Front Page Titles (by Subject) ŚVETĀŚVATARA UPANISHAD - The Thirteen Principal Upanishads
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ŚVETĀŚVATARA UPANISHAD - Misc (Upanishads), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads 
The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921).
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Conjectures concerning the First Cause
1. Discoursers on Brahma (brahma-vādin) say:—
What is the cause? Brahma?1 Whence are we born?
Whereby do we live? And on what are we established?
Overruled by whom, in pains and pleasures,
Do we live our various conditions, O ye theologians (brahmavid)?
2. Time (kāla), or inherent nature (sva-bhāva), or necessity (niyati), or chance (yadṛcchā),
Or the elements (bhūta), or a [female] womb (yoni), or a [male] person (puruṣa) are to be considered [as the cause];
Not a combination of these, because of the existence of the soul (ātman).
The soul certainly is impotent over the cause of pleasure and pain.
3. Those who have followed after meditation (dhyāna) and abstraction (yoga)
Saw the self-power (ātma-śakti) of God (deva), hidden in his own qualities (guṇa).
He is the One who rules over all these causes,
From ‘time’ to ‘the soul.’
The individual soul in manifold distress
4. We understand him [as a wheel] with one felly, with a triple2 tire,
Whose waves are the five vital breaths, whose original source is fivefold perception (buddhi),
With five whirlpools,8 an impetuous flood of fivefold misery,
Divided into five distresses,9 with five branches.
6. In this which vitalizes all things, which appears in all things, the Great—
In this Brahma-wheel the soul (haṁsa) flutters about,
Thinking that itself (ātmānam) and the Actuator are different.
When favored by Him, it attains immortality.
The saving knowledge of the one inclusive Brahma
7. This has been sung as the supreme Brahma.
In it there is a triad.10 It is the firm support, the Imperishable.
By knowing what is therein, Brahma-knowers
Become merged in Brahma, intent thereon, liberated from the womb [i. e. from rebirth].
8. That which is joined together as perishable and imperishable,
As manifest and unmanifest—the Lord (īśa, Potentate) supports it all.
Now, without the Lord the soul (ātman) is bound, because of being an enjoyer;
By knowing God (deva) one is released from all fetters.
9. There are two unborn ones: the knowing [Lord] and the unknowing [individual soul], the Omnipotent and the impotent.
She [i. e. Nature, Prakṛiti], too, is unborn, who is connected with the enjoyer and objects of enjoyment.
Now, the soul (ātman) is infinite, universal, inactive.
When one finds out this triad, that is Brahma.
10. What is perishable, is Primary Matter (pradhāna). What is immortal and imperishable, is Hara (the ‘Bearer,’ the soul).
Over both the perishable and the soul the One God (deva) rules,
By meditation upon Him, by union with Him, and by entering into His being
More and more, there is finally cessation from every illusion (māyā-nivṛtti).
11. By knowing God (deva) there is a falling off of all fetters;
With distresses destroyed, there is cessation of birth and death.
By meditating upon Him there is a third stage at the dissolution of the body,
Even universal lordship; being absolute (kevala), his desire is satisfied.
12. That Eternal should be known as present in the self (ātmasaṁstha).
Truly there is nothing higher than that to be known.
When one recognizes the enjoyer, the object of enjoyment, and the universal Actuator,
All has been said. This is the threefold Brahma.
Made manifest like latent fire, by the exercise of meditation
13. As the material form (mūrti) of fire when latent in its source [i.e. the fire-wood]
Is not perceived—and yet there is no evanishment of its subtile form (liṅga)—
But may be caught again by means of the drill in its source,
So, verily, both [the universal and the individual Brahma] are [to be found] in the body by the use of Om.
The all-pervading Soul
15. As oil in sesame seeds, as butter in cream,
As water in river-beds, and as fire in the friction-sticks,
So is the Soul (Ātman) apprehended in one’s own soul,
If one looks for Him with true austerity (tapas).
16. The Soul (Ātman), which pervades all things
As butter is contained in cream,
Which is rooted in self-knowledge and austerity—
This is Brahma, the highest mystic teaching (upaniṣad)!1
This is Brahma, the highest mystic teaching!
Invocation to the god of inspiration for inspiration and self-control2
4. The sages of the great wise sage
Control their mind, and control their thoughts.
The One who knows the rules has arranged the priestly functions.
Mighty is the chorus-praise of the god Savitṛi.4
5. I join your ancient prayer (brahma pūrvyam) with adorations!
My verses go forth like suns upon their course.
All the sons of the immortal listen,
Even those who ascended to heavenly stations!5
Spiritual significance of the sacrificial worship
Rules and results of Yoga
8. Holding his body steady with the three [upper parts2 ] erect,
And causing the senses with the mind to enter into the heart,
A wise man with the Brahma-boat should cross over
All the fear-bringing streams.
9. Having repressed his breathings here in the body, and having his movements checked,
One should breathe through his nostrils with diminished breath.
Like that chariot yoked with vicious horses,3
His mind the wise man should restrain undistractedly.
10. In a clean level spot, free from pebbles, fire, and gravel,
By the sound of water and other propinquities
Favorable to thought, not offensive to the eye,
In a hidden retreat protected from the wind, one should practise Yoga.
11. Fog, smoke, sun, fire, wind,
Fire-flies, lightning, a crystal, a moon—
These are the preliminary appearances,
Which produce the manifestation of Brahma in Yoga.
12. When the fivefold quality of Yoga has been produced,
Arising from earth, water, fire, air, and space,4
No sickness, no old age, no death has he
Who has obtained a body made out of the fire of Yoga.
13. Lightness, healthiness, steadiness,5
Clearness of countenance and pleasantness of voice,
Sweetness of odor, and scanty excretions—
These, they say, are the first stage in the progress of Yoga.
The vision of God
14. Even as a mirror stained by dust
Shines brilliantly when it has been cleansed,
So the embodied one, on seeing the nature of the Soul (Ātman),
Becomes unitary, his end attained, from sorrow freed.
15. When with the nature of the self, as with a lamp,
A practiser of Yoga beholds here the nature of Brahma,
Unborn, steadfast, from every nature free—
By knowing God (deva) one is released from all fetters!
The pantheistic God
16. That God faces all the quarters of heaven.
Aforetime was he born, and he it is within the womb.
He has been born forth. He will be born.
He stands opposite creatures, having his face in all directions.1
17. The God who is in fire, who is in water, who has entered into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees—to that God be adoration!—yea, be adoration!
The One God identified with Rudra
1. The One spreader of the net, who rules with his ruling powers,
Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers,
The one who alone stands in their arising and in their continued existence—
They who know That, become immortal.
2. For truly, Rudra (the Terrible) is the One—they stand not for a second—
Who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers.
He stands opposite creatures. He, the Protector,
After creating all beings, merges them together at the end of time.
3. Having an eye on every side and a face on every side,
Having an arm on every side and a foot on every side,
The One God forges1 together with hands, with wings,
Creating the heaven and the earth.2
4. He who is the source and origin of the gods,
The ruler of all, Rudra, the great seer,
Who of old created the Golden Germ (Hiraṇyagarbha)—
May He endow us with clear intellect!3
Prayers from the Scriptures unto Rudra for favor4
Knowing the One Supreme Person overcomes death
7. Higher than this5 is Brahma. The Supreme, the Great,
Hidden in all things, body by body,
The One embracer of the universe—
By knowing Him as Lord (īś) men become immortal.
8. I know this mighty Person (Purusha)
Of the color of the sun, beyond darkness.
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death.
There is no other path for going there.6
9. Than whom there is naught else higher,
Than whom there is naught smaller, naught greater,
The One stands like a tree established in heaven.7
By Him, the Person, this whole world is filled.8
10. That which is beyond this world
Is without form and without ill.
They who know That, become immortal;
But others go only to sorrow.1
The cosmic Person with human and superhuman powers
13. A Person of the measure of a thumb is the inner soul (antarātman),
Ever seated in the heart of creatures.
He is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind.
19. Without foot or hand, he is swift and a seizer!
He sees without eye; he hears without ear!
He knows whate’er is to be known; him there is none who knows!
Men call him the Great Primeval Person.
20. More minute than the minute, greater than the great,
Is the Soul (Ātman) that is set in the heart of a creature here.
One beholds Him as being without the active will, and becomes freed from sorrow—
When through the grace (prasāda) of the Creator he sees the Lord (īś) and his greatness.3
21. I know this undecaying, primeval
Soul of all, present in everything through immanence,
Of whose exemption from birth they speak—
For the expounders of Brahma (brahma-vādin) speak of Him as eternal.
The One God of the manifold world
1. The One who, himself without color, by the manifold application of his power (śakti-yoga)
Distributes many colors in his hidden purpose,
And into whom, its end and its beginning, the whole world dissolves—He is God (deva)!
May He endow us with clear intellect!
The One God pantheistically identified
4. Thou art the dark-blue bird and the green [parrot] with red eyes.
Thou hast the lightning as thy child. Thou art the seasons and the seas.
Having no beginning, thou dost abide with immanence,
Wherefrom all beings are born.
The universal and the individual soul
5. With the one unborn female, red, white, and black,3
Who produces many creatures like herself,
There lies the one unborn male4 taking his delight.
Another unborn male5 leaves her with whom he has had his delight.
6. Two birds, fast bound companions,
Clasp close the self-same tree.
Of these two, the one6 eats sweet fruit;
7. On the self-same tree a person, sunken,
Grieves for his impotence, deluded;
When he sees the other, the Lord (īś), contented,
And his greatness, he becomes freed from sorrow.9
The ignorant soul in the illusion of a manifold universe
18. That syllable of the sacred hymn (ṛc, Rig-Veda) whereon, in highest heaven,
All the gods are seated—
Of what avail is the sacred hymn (ṛc, Rig-Veda) to him who knows not That?
They, indeed, who know That, are here assembled.1
9. Sacred poetry (chandas), the sacrifices, the ceremonies, the ordinances,
The past, the future, and what the Vedas declare—
This whole world the illusion-maker (māyin) projects out of this [Brahma].
And in it by illusion (māyā) the other2 is confined.
10. Now, one should know that Nature (Prakṛiti) is illusion (māyā).
And that the Mighty Lord (maheśvara) is the illusionmaker (māyin).
This whole world is pervaded
With beings that are parts of Him.
The saving knowledge of the one, kindly, immanent supreme God of the universe
11. The One who rules over every single source,
In whom this whole world comes together and dissolves,
The Lord (īśāna), the blessing-giver, God (deva) adorable—
By revering Him one goes for ever to this peace (śānti).
12. He who is the source and origin of the gods,
The ruler of all, Rudra (the Terrible), the great seer,
Who beheld the Golden Germ (Hiraṇyagarbha) when he was born—
May He endow us with clear intellect!3
13. Who is the overlord of the gods,
On whom the worlds do rest,
Who is lord of biped and quadruped here—
To what god will we give reverence with oblations?4
14. More minute than the minute, in the midst of confusion
The Creator of all, of manifold forms,
The One embracer of the universe—5
By knowing Him as kindly (śiva) one attains peace forever.
15. He indeed is the protector of the world in time,
The overlord of all, hidden in all things,
With whom the seers of Brahma and the divinities are joined in union.
By knowing Him thus, one cuts the cords of death.
16. By knowing as kindly (śiva) Him who is hidden in all things,
Exceedingly fine, like the cream that is finer than butter,
The One embracer of the universe—
By knowing God (deva) one is released from all fetters.
17. That God, the All-worker, the Great Soul (mahātman),
Ever seated in the heart of creatures,
Is framed by the heart, by the thought, by the mind—
They who know That, become immortal.1
18. When there is no darkness,2 then there is no day or night,
Nor being, nor non-being, only the Kindly One (śiva) alone.
That is the Imperishable. ‘That [is the] desirable [splendor] of Savitṛi (the Sun).’3
And from that was primeval Intelligence (prajñā) created.
20. His form is not to be beheld.
No one soever sees Him with the eye.
They who thus know Him with heart and mind
As abiding in the heart, become immortal.5
Supplications to Rudra for favor
22. Injure us not in child or grandchild, nor in life!
Injure us not in cattle! Injure us not in horses!
Slay not our strong men in anger, O Rudra!
With oblations ever we call upon thee.1
Brahma, the One God of the manifold world
1. In the imperishable, infinite, supreme Brahma are two things;
For therein are knowledge and ignorance placed hidden.
Now, ignorance is a thing perishable, but knowledge is a thing immortal.
And He who rules the ignorance and the knowledge is another,
2. [Even] the One who rules over every single source,
All forms and all sources;
Who bears in his thoughts, and beholds when born,
That red (kapila2 ) seer who was engendered in the beginning.
3. That God spreads out each single net [of illusion] manifoldly,
And draws it together here in the world.3
Thus again, having created his Yatis,4 the Lord (īśa),
The Great Soul (mahātman), exercises universal overlordship.
4. As the illumining sun shines upon
All regions, above, below, and across,
So that One God, glorious, adorable,
Rules over whatever creatures are born from a womb.
5. The source of all, who develops his own nature,
Who brings to maturity whatever can be ripened,
And who distributes all qualities (guṇa)—
Over this whole world rules the One.
6. That which is hidden in the secret of the Vedas, even the Upanishads—
Brahmā knows That as the source of the sacred word (brahman).
The gods and seers of old who knew That,
They, [coming to be] of Its nature, verily, have become immortal.
The reincarnating individual soul
7. Whoever has qualities (guṇa, distinctions) is the doer of deeds that bring recompense;
And of such action surely he experiences the consequence.
8. He is of the measure of a thumb, of sun-like appearance,
When coupled with conception (saṁkalpa) and egoism (ahaṁkāra).
But with only the qualities of intellect and of self,
The lower [self] appears of the size of the point of an awl
11. By the delusions (moha) of imagination, touch, and sight,
And by eating, drinking, and impregnation there is a birth and development of the self (ātman).
According unto his deeds (karman) the embodied one successively
Assumes forms in various conditions.
12. Coarse and fine, many in number,
The embodied one chooses forms according to his own qualities.
[Each] subsequent cause of his union with them is seen to be
Because of the quality of his acts and of himself.
Liberation through knowledge of the One God
13. Him who is without beginning and without end, in the midst of confusion,
The Creator of all, of manifold form,
The One embracer of the universe5 —
By knowing God (deva) one is released from all fetters.6
14. Him who is to be apprehended in existence, who is called ‘incorporeal,’
The maker of existence (bhāva) and non-existence, the kindly one (śiva),
God (deva), the maker of the creation and its parts—
They who know Him, have left the body behind.
The One God, Creator and Lord, in and over the world
1. Some sages discourse of inherent nature (sva-bhāva);
Others likewise, of time.1 Deluded men!
It is the greatness of God in the world
By which this Brahma-wheel is caused to revolve.
2. He by whom this whole world is constantly enveloped
Is intelligent, the author of time, possessor of qualities (guṇin), omniscient.
Ruled o’er by Him, [his] work (karman)2 revolves—
This which is regarded as earth, water, fire, air, and space!3
3. He creates this work, and rests again.
Having entered into union (yoga) with principle (tattva) after principle,
With one, with two, with three, or with eight,4
With time, too, and the subtile qualities of a self—
4. He begins with works which are connected with qualities (guṇa),
And distributes all existences (bhāva).5
In the absence of these (qualities) there is a disappearance of the work that has been done.
[Yet] in the destruction of the work he continues essentially other [than it].
5. The beginning, the efficient cause of combinations,
He is to be seen as beyond the three times (kāla),1 without parts (a-kala) too!
Worship Him as the manifold, the origin of all being,
The adorable God who abides in one’s own thoughts, the primeval.
6. Higher and other than the world-tree,2 time, and forms
Is He from whom this expanse proceeds.
The bringer of right (dharma), the remover of evil (pāpa), the lord of prosperity—
Know Him as in one’s own self (ātma-stha), as the immortal abode of all.
7. Him who is the supreme Mighty Lord (maheśvara) of lords,
The supreme Divinity of divinities,
The supreme Ruler of rulers, paramount,
Him let us know as the adorable God, the Lord (īś) of the world.
8. No action or organ of his is found;
There is not seen his equal, nor a superior.
His high power (śakti) is revealed to be various indeed;
And innate is the working of his intelligence and strength.
9. Of Him there is no ruler in the world,
Nor lord; nor is there any mark (liṅga) of Him.
He is the Cause (kāraṇa), lord of the lords of sense-organs.
Of Him there is no progenitor, nor lord.
10. The one God who covers himself,
Like a spider, with threads
Produced from Primary Matter (pradhāna), according to his own nature (svabhāvatas)—
May He grant us entiance into Brahma!
11. The one God, hidden in all things,
All-pervading, the Inner Soul of all things,
The overseer of deeds (karman), in all things abiding,
The witness, the sole thinker,3 devoid of qualities (nir-guṇa),
12. The one controller of the inactive many,
Who makes the one seed manifold—
The wise who perceive Him as standing in one’s self—
They, and no others, have eternal happiness.4
13. Him who is the constant among the inconstant, the intelligent among intelligences,
The One among many, who grants desires,1
That Cause, attainable by discrimination and abstraction (sāṅkhya-yoga)—
By knowing God, one is released from all fetters!2
14. The sun shines not there, nor the moon and stars;
These lightnings shine not, much less this [earthly] fire!
After Him, as He shines, doth everything shine.
This whole world is illumined with his light.3
15. The one soul (haṁsa) in the midst of this world—
This indeed is the fire which has entered into the ocean.
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death.
There is no other path for going there.4
16. He who is the maker of all, the all-knower, self-sourced,
Intelligent, the author of time, possessor of qualities, omniscient,5
Is the ruler of Primary Matter (pradhāna) and of the spirit (ksetra-jña), the lord of qualities (guṇa),
The cause of transmigration (saṁsāra) and of liberation (mokṣa), of continuance and of bondage.
17. Consisting of That, immortal, existing as the Lord,
Intelligent, omnipresent, the guardian of this world,
Is He who constantly rules this world.
There is no other cause found for the ruling.
18. To Him who of old creates Brahmā,
And who, verily, delivers to him the Vedas—
To that God, who is lighted by his own intellect,6
21. By the efficacy of his austerity and by the grace of God (devaprasāda)
The wise Śvetāśvatara in proper manner declared Brahma
Unto the ascetics of the most advanced stage as the supreme means of purification—
This which is well pleasing to the company of seers.
The conditions for receiving this knowledge
22. The supreme mystery in the Veda’s End (Vedānta),
Which has been declared in former time,
Should not be given to one not tranquil,
Nor again to one who is not a son or a pupil.2
23. To him who has the highest devotion (bhakti) for God,
And for his spiritual teacher (guru) even as for God,
To him these matters which have been declared
Become manifest [if he be] a great soul (mahātman)—
Yea, become manifest [if he be] a great soul!
[1 ]The words kiṁ kāranam brahma might mean also ‘What is the cause? Is it Brahma?’ or ‘What is the cause? What is Brahma?’ or ‘Is the cause Brahma?’ or ‘Is Brahma the cause?’ or even ‘What sort of a cause is Brahma?’
[2 ]That is, consisting of the Three Qualities according to the Sānkhya philosophy (see Introduction, p. 8) sattvam, rajas, and tamas—pureness, passion, and darkness.
[3 ]That is, the five elements (bhūta), the five organs of perception (buddhīndriya) the five organs of action (karmendriya), and the mind (manas).
[4 ]The fifty conditions (bhāva) of the Sāṅkhya philosophy (cf. Sāṅkhya Kārikā 46).
[5 ]The ten senses (indriya) and their ten corresponding objects.
[1 ]That is, (1) eight producing causes of Prakṛiti, namely the five elements, mind (manas), intellect (buddhi), and self-consciousness (ahaṁkāra); (2) eight constituents of the body (dhātu); (3) eight forms of superhuman power; (4) eight conditions (bhāva); (5) eight gods; (6) eight virtues.
[2 ]That is, desire.
[3 ]Namely religiousness (dharma), irreligiousness (a-dharma), and knowledge (jñāna).
[4 ]That is, the illusion of self-consciousness.
[5 ]Namely the consequences of good and of evil deeds.
[6 ]The five senses.
[7 ]The five elements.
[8 ]The five objects of sense.
[9 ]According to Śaṅkara’s reading. The traditional text has ‘divided fiftyfold.
[10 ]The world, the individual soul, and the cosmic Soul.
[1 ]Or ‘This is the highest mystic teaching concerning Brahma (brahmopaniṣad)!’
[2 ]These five stanzas = TS. 4. 1. 1. 1-5 and with variation also = VS. 11. 1-5, from which again they are cited and applied liturgically at Śat. Br. 6. 3. 1. 12-17.
[3 ]Or possibly dative, ‘to the earth.’
[4 ]In addition to the references cited in note 2, above, this stanza also = RV. 5. 81. 1; VS. 5. 14 and 11. 4. It is quoted in Śat. Br. 3. 5. 3. 11, 12.
[5 ]This stanza also = RV. 10. 13. 1; VS. 11. 5. Lines a, b, c with slight variants = AV. 18. 3. 39 b, c, d.
[1 ]Such is the traditional interpretation of a line which, even in its original source (RV. 6. 16. 18a with a very slight alteration), is of doubtful meaning.
[2 ]Head, chest, and neck—so prescribed at BhG. 6. 13.
[3 ]Described at Kaṭha 3. 4.
[4 ]That is, the five cosmic elements.
[5 ]Or, with another reading, alolubhatvam, ‘freedom from desires.’
[1 ]This stanza = VS. 32. 4.
[1 ]Compare RV. 10. 72. 2, where Brahmaṇaspati ‘forged together’ (sam-adhamat) all things here.
[2 ]With variants this stanza = RV. 10. 81. 3; VS. 17. 19; AV. 13. 2. 26; TS. 4. 6. 2. 4; TA. 10. 1. 3; MS. 2. 10. 2.
[3 ]With variants this stanza = 4. 12 and Mahānār. 10. 19.
[4 ]These two stanzas = VS. 16. 2-3.
[5 ]Either ‘higher than this [Terrible, Vedic god Rudra],’ or ‘higher than this [world].’
[6 ]This stanza = VS. 31. 18.
[7 ]Compare ‘the eternal fig-tree rooted in heaven,’ described at Kaṭha 6. 1.
[8 ]This stanza = Mahānār. 10. 20.
[1 ]The last two lines = Bṛih. 4. 4. 14 c, d.
[2 ]The first three lines are reminiscent of RV. 10. 81. 3 and 10. 90. 1. Cf. also 3. 3 above.
[3 ]Cf. Kaṭha 6. 7.
[4 ]Line a = Katha 6. 17 a. The first part of it also = Katha 4. 12 a; 4. 13 a. Lines c and d = Kaṭha 6 9 c, d. Lines b, c, d, recur as Śvet. 4. 17 b, c, d.
[5 ]This stanza = RV. 10. 90. 1; VS. 31. 1; SV. 1. 618; TA. 3. 12. 1; AV. 19. 6. 1.
[6 ]This stanza = RV. 10. 90. 2; VS. 31. 2; SV. 1. 620, AV. 19. 6. 4; TA. 3. 12. 1, with variants.
[7 ]This stanza = BhG. 13. 13.
[1 ]The first two lines occur as BhG. 13. 14 a, b.
[2 ]That is, in the body, cf. Kaṭha 5. 1 and BhG. 5. 13.
[3 ]This stanza = TA. 10. 10. 1 (= Mahānār. 10. 1, or in the Atharva Recension 8. 3), and also, with slight variation, Kaṭha 2. 20.
[2 ]This stanza = AV. 10. 8. 27.
[3 ]That is, Nature, Prakṛiti, with three constituent Qualities (guṇa), namely Pureness (sattva), Passion (rajas), and Darkness (tamas).
[4 ]The cosmic Person, father of all being.
[5 ]The individual soul, or experiencer.
[6 ]That is, the individual person.
[7 ]That is, the universal Brahma.
[8 ]This stanza = RV. 1. 164. 20 and Muṇḍ. 3. 1. 1.
[9 ]This stanza = Muṇḍ. 3. 1. 2.
[1 ]This stanza = VS. 32. 1.
[1 ]This stanza = RV. 1. 164. 39.
[2 ]That is, the individual soul.
[3 ]This stanza = 3. 4 and Mahānār. 10. 19 with variants.
[4 ]The last two lines = RV. 10. 121. 3 c, d.
[5 ]The third line = 3. 7 c and 4. 16 c. The whole stanza recurs, with modifications, as 5. 13.
[1 ]Lines b, c, d=3. 13 b, c, d. Lines c and d also = Katha 6. 9 c, d.
[2 ]tamas, perhaps metaphorically as well as literally. That is: when the darkness of ignorance and illusion has been removed, then all fluctuations and distinctions are also overpassed. Undifferenced bliss only remains. Compare the similar descriptions at Chānd. 3 11. 3 and 8. 4. 1-2.
[3 ]The first phrase of the famous Gāyatrī Prayer, RV. 3. 62. 10.
[4 ]This stanza = VS. 32. 2 c, d + 32. 3 a, b; TA. 10. 1. 2; Mahānār. 1. 10.
[5 ]This stanza = Kaṭha 6. 9 and Mahānār. 1. 11 with slight variation.
[1 ]This stanza = RV. 1. 114. 8; TS. 4. 5 10. 3; and VS. 16. 16 with variations.
[2 ]The reference may be to ‘the sage Kapila,’ the founder of the Sāṅkhya philosophy. But in the similar stanza 4. 12 (compare also 3. 4) the reference is clearly to the Demiurge Hiraṇyagarbha, ‘The Golden Germ.’
[3 ]Literally, ‘in this field.’
[4 ]‘Marshals’; literally, ‘Exercisers’ According to RV. 10. 72. 7 they were Demiurges who assisted in the creation of the world.
[1 ]Namely, pureness (sattva), passion (rajas), and darkness (tamas)
[2 ]Namely, religiousness (dharma), irreligiousness (adharma), and knowledge (jñāna) Cf. Śvet. 1. 4 d.
[3 ]Literally ‘ruler of the vital breaths’ (prānādhipa).
[4 ]In transmigration.
[5 ]This third line = 3. 7 c; 4. 14 c; 4. 16 c.
[6 ]The fourth line of this stanza = 1. 8 d; 2. 15 d; 4. 16 d; 6. 13 d.
[1 ]As the First Cause—as in 1. 2. See Introduction, p. 8.
[2 ]That is, the world.
[3 ]The same list of five cosmic elements as in 2. 12 b.
[4 ]That is, the principles as arranged in groups by systematized Sāṅkhya philosophy: the sole principle—the Person (Purusha); dual principles—the Unmanifest (avyakta) and the Manifest (vyakta); triple principles—the three Qualities (guṇa), i. e. Pureness (sattva), Passion (rajas), and Darkness (tamas); eight principles—the five cosmic elements together with mind, intellect, and self-consciousness (so enumerated, e. g., at BhG. 7. 4.)
[5 ]Compare the similar line 5. 5 c.
[1 ]That is, without past, present, or future—as in Māṇḍ. 1.
[2 ]Which is described in Katha 6. 1.
[3 ]Reading cettā instead of the tautologous cetā, ‘observer.’
[4 ]This stanza = Kaṭha 5. 12 with slight variation in a and b.
[1 ]These first two lines = Kaṭha 5. 13 a and b.
[2 ]The last line of the stanza is repeated at 5. 13 d, etc.
[3 ]This stanza = Katha 5. 15 and Muṇḍ. 2. 2. 10.
[4 ]The last two lines = 3. 8. c, d and VS. 31. 18 c, d.
[5 ]This line = 6. 2 b.
[6 ]Or, ‘who is the light of self-knowledge’; or, according to the variant reading ātma-buddhi-prasādam, ‘who through his own grace lets himself be known.’
[7 ]Cf. Kaṭha 4. 13 b, ‘Like a light without smoke.’
[1 ]That is, when the impossible becomes possible.
[2 ]Similar restrictions are imposed at Bṛih. 6. 3. 12 and Maitri 6. 29.