Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAPTER V: Of the Executive Power. - The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government
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CHAPTER V: Of the Executive Power. - Jean Louis De Lolme, The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government 
The Constitution of England; Or, an Account of the English Government, edited and with an Introduction by David Lieberman (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007).
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Of the Executive Power.
When the Parliament is prorogued or dissolved, it ceases to exist; but its laws still continue to be in force: the King remains charged with the execution of them, and is supplied with the necessary power for that purpose.
It is however to be observed that, though in his political capacity of one of the constituent parts of the Parliament, that is, with regard to the share allotted to him in the legislative authority, the King is undoubtedly Sovereign, and only needs alledge his will when he gives or refuses his assent to the bills presented to him; yet, in the exercise of his powers of Government, he is no more than a Magistrate, and the laws, whether those that existed before him, or those to which, by his assent, he has given being, must direct his conduct, and bind him equally with his subjects.
The first prerogative of the King, in his capacity of Supreme Magistrate, has for its object the administration of Justice.
1º. He is the source of all judicial power in the State; he is the Chief of all the Courts of Law, and the Judges are only his Substitutes; every thing is transacted in his name; the Judgments must be with his Seal, and are executed by his Officers.
2º. By a fiction of the law, he is looked upon as the universal proprietor of the kingdom; he is in consequence deemed directly concerned in all offences; and for that reason prosecutions are to be carried on, in his name, in the Courts of law.
3º. He can pardon offences, that is, remit the punishment that has been awarded in consequence of his prosecution.
II. The second prerogative of the King, is, to be the fountain of honour, that is, the distributor of titles and dignities: he creates the Peers of the realm, as well as bestows the different degrees of inferior Nobility. He moreover disposes of the different offices, either in the Courts of law, or elsewhere.
III. The King is the superintendent of Commerce; he has the prerogative of regulating weights and measures; he alone can coin money, and can give a currency to foreign coin.
IV. He is the Supreme head of the Church. In this capacity, he appoints the Bishops, and the two Archbishops; and he alone can convene the Assembly of the Clergy. This Assembly is formed, in England, on the model of the Parliament: the Bishops form the upper House; Deputies from the Dioceses, and from the several Chapters, form the lower House: the assent of the King is likewise necessary to the validity of their Acts, or Canons; and the King can prorogue, or dissolve, the Convocation.
V. He is, in right of his Crown, the Generalissmo of all sea or land forces whatever; he alone can levy troops, equip fleets, build fortresses, and fills all the posts in them.
VI. He is, with regard to foreign Nations, the representative, and the depositary, of all the power and collective majesty of the Nation; he sends and receives ambassadors; he contracts alliances; and has the prerogative of declaring war, and of making peace, on whatever conditions he thinks proper.
VII. In fine, what seems to carry so many powers to the height, is, its being a fundamental maxim, that the King can do no wrong: which does not signify, however, that the King has not the power of doing ill, or, as it was pretended by certain persons in former times, that every thing he did was lawful; but only that he is above the reach of all Courts of law whatever, and that his person is sacred and inviolable.