person who conducts himself thus, attains salvation. Prostrations on account of Śrīmaṭ Param-Jyoṭis (Supreme Light) abode! May prosperity and long life attend (me). O Narasimha!2 O Lord of Ḍevas! through Thy grace, persons cognize the true nature of Brahman that is unthinkable, undifferentiated, endless, and immutable, through the forms of the Gods, Brahmā, Nārāyaṇa, and Śaṅkara.
Like the eye (which sees without any obstacle the things) spread in the ākāś, so the wise always see the supreme abode of Vishṇu. Brāhmans with divine eyes who are always spiritually awake, praise in diverse ways and illuminate the supreme abode of Vishṇu. Thus is the teaching of the Veḍas for salvation.
Thus is the Upanishaḍ.
PAIGALA-UPANISHAḌ1 OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Om. Paiṅgala, having served under Yājñavalkya for twelve years, asked him to initiate him into the supreme mysteries of Kaivalya. To which Yājñavalkya replied thus: “O gentle one, at first, this (universe) was Saṭ (Be-ness) only. It (Saṭ) is spoken of as Brahman which is ever free (from the trammels of matter), which is changeless, which is Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss, and which is full, permanent, and one only without a second. In It, was like a mirage in the desert, silver in mother-of-pearl, a person in the pillar, or colour, etc., in the crystals, mūlaprakṛṭi, having in equal proportions the guṇas, red,2 white, and black, and being beyond the power of speech. That which is reflected in it is Sākshi-Chaiṭanya (lit., the witness-consciousness). It (mūlaprakṛṭi) undergoing again change becomes with the preponderance of Saṭṭva (in it), Āvaraṇa3 Śakṭi named avyakṭa. That which is reflected in it (Avyakṭa) is Īśvara-Chaiṭanya. He (Īśvara) has Māyā under his control, is omniscient, the original cause of creation, preservation, and dissolution, and the seed of this universe. He causes the universe which was latent in Him, to manifest itself through the bonds of karma of all creatures like a painted canvas unfurled. Again through the extinction of their karmas, he makes it disappear. In Him alone is latent all the universe, wrapped up like a painted cloth. Then from the supreme (Āvaraṇa) Śakṭi, dependent on (or appertaining to Īśvara, arose, through the preponderance of Rajas, Vikshepa1 Śakṭi called Mahaṭ. That which is reflected in it is Hiraṇyagarbha-Chaiṭanya. Presiding (as He does) over Mahaṭ, He (Hiraṇyagarbha) has a body, both manifested and unmanifested.2 From Vikshepa Śakṭi of Hiranyagarbha arose, through the preponderance of Ṭamas, the gross Śakṭi called ahaṅkāra. That which is reflected in it is Virāt-Chaiṭanya. He (Virāt) presiding over it (ahaṅkāra) and possessing a manifested body becomes Vishṇu, the chief Purusha and protector of all gross bodies. From that Āṭmā arose ākāś; from ākāś arose vāyu, from vāyu agni, from agni apas, and from apas pṛṭhivī. The five ṭanmāṭras3 (rudimentary properties) alone are the guṇas (of the above five). That generating cause of the universe (Īśvara) wishing to create and having assumed ṭamo-guṇa, wanted to convert the elements which were subtle ṭanmāṭras into gross ones. In order to create the universe, he divided into two parts each of those divisible elements; and having divided each moiety into four parts, made a fivefold mixture, each element having moiety of its own original element and one-fourth of a moiety of each of the other elements, and thus evolved out of the fivefold classified gross elements, the many myriads of Brahmāṇdas (Brahmā’s egg or macrocosm), the fourteen worlds pertaining to each sphere, and the spherical gross bodies (microcosm) fit for the (respective) worlds. Having divided the Rajas-essence of the five elements into four parts, He out of three such parts created (the five) prāṇas having fivefold function. Again out of the (remaining) fourth part, He created karmenḍriyas (the organs of action). Having divided their Saṭṭva-essence into four parts, He out of three such parts created the anṭaḥkaraṇa (internal organ) having fivefold function. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Śaṭṭva-essence, he created the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense). Out of the collective totality of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the ḍevaṭās (deities) ruling over the organs of sense and actions. Those (ḍevaṭās) He created, He located in the spheres (pertaining to them). They through His orders, began to pervade the macrocosm. Through His orders, Virat associated with ahaṇkāra created all the gross things. Through His orders, Hiraṇyagarbha protected the subtle things. Without Him, they that were located in their spheres were unable to move or to do anything. Then He wished to infuse cheṭana (life) into them. Having pierced the Brahmāṇda (Brahmā’s egg or macrocosm) and Brahmaranḍhras (head-fontanelle) in all the microcosmic heads, He entered within. Though they were (at first) inert, they were then able to perform karmas like beings of intelligence. The omniscient Īśvara entered the microcosmic bodies with a particle of Māyā and being deluded by that Māyā, acquired the state of Jīva. Identifying the three bodies with Himself, He acquired the state of the actor and enjoyer. Associated with the attributes of the states of jāgraṭ, svapna, sushupṭi, trance, and death and being immersed in sorrow, he is (whirled about and) deluded like water-lift or potter’s wheel, as if subject to birth and death.”
Paiṇgala again addressed Yājñavalkya thus: “How did Īśvara, who is the creator, preserver, and destroyer and the Lord of all the worlds, acquire the state of Jīva?” To which Yājñavalkya replied: “I shall tell in detail the nature of Jīva and Īśvara, together with a description of the origin of the gross, subtle, and kāraṇa (causal) bodies. Hear attentively with one-pointed mind.
“Īśvara having taken a small portion of the quintuplicated mahā-bhūṭas, (the great elements), made in regular order the gross bodies, both collective and segregate. The skull, the skin, the intestines, bone, flesh, and nails are of the essence of pṛṭhivī. Blood, urine, saliva, sweat and others are of the essence of āpas. Hunger, thirst, heat, delusion, and copulation are of the essence of agni. Walking, lifting, breathing and others are of the essence of vāyu. Passion, anger, etc., are of the essence of ākāś. The collection of these having touch and the rest is this gross body that is brought about by karma, that is the seat of egoism in youth and other states and that is the abode of many sins. Then He created prāṇas out of the collective three parts of Rajas-essence of the fivefold divided elements. The modifications of prāṇa are prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna; nāga, kūrma, kṛkara, ḍevaḍaṭṭa and dhanañjaya are the auxiliary prāṇas. (Of the first five), the heart, anus, navel, throat and the whole body are respectively the seats. Then He created the karmenḍriyas out of the fourth part of the Rajas-guṇa. Of ākāś and the rest the mouth, legs, hands, and the organs of secretion and excretion are the modifications. Talking, walking, lifting, excreting, and enjoying are their functions. Likewise out of the collective three parts of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the anṭaḥkaraṇa (internal organ). Anṭaḥkaraṇa,1 manas, buḍḍhi, chiṭṭa, and ahaṇkāra are the modifications. Saṇkalpa (thought), certitude, memory, egoism, and anusanḍhāna (inquiry) are their functions. Throat, face, navel,2 heart, and the middle of the brow are their seats. Out of the (remaining) fourth part of Saṭṭva-essence, He created the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense). Ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose are the modifications. Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour are their functions. Ḍik (the quarters), Vāyu, Arka (the sun), Varuṇa, Aśvini Ḍevas, Inḍra, Upenḍra, Mṛṭyu (the God of death), Prajāpaṭi, the Moon, Vishṇu the four-faced Brahmā and Śambhu (Śiva) are the presiding deities of the organs. There are the five kośas (sheaths), viz., annamaya, prāṇamaya, manomaya, vijñānamaya, and ānanḍamaya. Annamaya sheath is that which is created and developed out of the essence of food, and is absorbed into the earth which is of the form of food. It alone is the gross body. The prāṇas with the karmenḍriyas (organs of action) is the prāṇamaya sheath. Manas with the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense) is the manomaya sheath. Buḍḍhi with the jñānenḍriyas is the vijñānamaya sheath. These three sheaths constitute the liṇgaśarīra (or the subtle body). (That which tends to) the ajñāna (ignorance) of the Reality (of Aṭmā) is the ānanḍamaya sheath. This is the kāraṇa body. Moreover the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, the five prāṇas and others, the five ākāś and other elements, the four internal organs, aviḍyā, passion, karma, and ṭamas—all these constitute this town (of body).
“Virāt, under the orders of Īśvara having entered this microcosmic body, and having buḍḍhi as his vehicle, reaches the state of Viśva. Then he goes by the several names of Vijñānāṭma, Chiḍābhāsa, Viśva, Vyāvahārika, the one presiding over the waking gross body and the one generated by karma. Sūṭrāṭmā, under the orders of Īśvara, having entered the microcosmic subtle body, and having manas as his vehicle, reaches the Ṭaijasa state. Then he goes by the names of ṭaijasa, prāṭibhāsika and svapnakalpiṭa (the one bred out of dream). Then under the orders of Īśvara, he who is coupled with avyakṭa, the vehicle of Māyā having entered the microcosmic kāraṇa body, reaches the state of prajñā. He goes then by the names of prājña, avichchinna, and pāramārṭhika and sushupṭhi-abhimānī (the presider over sushupṭi). Such sacred sentences, as Ṭaṭṭvamasi (That art thou) and others, speak of the identity with the Brahman of the Pāramārṭhika-Jīva enveloped by ajñāna, which is but a small particle of avyakṭa; but not vyāvahārika and prāṭibhāsika (Jīvas). It is only that chaiṭanya which is reflected in anṭaḥkaraṇa that attains the three states. When it assumes the three states of jāgraṭ, swapna, and sushupṭi, it is like a water-lift as if grieved, born and dead. There are five avasṭhās—jāgraṭ, swapna, sushupṭi, mūrchchhā (trance), and death. Jāgraṭ avasṭhā is that in which there is the perception of objects, of sound, etc., through the grace of the ḍevaṭā presiding over each of them. In it, the Jīva, being in the middle of the eyebrows and pervading the body from head to foot, becomes the agent of actions, such as doing, hearing and others. He becomes also the enjoyer of the fruits thereof; and such a person doing karma for the fruits thereof goes to other worlds and enjoys the same there. Like an emperor tired of worldly acts (in the waking state), he strives to find the path to retire into his abode within. The svapna avasṭhā is that in which, when the senses are at rest, there is the manifestation of the knower and the known, along with the affinities of (things enjoyed in) the waking state. In this state Viśva alone, its actions in the waking state having ceased, reaches the state of Ṭaijasa (of ṭejas or effulgence), who moves in the middle of the nādīs (nerves), illuminates by his lustre the heterogeneity of this universe which is of the form of affinities, and himself enjoys according to his wish. The sushupṭi avasṭhā is that in which the chiṭṭa is sole organ (at play). Just as a bird, tired of roaming, flies to its nest with its stomach filled, so the Jīva being tired of the actions of the world in the waking and dreaming states, enters ajñāna and enjoys bliss. Then trance is attained which resembles death, and in which one with his collection of organs quails, as it were, through fear and ajñāna, like one beaten unexpectedly by a hammer, club or any other weapon. Then death avasṭhā is that which is other than the avasṭhās of jāgraṭ, svapna, sushupṭi, and trance, which produces fear in all Jīvas from Brahmā down to small insects and which dissolves the gross body. The Jīva, that is surrounded by aviḍyā and the subtle elements, takes with it the organs of sense and action, their objects, and prāṇas along with the kāmic karmas and goes to another world, assuming another body. Through the ripening of the fruits of previous karmas, the Jīva has no rest like an insect in a whirlpool. It is only after many births that the desire of emancipation arises in man through the ripening of good karma. Then having resorted to a good Guru and served under him for a long time, one out of many attains moksha, free from bondage. Bondage is through non-inquiry and moksha through inquiry. Therefore there should always be inquiry (into Āṭmā). The Reality should be ascertained through aḍhyāropa (illusory attribution) and apavād (withdrawal or recession of that idea). Therefore there should be always inquiring into the universe, Jīva and Paramāṭmā. Were the true nature of Jīva and the universe known, then there remains Brahman which is non-different from Praṭyagāṭmā.”
Then Paiṅgala asked Yājñavalkya to offer an exposition on the mahāvākyas (sacred sentences of the Veḍas). To which Yājñavalkya replied: “One should scrutinise (the sacred sentences), Ṭaṭṭvamasi (That art thou), Ṭvamṭaḍasi (Thou art That), Ṭwambrahmāsi (Thou art Brahman) and Ahambrahmāsmi (I am Brahman). The word ‘Ṭaṭ’ denotes the cause of the universe that is variegated beyond perception, has the characteristics of omniscience, has Māyā as His vehicle and has the attributes of Sachchiḍānanḍa. It is He that is the basis of the notion ‘I’ which has the differentiated knowledge produced by anṭaḥkaraṇa; and it is He that is denoted by the word ‘Ṭwam’ (Thou). That is the undifferentiated Brahman which remains as the aim (or meaning) of the words Ṭaṭ and Ṭvam after freeing itself from Māyā and Aviḍyā which are respectively the vehicles of Paramāṭmā and Jīvāṭmā. The inquiry into the real significance of the sentences Ṭaṭṭvamasi and Ahambrahmāsmi forms (what is called) śravaṇa (hearing—the first stage of inquiry). To inquire in solitude into the significance of śravaṇa is manana. The concentration of the mind with one-pointedness upon that which should be sought after by śravaṇa and manana is niḍiḍhyāsana. Samāḍhi is that state in which chiṭṭa having given up (the conception of the difference of) the meditator and the meditation, becomes of the form of the meditated like a lamp in a place without wind. Then arise the modifications pertaining to Āṭmā. Such (modifications) cannot be known; but they can only be inferred through memory (of the samāḍhi state). The myriads of karmas committed in this beginningless cycle of rebirths are annihilated only through them. Through proficiency in practice, the current of nectar1 always rains down in diverse ways. Therefore those who know Yoga call this samāḍhi, ḍharma-megha (cloud). Through these (modifications of Āṭmā), the collection of affinities is absorbed without any remainder whatever. When the accumulated good and bad karmas are wholly destroyed, these sentences (Ṭaṭṭvamasi and Ahambrahmāsmi), like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand, bring him face to face with the ultimate Reality, though It was before invisible. Then he becomes a Jīvanmukṭa.
“Īśvara wished to produce non-quintuplication (or involution) in the fivefold differentiated elements. Having drawn into their cause Brahmā’s egg and its effects of worlds, and mixed together the subtle organs of sense and action and the four internal organs and dissolved all things composed of the elements into their cause, the five elements, He then caused pṛṭhivī to merge into water, water into agni, agni into vāyu, and vāyu into ākāś, ākāś into ahaṅkāra, akaṅkāra into mahaṭ, mahaṭ into avyakṭa, and avyakṭa into Purusha in regular order. Virāt, Hiraṇyagarbha and Īśvara being freed from the vehicle of Māyā, are absorbed into Paramāṭmā. This gross body composed of the five differentiated elements and obtained through accumulated karma, is merged into its subtle state of non-quintuplicated elements, through the extinction of (bad) karma and increase of good karma, then attains its kāraṇa (causal) state and (finally) is absorbed into its cause, (viz.,) Kūtasṭha-Praṭyagāṭma. Viśva and Ṭaijasa and Prājña, their upāḍhi (of aviḍyā) having become extinct, are absorbed in Praṭyagāṭmā. This sphere (of universe) being burnt up by the fire of jñāna is absorbed along with its cause into Paramāṭmā. Therefore a Brāhmaṇa should be careful and always meditate upon the identity of Ṭaṭ and Ṭvam. Then Āṭmā shines, like the sun freed from the (obscuration of the) clouds. One should meditate upon Āṭmā in the midst (of the body) like a lamp within a jar.
“Āṭmā, the Kūtasṭha, should be meditated upon as being of the size of a thumb, as being of the nature of the jyoṭis (light) without smoke, as being within, illuminating all and as being indestructible. That Muni (sage) who meditates (upon Āṭmā always) until sleep or death comes upon him passes into the state of (Jīvanmukṭi) emancipation like the immovable state of the wind. Then there remains that One (Brahman) without sound, touch, free from destruction, without taste or odour, which is eternal, which is without beginning or end, which is beyond the Ṭaṭṭva of Mahaṭ, and which is permanent and without stain or disease.”
Then Paiṅgala addressed Yājñavalkya thus: “To the wise, what is their karma? And what is their state?” To which Yājñavalkya replied: “A lover of moksha, having humility1 and other possessions (or virtues), enables twenty-one generations to cross (to Āṭmā). One through his being a Brahmaviṭ2 alone enables 101 generations to cross. Know Āṭmā to be the rider and the body as the chariot. Know also buḍḍhi as the charioteer and manas as the reins. The wise say the organs are the horses, the objects are the roads (through which the horses travel) and the hearts are the moving balloons. Mahāṛshis say that Āṭmā, when associated with the sense organs and manas, is the enjoyer. Therefore it is the actual Nārāyaṇa alone that is established in the heart. Till his prārabḍha karma3 is worn out, he exists (in his body) as in the (cast-off) slough of a serpent (without any desire for the body). An emancipated person having such a body roves about like a moon gladdening all with no settled place of abode. He gives up his body whether in a sacred place, or in a chaṇdāla’s (outcaste’s) house (without any distinction whatever), and attains salvation. Such a body (when seen by a person) should be offered as a sacrifice to ḍik (the quarters) or should be buried (underground). It is only to Purusha (the wise) that sannyāsa (renunciation) is ordained and not to others. In case of the death of an ascetic who is of the form (or has attained the nature) of Brahman, there is no pollution (to be observed); neither the ceremonies of fire (as burning the body, homa, etc.); nor the piṇda (balls of rice), nor ceremonies of water, nor the periodical ceremonies (monthly and yearly). Just as a food once cooked is not again cooked, so a body once burnt (by the fire of wisdom) should not be burnt (or exposed to fire) again. To one whose body was burnt by the fire of wisdom there is neither śrāḍḍha1 (required to be performed), nor (funeral) ceremony. So long as there is the upāḍhi (of non-wisdom) in one, so long should he serve the Guru. He should conduct himself towards his Guru’s wife and children as he does to his Guru. If being of a pure mind, of the nature of immaculate Chiṭ and resigned, and having the discrimination arising from the attainment of wisdom “I am He,” he should concentrate his heart on Paramāṭmā and obtain firm peace in his body, then he becomes of the nature of Jyoṭis, void of manas and buḍḍhi. Of what avail is milk to one content with nectar? Of what avail are the Veḍas to him who has known his Āṭmā thus? For a Yogin content with the nectar of wisdom, there is nothing more to be done. If he has to do anything, then he is not a knower of Ṭaṭṭva. Praṭyagāṭmā though far (or difficult of attainment), is not far; though in the body, he is devoid of it (since) he is all-pervading. After having purified the heart and contemplated on the One without disease (viz., Brahman), the cognizing of ‘I’ as the supreme and the all is the highest bliss. Like water mixed with water, milk with milk, and ghee with ghee, so Jīvāṭmā and Paramāṭmā are without difference. When the body is rendered bright through wisdom and the buḍḍhi becomes of the partless One, then the wise man burns the bondage of karma through the fire of Brahmajñāna. Then he becomes purified, of the nature of the non-dual named Parmeśvara and the light like the stainless ākāś. Like water mixed with water, so Jīva (-Āṭmā) becomes upāḍhiless (or freed from the bonds of matter). Āṭmā is, like ākāś, of an invisible form. (Therefore) the inner Āṭmā is invisible like vāyu. Though he is within and without, he is the immovable Āṭmā. Through the torch of wisdom, the internal Āṭmā sees (or knows).
“A wise man, in whatever place or manner he dies, is absorbed in that place like the all-pervading ākāś. It should be known that Āṭmā is absorbed as truly as the ākāś in the pot (when broken). Then he attains the all-pervading wisdom-light that is without support. Though men should perform ṭapas standing on one leg for a period of 1,000 years, it will not, in the least, be equal to one-sixteenth part of ḍhyānayoga. One desirous of knowing what jñāna (wisdom) and jñeya (the object to be known) are, will not be able to attain his desired end, even though he may study the Śāsṭras for 1,000 years. That which is alone should be known as the indestructible. That which exists (in this world) is only impermanent. (Therefore) after having given up (the study of) the many Śāsṭras, one should worship that which is saṭya (truth). The many karmas, purity (of mind and heart), japa (the muttering of manṭras), sacrifice and pilgrimages—all these should be observed till Ṭaṭṭva is known. For Mahāṭmās (noble souls) to be always in (the conception of) ‘I am Brahman’ conduces to their salvation. There are two causes (that lead) to bondage and emancipation. They are ‘mine’ and ‘not mine’. Through ‘mine’ creatures are bound, whereas through ‘not mine’ they are released from bondage. When the mind attains the state of Unmani (above manas, viz., when it is destroyed), then there is never the conception of duality. When the Unmani state occurs, then is the supreme Seat (attained). (After which) wherever the mind goes, there is the supreme Seat (to it, viz., the mind enjoys salvation wherever it is). That which is equal in all is Brahman alone. One may attain the power to strike the ākāś with his fist; he may appease his hunger by eating husks (of grain), but never shall he attain emancipation who has not the self-cognition, ‘I am Brahman’.
“Whoever recites this Upanishaḍ becomes as immaculate as Agni. He becomes as pure as Brahmā. He becomes as pure as Vāyu. He becomes like one who has bathed in all the holy waters. He becomes like one who has studied all the Veḍas. He becomes like one that has undergone all veḍic observances. He obtains the fruit of the recitation of Iṭihāsas1 , Purāṇas and Ruḍramanṭras a lakh of times. He becomes like one that has pronounced Praṇava (Om) ten thousand times. He purifies his ancestors ten degrees removed and his descendants ten degrees removed. He becomes purified of all those that sit with him for dinner. He becomes a greater personage. He becomes purified from the sins of the murder of a Brāhman, the drinking of alcohol, theft of gold, and sexual cohabitation with Guru’s wife, and from the sins of associating with those that commit such sins.
“Like the eye pervading the ākaś (seeing without effort everything above), a wise man sees (always) the supreme Seat of Vishṇu. The Brāhmaṇas who have always their spiritual eyes wide open praise and illuminate in diverse ways the supreme Seat of Vishṇu. Om: This Upanishaḍ is truth.”
AḌHYĀṬMA-UPANISHAḌ1 OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
The One Aja (unborn) is ever located in the cave (of the heart) within the body. (Pṛṭivī) the earth is His body; though He pervades the earth, it does not know Him. The waters are His body; though He pervades the waters, they do not know Him. Agni is His body; though He pervades agni, it does not know Him. Vāyu is His body; though He pervades vāyu, it does not know Him. Ākāś is His body; though He pervades ākāś, it does not know Him. Manas is His body; though He pervades manas, it does not know Him. Buḍḍhi is His body; though He pervades buḍḍhi, it does not know Him. Ahaṅkāra is His body; though He pervades ahaṅkāra, it does not know Him. Chiṭṭa is His body; though He pervades chiṭṭa, it does not know Him. Avyakṭa is His body; though He pervades avyakṭa, it does not know Him. Akshara is His body; though He pervades akshara, it does not know Him. Mṛṭyu is His body; though He pervades mṛṭyu, it does not know Him. He who is the inner soul of all creatures and the purifier of sins, is the one divine Lord Nārāyaṇa.
The wise should through the practice of deep meditation of Brahman leave off the (recurrent) conception of “I” and “mine” in the body and the senses which are other than Āṭmā. Having known himself as Praṭyagāṭmā, the witness of buḍḍhi and its actions, one should ever think “So’ham” (“I am That”) and leave off the idea of Āṭmā in all others. Shunning the pursuits of the world, the body and the Śāsṭras, set about removing the false attribution of self. In the case of a Yogin staying always in his own Āṭmā, his mind perishes having known his Āṭmā as the Āṭmā of all, through inference, Veḍas and self-experience. Never giving the slightest scope to sleep, worldly talk, sounds, etc., think of Āṭmā, (in yourself) to be the (supreme) Āṭmā. Shun at a distance like a chaṇdāla (the thought of) the body, which is generated out of the impurities of parents and is composed of excreta and flesh. Then you will become Brahman and be (in a) blessed (state). O Sage, having dissolved (Jīva-) Aṭmā into Paramāṭmā with the thought of its being partless, like the ether of a jar in the universal ether, be ever in a state of taciturnity. Having become that which is the seat of all Āṭmās and the self-resplendent, give up the macrocosm and microcosm like an impure vessel. Having merged into Chiḍāṭmā, which is ever blissful, the conception of “I” which is rooted in the body, and having removed the (conception of) Liṅga (here the sign of separateness), become ever the Kevala (alone). Having known “I am that Brahman” in which alone the universe appears like a town in a mirror, become one that has performed (all) his duty, O sinless one. The ever-blissful and the self-effulgent. One being freed from the grip of ahaṅkāra attains its own state, like the spotless moon becoming full (after eclipse).
With the extinction of actions, there arises the extinction of chinṭā. From it arises the decay of vāsanās; and from the latter, arises moksha; and this is called Jīvanmukṭi. Looking upon everything in all places and times as Brahman brings about the destruction of vāsanās through the force of vāsanās of sāṭṭvic nature. Carelessness in Brahmanishthā by (or meditation of Brahman) should not in the least be allowed (to creep in). Knowers of Brahman style (this) carelessness, in Brāhmic science, as death (itself). Just as the moss (momentarily) displaced (in a tank) again resumes its original position, in a minute, so Māyā envelops even the wise, should they be careless (even for a moment). He who attains the Kaivalya state during life becomes a Kevala even after death of his body. Ever devoted to samāḍhi, become a nirvikalpa (or the changeless one), O sinless one. The granṭhi (or knot) of the heart, full of ajñāna, is broken completely only when one sees his Āṭmā as secondless through nirvikalpa samāḍhi.
Now, having strengthened the conception of Āṭmā and well given up that of “I” in the body, one should be indifferent as he would be towards jars, cloth, etc. From Brahmā down to a pillar, all the upāḍhis are only unreal. Hence one should see (or cognize) his Āṭmā as all-full and existing by itself (alone). Brahmā is Swayam (Āṭmā); Vishṇu is Āṭmā; Ruḍra is Āṭmā; Inḍra is Āṭmā; all this universe is Āṭmā and there is nothing but Āṭmā. By expelling (from the mind) without any remainder all objects which are superimposed on one’s Āṭmā, one becomes himself Parabrahman the full, the secondless and the actionless. How can there be the heterogeneity of the universe of saṅkalpa and vikalpa in that One Principle which is immutable, formless and homogeneous? When there is no difference between the seer, the seen, and sight, there being the decayless and Chiḍāṭmā, full like the ocean at the end of a Kalpa and effulgent, all darkness, the cause of false perception, merges in it. How can there be heterogeneity in that one supreme Principle which is alike? How can there be heterogeneity in the highest Ṭaṭṭva which is One? Who has observed any heterogeneity in sushupṭi (the dreamless sleep), where there is happiness only? This vikalpa has its root in chiṭṭa only. When chiṭṭa is not, there is nothing. Therefore unite the chiṭṭa with Paramāṭman in its Praṭyāgāṭmic state. If one knows Aṭmā as unbroken bliss in itself, then he drinks always the juice (or essence) of bliss in his Āṭmā, whether internally or externally.
The fruit of vairāgya is boḍha (spiritual wisdom); the fruit of boḍha is uparaṭi (renunciation); śānṭi (sweet patience) is attained out of the enjoyment of the bliss of one’s Āṭmā, and this śānṭi is the fruit of uparaṭi. If the latter in each of these is absent, the former is useless. Nivṛṭṭi (or the return path) leads to the highest contentment and (spiritual) bliss is said to be beyond all analogy. That which has Māyā as its upāḍhi is the womb of the world; that true one which has the attribute of omniscience, etc., and has the variegated mystery is denoted by the word “Ṭaṭ” (that). That is called Apara (the other or inferior) which shines through meditation upon the idea and the world asmaṭ1 and the consciousness of which is developed by anṭaḥkaraṇa. By separating the upāḍhis Māyā and aviḍyā from Parā and Jīva (cosmic and human Āṭmās respectively), one realises Parabrahman which is partless and Sachchiḍānanḍa. Making the mind dwell upon such sentences (or ideas) as the above constitutes śravaṇa (hearing). It becomes manana (contemplation) when such ideas are quieted (in one) through logical reasoning. When (their) meaning is confirmed through these (two processes), the concentration of the mind on it alone constitutes niḍiḍhyāsana. That is called samāḍhi in which the chiṭṭa, rising above the conception of the contemplator and contemplation, merges gradually into the contemplated, like a light undisturbed by the wind. Even the mental states are not known (at the time when one is within the scope of Āṭmā). But they are only inferred from the recollection which takes place after samāḍhi. Through this samāḍhi are destroyed crores of karmas which have accumulated during cycles of births without beginning and pure ḍharma is developed. Knowers of Yoga call this samāḍhi, ḍharma-megha (cloud), inasmuch as it showers nectarine drops of karma in great quantities, when all the hosts of vāsanās are destroyed entirely through this, and when the accumulated karmas, virtuous and sinful, are rooted out. Then that in which speech was hidden till now, appears no longer so, and shines as Saṭ; and direct cognition reveals itself, like the myrobalan in the palm of the hand. Vairāgya begins from where the vāsanās cease to arise towards objects of enjoyment. The cessation of the rising of the idea of “I” is the highest limit of buḍḍhi; uparaṭi begins from where the mental states once destroyed do not again arise. That ascetic is said to possess Sṭhiṭaprajñā who enjoys bliss always and whose mind is absorbed in Brahman that is formless and actionless. That state of mind is termed prajñā that realises the oneness of Brahman and Āṭmā after deep inquiry, and that has the vṛṭṭi of nirvikalpa and chinmāṭra. He who possesses this always is a Jīvanmukṭa. He is a Jīvanmukṭa who has neither the conception of “I” in the body and the senses, nor the conception of another (different from himself) in everything else. He is a Jīvanmukṭa who sees through his prajñā no difference between his own Āṭmā and Brahman as well as between Brahman and the universe. He is a Jīvanmukṭa who preserves equanimity of mind, either when revered by the good or reviled by the vicious. One who has cognized the true nature of Brahman is not subject to rebirth as before. But were he so subjected, then he is not a true knower, the knowing of Brahman being external only. A man is subject to prārabḍha1 so long as he is affected by pleasure, etc. The attainment of a result is always preceded by action; and nowhere is it without karma. Through the cognition “I am Brahman” are destroyed the karmas accumulated during hundreds of crores of previous births, like the actions in the dreaming state (that are destroyed) during the waking state.
An ascetic having known himself as associateless and indifferent like ether, is not at all affected by any of his karmas at any time. Just as the ether is not affected by the alcoholic smell through its contact with a pot, so Ātmā is not affected by the guṇas produced by its upāḍhi. The prārabḍha karma that has begun to act before the dawn of jñāna is not checked by it; and one should reap its fruit, as in the case of an arrow discharged at a target. An arrow that is discharged towards an object with the idea that it is a tiger, does not stop when it (the tiger) is found to be a cow; but it (even) pierces the mark through its speed, without stopping. When one realises his Āṭmā as free from old age and death, then how will prārabḍha affect him? Prārabḍha accomplishes (its work) only when one considers his body as Āṭmā. This conception of Āṭmā as body is not at all a desirable one; so it should be given up along with prārabḍha, since it is simply a delusion to attribute prārabḍha to this body. How can there be reality to that which is superimposed upon another? How can there be birth to that which is not real? How can there be death to that which is not born? How can there be prārabḍha to that which is unreal? The Veḍa speaks of prārabḍha in an external sense only, to satisfy those foolish persons that doubt, saying: “If jñāna can destroy all the results of ajñāna (such as body, etc.), then whence is the existence of this body to such a one?” but not to inculcate to the wise the existence of the body.
Āṭmā is all-full, beginningless, endless, immeasurable, unchangeable, replete with Saṭ, Chiṭ, and Ānanḍa, decayless, the one essence, the eternal, the differentiated, the plenum, the endless, having its face everywhere, the one that can neither be given up nor taken up, the one that can neither be supported nor be made to support, the guṇaless, the actionless, the subtle, the changeless, the stainless, the indescribable, the true nature of one’s Āṭmā, above the reach of speech and mind, the one full of Saṭ, the self-existent, the immaculate, the enlightened, and the incomparable; such is Brahman, one only without a second. There are not in the least many. He who knows his Āṭmā himself through his own cognition, as the one who is not restricted by any, is a Siḍḍha (one that has accomplished his object), who has identified his Āṭmā with the one changeless Āṭmā. Whither is this world gone, then? How did it appear? Where is it absorbed? It was seen by me just now, but now it is gone. What a great miracle! What is fit to be taken in? and what to be rejected? What is other (than Āṭmā)? And what is different (from It)? In this mighty ocean of Brahman full of the nectar of undivided bliss, I do not see, hear, or know anything. I remain in my Āṭmā only and in my own nature of Saṭ, Ānanḍarūpa. I am an asaṅga (or the associateless). I am an asaṅga. I am without any attributes. I am Hari (the Lord taking away sin). I am the quiescent, the endless, the all-full and the ancient. I am neither the agent nor the enjoyer. I am the changeless and the decayless. I am of the nature of pure enlightenment. I am the one and the perpetual bliss.
This science was imparted to Apānṭaraṭama who gave it to Brahmā. Brahmā gave it to Ghora-Aṅgiras. Ghora-Aṅgiras gave it to Raikva, who gave it to Rāma. And Rāma gave it to all beings. This is the teaching of Nirvāṇa; and this is the teaching of the Veḍas; yea, this is the teaching of the Veḍas. Thus ends the Upanishaḍ.
SUBĀLA-UPANISHAḌ OF ŚUKLA-YAJURVEḌA
Then he (Raikva1 ) asked: “What was at first?” To which (He the Lord) replied:
“There was neither Saṭ2 nor asaṭ nor Saṭ-asaṭ. From it, ṭamas (darkness) was evolved. From ṭamas came bhūṭāḍi;3 from bhūṭāḍi came ākāś, from ākāś, vāyu; from vāyu, agni (fire); from agni, āpas (water); and from āpas, pṛṭhivī (earth). Then it became an egg. After remaining so for one (divine) year, it split into two and became earth below,4 the ākāś above and in the midst, the infinite Purusha of a divine form of myriads of heads, eyes, feet and hands. Prior to the bhūṭas (elements), he had evolved Mṛṭyu (time or death) of three letters5 , three heads, and three feet, and having a khaṇda-paraśu6 (broken axe). To him, Brahmā (the Purusha) spoke. He entered Brahmā himself and evolved mentally the seven sons1 and these Havirāts (or sons) as well as the seven prajāpaṭis (progenitors). Brāhmaṇas2 were born from His mouth, Kshaṭṭriyas from His hands, Vaiśyas from His thighs, and from the feet were born the Śuḍras. The moon was born from His manas (mind), the sun from His eyes, vāyu from (His) ears and prāṇas from (His) heart. Thus all things were born.”
“From apāna came Nishāḍas, Yakshas, Rākshasas, and Ganḍharvas. From (His) bones, arose the mountains. From His hairs arose the herbs and the trees. From His forehead, Ruḍra was born through His anger. The breath of this great Being became the Ṛgveḍa, Yajurveḍa, Sāmaveḍa, Aṭharvaveḍa, Śīkshā (the science of the proper pronunciation and articulation of sounds), Kalpa (the science of methodology), Vyākaraṇa (grammar), Nirukṭa (glossarial explanation of obsolete and other terms in Veḍas), Chhanḍas (prosody or veḍic metre), Jyoṭisha (astronomy), Nyāya (logic), Mīmāmsā (including rituals and veḍānṭa), Ḍharmaśāsṭras, commentaries, glosses and all beings. This Āṭmā (or the Self of Purusha) is Hiraṇyajyoṭis (or golden or effulgent Light) into which all the universe is absorbed. He divided Āṭmā (his Self) into two moieties; out of one moiety, the woman was created; and out of the other, man. Having become a Ḍeva, He created the Ḍevas. Having become a Ṛshi, He created the Ṛshis; also He created Yakṣhas, Rākshasas, Ganḍharvas, wild and domestic beasts and others such as cows, bulls, mares and horses, she-asses and asses and Viśvambhara (the Supporter) and Viśvambharā (the earth). Becoming Vaiśvānara (fire) at the end (of creation), He burnt up all objects. Then (in dissolution), pṛṭhivī was absorbed in āpas, āpas in agni, agni in vāyu, vāyu in ākaś, ākaś in inḍriyas (organs), inḍriyas into ṭanmāṭras (rudimentary properties), ṭanmāṭras into bhūṭāḍi, bhūṭāḍi into mahaṭ, mahaṭ into avyakṭa, avyakṭa into akshara (the indestructible), akshara into ṭamas (darkness). And ṭamas becomes one with the supreme Lord. And then there is neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, nor Saṭ-asaṭ. This is the teaching of Nirvāṇa and this is the teaching of the Veḍas. Yea, This is the teaching of the Veḍas.”
“At first, there was Asaṭ, unborn, non-existent, unsupported, soundless, touchless, formless, tasteless, odourless, and decayless. The undaunted man never grieves, as he knows Āṭmā to be great, all-pervading and unborn. It (Āṭmā) is prāṇaless, mouthless, earless, tongueless, manas-less, ṭejas-less, eyeless, nameless, goṭraless (or clanless), headless, handless, feetless, non-unctuous, bloodless, non-measurable, neither long nor short, neither gross nor atomic, neither great nor small, endless, indescribable, non-returnable, non-luminous, not hidden, having neither inside nor outside, neither eating anything nor being eaten by others. Some one (out of many) attains to this (Āṭmā) by the six means of saṭya (truth), ḍāna (charity), ṭapas (religious austerities), non-injury to any creature, celibacy and complete indifference to worldy objects;1 and there are no other means. Whoever feels happy with the thought ‘I know That’, that learned person’s prāṇa will never get out of his body at the moment of death, but will become absorbed in Brahman; and being absorbed in Brahman, he attains the state of Brahman Itself as he who knows this.”
“In the middle of the heart is a red fleshy mass in which is the ḍahara-lotus. Like the lotus, it opens into many (petals). There are ten openings in the heart. The (different kinds of) prāṇas are located there. Whenever he (Āṭmā) is united with prāṇa, he sees cities with rivers and other variegated things; when united with vyāna, he sees Ḍevas and Ṛshis; when united with apāna, he sees Yakshas, Rākshasas and Ganḍharvas; when united with uḍāna, he perceives the celestial world, Ḍevas, Skanḍa (Kārṭikeya or the six-faced Mars), and Jayanṭa (Inḍra’s son); when united with samāna, he sees the celestial world and the treasures (of Kubera); when united with rambhā (a nādi hereafter given out), he sees whatever is seen or not seen, heard or not heard, eaten or not eaten, asaṭ or Saṭ and all else.
“There are ten nādis; in each of these are seventy-one. And these become 72,000 branch nādis. When Āṭmā sleeps therein, it produces sound; but when Āṭmā sleeps in the second kośa (or sheath) then it sees this world and the higher as also knows all the sounds. This is spoken of as samprasāḍa (deep sleep rest). Then prāṇa protects the body. The nādis are full of blood, of the colours green, blue, yellow, red, and white. Now this ḍahara-lotus has many petals like a lily. Like a hair divided into 1,000 parts, the nādis called hiṭa are. The divine Āṭmā sleeps in the ākāś of the heart, in the supreme kośa (or ānanḍamaya sheath); sleeping there, it has no desires, no dreams, no ḍeva-worlds, no yajñas or sacrificer, no mother or father, no relative, no kinsman, no thief, or no Brāhman-slayer. Its body is ṭejas (resplendent effulgence) and of the nature of nectar (or the immortal). It is as if in sport, a water-lotus. When he returns again to the waking state by the same way (he quitted or went in before to the heart), he is Samrāt1 . Thus says he.”
“That which joins one place (or centre) with another is the nādis which bind them. The eye is aḍhyāṭmā (pertaining to the body); the visible objects are āḍhibhūṭa (pertaining to the elements) and the sun is aḍhiḍaivaṭa (spiritual). The nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the eye, in the visible, in the sun, in the nādis, in prāna, in vijñāna,1 in ānanḍa, in the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The ear is adhyāṭma, the audible aḍhibhūṭa, and ḍik (the quarters) is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the ear, in the audible, in the quarters, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanḍa, in the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The nose is aḍhyāṭma, the odoriferous aḍhibhūṭa, and the earth is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the nose, the odoriferous, the earth, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The tongue is aḍhyāṭma: the tastable aḍhibhūṭa, and Varuṇa is aḍhiḍaivaṭā. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the tongue, the tastable, Varuṇa, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākaś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The skin is aḍhyāṭma, the tangiferous aḍhibhūṭa, and the vāyu is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the skin, the tangiferous, the vāyu, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“Vāk (speech) is aḍhyāṭma, that which is acted upon by vāk is aḍhibhūṭa, and Agni is Aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in vāk, that which is acted upon by vāk, Agni, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, the ākaś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The hand is aḍhyāṭma, that which can be handled is aḍhibhūṭa, and Inḍra is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the hand, that which can be handled by it, Inḍra, the nādis, prāṇa vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The feet is aḍhyāṭma, that which is walked upon is adhibhūṭa, and Vishṇu (or Upenḍra) is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the feet, that which is walked upon, Vishṇu, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The anus is adhyāṭma, the excreta is aḍhibhūṭa, and Mṛṭyu is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves the anus, the excreta, Mṛṭyu, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“The genitals is aḍhyāṭma, the secretion is aḍhibhūṭa, and Prajāpaṭi is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the genitals, secretion, Prajāpaṭi, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
1 “Manas is aḍhyāṭma, the thinkable is aḍhibūṭa, and the moon is Aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in the manas, the thinkable, the moon, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“Buḍḍhi is aḍhyāṭma, the certainly knowable is aḍhibhūṭa, and Brahmā is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in buḍḍhi, the certainly knowable, Brahmā, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“Ahaṅkāra is aḍhyāṭma, that which is acted upon by ahaṅkāra is aḍhibhūṭa, and Ruḍra is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in ahaṅkāra, that which is acted upon by ahaṅkāra, Ruḍra, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākāś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“Chiṭṭa is aḍhyāṭma, that which is acted upon by chiṭṭa (producing fluctuation of thought) is aḍhibhūṭa, and Ksheṭrajña is aḍhiḍaivaṭa. The nādis bind them. He who moves in chiṭṭa, that which is acted upon by chiṭṭa, Ksheṭrajña, the nādis, prāṇa, vijñāna, ānanḍa, the ākaś of the heart, and within all else—That is Āṭmā. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow, or end.
“He is the knower of all, the Lord of all, the ruler of all, the one latent in all, the one worshipped for the happiness of all, but Himself not worshipping (or seeking) any happiness, the one worshipped by all, the Veḍas and other books and to which all this is food, but who does not become the food of another; moreover, the one who, as the eye, is the ordainer of all, the one who as annamaya is Bhūṭāṭmā; the one who as prāṇamaya is Inḍriyāṭmā, the one as manomaya is Saṅkalpāṭmā, the one who as vijñānamaya is Kālāṭmā, the one who as ānanḍamaya is Layāṭmā, is one and not dual. How can it be said to be mortal? How can it be said that there is not immortality in It? It is neither internal prajñā nor external prajñā nor both, nor Prajñānaghana; it is neither prajñā nor not-prajñā; it is neither known nor is it to know anything. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa; and thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
“At first there was not anything in the least. These creatures were born through no root, no support but the Divine Ḍeva, the one Nārāyaṇa.1 The eye and the visible are Nārāyaṇa; the ear and the audible are Nārāyaṇa; the tongue and the ‘tastable’ are Nārāyaṇa; the nose and the ‘smellable’ are Nārāyaṇa; the skin and the tangible are Nārāyaṇa; manas and that which is acted upon by it are Nārāyaṇa; buḍḍhi and that which is acted upon by it are Nārāyaṇa; ahaṅkāra and that which is acted upon by it are Nārāyaṇa; chiṭṭa and that which is acted upon by it are Nārāyaṇa; vāk and that which is spoken are Nārāyaṇa; the hand and that which is lifted are Nārāyaṇa; the leg and that which is walked upon are Nārāyaṇa; the anus and the excreted are Nārāyaṇa; the genitals and the enjoyment of pleasure are Nārāyaṇa. The originator and the ordainer as also the agent and the causer of changes, are the Divine Ḍeva Nārāyaṇa only. Āḍiṭyas, Ruḍras, Maruṭs, Vasus, Aśvins, the Ṛk, Yajus, and Sāma, Manṭras, Agni, clarified butter and oblation—all these are Nārāyaṇa. The origin and the combination are the Divine Ḍeva Nārāyaṇa only. Mother, father, brother, residence, asylum, friends and dependents are Nārāyaṇa only. The divine nādis known as virājā, suḍarśanā, jiṭā, saumyā, moghā, kumārā, amṛṭā, saṭyā, sumaḍhyamā, nāsīrā, śiśirā, surā, sūryā, and bhāsvaṭī (fourteen nādis in all), that which thunders, sings and rains, viz., Varuṇa, Aryamā (sun), Chanḍramas (moon), Kalā (part), Kavi (Śukra), the creator Brahmā and Prajāpaṭi, Inḍra, Kāla (or time) of days, half-days, Kalpa, the upper, and the directions—all these are Nārāyaṇa. That which was and will be is this Purusha only. Like the eye (which sees without any obstacle) the thing spread in the ākāś, the wise ever see this supreme seat of Vishṇu. Brāhmaṇas who are ever spiritually awake, praise in diverse ways and illuminate the supreme abode of Vishṇu. Thus is the exposition to the attaining of Nirvaṇa; thus is the teaching of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the teaching of the Veḍas.”
“Within the body, is the one eternal Aja (unborn), located in the cave (of the heart). Earth is His body. Though He moves in the earth, earth does not know Him. Waters are His body. Though He moves in the waters, waters do not know Him. Ṭejas is His body. Though He moves in ṭejas, ṭejas does not know Him. Vāyu is His body. Though He moves in vāyu, vāyu does not know Him. Ākāś is His body. Though He moves in ākāś, ākāś does not know Him. Manas is His body. Though He moves in manas, manas does not know Him. Buḍḍhi is His body. Though He moves in buḍḍhi, buḍdhi does not know Him. Ahaṅkāra is His body. Though He moves in ahaṅkāra, ahaṅkāra does not know Him. Chiṭṭa is His body. Though He moves in chiṭṭa, chiṭṭa does not know Him. Avyakṭa is His body. Though He moves in avyakṭa, avyakṭa does not know Him. Akshara is His body. Though He moves in akshara, akshara does not know Him. Mṛṭyu (death) is His body. Though He moves in Mṛṭyu, Mṛtyu does not know Him. Such an one is the Āṭmā within all creatures, the remover of all sins and the Divine Ḍeva, the one Nārāyaṇa.
“This knowledge was imparted (by Nārāyaṇa) to Apānṭaraṭama who in turn imparted it to Brahmā. Brahmā imparted it to Ghora-Aṅgiras. He imparted it to Raikva, who in turn imparted it to Rāma. Rāma imparted it to all creatures. This is the teaching of Nirvāṇa; this is the teaching of the Veḍas; yea, this is the teaching of the Veḍas.”
“The Āṭmā of all which is immaculate, is located within the cave in the body. Āṭmā which lives in the midst of the body filled with fat, flesh and phlegm in a seat very closely shut up with shining many-coloured walls resembling a Ganḍharva city and with the (subtle) essence going out of it (to other parts of the body), which seat may be likened to a plantain flower and is ever agitated like a water-bubble—this Āṭmā is of an unthinkable form, the Divine Ḍeva, associateless and pure, has ṭejas as its body, is of all forms, the Lord of all, the unthinkable and the bodiless, placed within the cave, immortal, shining, and bliss itself. He is a wise person who cognizes Āṭmā thus, and not one who does not do so.”
Once Raikva questioned Him (Lord) thus: “O Lord, in whom does everything disappear (or merge)?” He replied thus: “That which (or he who) disappears in the eye becomes the eye only; that which disappears in the visible becomes the visible only; that which disappears in the sun becomes sun only; that which disappears in Virāt becomes Virāt only; that which disappears in prāṇa becomes prāṇa only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in ānanḍa becomes ānanḍa only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the ear becomes ear itself; that which disappears in the audible becomes the audible only; that which disappears in ḍik (space) becomes ḍik only; that which disappears in suḍaraśana (discus) becomes suḍarśana only: that which disappears in apāna becomes apāna only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in ānanḍa become ānanḍa only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the nose becomes nose only; that which disappears in the odoriferous becomes odoriferous only; that which disappears in pṛṭhivī becomes pṛṭhivī only; that which disappears in jiṭam (victory) becomes victory only; that which disappears in vyāna becomes vyāna only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the mouth becomes the mouth only; that which disappears in the tasted becomes the tasted only; that which disappears in Varuṇa becomes Varuṇa only; that which disappears in soumya (moon or Mercury) becomes soumya only; that which disappears in uḍāna becomes uḍāna only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the skin becomes the skin only; that which disappears in touch becomes touch only; that which disappears in vāyu becomes vāyu only; that which disappears in cloud becomes cloud only; that which disappears in samāna becomes samāna only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in vāk becomes vāk only; that which disappears in speech becomes speech only; that which disappears in Agni becomes Agni only; that which disappears in kumārā becomes kumārā only; that which disappears in hostility becomes hostility itself; that which disappears in vijñāna become vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the hand becomes the hand only; that which disappears in that which is lifted by the hand becomes that which is lifted by the hand; that which disappears in Inḍra becomes Inḍra only; that which disappears in the nectar becomes the nectar only; that which disappears in mukhya becomes mukhya only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in blisss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain, that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the leg becomes the leg only; that which disappears in that which is walked upon becomes that which is walked upon; that which disappears in Vishṇu becomes Vishṇu only; that which disappears in saṭya becomes saṭya only; that which disappears in the suppression of the breath and voice becomes the suppression of the breath and voice; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the anus becomes the anus only; that which disappears in that which is excreted becomes that which is excreted; that which disappears in Mṛṭyu becomes Mṛṭyu only; that which disappears in spirituous liquor becomes spirituous liquor only; that which disappears in hurricane becomes hurricane only; that which disappears in vijñāna become vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in the genitals becomes the genitals only; that which disappears in that which is enjoyed becomes that which is enjoyed; that which disappears in that which is Prajāpaṭi becomes Prajāpaṭi only; that which disappears in nāsīnām becomes nāsīnām only; that which disappears in kurmira becomes kurmira only; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna only; that which disappears in bliss becomes bliss only; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya only—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in manas becomes manas itself; that which disappears in the thinkable becomes the thinkable itself; that which disappears in the moon becomes the moon itself; that which disappears in śiśu becomes śiśu itself; that which disappears in śyena becomes śyena itself; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna itself; that which disappears in ānanḍa becomes ānanḍa itself; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya itself—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in buḍḍhi becomes buḍḍhi itself; that which disappears in the certainly knowable becomes the certainly knowable itself; that which disappears in Brahmā becomes Brahmā himself; that which disappears in Kṛshṇa becomes Kṛshṇa himself; that which disappears in Sūrya becomes Sūrya itself; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna itself; that which disappears in ānanḍa becomes ānanḍa itself; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya itself—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in ahaṅkāra becomes ahaṅkāra itself; that which disappears in that which is acted upon by ahaṅkāra becomes that itself; that which disappears in Ruḍra becomes Ruḍra himself; that which disappears in asura becomes asura itself; that which disappears in śveṭa becomes śveṭa itself; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna itself; that which disappears in ānanḍa becomes ānanḍa itself; that which disappears in ṭurya becomes ṭurya itself—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
Then He continued: “That which disappears in chiṭṭa becomes chiṭṭa itself; that which disappears in that which is acted upon by chiṭṭa becomes that itself; that which disappears in Ksheṭrajña becomes Ksheṭrajña itself; that which disappears in bhāsvaṭī becomes bhāsvaṭī itself; that whch disappears in nāga becomes nāga itself; that which disappears in vijñāna becomes vijñāna itself; that which disappears in ānanḍa becomes ānanḍa itself; that which disappears in ṭurya becoms ṭurya itself—(all these) attain that which is deathless, fearless, sorrowless, endless, and seedless.”
“He who knows this as seedless in this manner becomes himself seedless. He is neither born, nor dies, nor is deluded, nor split, nor burnt, nor cut—yea, he does not feel angry, and hence he is said to be Āṭmā, capable of burning all. Such an Āṭmā is neither attained by a hundred sayings, nor by (the reading of) many scriptures, nor by mere intelligence, nor by hearing from others, nor by understanding, nor by Veḍas, nor by scriptures, nor by severe ṭapas, nor sāṅkhya, nor yoga, nor observances of the orders of the life, nor by any other means (than the following). Devoted Brāhmaṇas who repeat the Veḍas according to rules and who worship Him with praise attain Him. He who is quiescent, self-controlled, indifferent to worldly objects and resigned, having centred his mind on Āṭmā sees Aṭmā and becomes one with the Āṭmā of all, as also he who knows this.”
Then Raikva asked Him: “O Lord, where do all things rest? He replied: “In the worlds of Rasāṭala (or nether worlds).”
“In what are these (Rasāṭala worlds) woven warp and woof?” He replied: “In the worlds of Bhūḥ.”
“In what are these (worlds of Bhūḥ) woven warp and woof?” He replied: “In the worlds of Bhuvaḥ.”
“In what are these (Bhuvaḥ worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the worlds of Suvaḥ.”
“In what are these (Suvaḥ worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the worlds of Mahaḥ.”
“In what are these (Mahaḥ worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the Janaloka.”
“In what are these (Jana worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the Ṭapoloka.”
“In what are these (Ṭapolokas) woven warp and woof?” “In the Saṭya loka.”
“In what are these (Saṭya worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the Prajāpaṭi loka.”
“In what are these (Prajāpaṭi worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the Brahmaloka.”
“In what are these (Brahma worlds) woven warp and woof?” “In the Sarvaloka.”
“In what are these (Sarva lokas) woven warp and woof?” “In Āṭmā—which is Brahman, like beads (in a rosary) warp-wise and woof-wise.”
Then he said: “All these rest in Āṭmā, and he who knows this, becomes Āṭmā itself. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa. Thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
Again Raikva asked Him: “O Lord! what is the seat of Āṭmā which is replete with vijñāna? and how does it leave the body and pervade the universe?” To this He replied: “There is a mass of red flesh in the middle of the heart. In it, there is a lotus called ḍahara. It buds forth in many petals like a water-lily. In the middle of it is an ocean (samuḍra).1 In its midst is a koka2 (bird). In it there are four nādis. They are ramā, aramā, Ichchhā and punarbhava. Of these, ramā leads a man of virtue to a happy world. Aramā leads one of sins into the world of sins. (Passing) through Ichchhā (nādi), one gets whatever he remembers. Through punarbhava, he splits open the sheaths; after splitting open the sheaths, he splits open the skull of the head; then he splits open pṛṭhivī; then āpas; then ṭejas; then vāyu; then ākāś. Then he splits open manas; then bhūṭāḍi; then mahaṭ; then avyakṭa; then akshara; then he splits open mṛṭyu and mṛṭyu becomes one with the supreme God. Beyond this, there is neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, nor Saṭ-asaṭ. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa; and thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
“Anna (food) came from Nārāyaṇa. It was first cooked in Brahmaloka in the Mahā-samvarṭaka fire. Again it was cooked in the sun; again it was cooked in kravyāḍi (lit., the fire that burns raw flesh, etc.); again it was cooked in jwālakīla (the flaming kīla); then it became pure and not stale (or fresh). One should eat whatever has fallen to his lot and without begging; one should never beg any (food).”
“The wise man should conduct himself like a lad, with the nature of a child, without company, blameless, silent and wise and without exercising any authority. This description of Kaivalya is stated by Prajāpaṭi. Having found with certitude the supreme seat, one should dwell under a tree with torn cloths, unaccompanied, single and engaged in samāḍhi. He should be longing after the attaining of Āṭmā and having attained this object, he is desireless, his desires have decayed. He fears none, though he finds the cause of death in such as elephants, lions, gadflies, musquitoes, ichneuma, serpents, Yakshas, Rākshasas, and Ganḍharvas. He will stand like a tree. Though cut down, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand (or remain) like a lotus. Though pierced, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand like ākāś; though struck, he will neither get angry nor tremble. He will stand by Saṭya (truth), since Āṭmā is Saṭya.
“Pṛṭhivī is the heart (or centre) of all odours; āpas is the heart of all tastes; ṭejas is the heart of all forms; vāyu is the heart of all touch; ākāś is the heart of all sounds; avyakṭa is the heart of gīṭās (or sounds); mṛṭyu is the heart of all Saṭṭvas; and mṛṭyu becomes one with the Supreme. And beyond Him, there is neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, nor Saṭ-asaṭ. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa; thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
“Pṛṭhivi is the food, and āpas is the eater; āpas is the food, and jyoṭis (or fire) is the eater; jyoṭis is the food, and vāyu is the eater; vāyu is the food, and ākāś is the eater; and akāś is the food and the inḍriyas (organs) are the eaters; inḍriyas are the food and manas is the eater; manas is the food, and buḍḍhi is the eater; buḍḍhi is the food, and avyakṭa is the eater; avyakṭa is the food, and akshara is the eater; akshara is the food, and mṛṭyu is the eater; and mṛṭyu becomes one with the Supreme. Beyond Him, there is neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, nor Saṭ-asaṭ. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa, and thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
Again Raikva asked: “O Lord, when this Vijñāna-ghana goes out (of the body or the universe), what does it burn and how?” To which He replied: “When it goes away, it burns prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, uḍāna, samāna, vairambha, mukhya, anṭaryāma, prabhañjana, kumāra, śyena, kṛshṇa, śveṭa, and nāga. Then it burns pṛṭhivī, āpas, ṭejas, vāyu, and ākāś; then it burns the waking, the dreaming, the dreamless sleeping and the fourth states as well as the maharlokas and worlds higher; then it burns the lokāloka (the highest world forming a limit to the other worlds). Then it burns ḍharma and aḍharma. Then it burns that which is beyond, is sunless, limitless, and worldless. Then it burns mahaṭ; it burns avyakṭa; it burns akshara; it burns mṛṭyu; and mṛṭyu becomes one with the great Lord. Beyond Him, there is neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, nor Saṭ-asaṭ. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa, and thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
“This Subāla-Bīja-Brahma-Upanishaḍ should neither be given out nor taught to one who has not controlled his passions, who has no sons, who has not gone to a Guru, and having become his disciple has not resided with him for a year, and whose family and conduct are not known. These doctrines should be taught to him who has supreme devotion to the Lord and as much to his Guru. Then these truths shine in his great soul. Thus is the exposition of Nirvāṇa; thus is the exposition of the Veḍas; yea, thus is the exposition of the Veḍas.”
ṬEJOBINḌU1 -UPANISHAḌ OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
Param-Ḍhyāna (the supreme meditation) should be upon ṭejobinḍu, which is the Āṭmā of the universe, which is seated in the heart, which is of the size of an atom, which pertains to Śiva, which is quiescent and which is gross and subtle, as also above these qualities. That alone should be the ḍhyāna of the Munis as well as of men, which is full of pains, which is difficult to meditate on, which is difficult to perceive, which is the emancipated one, which is decayless and which is difficult to attain. One whose food is moderate, whose anger has been controlled, who has given up all love for society, who has subdued his passions, who has overcome all pairs (heat and cold etc.), who has given up his egoism, who does not bless anyone nor take anything from others, and also who goes where they naturally ought not to go, and naturally would not go where they like to go—such persons also obtain three2 in the face. Hamsa is said to have three seats. Therefore know it is the greatest of mysteries, without sleep and without support. It is very subtle, of the form of Soma, and is the supreme seat of Vishṇu. That seat has three faces, three guṇas and three ḍhāṭus, and is formless, motionless, changeless, sizeless, and supportless. That seat is without upāḍhi, and is above the reach of speech and mind. It is Svabhāva (Self or nature) reachable only by bhāva (being). The indestructible seat is associateless, without bliss, beyond mind, difficult to perceive, emancipated and changeless. It should be meditated upon as the liberated, the eternal, the permanent and the indestructible. It is Brahman, is aḍhyāṭma (or the deity presiding as Āṭmā) and is the highest seat of Vishṇu. It is inconceivable, of the nature of Chiḍāṭmā and above the ākāś, is void and non-void, and beyond the void, and is abiding in the heart. There is (in It) neither meditation nor meditator, nor the meditated, nor the non-meditated. It is not the universe. It is the highest space; it is neither supreme nor above the supreme. It is inconceivable, unknowable, non-truth, and not the highest. It is realised by the Munis, but the Ḍevas do not know the supreme One. Avarice, delusion, fear, pride, passion, anger, sin, heat, cold, hunger, thirst, thought and fancy—(all these do not exist in It). (In It) there is no pride of (belonging to) the Brāhmaṇa caste, nor is there the collection of the knot of salvation. (In It) there is no fear, no happiness, no pains, neither fame nor disgrace. That which is without these states is the supreme Brahman.
Yama1 (forbearance), niyama (religious observance), ṭyāga (renunciation), mouna (silence) according to time and place, āsana (posture), mūlabanḍha, seeing all bodies as equal, the position of the eye, prāṇa-samyamana (control of breath), praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), ḍhāraṇa, āṭma-ḍhyāna and samāḍhi—these are spoken of as the parts (of yoga) in order. That is called yama in which one controls all his organs (of sense and actions) through the vijñāna that all is Brahman; this should be practised often and often. Niyama, in which there is the supreme bliss enjoyed through the flowing (or inclination) of the mind towards things of the same (spiritual) kind, (viz., Brahman) and the abandoning of things differing from one another is practised by the sages as a rule. In ṭyāga (renunciation), one abandons the manifestations (or objects) of the universe through the cognition of Āṭmā that is Saṭ and Chiṭ. This is practised by the great and is the giver of immediate salvation. Mouna (the silence), in which, without reaching That, speech returns along with mind, is fit to be attained by the Yogins and should be ever worshipped by the ignorant (even). How is it possible to speak of “That”, from which speech returns? How should it be described as the universe as there is no word to describe it? It is “That” which is (really) called silence, and which is naturally understood (as such). There is silence in children, but with words (latent); whereas the knowers of Brahman have it (silence) but without words. That should be known as “the lonely seat” in which there is no man in the beginning, middle, or end, and through which all this (universe) is fully pervaded. The illusion of Brahmā and all other beings takes place within one twinkling (of His eye). That should be known as āsana (posture), in which one has with ease and without fatigue (uninterrupted) meditation of Brahman; that is described by the word kāla (time), that is endless bliss and that is secondless. Everything else is the destroyer of happiness. That is called siḍḍhāsana (siḍḍha-posture) in which the siḍḍhas (psychical personages) have succeeded in realising the endless One as the support of the universe containing all the elements, etc. That is called the mūlabanḍha, which is the Mūla (root) of all worlds, and through which the root Chiṭṭa is (banḍha) bound. It should be always practised by the Rājayogins.
One after having known the equality of the aṅgas (or parts of yoga) point to one and the same Brahman, should be absorbed in that equal (or uniform) Brahman; if not, there is not that equality (attained). Then like a dry tree, there is straightness (or uniformity throughout). Making one’s vision full of spiritual wisdom, one should look upon the world as full of Brahman. That vision is very noble. It is (generally) aimed at the tip of the nose; but it should be directed towards that seat (of Brahman) wherein the cessation of seer, the seen, and sight will take place, and not towards the tip of the nose. That is called prāṇāyāma (the control of breath), in which there is the control of the modifications (of mind) through the cognition of Brahman in all the states of chiṭṭa, and others. The checking of (the conception of the reality of) the universe, is said to be expiration. The conception of “I am Brahman” is inspiration. The holding on (long) to this conception without agitation is cessation of breath. Such is the practice of the enlightened. The ignorant close their nose. That should be known as praṭyāhāra, through which one sees Āṭmā (even) in the objects of sense, and pleases chiṭṭa through manas. It should be practised often and often. Through seeing Brahman wherever the mind goes, the ḍhāraṇa of the mind is obtained. Ḍhāraṇā is thought of highly by the wise. By ḍhāraṇā is meant that state where one indulges in the good thought, “I am Brahman alone,” and is without any support. This ḍhyāna is the giver of supreme bliss. Being first in a state of changelessness, and then thoroughly forgetting (even) that state owing to the cognition of the (true) nature of Brahman—this is called samāḍhi. This kind of bliss should be practised (or enjoyed) by a wise person till his cognition itself united in a moment with the state of praṭyag (Āṭmā). Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siḍḍha, and is without any aid (outside himself). Then he will attain a state, inexpressible and unthinkable.
When samāḍhi is practised, the following obstacles arise with great force—absence of right inquiry, laziness, inclination to enjoyment, absorption (in material object), ṭamas, distraction, impatience, sweat, and absent-mindedness. All these obstacles should be overcome by inquirers into Brahman. Through bhāva-vṛṭṭis (worldly thoughts), one gets into them. Through śūnya-vṛṭṭis (void or empty thoughts), one gets into them. But through the vṛṭṭis of Brahman, one gets fullness. Therefore one should develop fullness through this means (of Brahman). He who abandons this vṛṭṭi of Brahman, which is very purifying and supreme—that man lives in vain like a beast. But he who understands this vṛṭṭi (of Brahman), and having understood it makes advances in it, becomes a good and blessed person, deserving to be worshipped by the three worlds. Those who are greatly developed through the ripening (of their past karmas) attain the state of Brahman; others are simply reciters of words. Those who are clever in arguments about Brahman, but are without the action pertaining to Brahman, and who are greatly attached to the world—those certainly are born again and again (in this world) through their ajñāna; (the former) never remain, even for half a moment—without the vṛṭṭi of Brahman, like Brahmā and others, Sanaka,1 etc., Śuka and others. When a cause is subject to changes, it (as an effect) must also have its cause. When the cause ceases to exist in truth, the effect perishes through right discrimination. Then that substance (or principle) which is beyond the scope of words, remains pure. After that, vṛṭṭi jñāna arises in their purified mind; through meditation with transcendental energy, there arises a firm certitude. After reducing the visible into the invisible state, one should see everything as Brahman. The wise should ever stay in bliss with their understanding full of the essence of Chiṭ. Thus ends the first chapter of Ṭejobinḍu.
Then the Kumāra2 asked Śiva: “Please explain to me the nature of Chinmāṭra, that is the partless non-dual essence.” The great Śiva replied: “The partless non-dual essence is the visible. It is the world, it is the existence, it is the Self, it is mantra, it is action, it is spiritual wisdom, it is water. It is the earth, it is ākāś, it is the books, it is the three Veḍas, it is the Brahman, it is the religious vow, it is Jīva, it is Aja (the unborn), it is Brahmā, it is Vishṇu, it is Ruḍra; it is I, it is Āṭmā, it is the Guru. It is the aim, it is sacrifice, it is the body, it is manas, it is chiṭṭa, it is happiness, it is viḍyā; it is the undifferentiated, it is the eternal, it is the supreme, it is everything. O six-faced one, different from It there is nothing. None, none but It; It is I. It is gross, it is subtle, it is knowable, it is thou; it is the mysterious; it is the knower; it is existence, it is mother, it is father, it is brother, it is husband, it is Sūṭra (Āṭmā), it is Virāt. It is the body, it is the head, it is the internal, it is the external, it is full, it is nectar, it is goṭra (clan), it is gṛha (the house), it is the preservable, it is the moon, it is the stars, it is the sun, it is the holy seat. It is forgiveness, it is patience, it is the guṇas, it is the witness. It is a friend, it is a relative, it is an ally, it is the king, town, kingdom and subjects. It is Om, japa, meditation, the seat, the one worthy to be taken (in), the heart, the Jyoṭis, Swarga (heaven) and Self.”
“All the partless and non-dual essence should be regarded as Chinmāṭra. Chinmāṭra alone is the Absolute Consciousness; and this partless non-dual essence alone is the (real) essence. All having consciousness alone except those having changes, are Chinmāṭra. All this is Chinmāṭra. He is Chinmaya; the state of Āṭmā is known as Chinmāṭra and the partless non-dual essence. The whole world is Chinmāṭra. Your state and my state are Chinmāṭra. Ākāś, earth, water, vāyu, agni, Brahmā, Vishṇu, Śiva and all else that exist or do not, are Chinmāṭra. That which is the partless non-dual essence is Chinmāṭra. All the past, present, and future are Chinmāṭra. Substance and time are Chinmāṭra. Knowledge and the knowable are Chinmāṭra. The knower is Chinmāṭra. Everything is Chinmāṭra. Every speech is Chinmāṭra. Whatever else is Chinmāṭra. Asaṭ and Saṭ are Chinmāṭra. The beginning and end are Chinmāṭra; that which is in the beginning and end is Chinmāṭra ever. The Guru and the disciple are Chinmāṭra. If the seer and the seen are Chinmāṭra, then they are always Chinmaya. All things wondrous are Chinmāṭra. The (gross) body is Chinmāṭra, as also the subtle and causal bodies. There is nothing beyond Chinmāṭra. I and thou are Chinmāṭra. Form and non-form are Chinmāṭra. Virtue and vice are Chinmāṭra. The body is a symbol of Chinmāṭra. Saṅkalpa, knowing, manṭra, and others, the gods invoked in manṭras, the gods presiding over the eight quarters, the phenomenal and the supreme Brahman are nothing but Chinmāṭra. There is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Māyā is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Pūjā (worship) is nothing without Chinmāṭra. Meditation, truth, sheaths and others, the (eight) vasus, silence, non-silence, and indifference to objects—are nothing without Chinmāṭra. Everything is from Chinmāṭra. Whatever is seen and however seen—it is Chinmāṭra so far. Whatever exists and however distant, is Chinmāṭra. Whatever elements exist, whatever is perceived, and whatever is veḍānṭa—all these are Chinmāṭra. Without Chinmāṭra, there is no motion, no Moksha and no goal aimed at. Everything is Chinmāṭra. Brahman that is the partless non-dual essence is known to be nothing but Chinmāṭra. Thou, O Lord, art the partless non-dual essence (stated) in the books, in me, in Thee, and in the ruler. He who thus perceives ‘I’ as of one homogeneity (pervading everywhere) will at once be emancipated through this spiritual wisdom. He is his own Guru with this profound spiritual wisdom. Thus ends the second chapter of Ṭejobinḍu.”
The Kumāra addressed his father (again): “Please explain to me the realisation of Āṭmā.” To which the great Śiva said: “I am of the nature of the Parabrahman. I am the supreme bliss. I am solely of the nature of divine wisdom. I am the sole supreme, the sole quiescence, the sole Chinmaya, the sole unconditioned, the sole permanent and the sole Saṭṭva. I am the ‘I’ that has given up ‘I’. I am one that is without anything. I am full of Chiḍākāś. I am the sole fourth one. I am the sole one above the fourth (state of ṭurya). I am of the nature of (pure) consciousness. I am ever of the nature of the bliss-consciousness. I am of the nature of the non-dual. I am ever of a pure nature, solely of the nature of divine wisdom, of the nature of happiness, without fancies, desires or diseases, of the nature of bliss, without changes or differentiations, and of the nature of the eternal one essence and Chinmāṭra. My real nature is indescribable, of endless bliss, the bliss above Saṭ and Chiṭ and the interior of the interior. I am beyond reach of manas and speech. I am of the nature of Āṭmic bliss, true bliss and one who plays with (my) Āṭmā. I am Āṭmā and Saḍāśiva. My nature is Āṭmic spiritual effulgence. I am the essence of the jyoṭis of Āṭmā. I am without beginning, middle, or end. I am like the sky. I am solely Saṭ, Ananḍa, and Chiṭ which is unconditioned and pure. I am the Sachchiḍānanḍa that is eternal, enlightened and pure. I am ever of the nature of the eternal Śesha (serpent-time). I am ever beyond all. My nature is beyond form. My form is supreme ākāś. My nature is of the bliss of earth. I am ever without speech. My nature is the all-seat (foundation of all). I am ever replete with consciousness, without the attachment of body, without thought, without the modifications of chiṭṭa, the sole essence of Chiḍāṭma, beyond the visibility of all and of the form of vision. My nature is ever full. I am ever fully contented, the all, and Brahman, and the very consciousness; I am ‘I’. My nature is of the earth. I am the great Āṭmā and the supreme of the supreme; I appear sometimes as different from myself; sometimes as possessing a body, sometimes as a pupil and sometimes as the basis of the worlds. I am beyond the three periods of time, am worshipped by the Veḍas, am determined by the sciences and am fixed in the chiṭṭa. There is nothing left out by me, neither the earth nor any other objects here. Know that there is nothing which is out of myself. I am Brahmā, a Siḍḍha, the eternally pure, non-dual one, Brahman, without old age or death. I shine by myself; I am my own Āṭmā, my own goal, enjoy myself, play in myself, have my own spiritual effulgence, am my own greatness, and am used to play in my own Āṭmā, look on my own Āṭmā and am in myself happily seated. I have my own Āṭmā as the residue, stay in my own consciousness, and play happily in the kingdom of my own Āṭmā. Sitting on the real throne of my own Āṭmā, I think of nothing else but my own Āṭmā. I am Chiḍrūpa alone, Brahman alone, Sachchiḍānanḍa, the secondless, the one replete with bliss and the sole Brahman and ever without anything, have the bliss of my own Āṭmā, the unconditioned bliss, and am always Āṭmā-Ākāś. I alone am in the heart like Chiḍāḍiṭya (the consciousness-sun). I am content in my own Āṭmā, have no form, or no decay, am without the number one, have the nature of an unconditioned and emancipated one, and I am subtler than ākāś; I am without the existence of beginning or end, of the nature of the all-illuminating, the bliss greater than the great, of the sole nature of Saṭ, of the nature of pure Moksha, of the nature of truth and bliss, full of spiritual wisdom and bliss, of the nature of wisdom alone, and of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa. All this is Brahman alone. There is none other than Brahman and that is ‘I’.
“I am Brahman that is Saṭ, and bliss, and the ancient. The word ‘thou’ and the word ‘that’ are not different from me. I am of the nature of consciousness. I am alone the great Śiva. I am beyond the nature of existence. I am of the nature of happiness. As there is nothing that can witness me, I am without the state of witness. Being purely of the nature of Brahman, I am the eternal Āṭmā. I alone am the Āḍiśesha (the primeval Śesha).1 I alone am the Śesha. I am without name and form, of the nature of bliss, of the nature of being unperceivable by the senses, and of the nature of all beings; I have neither bondage nor salvation. I am of the form of eternal bliss. I am the primeval consciousness alone, the partless and non-dual essence, beyond reach of speech and mind, of the nature of bliss everywhere, of the nature of fullness everywhere, of the nature of earthly bliss, of the nature of contentment everywhere, the supreme nectary essence, and the one and secondless Saṭ, (viz.,) Brahman. There is no doubt of it. I am of the nature of all-void. I am the one that is given out by the Veḍas. I am of the nature of the emancipated and emancipation, of Nirvāṇic bliss, of truth and wisdom, of Saṭ alone and bliss, of the one beyond the fourth, of one without fancy, and ever of the nature of Aja (the unborn). I am without passion or faults. I am the pure, the enlightened, the eternal, the all-pervading and of the nature of the significance of Om, of the spotless, and of Chiṭ. I am neither existing nor non-existing. I am not of the nature of anything. I am of the nature of the actionless. I am without parts. I have no semblance, no manas, no sense, no buḍḍhi, no change, none of the three bodies, neither the waking, dreaming, or dreamless sleeping states. I am neither of the nature of the three pains nor of the three desires. I have neither śravaṇa nor manana in Chiḍāṭma in order to attain salvation. There is nothing like me or unlike me. There is nothing within me. I have none of the three bodies.
“The nature of manas is unreal, the nature of buḍḍhi is unreal, the nature of aham (the ‘I’) is unreal; but I am the unconditioned, the permanent and the unborn. The three bodies are unreal, the three periods of time are unreal, the three guṇas are unreal, but I am of the nature of the Real and the pure. That which is heard is unreal, all the Vedas are unreal, the Śāsṭras are unreal, but I am the Real and of the nature of Chiṭ. The Mūrṭis (Brahmā, Vishṇu, and Ruḍra having limitation) are unreal, all the creation is unreal, all the ṭaṭṭvas are unreal, but know that I am the great Śaḍāśiva. The master and the disciple are unreal, the manṭra of the Guru is unreal, that which is seen is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Whatever is thought of is unreal, whatever is lawful is unreal, whatever is beneficial is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Know the Purusha (ego) to be unreal, know the enjoyments to be unreal, know things seen and heard are unreal as also the one woven warp-wise and woof-wise, viz., this universe; cause and non-cause are unreal, things lost or obtained are unreal. Pains and happiness are unreal, all and non-all are unreal, gain and loss are unreal, victory and defeat are unreal. All the sound, all the touch, all the forms, all the taste, all the smell, and all ajñāna are unreal. Everything is always unreal—the mundane existence is unreal—all the guṇas are unreal. I am of the nature of Saṭ.
“One should cognize his own Āṭmā alone. One should always practise the manṭra of his Āṭmā. The manṭra (Ahambrahmāsmi) ‘I am Brahman’ removes all the sins of sight, destroys all other manṭras, destroys all the sins of body and birth, the noose of Yama, the pains of duality, the thought of difference, the pains of thought, the disease of buḍḍhi, the bondage of chiṭṭa, all diseases, all griefs and passions instantaneously, the power of anger, the modifications of chiṭṭa, saṅkalpa, crores of sins, all actions and the ajñāna of Āṭmā. The manṭra ‘I am Brahman’ gives indescribable bliss, gives the state of ajada (the non-inertness or the undecaying) and kills the demon of non-Āṭmā. The thunderbolt ‘I am Brahman’ clears all the hill of not-Āṭmā. The wheel ‘I am Brahman’ destroys the asuras of not-Āṭmā. The manṭra ‘I am Brahman’ will relieve all (persons). The manṭra ‘I am Brahman’ gives spiritual wisdom and bliss. There are seven crores of great manṭras and there are vraṭas (vows) of (or yielding) hundred crores of births. Having given up all other manṭras, one should ever practise this manṭra. He obtains at once salvation, and there is not even a particle of doubt about it. Thus ends the third chapter of the Ṭejobinḍu-Upanishaḍ.”
The Kumāra asked the great Lord: “Please explain to me the nature of Jīvanmukṭi (embodied salvation) and viḍehamukṭi (disembodied salvation).” To which the great Śiva replied: “I am Chiḍāṭmā. I am Para-Āṭmā. I am the Nirguṇa, greater than the great. One who will simply stay in Āṭmā is called a Jīvanmukṭa. He who realises: ‘I am beyond the three bodies, I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman,’ is said to be a Jīvanmukṭa. He is said to be a Jīvanmukṭa, who realises: ‘I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss, and I have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude “I am Brahman” only’. He is said to be a Jīvanmukṭa who has not at all got the ‘I’ in myself, but who stays in Chinmāṭra (absolute consciousness) alone, whose interior is consciousness alone, who is only of the nature of Chinmāṭra, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the all-full, who has Āṭmā left over in all, who is devoted to bliss, who is undifferentiated, who is all-full of the nature of consciousness, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of pure consciousness, who has given up all affinities (for objects), who has unconditioned bliss, whose Āṭmā is tranquil, who has got no other thought (than Itself), and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything. He is said to be a Jīvanmukṭa who realises: ‘I have no chiṭṭa, no buḍḍhi, no ahaṅkāra, no sense, no body at any time, no prāṇas, no Māyā, no passion and no anger, I am the great, I have nothing of these objects or of the world, and I have no sin, no characteristics, no eye, no manas, no ear, no nose, no tongue, no hand, no waking, no dreaming, or causal state in the least or the fourth state.’ He is said to be a Jīvanmukṭa, who realises: ‘All this is not mine, I have no time, no space, no object, no thought, no snāna (bathing), no sanḍhyās (junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, no Jīva, not even the three worlds, no salvation, no duality, no Veḍas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no knowledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, no Brahmā, no Vishṇu, no Ruḍra, no moon, no earth, no water, no vāyu, no ākāś, no agni, no clan, no lakshya (object aimed at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, no manas, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be gone (or attained) to, nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no yoga, no absorption, no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither aḍhyāropa (illusory attribution) nor apavāḍa (withdrawal of that conception) no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, none of the seven ḍhāṭus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old age nor youth nor manhood; but I am certainly Brahman. “I am certainly Brahman. I am Chiṭ, I am Chiṭ”.’ He is said to be a Jivanmukṭa who cognizes: ‘I am Brahman alone, I am Chiṭ alone, I am the supreme.’ No doubt need be entertained about this; ‘I am Hamsa itself, I remain of my own will, I can see myself through myself, I reign happy in the kingdom of Āṭmā and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Āṭmā.’ He is a Jīvanmukṭa who is himself, the foremost and the one undaunted person who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self.
“He is a Viḍehamukṭa who has become Brahman, whose Āṭmā has attained quiescence, who is of the nature of Brāhmic bliss, who is happy, who is of a pure nature, and who is a great mouni (observer of silence). He is a Viḍehamukṭa who remains in Chinmāṭra alone without (even) thinking thus: ‘I am all Āṭma, the Āṭma that is equal (or the same) in all, the pure, without one, the non-dual, the all, the self only, the birthless and the deathless—I am myself the undecaying Āṭma that is the object aimed at, the sporting, the silent, the blissful, the beloved and the bondless salvation—I am Brahman alone—I am Chiṭ alone.’ He is a Viḍehamukṭa who having abandoned the thought: ‘I alone am the Brahman’ is filled with bliss. He is a Viḍehamukṭa who having given up the certainty of the existence or non-existence of all objects is pure Chiḍānanḍa (the consciousnessbliss), who having abandoned (the thought): ‘I am Brahman’ (or) ‘I am not Brahman’ does not mingle his Āṭmā with anything, anywhere or at any time, who is ever silent with the silence of Saṭya, who does nothing, who has gone beyond guṇas, whose Āṭmā has become the All, the great, and the purifier of the elements, who does not cognize the change of time, matter, place, himself or other differences, who does not see (the difference of) ‘I,’ ‘thou,’ ‘this’ or ‘that,’ who being of the nature of time is yet without it, whose Āṭmā is void, subtle and universal, but yet without (them), whose Āṭmā is divine and yet without Ḍevas, whose Āṭmā is measurable and yet without measure, whose Āṭmā is without inertness and within every one, whose Āṭmā is devoid of any saṇkalpa, who thinks always: ‘I am Chinmāṭra, I am simply Paramāṭman, I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom, I am only of the nature of Saṭ, I am afraid of nothing in this world,’ and who is without the conception of Ḍevas, Veḍas and sciences, ‘All this is consciousness, etc.,’ and regards all as void. He is a Viḍehamukṭa who has realised himself to be Chaiṭanya alone, who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden of his own Āṭmā, whose Āṭmā is of an illimitable nature, who is without the conception of the small and the great, and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss. He is a Viḍehamukṭa whose Āṭmā is nameless and formless, who is the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss, and of the nature of the state beyond ṭurya, who is neither auspicious nor inauspicious, who has yoga as his Āṭmā, whose Āṭmā is associated with yoga, who is free from bondage or freedom, without guṇa or non-guṇa, without space, time, etc., without the witnessable and the witness, without the small or the great, and without the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the nature of Brahman, but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his own nature, who finds bliss in himself, whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind, and whose thought is beyond the beyond. He is said to be a Viḍehamukṭa who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of chiṭṭa, who illumines such modifications, and whose Āṭmā is without any modifications at all. In that case, he is neither embodied nor disembodied. If such a thought is entertained (even), for a moment, then he is surrounded (in thought) by all. He is a Viḍehamukṭa whose external Āṭmā invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highest veḍānṭa, who drinks of the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine, who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who is immersed in that juice, who has the beneficent worship of the Brāhmic bliss, who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who realises Brāhmic bliss, who cognizes the Śiva bliss in Brāhmic bliss, who has the effulgence of the essence of Brāhmic bliss, who has become one with it, who lives in the household of Brāhmic bliss, has mounted the car of Brāhmic bliss, who has an imponderable Chiṭ being one with it, who is supporting (all), being full of it, who associates with me having it, who stays in Āṭmā having that bliss and who thinks: ‘All this is of the nature of Āṭmā, there is nothing else beside Āṭmā, all is Āṭmā, I am Āṭmā, the great Āṭmā, the supreme Āṭmā, and Āṭmā of the form of bliss.’ He who thinks: ‘My nature is full, I am the great Āṭmā, I am the all-contented and the permanent Āṭmā. I am the Āṭmā pervading the heart of all, which is not stained by anything, but which has no Āṭmā; I am the Āṭmā whose nature is changeless, I am the quiescent Āṭmā; and I am the many Āṭmā.’ He who does not think this is Jīvāṭmā and that is Paramāṭmā, whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated, but without emancipation or bondage, whose Aṭmā is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one, but without duality and non-duality; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the All and the non-All, but without them; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed, but without it; and who is devoid of any saṇkalpa—such a man is a Viḍehamukṭa. He whose Āṭmā is partless, stainless, enlightened, Purusha, without bliss, etc., of the nature of nectar, of the nature of the three periods of time, but without them; whose Āṭmā is entire and non-measurable, being subject to proof though without proof; whose Āṭmā is the eternal and the witness, but without eternality and witness; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of the secondless, who is the self-shining one without a second, whose Āṭmā cannot be measured by viḍyā and aviḍyā but without them; whose Āṭmā is without conditionedness or unconditionedness, who is without this or the higher worlds, whose Āṭmā is without the six things beginning with śama, who is without the qualifications of the aspirant after salvation, whose Āṭmā is without gross, subtle, causal, and the fourth bodies, and without the anna, prāṇa, manas, and vijñāna sheaths; whose Āṭmā is of the nature of ānanḍa (bliss) sheath, but without five sheaths; whose Aṭmā is of the nature of nirvikalpa, is devoid of saṇkalpa, without the characteristics of the visible or the audible, and of the nature of void, owing to unceasing samāḍhi, who is without beginning, middle, or end; whose Āṭmā is devoid of the word Prajñāna, who is without the idea ‘I am Brahman,’ whose Āṭmā is devoid (of the thought) of ‘thou art’, who is without the thought ‘this is Āṭmā’, whose Āṭmā is devoid of that which is described by Om, who is above the reach of any speech or the three states, and is the indestructible and the Chiḍāṭmā, whose Aṭmā is not the one which can be known by Āṭmā and whose Āṭmā has neither light nor darkness. Such a personage is a Viḍehamukṭa. Look only upon Āṭmā; know It as your own. Enjoy your Āṭmā yourself, and stay in peace. O six-faced one, be content in your own Āṭmā, be wandering in your own Āṭmā, and be enjoying your own Āṭmā. Then you will attain Viḍehamukṭi.”
The Sage named Niḍāgha addressed the venerable Ṛbhu: “O Lord please explain to me the discrimination of Āṭmā from non-Āṭmā.” The Sage replied thus:
“The furthest limit of all vāk (speech) is Brahman; the furthest limit to all thoughts is the Guru.1 That which is of the nature of all causes and effects but yet without them, that which is without saṅkalpa, of the nature of all bliss and the auspicious, that which is the great one of the nature of bliss, that which illuminates all luminaries and that which is full of the bliss of nāḍa (spiritual sound), without any enjoyment and contemplation and beyond nāḍas and kalās (parts)—that is Āṭmā, that is the ‘I’, the indestructible. Being devoid of all the difference of Āṭmā and non-Āṭmā, of heterogeneity and homogeneity, and of quiescence and non-quiescence—that is the one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. Being remote from the conception of Mahā-vakyārṭha (i. e., the meaning of Maha-vākyas) as well of ‘I am Brahman,’ being devoid of or without the conception of the word and the meaning, and being devoid of the conception of the destructible and indestructible—that is the one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. Being without the conception ‘I am the partless non-dual essence’ or ‘I am the blissful,’ and being of the nature of the one beyond all—that is one Jyoṭis at the end of nāḍa. He who is devoid of the significance of Āṭmā (viz., motion) and devoid of Sachchiḍānanḍa—he is alone Āṭmā, the eternal. He who is undefinable and unreachable by the words of the Veḍas, who has neither externals nor internals, and whose symbol is either the universe or Brahman—he is undoubtedly Āṭmā. He who has no body, nor is a Jīva made up of the elements and their compounds, who has neither form nor name, neither the enjoyable nor the enjoyer, neither Saṭ nor asaṭ, neither preservation nor regeneration, neither guṇa nor non-guṇa—that is undoubtedly my Āṭmā. He who has neither the described nor description, neither śravaṇa nor manana, neither Guru nor disciple, neither the world of the Ḍevas nor the Ḍevas nor Asuras, neither duty nor non-duty, neither the immaculate nor non-immaculate, neither time nor non-time, neither certainty nor doubt, neither manṭra nor non-manṭra, neither science nor non-science, neither the seer nor the sight which is subtle, nor the nectar of time—that is Āṭmā. Rest assured that not-Āṭmā is a misnomer. There is no manas as not-Āṭmā. There is no world as not-Āṭmā. Owing to the absence of all saṅkalpas and to the giving up of all actions, Brahman alone remains, and there is no not-Āṭmā. Being devoid of the three bodies, the three periods of time, the three guṇas of Jīva, the three pains and the three worlds, and following the saying ‘All is Brahman,’ know that there is nothing to be known through the absence of chiṭṭa; there is no old age through the absence of body; no motion through the absence of legs; no action through the absence of hands; no death through the absence of creatures; no happiness through the absence of buḍḍhi; no virtue, no purity, no fear, no repetition of manṭras, no Guru nor disciple. There is no second in the absence of one. Where there is not the second, there is not the first. Where there is truth alone, there is no non-truth possible; where there is non-truth alone, there is no truth possible. If you regard a thing auspicious as inauspicious, then auspiciousness is desired (as separate) from inauspiciousness. If you regard fear as non-fear, then fear will arise out of non-fear. If bondage should become emancipation, then in the absence of bondage will be no emancipation. If birth should imply death, then in the absence of birth, there is no death. If ‘thou’ should imply ‘I,’ then in the absence of ‘thou’ there is no ‘I’. If ‘this’ should be ‘that,’ ‘this’ does not exist in the absence of ‘that’. If being should imply non-being, then non-being will imply being. If an effect implies a cause, then in the absence of effect, there is no cause. If duality implies non-duality, then in the absence of duality, there is no non-duality. If there should be the seen, then there is the eye (or sight); in the absence of the seen, there is no eye. In the absence of the interior, there is no exterior. If there should be fullness, then non-fullness is possible. Therefore (all) this exists nowhere. Neither you nor I, nor this nor these exist. There exists no (object of) comparison in the true one. There is no simile in the unborn. There is (in it) no mind to think. I am the supreme Brahman. This world is Brahman only. Thou and I are Brahman only. I am Chinmāṭra simply, and there is no not-Āṭmā. Rest assured of it. This universe is not (really at all). This universe is not (really) at all. It was nowhere produced and stays nowhere. Some say that chiṭṭa is the universe. Not at all. It exists not. Neither the universe nor chiṭṭa nor ahaṅkāra nor Jīva exists (really). Neither the creation of Māyā nor Māyā itself exists (really). Fear does not (really) exist. Actor, action, hearing, thinking, the two samāḍhis, the measurer, the measure, ajñāna and aviveka—none of these exists (truly) anywhere. Therefore the four moving1 considerations and the three kinds of relationship exist not. There is no Gaṅgā, no Gayā, no Seṭu (bridge), no elements or anything else, no earth, water, fire, vāyu, and ākāś anywhere, no Ḍevas, no guardians of the four quarters, no Veḍas, no Guru, no distance, no proximity, no time, no middle, no non-duality, no truth, no untruth, no bondage, no emancipation, no Saṭ, no asaṭ, no happiness, etc., no class, no motion, no caste, and no worldly business. All is Brahman only and nothing else—all is Brahman only and nothing else. There exists then nothing (or statement) as that ‘consciousness alone is’; there is (then) no saying such as ‘Chiṭ is I’. The statement ‘I am Brahman’ does not exist (then); nor does exist (then) the statement: ‘I am the eternally pure’. Whatever is uttered by the mouth, whatever is thought by manas, whatever is determined by buḍḍhi, whatever is cognized by chiṭṭa—all these do not exist. There is no Yogin or yoga then. All are and are not. Neither day nor night, neither bathing nor contemplating, neither delusion nor non-delusion—all these do not exist then. Know that is no not-Āṭmā.
“The Veḍas, Sciences, Purāṇas, effect and cause, Īśvara and the world and the elements and mankind—all these are unreal. There is no doubt of it. Bondage, salvation, happiness, relatives, meditation, chiṭṭa, the Ḍevas, the demons, the secondary and the primary, the high and the low—all these are unreal. There is no doubt of it. Whatever is uttered by the mouth, whatever is willed by saṅkalpa, whatever is thought by manas—all these are unreal. Whatever is determined by the buḍḍhi, whatever is cognized by chitṭa, whatever is discussed by the religious books, whatever is seen by the eye and heard by the ears, and whatever exists as Saṭ, as also the ear, the eye, and the limbs—all these are unreal. Whatever is described as such and such, whatever is thought as so-and-so, all the existing thoughts such as ‘thou art I’, ‘that is this,’ and ‘He is I,’ and whatever happens in moksha, as also all saṅkalpas, delusion, illusory attribution, mysteries and all the diversities of enjoyment and sin—all these do not exist. So is also not-Āṭmā. Mine and thine, my and thy, for me and for thee, by me and by thee—all these are unreal. (The statement) that Vishṇu is the preserver, Brahmā is the creator, Ruḍra is the destroyer—know that these undoubtedly are false. Bathing, utterings of manṭras, japas (religious austerities) homa (sacrifice), study of the Veḍas, worship of the Ḍevas, manṭra, ṭanṭra, association with the good, the unfolding of the faults of guṇas, the working of the internal organ, the result of aviḍyā, and the many crores of mundane eggs—all these are unreal. Whatever is spoken of as true according to the verdict of all teachers, whatever is seen in this world and whatever exists—all these are unreal. Whatever is uttered by words, whatever is ascertained, spoken, enjoyed, given or done by anyone, whatever action is done, good or bad, whatever is done as truth—know all these to be unreal. Thou alone art the transcendental Āṭmā and the supreme Guru of the form of ākāś, which is devoid of fitness (for it) and of the nature of all creatures. Thou art Brahman; thou art time; and thou art Brahman, that is ever and imponderable. Thou art everywhere, of all forms, and full of consciousness. Thou art the truth. Thou art one that has mastered the siḍḍhis, and thou art the ancient, the emancipated, emancipation, the nectar of bliss, the God, the quiescent, the diseaseless, Brahman the full, and greater than the great. Thou art impartial, Saṭ and the ancient knowledge, recognised by the words ‘Truth, etc’. Thou art devoid of all parts. Thou art the ever-existing—thou appearest as Brahmā, Ruḍra, Inḍra, etc.—thou art above the illusion of the universe—thou shinest in all elements—thou art without saṅkalpa in all—thou art known by means of the underlying meaning of all scriptures; thou art ever content and ever happily seated (in thyself); thou art without motion, etc. In all things, thou art without any characteristics; in all things thou art contemplated by Vishṇu and other Ḍevas at all times; thou hast the nature of Chiṭ, thou art Chinmāṭrā unchecked, thou stayest in Āṭmā itself, thou art void of everything and without guṇas, thou art bliss, the great, the one secondless, the state of Saṭ and asaṭ, the knower, the known, the seer, the nature of Sachchidānanḍa, the lord of Ḍevas, the all-pervading, the deathless, the moving, the motionless, the all and the non-all with quiescence and non-quiescence, Saṭ alone, Saṭ commonly (found in all), of the form of Niṭya-Siḍḍha (the unconditioned developed one), and yet devoid of all siḍḍhis. There is not an atom which thou dost not penetrate; but yet thou art without it. Thou art devoid of existence and non-existence as also the aim and object aimed at. Thou art changeless, decayless, beyond all nāḍas, without kāla or kāshta (divisions of time) and without Brahmā, Vishṇu, and Śiva. Thou lookest into the nature of each and art above the nature of each. Thou art immersed in the bliss of Self. Thou art the monarch of the kingdom of Self, and yet without the conception of Self. Thou art of the nature of fullness and incompleteness. There is nothing that thou seest which is not in thyself. Thou dost not stir out of thy nature. Thou actest according to the nature of each. Thou art nothing but the nature of each. Have no doubt ‘thou art I’.
“This universe and everything in it, whether the seer or the seen, resembles the horns of a hare (or are illusory). Earth, water, agni, vāyu, ākāś, manas, buḍḍhi, ahaṅkāra, ṭejas, the worlds and the sphere of the universe, destruction, birth, truth, virtue, vice, gain, desires, passion, anger, greed, the object of meditation, wisdom, guru, disciple, limitation, the beginning and end, auspiciousness, the past, present, and future, the aim and the object of aim, mental restraint, inquiry, contentment, enjoyer, enjoyment, etc., the eight parts of yoga, yama, etc., the going and coming (of life), the beginning, middle and end, that which can be taken and rejected, Hari, Śiva, the organs, manas, the three states, the twenty-four ṭaṭṭvas, the four means, one of the same class or different classes, Bhūḥ and other worlds, all the castes and orders of life with the rules laid down for each, manṭras and ṭanṭras, science and nescience, all the Veḍas, the inert and the non-inert, bondage and salvation, spiritual wisdom and non-wisdom, the enlightened and the non-enlightened, duality and non-duality, the conclusion of all Veḍānṭas and Śāsṭras, the theory of the existence of all souls and that of one soul only, whatever is thought by chiṭṭa, whatever is willed by saṅkalpa, whatever is determined by buḍḍhi, whatever one hears and sees, whatever the guru instructs, whatever is sensed by all the organs, whatever is discussed in mīmāmsā, whatever is ascertained by nyāya (philosophy) and by the great ones who have reached the other side of the Veḍas, the saying ‘Śiva destroys the world, Vishṇu protects it, and Brahmā creates it’, whatever is found in the purāṇas, whatever is ascertained by the Veḍas, and is the signification of all the Veḍas—all these resemble the horns of a hare. The conception ‘I am the body’ is spoken of as the internal organ; the conception ‘I am the body’ is spoken of as the great mundane existence; the conception ‘I am the body’ constitutes the whole universe. The conception ‘I am the body’ is spoken of as the knot of the heart, as non-wisdom, as the state of asaṭ, as nescience, as the dual, as the true Jīva and as with parts, is certainly the great sin, and is the disease generated by the fault of thirst after desires. That which is saṅkalpa, the three pains, passion, anger, bondage, all the miseries, all the faults and the various forms of time—know these to be the result of manas. Manas alone is the whole world, the ever-deluding, the mundane existence, the three worlds, the great pains, the old age and others, death and the great sin, the saṅkalpa, the Jīva, the chiṭṭa, the ahaṅkāra, the bondage, the internal organ and earth, water, agni, vāyū, and ākāś. Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour, the five sheaths, the waking, the dreaming, and dreamless sleeping states, the guardians of the eight quarters, Vasus, Ruḍras, Ādiṭyas, the seen, the inert, the pairs and non-wisdom—all these are the products of manas. Rest assured that there is no reality in all that is saṅkalpa. The whole world, the guru, disciple, etc., do not exist, yea, do not exist. Thus ends the fifth chapter of this Upanishaḍ.”
Ṛbhu continued again: “Know everything as Sachchinmaya (full of Saṭ and consciousness). It pervades everything. Sachchiḍānanḍa is non-dual, decayless, alone and other than all. It is ‘I’. It alone is ākāś and ‘thou’. It is I. There is (in it) no manas, no buḍḍhi, no ahaṅkāra, no chiṭṭa, or the collection of these—neither ‘thou’ nor I, nor anything else nor everything. Brahman alone is. Sentence, words, Veḍas, letters, beginning, middle, or end, truth, law, pleasure, pain, existence, māyā, prakṛṭi, body, face, nose, tongue, palate, teeth, lip, forehead, expiration and inspiration, sweat, bone, blood, urine, distance, proximity, limb, belly, crown, the movement of hands and feet, Śāsṭras, command, the knower, the known, and the knowledge, the waking, dreaming and dreamless sleeping and the fourth state—all these do not belong to me. Everything is Sachchinmaya interwoven. No attributes pertaining to body, elements and spirit, no root, no vision, no Ṭaijasa, no Prājña, no Virāt, no Sūṭrāṭma, no Īśvara, and no going or coming, neither gain nor loss, neither the acceptable nor the rejectable, nor the censurable, neither the pure nor the impure, neither the stout nor the lean, no sorrow, time, space, speech, all, fear, duality, tree, grass or mountain, no meditation, no siḍḍhi of yoga, no Brāhmaṇa, Kshaṭṭriya or Vaiśya, no bird or beast, or limb, no greed, delusion, pride, malice, passion, anger or others, no woman, Śūḍra, castes or others, nothing that is eatable or enjoyable, no increase or decrease, no belief in the Veḍas, no speech, no worldliness or unworldliness, no transaction, no folly, no measure or measured, no enjoyment or enjoyed, no friends, son, etc., father, mother, or sister, no birth or death, no growth, body or ‘I’, no emptiness or fullness, no internal organs or mundane existence, no night, no day, no Brahmā, Vishṇu, or Śiva, no week, fortnight, month, or year, no unsteadiness, no Brahmaloka, Vaikuṇtha, Kailāsa and others, no Swarga, Inḍra, Agniloka, Agni, Yamaloka, Yama, vāyuloka, guardians of the world, three worlds—Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, Svaḥ, Pāṭāla or surface of earth, no science, nescience, māyā, prakṛṭi, inertness, permanency, transience, destruction, movement, running, object of meditation, bathing, manṭra or object, no adorable object, anointment or sipping with water, no flower, fruit, sandal, light waved before god, praise, prostrations or circumambulation, no entreaty, conception of separateness even, oblation of food, offered food, sacrifice, actions, abuse, praise, Gāyaṭrī and sanḍhi (period of junction, such as twilight, etc.), no mental state, calamity, evil desire, bad soul, chaṇdāla (low caste person) pulkasa, unbearableness, unspeakableness, kirāṭa (hunter), kaiṭava (demon), partiality, partisanship, ornament, chief, or pride, no manyness, no oneness, durability, triad, tetrad, greatness, smallness, fullness, or delusion, no kaiṭava, Benares, ṭapas, clan, family, sūṭra, greatness, poverty, girl, old woman or widow, no pollution, birth, introvision or illusion, no sacred sentences, identity, or the siḍḍhis, aṇimā, etc.
“Everything being consciousness alone, there is no fault in anything. Everything being of the nature of Saṭ alone, is Sachchiḍānanḍa only. Brahman alone is everything and there is nothing else. So ‘That’ is ‘I’, ‘That’ is ‘I’. ‘That’ alone is ‘I’. ‘That’ alone is ‘I’. ‘That’ alone is ‘I’. The eternal Brahman alone is ‘I’. I am Brahman alone without being subject to mundane existence. I am Brahman alone without any manas, any buḍḍhi, organs or body. I am Brahman alone not perceivable. I am Brahman alone and not Jīva. I am Brahman alone and not liable to change. I am Brahman alone and not inert. I am Brahman alone and have no death. I am Brahman alone and have no prāṇas. I am Brahman alone and greater than the great. This is Brahman. Great is Brahman. Truth is Brahman. It is all-pervading. Time is Brahman. Kāla is Brahman. Happiness is Brahman. It is self-shining. One is Brahman. Two is Brahman. Delusion is Brahman. Śama and others are Brahman. Badness is Brahman. Goodness is Brahman. It is of the form of restraint, quiescence, the all-pervading and the all-powerful. The Loka (world) is Brahman. Guru is Brahman. Disciple is Brahman. It is Saḍāśiva. (That which) is before is Brahman. (That which will be) hereafter is Brahman. Purity is Brahman. Auspiciousness and inauspiciousness are Brahman. Jīva always is Brahman. I am Sachchiḍānanḍa. All are of the nature of Brahman. The universe is said to be of the nature of Brahman. Brahman is itself. There is no doubt of it. There is nothing out of itself. The letter Om of the form of consciousness is Brahman alone. Everything is itself. I alone am the whole universe and the highest seat, have crossed the guṇas and am greater than the great, the supreme Brahman, Guru of Gurus, the support of all and the bliss of bliss. There is no universe besides Āṭmā. The universe is of the nature of Āṭmā. There is nowhere (or no place) without Āṭmā. There is not even grass different from Āṭmā. There is not husk different from Brahman. The whole universe is of the nature of Āṭmā. All this is of the nature of Brahman. Asaṭ is not of the nature of Brahman. There is not a grass different from Brahman. There is not a seat different from Brahman; there is not a Guru different from Brahman; there is not a body different from Brahman. There is nothing different from Brahman like I-ness or you-ness. Whatever is seen in this world, whatever is spoken of by the people, whatever is enjoyed everywhere—all these are asaṭ (unreal) only. The differences arising from the actor, action, qualities, likes, taste and gender—all these arise from asaṭ and are (but) pleasurable. The differences arising from time, objects, actions, success or defeat and whatever else—all these are simply asaṭ. The internal organ is asaṭ. The organs are asaṭ. All the prāṇas, the collections of all these, the five sheaths, the five deities, the six changes, the six enemies, the six seasons, and the six tastes, are asaṭ. I am Sachchidānanḍa. The universe is rootless. I am Āṭmā alone, Chiṭ and Ānanḍa. The scenes of mundane existence are not different. I am the Truth of the nature of Ānanda and of the nature of the imponderable Chiṭ. All this is of the nature of jñāna.
“I am the secondless, having jñāna and bliss. I am of the nature of an illuminator of all things. I am of the nature of all non-being. I alone shine always. Therefore how can I with such a nature become asaṭ? That which is called ‘thou’ is the great Brahman of the nature of the bliss of consciousness and of the nature of chiṭ having chiḍākāś and chiṭ alone as the great bliss. Āṭmā alone is ‘I’. Asaṭ is not ‘I’. I am Kūtasṭha, the great guru and Sachchiḍānanḍa alone. I am this born universe. No time, no universe, no māyā, no prakṛṭi (in me). I alone am the Hari. Personally, I alone am the Saḍāśiva. I am of the nature of pure consciousness. I am the enjoyer of pure saṭṭva. I am the only essence full of chiṭ. Everything is Brahman and Brahman alone. Everything is Brahman and is chiṭ alone. I am of the nature of the all-latent and the all-witness. I am the supreme Āṭmā, the supreme Jyoṭis, the supreme wealth, the supreme goal, the essence of all veḍānṭas, the subject discussed in all the Śāsṭras the nature of yogic bliss, the ocean of the chief bliss, the brightness of all wisdom, of the nature of chief wisdom, the brightness of the fourth state and the non-fourth but devoid of them, the indestructible chiṭ, truth, Vāsuḍeva, the birthless, and the deathless Brahmā, Chiḍākāś, the unconditioned, the stainless, the immaculate, the emancipated, the utterly emancipated, the soulless, the formless and of the nature of the non-created universe.
“The universe which is assumed as truth and non-truth does not really exist. Brahman is of the nature of eternal bliss and is even by itself. It is endless, decayless, quiescent and of one nature only. If anything is other than myself, then it is as unreal as the mirage in an oasis. If one should be afraid of the son of a barren woman, or if a powerful elephant be killed by means of the horns of a hare, then the world (really is). If one (person) can quench his thirst by drinking the waters of the mirage, or if one should be killed by the horns of a man, then the universe really is. The universe exists always in the true Ganḍharva city (merely unreal). When the blueness of the sky really exists in it, then the universe really is. When the silver in mother-of-pearl can be used in making an ornament, when a man is bitten by (the conception of) a snake in a rope, when the flaming fire is quenched by means of a golden arrow, when milky food is obtained in the (barren) forest of Vinḍhya (mountains), when cooking can take place by means of the fuel of (wet) plantain trees, when a female (baby) just born begins to cook, when curds resume the state of milk, or when the milk (milked) goes back through the teats of a cow, then will the universe really be. When the dust of the earth shall be produced in the ocean, when the maddened elephant is tied by means of the hair of a tortoise, when (mountain) Meru is shaken by the thread in the stalk of a lotus, when the ocean is bound by its rows of tides, when the fire flames downwards, when flame shall become (really) cold, when the lotus shall grow out of flaming fire, when Inḍranīla (sapphire) arises in the great mountains, when Meru comes and sits in the lotus-eye, when a mountain can become the offspring of a black bee, when Meru shall shake, when a lion is killed by a gnat, when the three worlds can be found in the space of the hollow of an atom, when the fire which burns a straw shall last for a long time, when the objects seen in a dream shall come in the waking state, when the current of a river shall stand still (of itself), when the delivery of a barren woman shall be fruitful, when the crow shall walk like a swan, when the mule shall fight with a lion, when a great ass shall walk like an elephant, when the full moon shall become a sun, when Rāhu (one of the nodes) shall abandon the sun and the moon, when a good crop shall arise out of the waste (burnt) seeds, when the poor shall enjoy the happiness of the rich, when the lions shall be conquered by the bravery of dogs, when the heart of Jñānīs is known by fools, when the ocean is drunk by the dogs without any remainder, when the pure ākāś shall fall upon men, when heaven shall fall on the earth, when the flower in the sky shall emit fragrance, when a forest appearing in pure ākāś shall move, and when reflection shall arise in a glass simply (without mercury or anything else in its back), then the world really is. There is no universe in the womb of Aja (the unborn Brahman)—there is no universe in the womb of Āṭmā. Duality and non-duality, which are but the results of differentiation, are really not. All this is the result of māyā. Therefore, there should be Brahma-Bhāvanā. If misery should arise from the conception of ‘I am the body,’ then it is certain ‘I am Brahman.’ The knot of the heart is the wheel of Brahman, which cuts asunder the knot of existence. When doubt arises in one, he should have faith in Brahman. That non-dual Brahman, which is eternal and of the form of unconditioned bliss, is the guard of Āṭmā against the chief of the form of not-Āṭmā. Through instances like the above is established the nature of Brahman. Brahman alone is the all-abode. Abandon the name even of the universe. Knowing for certain ‘I am Brahman,’ give up the ‘I’. Everything disappears as the flower from the hands of a sleeping persons. There is neither body nor karma. Everything is Brahman alone. There are neither objects, nor actions, nor the four states. Everything which has the three characteristics of vijñāna is Brahman alone. Abandoning all action, contemplate ‘I am Brahman,’ ‘I am Brahman’. There is no doubt of this. I am Brahman of the nature of chiṭ. I am of the nature of Sachchiḍānanḍa.
“This great science of Śaṅkara should never be explained to any ordinary person, to an atheist or to a faithless, ill-behaved or evil-minded person. It should be, after due examination, given to the high-souled ones whose minds are purified with devotion to their gurus. It should be taught for a year and a half. Leaving off thoroughly and entirely the practice recommended by the (other) Upanishaḍs, one should study the Ṭejobinḍu-Upanishaḍ always with delight. By once studying it, he becomes one with Brahman. Thus ends the sixth chapter. Thus ends the Upanishaḍ.”
BRAHMOPANISHAḌ1 OF KṚSHṆA-YAJURVEḌA
[This Upanishaḍ is intended to give a complete and clear idea of the nature of Āṭmā, that has four avasṭhās (states of consciousness) and four seats, for the better consummation of the nirguṇa ḍhyāna.]
Om. Śaunaka Mahāśala questioned the holy Sage Pippalāḍa of the Aṅgiras goṭra thus: “In this beautiful Brahmapura of body, the fit residence of divine beings, how are (the deities of) vāk, etc., located? How do they function? To whom belongs this power? He to whom this power belongs, what is He?”
Pippalāḍa then having deeply considered, imparted to him the Brahmaviḍyā (divine wisdom), that most excellent of all things. “It is prāṇa (i.e.,) Āṭmā. It is Āṭmā that exercises this power. It is the life of all Ḍevas. It is their death and (their) life. Brahman that shines pure, nishkala, resplendent, and all-pervading, in this divine Brahmapura (of body), rules (all). The Jīva (identifying himself with) the inḍriyas, rules them like a spider. The spider throws out from a single thread out of his body a whole web, and draws it into himself by that same thread; so prāṇa, whenever it goes, draws after it the objects of its creation (vāk, etc.). During sushupṭi, (the prāṇa) goes to its seat (Brahman) through the nādis of which is the ḍevaṭā, like an eagle, that making air as the means of communication, reaches his abode. They say, as ḍevaḍaṭṭa, though beaten (during sushupṭi) by a stick, etc., does not move, so also the actor does not suffer or enjoy for the merits or demerits of religious actions. Just as a child obtains happiness without desiring for it (in play), so also ḍevaḍaṭṭa obtains happiness in sushupṭi. He certainly knows, (being) Param-Jyotis, and the person desiring jyoṭis, enjoys bliss in the contemplation of jyoṭis. Then he comes back to the dream-plane by the same way, like a caterpillar. It remaining on a blade of grass, first puts forward its foot on another blade in front, conveys its body to it, and having got a firm hold of it, then only leaves the former and not before. So this is the jāgraṭa state. As this (ḍevaḍaṭṭa) bears at the same time eight skulls, so this jāgraṭa, the source of Ḍevas and Veḍas, clings to a man like the breasts in a woman. During the jāgraṭa avasṭhā, merit and demerit are postulated of this Ḍeva (power); he is capable of great expansion and is the inner mover. He is khaga (bird), karkata (crab), pushkara (ākāś), prāṇa, pain, parāpara, Āṭmā and Brahman. This deity causes to know. He who knows thus obtains Brahman, the supreme, the support of all things, and the Ksheṭrajña. He obtains Brahman, the supreme, support of all things, and the Ksheṭrajña.
1 “The Pursuha has four seats—navel, heart, neck, and head. There Brahman with the four feet specially shines. Those feet are jāgraṭa, svapna, sushupṭi, and ṭurya. In jāgraṭa he is Brahmā, in svapna Vishṇu, in sushupṭi Ruḍra, and in ṭurya the supreme Akshara. He is Āḍiṭya, Vishṇu, Īśvara, Purusha, prāṇa, jīva, agni, the resplendent. The Para-Brahman shines in the midst of these. He is without manas, ear, hands, feet, and light. There the worlds are no worlds, Ḍevas no Ḍevas, Veḍas no Veḍas, sacrifices no sacrifices, mother no mother, father no father, daughter-in-law no daughter-in-law, chaṇdāla no chaṇdāla, paulkasa no paulkasa, śramaṇa no śramaṇa, hermits no hermits; so one only Brahman shines as different. In the Hṛḍayākāś (ākāś in the heart) is the Chiḍākāś. That is Brahman. It is extremely subtle. The Hṛḍayākāś can be known. This moves in it. In Brahman, everything is strung. Those who thus know the Lord know everything. In him the Ḍevas, the worlds, the Piṭṛs and the Ṛshis do not rule. He who has awakened knows everything. All the Ḍevas are in the heart; in the heart are all the prāṇas: in the heart are prāṇa, jyoṭis and that threeplied holy thread. In the heart in Chaiṭanya, it (prāṇa) is. 1 Put on the yajñopavīṭa (holy thread), the supreme, the holy, which came into existence along with the Prajāpaṭi, which gives long life and which is very excellent; let this give you strength and ṭejas. The wise man having shaved his head completely, should throw away the external thread. He should wear, as the holy thread, the supreme and indestructible Brahman. It is called sūṭra, because sūchanāṭ (indicating) (that the Āṭmā is in the heart). Sūṭra means the supreme abode. He who knows that sūṭra is a vipra (brāhmaṇa), he has crossed the ocean of the Veḍas. On that sūṭra (thread), everything is strung, like the beads on the thread. The yogin, well versed in yoga and having a clear perception of Truth, should wear the thread. Practising the noble yoga, the wise man should abandon the external thread. He who wears the sūṭra as Brahman, he is an intelligent being. By wearing the sūṭra, he is not polluted. They whose sūṭra is within, whose yajñopavīṭa is jñāna—they only know the sūṭra, and, they only wear the yajñopavīṭa in this world. Those whose tuft of hair is jñāna, who are firmly grounded in jñāna and whose yajñopavīṭa is jñāna, consider jñāna only as supreme. Jñāna is holy and excellent. He whose śikhā (tuft of hair) is jñāna like the śikhi (flame of agni)—he, the wise one, only wears a true śikhā; others wear a mere tuft of hair. Those brāhmaṇas and others who perform the ceremonies prescribed in the Veḍas—they wear this thread only as a symbol of their ceremonies. Those who know the Veḍas say that he only is a true brāhmaṇa who wears the śikhā of jñāna and whose yajñopavīṭa is the same (jñāna). This yajñopavīṭa (Yajña means Vishṇu or sacrifice and Upavīṭa is that which surrounds; hence that which surrounds Vishṇu) is supreme and is the supreme refuge. He who wears that really knows—he only wears the sūṭra, he is Yajña (Vishṇu) and he only knows Yajña (Vishṇu). One God hidden in all things, pervades all things and is the Inner Life of all things. He awards the fruits of karma, he lives in all things, he sees all things without any extraneous help, he is the soul of all, there is nothing like him, and he is without any guṇas (being secondless). He is the great wise one. He is the one doer among the many actionless objects. He is always making one thing appear as several (by māyā). Those wise men who see him in buḍḍhi, they only obtain eternal peace. Having made Āṭmā as the (upper) araṇi (attritional piece of wood) and Praṇava the lower araṇi, by constant practice of ḍhyāna one should see the concealed deity. As the oil in the sesamum seed, as the ghee in the curds, as the water in the rivers, and as the fire in the araṇi, so they who practise truth and austerities see Him in the buḍḍhi. As the spider throws out and draws into itself the threads, so the jīva goes and returns during the jāgraṭa and the svapna states. The heart is in the form of a closed lotus-flower, with its head hanging down; it has a hole in the top. Know it to be the great abode of All. Know that during jāgraṭa it (jīva) dwells in the eye, and during svapna in the throat; during sushupṭi, it is in the heart and during ṭurya in the head. 1 (Because buḍḍhi unites) the Praṭyagāṭma with the Paramāṭma, the worship of sanḍhyā (union) arose. So we should perform sanḍhyāvanḍana (rites). The sanḍhyāvanḍana performed by ḍhyāna requires no water. It gives no trouble to the body or the speech. That which unites all things is the sanḍhyā of the one-staffed (sannyāsins). Knowing That from which speech and mind turn back without being able to obtain it and That which is the bliss of jīva, the wise one is freed. The secret of Brahmaviḍyā is to reveal the real nature of the Āṭmā, that is all-pervading, that is like ghee in the milk, that is the source of āṭmaviḍyā and ṭapas and to show that everything is in essence one.
“So ends the brahmopanishaḍ.”
VAJRASŪCHI1 -UPANISHAḌ OF SĀMAVEḌA
I now proceed to declare the vajrasūchi—the weapon that is the destroyer of ignorance—which condemns the ignorant and praises the man of divine vision.
There are four castes—the brāhmaṇa, the kshaṭriya, the vaiśya, and the śūḍra. Even the smṛṭis declare in accordance with the words of the veḍas that the brāhmaṇa alone is the most important of them.
Then this remains to be examined. What is meant by the brāhmaṇa? Is it a jīva? Is it a body? Is it a class? Is it jñāna? Is it karma? Or is it a doer of ḍharma?
To begin with: is jīva the brāhmaṇa? No. Since the jīva is the same in the many past and future bodies (of all persons), and since the jīva is the same in all of the many bodies obtained through the force of karma, therefore jīva is not the brāhmaṇa.
Then is the body the brāhmaṇa? No. Since the body, as it is made up of the five elements, is the same for all people down to chaṇdālas,2 etc., since old age and death, ḍharma and aḍharma are found to be common to them all, since there is no absolute distinction that the brāhmaṇas are white-coloured, the kshaṭriyas red, the vaiśyas yellow, and the śūḍras dark, and since in burning the corpse of his father, etc., the stain of the murder of a brāhmaṇa, etc., will accrue to the son, etc., therefore the body is not the brāhmaṇa.
Then is a class the brāhmaṇa? No. Since many great Ṛshis have sprung from other castes and orders of creation.—Ṛshyaśṛṅga was born of deer; Kauśika, of Kuśa grass; Jāmbuka of a jackal; Vālmīki of valmīka (an ant-hill); Vyāsa of a fisherman’s daughter; Gauṭama, of the posteriors of a hare; Vasishtha of Ūrvaśi1 ; and Agasṭya of a water-pot; thus have we heard. Of these, many Ṛshis outside the caste even have stood first among the teachers of divine Wisdom; therefore a class is not the brāhmaṇa.
Is jñāna the brāhmaṇa? No. Since there were many kshaṭriyas and others well versed in the cognition of divine Truth, therefore jñāna is not the brāhmaṇa.
Then is karma the brāhmaṇa? No. Since the prārabḍha2 , sañchiṭa3 , and āgami4 karmas are the same for all beings, and since all people perform their actions as impelled by karma, therefore karma is not the brāhmaṇa.
Then is a doer of ḍharma (virtuous actions) the brāhmaṇa? No. Since there are many kshaṭriyas, etc., who are givers of gold, therefore a doer of virtuous actions is not the brāhmaṇa.
Who indeed then is brāhmaṇa? Whoever he may be, he who has directly realised his Āṭmā and who is directly cognizant, like the myrobalan in his palm, of his Āṭmā that is without a second, that is devoid of class and actions, that is free from the faults of the six stains5 and the six changes, 6 that is of the nature of truth, knowledge, bliss, and eternity, that is without any change in itself, that is the substratum of all the kalpas, that exists penetrating all things that pervades everything within and without as ākāś, that is of nature of undivided bliss, that cannot be reasoned about and that is known only by direct cognition. He who by the reason of having obtained his wishes is devoid of the faults of thirst after worldly objects and passions, who is the possessor of the qualifications beginning with śama1 , who is free from emotion, malice, thirst after worldly objects, desire, delusion, etc., whose mind is untouched by pride, egoism, etc., who possesses all these qualities and means—he only is the brāhmaṇa.
Such is the opinion of the veḍas, the smṛṭis, the iṭihāsa and the purāṇas. Otherwise one cannot obtain the status of a brāhmaṇa. One should meditate on his Āṭmā as Sachchiḍānaḍa, and the non-dual Brahman. Yea, one should meditate on his Āṭmā as the Sachchiḍānanḍa Brahman. Such is the Upanishaḍ.
[1 ]There is a street in Kāsī called Brahma-nāla.
[1 ]This Upanishad and the next form a glossary of some of the terms of Vedānta. ‘Sarva-Sāra’ is the all-essence or quintessence.
[2 ]They are the 5 organs of sense, the 5 organs of action and the 4 of Antaḥkaraṇa (the internal organ), viz., Manas, Buḍdhi, Chiṭta and Ahankāra. Each is animated by a Ḍevaṭā or intelligential principle.
[1 ]This refers to that slumbering or latent state of the universe—called also Mahā-Sushupti when the Guṇas are in equilibrium; on re-awakening into activity when the Guṇas are disturbed, Mūlaprakṛṭi is called by the different names of Māyā, Aviḍyā, Ṭamas, etc.
[1 ]Lit.—without support.
[1 ]There are 18 Siḍdhis, 8 higher and 10 lower.
[2 ]They are Yama, Niyama, etc.
[1 ]Lit., isolation- or emancipation-Upanishad.
[2 ]After attaining Sāḍhana-Chaṭushtaya or the four means of salvation.
[3 ]Hiraṇyagarbha or the higher Self.
[1 ]Lit., the immortal germ.
[1 ]It is the indestructible known through the sound or the Veḍas.
[1 ]This Upanishaḍ treats of Ātmic instruction.
[2 ]The three symbols stand for Ākāsa, Manas, and Budḍhi.
[3 ]In the Māṇdūkya Upanishaḍ, Prajñā is said to be the Jīva in the third state and Prajñāna is its attribute. Prajñāna is Prakarsha Jñāna or special wisdom, viz., of looking over the past and the future.
[1 ]Skanda is the son of Siva and is represented on earth by Sanaṭkumāra.
[2 ]This will give a rude shock to the followers of Siva and Vishṇu in India, who wage useless war as to the supremacy of Vishṇu and Siva.
[1 ]Saḍāsiva, lit., eternal bliss. This is one of the names applied to Siva as also Mahāḍeva.
[2 ]Narasimha, lit., Man-lion. This refers to one of the incarnations of Vishṇu when he killed the evil power Hiraṇyakasipu.
[1 ]This Upanishaḍ is so called after the questioner.
[2 ]Rajas, Saṭṭva and Ṭamas colours.
[3 ]Āvaraṇa Ṣakti literally means the veiling or contracting power. This is it that produces egoism. It may be called the centripetal force.
[1 ]Vikshepa Ṣakti (lit.,) is the expanding power. It may be called the centrifugal force.
[2 ]The account given here though differing from that in other books may be justified.
[3 ]They are sound, touch, form, taste, and odour.
[1 ]The fifth aspect of antaḥkaraṇa is made to be itself, having the function of anusandhāna or inquiry, though others call it otherwise.
[2 ]Navel is the seat of chitṭa.
[1 ]It is said that in samādhi astral nectar flows from the head down which the Yogins are said to drink and which gives them infinite bliss.
[1 ]Humility and other virtues twenty in number are described in Bhagavaḍ-Gīṭā, Chapter XIII.
[2 ]There are four classes of Brahma Jñānīs or initiates of whom this is one.
[3 ]That portion of past karma which is being enjoyed in this life.
[1 ]The yearly ceremonies in honour of the dead.
[1 ]Iṭihāsas are the Rāmāyaṇa and the Mahābhāraṭa.
[1 ]This Upanishaḍ is also called Ṭurīyāṭīṭa Avaḍhūṭa Upanishaḍ.
[1 ]I and its inflexions.
[1 ]The result of past karma now enjoyed.
[1 ]In the Chhāndogya Upanishad, Raikva is said to be the imparter of Samvargavidyā.
[2 ]The absolute (Parabrahman) is neither Sat (Be-ness) nor asat (not-Be-ness) nor a commingling of both. It is neither spirit nor matter nor a commingling of both.
[3 ]Bhūtādi is tāmasa ahankāra according to Vishnu Purāṇa.
[4 ]“Above and below” refers not to the position but only to the state, of matter, gross or subtle. “In the midst” implies that ākās and earth are soaked in and with spirit.
[5 ]This refers to the first triune manifestation of Purusha or spirit through time when only there is activity. Mṛtyu or Kāla is the first manifestation whereas Yama (or the God of death) is the secondary one dealing with the death of creatures lower down.
[6 ]Khaṇda means divided or with parts. Parasu literally injuring another. Hence Mṛtyu with his khaṇda-parasu divided eternal time into its parts and conditions the absolute through primordial matter. In the Purāṇas and other books, Mṛṭyu and Yama are represented as having an axe broken in a conflict.
[1 ]This refers to the septenary manifestation from the triune one; also to the sub-septenary ones.
[2 ]In other words beings of Saṭtva, Rajas and Ṭamas and an admixture of these were born.
[1 ]The word anāsakena (non-injury) is repeated in the text which is wrong.
[1 ]Lit., one producing sound.
[2 ]In this chapter are given out the several correspondences of the devas (or the presiding spiritual deities) and of the objects to the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, and the antahkaraṇa (or lower mind) composed of manas, buddhi, ahaṅkāra, and chitta.
[1 ]Probably prāṇa, vijñāna, and ānanda refer to the sheaths formed by them.
[1 ]Although in the original manas, buddhi, etc., are in the middle, yet they are inserted here after the karmendriyas.
[1 ]Nārāyaṇa is the Universal Self. This chapter gives out the pantheistic theory that the whole universe is nothing but God Nārāyaṇa.
[1 ]The ocean probably refers to ākāsic space.
[2 ]Koka probably refers to Hamsa.
[3 ]In this chapter are related the different fires, the first or primordial anna or food-substance has to pass through in order to become the gross food.
[1 ]The causes and effects are herein given out, the cause of an effect becoming itself the effect of a higher cause.
[1 ]Ṭejas is spiritual light and binḍu is seed; hence the seed or source of spiritual light.
[2 ]This probably refers to the triangle appearing in the disciples.
[1 ]All these parts of yoga are explained here from the standpoint of veḍānṭa.
[1 ]Sanaka is one of the four Kumāras in the Purānas who refused to create; Suka is the son of Veḍa-Vyās.
[2 ]The Kumāra is the son of Siva called Kārṭikẽya the six-faced, symbolising the six-faced Mars in one sense.
[1 ]Sesha, meaning remainder is the serpent representing time.
[1 ]Herein is given the hint as to the difference of functions between an Ishtaḍevaṭā and a Guru.
[1 ]The four moving considerations (of vedānta) are subject (Brahman), object, relationship, and the qualified person.
[1 ]In this Upanishad, the Southern Indian edition begins later on but the other portions also are given as being fuller.
[1 ]The South Indian Edition begins here.
[1 ]This manṭra is repeated whenever the holy thread is newly worn.
[1 ]The five sentences from here relating to Sanḍhyā are not to be found in the South Indian Edition.
[1 ]Lit., the diamond-needle-Upanishad.
[2 ]The lowest class of persons among the Hinḍūs.
[1 ]One of the celestial nymphs dancing in the court of Indra.
[2 ]The kārmic affinities generated by us in our former lives, the fruit of which is being enjoyed in our present life.
[3 ]The kārmic affinities generated by us in our former lives and collected together to be enjoyed in our future lives.
[4 ]The affinities generated by us in our present life to be enjoyed hereafter.
[5 ]The six stains—hunger, thirst, grief, confusion, old age, and death.
[6 ]Birth, existence, etc.
[1 ]Sama, ḍama, uparati, ṭiṭīkshā, samāḍhāna, and sraḍḍhā.