Front Page Titles (by Subject) THIRD ADHYĀYA - The Thirteen Principal Upanishads
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THIRD ADHYĀYA - Misc (Upanishads), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads 
The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921).
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The One God identified with Rudra
1. The One spreader of the net, who rules with his ruling powers,
Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers,
The one who alone stands in their arising and in their continued existence—
They who know That, become immortal.
2. For truly, Rudra (the Terrible) is the One—they stand not for a second—
Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers.
He stands opposite creatures. He, the Protector,
After creating all beings, merges them together at the end of time.
3. Having an eye on every side and a face on every side,
Having an arm on every side and a foot on every side,
The One God forges1 together with hands, with wings,
Creating the heaven and the earth.2
4. He who is the source and origin of the gods,
The ruler of all, Rudra, the great seer,
Who of old created the Golden Germ (Hiraṇyagarbha)—
May He endow us with clear intellect!3
Prayers from the Scriptures unto Rudra for favor4
Knowing the One Supreme Person overcomes death
7. Higher than this5 is Brahma. The Supreme, the Great,
Hidden in all things, body by body,
The One embracer of the universe—
By knowing Him as Lord (īś) men become immortal.
8. I know this mighty Person (Purusha)
Of the color of the sun, beyond darkness.
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death.
There is no other path for going there.6
9. Than whom there is naught else higher,
Than whom there is naught smaller, naught greater,
The One stands like a tree established in heaven.7
By Him, the Person, this whole world is filled.8
10. That which is beyond this world
Is without form and without ill.
They who know That, become immortal;
But others go only to sorrow.1
The cosmic Person with human and superhuman powers
13. A Person of the measure of a thumb is the inner soul (antarātman),
Ever seated in the heart of creatures.
He is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind.
19. Without foot or hand, he is swift and a seizer!
He sees without eye; he hears without ear!
He knows whate’er is to be known; him there is none who knows!
Men call him the Great Primeval Person.
20. More minute than the minute, greater than the great,
Is the Soul (Ātman) that is set in the heart of a creature here.
One beholds Him as being without the active will, and becomes freed from sorrow—
When through the grace (prasāda) of the Creator he sees the Lord (īś) and his greatness.3
21. I know this undecaying, primeval
Soul of all, present in everything through immanence,
Of whose exemption from birth they speak—
For the expounders of Brahma (brahma-vādin) speak of Him as eternal.
[1 ]Compare RV. 10. 72. 2, where Brahmaṇaspati ‘forged together’ (sam-adhamat) all things here.
[2 ]With variants this stanza = RV. 10. 81. 3; VS. 17. 19; AV. 13. 2. 26; TS. 4. 6. 2. 4; TA. 10. 1. 3; MS. 2. 10. 2.
[3 ]With variants this stanza = 4. 12 and Mahānār. 10. 19.
[4 ]These two stanzas = VS. 16. 2-3.
[5 ]Either ‘higher than this [Terrible, Vedic god Rudra],’ or ‘higher than this [world].’
[6 ]This stanza = VS. 31. 18.
[7 ]Compare ‘the eternal fig-tree rooted in heaven,’ described at Kaṭha 6. 1.
[8 ]This stanza = Mahānār. 10. 20.
[1 ]The last two lines = Bṛih. 4. 4. 14 c, d.
[2 ]The first three lines are reminiscent of RV. 10. 81. 3 and 10. 90. 1. Cf. also 3. 3 above.
[3 ]Cf. Kaṭha 6. 7.
[4 ]Line a = Katha 6. 17 a. The first part of it also = Katha 4. 12 a; 4. 13 a. Lines c and d = Kaṭha 6 9 c, d. Lines b, c, d, recur as Śvet. 4. 17 b, c, d.
[5 ]This stanza = RV. 10. 90. 1; VS. 31. 1; SV. 1. 618; TA. 3. 12. 1; AV. 19. 6. 1.
[6 ]This stanza = RV. 10. 90. 2; VS. 31. 2; SV. 1. 620, AV. 19. 6. 4; TA. 3. 12. 1, with variants.
[7 ]This stanza = BhG. 13. 13.
[1 ]The first two lines occur as BhG. 13. 14 a, b.
[2 ]That is, in the body, cf. Kaṭha 5. 1 and BhG. 5. 13.
[3 ]This stanza = TA. 10. 10. 1 (= Mahānār. 10. 1, or in the Atharva Recension 8. 3), and also, with slight variation, Kaṭha 2. 20.