Front Page Titles (by Subject) GUIDE TO FURTHER READING - The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING - Jean Louis De Lolme, The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government 
The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government, edited and with an Introduction by David Lieberman (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007).
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- De Lolme’s Life and Early Writings
- The Constitution of England
- Later Writings
- Editions of the Constitution of England
- A Note On the Text
- The Constitution of England
- To the King.
- Book I
- Chapter I: Causes of the Liberty of the English Nation.—reasons of the Difference Between the Government of England, and That of France.—in England, the Great Power of the Crown, Under the Norman Kings, Created an Union Between the Nobility and the People
- Chapter II: A Second Advantage England Had Over France:—it Formed One Undivided State.
- Chapter III: The Subject Continued.
- Chapter IV: Of the Legislative Power.
- Chapter V: Of the Executive Power.
- Chapter VI: The Boundaries Which the Constitution Has Set to the Royal Prerogative.
- Chapter VII: The Same Subject Continued.
- Chapter VIII: New Restrictions.
- Chapter IX: Of Private Liberty, Or the Liberty of Individuals.
- Chapter X 1: On the Law In Regard to Civil Matters, That Is Observed In England.
- Chapter Xi 1: The Subject Continued. the Courts of Equity.
- Chapter XII: Of Criminal Justice.
- Chapter XIII: The Subject Continued.
- Chapter XIV: The Subject Concluded.—laws Relative to Imprisonment.
- Book Ii
- Chapter I: Some Advantages Peculiar to the English Constitution. 1. The Unity of the Executive Power.
- Chapter II: The Subject Concluded.—the Executive Power Is More Easily Confined When It Is One.
- Chapter III: A Second Peculiarity.—the Division of the Legislative Power.
- Chapter IV: A Third Advantage Peculiar to the English Government. the Business of Proposing Laws, Lodged In the Hands of the People.
- Chapter V: In Which an Inquiry Is Made, Whether It Would Be an Advantage to Public Liberty, That the Laws Should Be Enacted By the Votes of the People At Large.
- Chapter VI: Advantages That Accrue to the People From Appointing Representatives.
- Chapter VII: The Subject Continued—the Advantages That Accrue to the People From Their Appointing Representatives, Are Very Inconsiderable, Unless They Also Entirely Trust Their Legislative Authority to Them.
- Chapter VIII: The Subject Concluded.—effects That Have Resulted, In the English Government, From the People’s Power Being Completely Delegated to Their Representatives.
- Chapter IX: A Farther Disadvantage of Republican Governments.—the People Are Necessarily Betrayed By Those In Whom They Trust.
- Chapter X: Fundamental Difference Between the English Government, and the Governments Just Described.—in England All Executive Authority Is Placed Out of the Hands of Those In Whom the People Trust. Usefulness of the Power of the Crown.
- Chapter XI: The Powers Which the People Themselves Exercise.—the Election of Members of Parliament.
- Chapter XII: The Subject Continued.—liberty of the Press.
- Chapter XIII: The Subject Continued.
- Chapter XIV: Right of Resistance.
- Chapter Xv 1: Proofs Drawn From Facts, of the Truth of the Principles Laid Down In the Present Work.—1. the Peculiar Manner In Which Revolutions Have Always Been Concluded In England.
- Chapter Xvi 1: Second Difference—the Manner After Which the Laws For the Liberty of the Subject Are Executed In England.
- Chapter Xvii 1: A More Inward View of the English Government Than Has Hitherto Been Offered to the Reader In the Course of This Work.—very Essential Differences Between the English Monarchy, As a Monarchy, and All Those With Which We Are Acquainted.
- Chapter XVIII: How Far the Examples of Nations Who Have Lost Their Liberty, Are Applicable to England.
- Chapter Xix 1: A Few Additional Thoughts On the Attempts That At Particular Times May Be Made to Abridge the Power of the Crown, and On Some of the Dangers By Which Such Attempts May Be Attended.
- Chapter Xx 1: A Few Additional Observations On the Right of Taxation Which Is Lodged In the Hands of the Representatives of the People. What Kind of Danger This Right May Be Exposed To.
- Chapter XXI: Conclusion.—a Few Words On the Nature of the Divisions That Take Place In England.
- Guide to Further Reading
- De Lolme’s Principal Publications
- Works Cited By De Lolme
- Classical Sources
- Modern Sources
GUIDE TO FURTHER READING
Modern scholarship has greatly increased our understanding of the historical setting and constitutional theory to which De Lolme’s The Constitution of England so significantly contributed, but it has not provided any major studies devoted specifically to De Lolme’s own work. The two most substantial treatments remain Edith Ruth, Jean Louis de Lolme und sein Werk über die Verfassung Englands (Historische Studien, Heft 240; Berlin: Emil Ebering, 1934) and Jean-Pierre Machelon, Les idées politiques de J. L. de Lolme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969), which also contain information concerning the impact of De Lolme’s ideas in, respectively, Germany and France. Briefer and more recent assessments for England include M. J. C. Vile, Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers (2nd ed.; Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), chapter 5; Mark Francis and John Morrow, “After the Ancient Constitution: Political Theory and English Constitutional Writings, 1765–1832,” in History of Political Thought (1988), 9:283–302; and David Lieberman, “The Mixed Constitution and the Common Law,” in The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought, ed. Mark Goldie and Robert Wokler (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
The larger intellectual context for De Lolme’s writing can be pursued through several major interpretations that focus on national debates and political cultures. British and American political theory is illuminated in H. T. Dickinson, Liberty and Property: Political Ideology in Eighteenth-Century Britain (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977); J. G. A. Pocock, Virtue, Commerce, and History: Essays on Political Thought and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); and Gordon Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969). The case of France receives masterful examination in Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). There is no single definitive study for De Lolme’s Geneva, but valuable insight can be gained from two recent contributions to Rousseau scholarship: Helen Rosenblatt, Rousseau and Geneva: From the First Discourse to the Social Contract, 1749–1762 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Bruno Bernardi, Florent Guénard, and Gabriella Silvestrini, eds., Religion, liberté, justice sur les Lettres écrites de la montagne de J.-J. Rousseau (Paris: Librairie Philosophique Vrin, 2005).
De Lolme’s Principal Publications
This chronological list is primarily based on the bibliography provided in Jean-Pierre Machelon, Les idées politiques de J. L. de Lolme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969), pp. 5–7. Information concerning reprintings and subsequent editions of individual works is limited to the period of De Lolme’s own lifetime (1741–1806).
- Les princes manqués, lettre d’un citoyen à J.-J. Rousseau au du 29 mars 1765 (The failed princes, letter from a citizen to J.-J. Rousseau . . .). Geneva, 1765.
- Purification des trois points de droit souillés par un anonyme ou Réponse à l’examen des trois points de droit traités dans les Mémoires des Représentants du 19 mai et 16 octobre 1767 (The purification of three soiled points of law by an anonymous author, or A response to the examination of three points of law in the Memorials of the Representatives . . .). Geneva, 1767.
- Réflexions politiques et critiques par un citoyen représentant sur le projet d’ arrangement du 25 janvier 1768 (Political and critical reflections on the settlement plan of 25 January 1768). Geneva, 1768.
- Constitution de l’Angleterre ou État du gouvernement anglais comparé avec la forme républicaine et avec les autres monarchies de l’Europe. Amsterdam, 1771. Republished Amsterdam, 1774; Amsterdam, 1778; London, 1785; London, 1785; Geneva, 1787; new revised ed., Geneva 1788; republished: Geneva, 1789; Geneva, 1790; new edition (revised according to the 4th English edition), Breslau, 1791.
- A Parallel between the English Constitution and the former Government of Sweden; containing some observations on the late Revolution in that kingdom and Examination of the causes that secure us against both Aristocracy and Absolute Monarchy. London, 1772.
- The Constitution of England; or, an Account of the English Government; in which it is compared with the Republican Form of Government and occasionally with the Other Monarchies in Europe. London, 1775. Republished Dublin, 1775; Dublin, 1776; London, 1777; 3rd ed., London, 1781; 4th ed. enlarged, 1784.
- The History of the Flagellants; or, the advantages of the Discipline; being a Paraphrase and Commentary on the Historia Flagellantium of the Abbé Boileau, Doctor of the Sorbonne, Canon at the Holy Chapel etc. by somebody who is not Doctor of the Sorbonne. London, 1777; 2nd ed., London, 1778; 3rd ed., London, 1782; revised ed., London, 1783.
- Memorials of Human Superstition; being a Paraphrase and Commentary on the Historia Flagellantium of the Abbé Boileau, Doctor of the Sorbonne . . . London, 1784. Republished London, 1785.
- An Essay Containing a few strictures on the Union of Scotland with England; and on the present situation of Ireland; Being an Introduction to De Foe’s History of the Union. London, 1786. Reprinted as The British Empire in Europe; Part the first, containing an Account of the Connection between the kingdoms of England and Ireland previous to the year 1780. To which is prefixed an Historical Sketch, of the State of Rivalry between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in former times . . . London, 1787.
- The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America; The Declaration of Independence; The Articles of Confederation . . . with an Advertisement. London, 1782; new ed., London 1783.
- Observations relative to the taxes upon windows or lights . . . To which are added Observations on the shop-tax and the discontent caused by it; Short Observations on the late Act relative to Hawkers and Pedlars; A hint for the Improvement of the Metropolis London. London, 1788.
- The Present National Embarrassment considered, containing a Sketch of the Political Situation of the Heir apparent and of the Legal Claims of the Parliament now assembled at Westminster. London, 1788. Reprinted as Observations upon the late National Embarrassment and the Proceedings in Parliament relative to the same. London, 1789.
- General Observations on the Power of individuals to prescribe by Testamentary dispositions the particular future use to be made of their property, occasioned by the last will of . . . Peter Thellusson of London. London, 1798. 2nd ed., London, 1800.
Works Cited by De Lolme
- Appian of Alexandria. Roman History.
- Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero).
- Philosophical writings: De amicitiâ; De inventione; De legibus; De officiis; De re publica.
- Speeches: De provinciis consularibus; In Pisonem; Pro Plancio; Pro Muraenâ; Pro Rabirio perduellionis reo; Verrine Orations.
- Corpus Juris Civilis. Digest.
- Demosthenes. Against Timocrates.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Antiquitates Romanae.
- Livy (Titus Livius). Ab urbe condita.
- Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso). Metamorphoses.
- Plautus (Titus Maccius Plautus). Curculio.
- Plutarch (Mestrius Plutarchus). Parallel Lives.
- Polybius. Historiae.
- Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus). Institutio oratoria.
- Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus). Bellum Catilinae.
- Tacitus (Publius Cornelius Tacitus). Annals.
- Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War.
- Valerius Maximus. Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium.
- Beccaria, Cesare. Dei delitti e delle pene (On crimes and punishments). 1764.
- Blackstone, William. Commentaries on the Laws of England. 1765–69.
- Bracton, Henry de (d. 1268?). De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae (Of the laws and customs of England).
- Burnet, Gilbert. A History of My Own Time. 1724–34.
- Chamberlayne, Edward. Angliae notitia; or, The Present State of England. 1669.
- Coke, Edward. Institutes of the Laws of England. 1628–44.
- ———. Reports of Sir Edward Coke. 1600–1616, 1658–59.
- Comines, Philippe de. Mémoires de Philippe de Comines (Memoirs of Philippe de Comines). 1498.
- Comings, John. Digest of the Laws of England. 1762–67.
- Croke, George. Reports of Sir George Croke, Knight. 1657–61.
- Cunningham, Timothy. A New and Complete Law-Dictionary, or, General Abridgment of the Law. 1764–65.
- Du Cange, Charles du Fresne. Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis (Glossary of medieval and late Latin). 1678.
- Ferreras, Juan de. Historia de España. 1700–1727.
- Fleta: seu Commentarius juris Anglicani (On the common law of England). Ca. 1290.
- Fortescue, John. De laudibus legum Angliae (In praise of the laws of England). Ca. 1468–71.
- Foster, Michael. Report of some proceedings on the Commission of Oyer and Terminer and gaol delivery . . . to which are added discourses upon a few branches of the Crown Law. 1762.
- Glanvill, Ranulf de (?). De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae (Of the laws and customs of England). Ca. 1187.
- Hale, Matthew. History of the Common Law of England. Ca. 1670; published 1713.
- Hénault, Charles Jean François. Nouvel abrégé chronologique de l’histoire de France (New general chronological history of France). 1744.
- Hotman, François. Francogallia. 1573.
- Hume, David. The History of England. 1754–62. (The History of England. Foreword by William B. Todd. 6 vols. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1983–85.)
- Jacob, Giles. A New Law-Dictionary. 1729.
- James VI and I. Speeches. 1566–1625.
- Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language. 1755.
- Junius [pseud.]. Letters of Junius. 1769–72.
- Littleton, Thomas. New Tenures. 1481.
- Lyttleton, George Lord. Letters from a Persian in England to His Friend at Ispahan. 1735.
- Machiavelli, Niccolò. Istorie fiorentine (History of Florence). 1525.
- Mézeray, François Eudes de. Abrégé chronologique de l’histoire de France (A general chronological history of France). London, 1668.
- Middleton, Conyers. A Treatise on the Roman Senate. 1747.
- Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de. Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Considerations on the causes of the greatness and decline of the Romans). 1734.
- ———. De l’esprit des lois (The spirit of the laws). 1748.
- More, Thomas. Utopia. 1515.
- Oldmixon, John. History of England, During the Reigns of the Royal House of Stuart. 1729.
- The Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England; being a faithful account of all the most remarkable transactions in Parliament. . . . 1751–61.
- Pope, Alexander. An Essay on Man. 1733.
- Robertson, William. History of Scotland. 1758.
- Robinson, John. An account of Sweden; together with an extract of the history of that kingdom. 1694.
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Du contrat social (The social contract). 1762.
- ———. Lettres de la montagne (Letters from the mountain). 1764.
- Ruffhead, Owen. The Statutes of the Realm, from Magna Charta to the End of the Last Parliament. 1769.
- Rushworth, John. Historical Collections of Private Passages of State. 1659–1701.
- Sévigné, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de. Lettres de Madame de Sévigné: de sa famille et de ses amis. Paris: Hatchette et cie, 1862–66.
- Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1776. (An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edited by R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner. 2 vols. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1982.)
- Spelman, Henry. Reliquiae Spelmannianae: The Posthumous Works of Sir Henry Spelman Kt. 1723.
- Swift, Jonathan. History of the Last Four Years of the Queen. 1758.
- Temple, William. Introduction to the History of England. 1695.
- Tucker, Josiah. A Brief Essay on the Advantages and Disadvantages, Which Respectively Attend France and Great Britain. 1749.
- United Kingdom. Parliament. A Collection of the Parliamentary Debates in England. . . . 1739–42.
- United Kingdom. Parliament. A Collection of State-Trials and Proceedings upon High-Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanours. . . . 1730–35.
- Wood, Thomas. An Institute of the Laws of England. 1720.
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