Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. I.: Of the First Invention AND USE of MONEY. - A Select Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts on Money
CHAP. I.: Of the First Invention AND USE of MONEY. - John Ramsay McCulloch, A Select Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts on Money 
A Select Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts on Money from the Originals of Vaughan, Cotton, Petty, Lowndes, Newton, Prior, Harris, and Others, with a Preface, Notes, and Index (London: Printed for the Political Economy Club, 1856).
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- Vaughan, a Discourse of Coin and Coinage
- Chap. I.: Of the First Invention and Use of Money.
- Chap. II.: Of the Matter of Money.
- Chap. III.: Of the Forms of the Money Anciently and Now In Use.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Proportions Held Between Gold and Silver, Antient and Modern.
- Chap. V.: Of the Raising of the Price of Money Both of Silver and Gold.
- Chap. VI.: Of Base Money.
- Chap. VII.: Of the Inconveniences In General Grown In the Matter of Money.
- Chap. VIII.: Of the Low Price of Our Silver.
- Chap. IX.: Of the Prohibition of Forrein Moneys, Especially Spanish.
- Chap. X.: Of the Unequal Coinage of Our Moneys.
- Chap. XI.: Of the Great Increase of the Proportion Between Gold and Silver, and the Things Valued By Them; By Which There Is Grown a Greater Want of Money In England Than Was In Antient Times, and of the Causes Thereof, and of the Remedies Which May
- Chap. XII.: Of the Raising of the Price of Moneys By Our Neighbours, and the Defect of Our Not Raising of Our Moneys Accordingly.
- Chap. XIII.: Of the Benefits Which Do Grow Unto the State By the Raising of Moneys, and the Prejudices Which Do By Not Raising of It.
- Chap. XIV.: The Benefits Which Do Grow to the State By the Not Raising of Money, and the Prejudices Which Do Grow By the Raising of It.
- Chap. XV.: Examinations of the Reasons For the Raising of Money.
- Chap. XVI.: Examinations of the Reasons For the Not Raising of Money.
- Chap. XVII.: Of Contracting With Forrein Nations By Ambassadors to Keep Their Moneys At a Certain Standard.
- Chap. XVIII.: Of the Ordaining of Solid Payments.
- Chap. XIX.: Of Equalizing the Exchange.
- Chap. XX.: Of Reducing Moneys to the Lowness of Ancient Values.
- Chap. XXI.: Of Raising Our Moneys According to the Raising of Our Neighbours.
- Chap. XXII.: Of Introducing Two Different Species of Money.
- Chap. XXIII.: Of Coining of Moneys Without Distinction of Weights.
- Lord Coke’s Account of Coin and Coining.
- Cotton, a Speech Touching the Alteration of Coin.
- The Answer of the Committees Appointed By Your Lordships to the Proposition Delivered By Some Officers of the Mint, For Infeebling His Majesties Monies of Gold and Silver.
- The First Part. the Preamble.
- Questions to Be Proposed to the Merchants, Mint Masters, and Goldsmiths Concerning the Alteration of the Silver-monies.
- Certain General Rules Collected Concerning Money and Bullion Out of the Late Consultation At Court.
- Advice of His Majesty’s Council of Trade, Concerning the Exportation of Gold and Silver In Foreign Coins and Bullion. (concluded December 11. 1660.)
- Reasons Aud Arguments For the Free Exportation of Gold and Silver In Foreign Coin and Bullion.
- Sir William Pettys Quantulumcunque Concerning Money, 1682.
- A Report Containing an Essay For the Amendment of Silver Coins
- The Second General Head Concerning the Present State and Condition of the Gold and Silver Conis.
- The Third General Head Discusses This Question, Whether It Be Or Be Not Absolutely Necessary At This Time to Re-establish the Coins.
- The Fourth General Head Is to Propose the Means That Must Be Obtained, and the Proper Methods to Be Used In and For the Re-establishment of the Silver Coins.
- The Fifth General Head Considers What Must Supply the Commerce, Pay Taxes, &c. Whilst the Clipt Money Is Under Its New Fabrication.
- In Quodam Libro Vocato Nigro Scripto Tempore Regis Henrici Secundi, Per Gervasium Tilburiensem, De Necessariis Scaccarii, Remanente In Curia Receptæ Scaccarii, Inter Alia Sic Continetur.
- A Computation of the Common Weight of a Hundred Pounds By Tale, In Ordinary Silver Money At This Day, Taken From a Medium of the Bags, Weighed At the Receipt of Exchequer, In May, June, and July Last.
- Note On the Re-coinage of 1696-99.
- Representations of Sir Isaac Newton On the Subject of Money. 1712-1717.
- Representation First
- Representation Second.
- Representation Third.
- Tables Illustrative of the Successive Changes In the Standard, In the Weight of the Coins, and In the Relative Values of Gold and Silver In England, From the Conquest Down to 1717.
- Note On Scotch Money, With Tables Showing the Successive Changes In the Standard In the Weight of the Coins, and In the Relative Values of Gold and Silver, From 1107 to 1707, When Scotland Ceased to Have a Peculiar Coinage.
- Observations On Coin In General, With Some Proposals For Regulating the Value of Coin In Ireland.
- Essays On Money and Coin I
- Part I.: The Theories of Commerce, Money, and Exchanges.
- Chapter I.—: Of the Nature and Origin of Wealth and Commerce.
- Chapter II.—: Of Money and Coins.
- Chapter III.: Of Exchanges.
- Essays On Money and Coin Ii
- The Preface.
- Part II.
- Chapter I.: A Summary Account of All the Alterations That Have Been Made In Our Standard of Money, From the Norman Conquest to the Present Time, With the Opinions of Some Very Eminent Men Upon Those Kinds of Measures.
- Chapter II.: The Established Standard of Money Should Not Be Violated Or Altered, Under Any Pretence Whatsoever.
- Postscript. of Standard Measures.
- Reflections On Coin In General
- Raper, an Inquiry Into the Value of the Ancient Greek and Roman Money.
- § 1.: Of the Attic Drachm.
- § II.: Of the Eginean and Euboïc Talents.
- § III.: Of the Roman Money.
- § 4.: Of the Value of Gold In Greece and Rome.
- § V.: Of the Value of the Ancient Greek and Roman Money.
- Tables Showing the Denominations of the Principal Greek and Roman Coins, and Their Values In Sterling Money,
Of the First Invention AND USE of MONEY.
THe first Invention of Money was for a Pledge and instead of a Surety, for when men did live by Exchange of their Wants and Superfluities, both parties could not always fit one another at the present; in which case the Corruptions of Man’s Nature did quickly grow to make it behooful, that the party receiving should leave somewhat worthy to be esteemed for a Pledge, to supply the givers want upon the like occasion: Time did easily find out that this Pledge should be something not too common, not easy to be consumed with use, or spoiled for want of use, and this was Money.
The first use of Money was then by it to supply every man’s particular wants. This introduced a second use of Cauponation, when men did by the Pledge of Moneys procure not only those things which they themselves wanted, but which they might sell to others for more money: and under that kind is all Trades comprehended, whether it be grose sale, or retale; and this use hath brought in a third use of Money, for the gain of cauponation did give a Colour to those that lent Money to such as did encrease it by Trade, to take usury for it, which is therefore termed the most unnatural use of Money, because it is most remote from the natural Institution. Of this there are many kinds of which the most refined is that of Exchange, which is mix’d with an usury of place, as that is of time.
Thus did Money grow inseperably necessary to all Exchange, to make the things exchanged equal in value, for that all exchange is either by the actual or intellectual valuation of Money; that is to say, Either the thing is exchanged for Money, or if it be exchanged for another thing, the measure of that exchange is how much Money either of the things exchanged is conceived to be worth; and Practice hath found out that in values, which the Geometricians have found out in quantities, that two lines which are equal to a third line, are equal to one another: So is money a third line, by which all things are made equal in value, and therefore it is not ill compared to the Materia Prima, because, though it serves actually to no use almost, it serves potentially to all uses. It is not impertinent to examine these things from their ground in nature, or in use: For intending to treat by what meanes the course of money may best be governed to the advantage of the Common-Wealth, (a matter of so curious and subtil a search as the most solid understandings are dazled with it) it is necessary, first to lay down the first and plainest principles of the Subject, by which the understanding of the Writer and the Reader may be guided in the Labyrinths ensuing; and this subject being much obscured, not only by the intricasie of its own nature, but by the Art and Terms of those who do manage these affairs, I do intend to lay open all the mysteries to the comprehension of the attentive Reader. And for that purpose, I intend first Historically, to set down by what Degrees, and upon what Reasons the forms of Money and of Coinage, now practised are grown into use, and without any censure or observation upon them: and I will afterwards treat a part of the inconveniences grown into this Subject of Money, and of the Remedies that may be applied thereunto.