Front Page Titles (by Subject) MĀṆḌŪKYA UPANISHAD - The Thirteen Principal Upanishads
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MĀṆḌŪKYA UPANISHAD - Misc (Upanishads), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads 
The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921).
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The mystic symbolism of the word ‘Om’:
(a) identified with the fourfold, pantheistic time-Brahma
1.Om!—This syllable1 is this whole world.
Its further explanation is:—
The past, the present, the future—everything is just the word Om.
And whatever else that transcends threefold time2 —that, too, is just the word Om.
2. For truly, everything here is Brahma; this self (ātman) is Brahma. This same self has four fourths.
(b) representing in its phonetic elements the four states of the Self
4. The dreaming state (svapna-sthāna), inwardly cognitive, having seven limbs, having nineteen mouths, enjoying the exquisite (pravivikta-bhuj), the Brilliant (taijasa), is the second fourth.
5. If one asleep desires no desire whatsoever, sees no dream whatsoever,1 that is deep sleep (suṣupta).
The deep-sleep state (suṣupta-sthāna), unified (ekī-bhūta),2 just (eva) a cognition-mass (prajñāna-ghana),3 consisting of bliss (ānanda-maya),4 enjoying bliss (ānanda-bhuj), whose mouth is thought (cetas-), the Cognitional (prājña), is the third fourth.
6. This is the lord of all (sarveśvara).5 This is the all-knowing (sarva-jña).6 This is the inner controller (antar-yāmin).7 This is the source (yoni)8 of all, for this is the origin and the end (prabhavāpyayau)9 of beings.
7. Not inwardly cognitive (antaḥ-prajña), not outwardly cognitive (bahiḥ-prajña), not both-wise cognitive (ubhayataḥ-prajña), not a cognition-mass (prajñāna-ghana), not cognitive (prajña), not non-cognitive (a-prajña), unseen (a-dṛṣṭa), with which there can be no dealing (a-vyavahārya), ungraspable (a-grāhya), having no distinctive mark (a-lakṣaṇa), non-thinkable (a-cintya), that cannot be designated (a-vyapadeśya), the essence of the assurance of which is the state of being one with the Self10 (ekātmya-pratyaya-sāra), the cessation of development (prapañcopaśama), tranquil (śānta), benign (śiva), without a second (a-dvaita)—[such] they think is the fourth.11 He is the Self (Ātman). He should be discerned.
8. This is the Self with regard to the word Om, with regard to its elements. The elements (mātra) are the fourths; the fourths, the elements: the letter a, the letter u, the letter m.1
9. The waking state, the Common-to-all-men, is the letter a, the first element, from āpti (‘obtaining’) or from ādimatvā (‘being first’).
He obtains, verily, indeed, all desires, he becomes first—he who knows this.
10. The sleeping state, the Brilliant, is the letter u, the second element, from utkarṣa (‘exaltation’) or from ubhayatvā (‘intermediateness’).
He exalts, verily, indeed, the continuity of knowledge; and he becomes equal2 (samāna); no one ignorant of Brahma is born in the family of him who knows this.
11. The deep-sleep state, the Cognitional, is the letter m, the third element, from miti (‘erecting’) or from apīti3 (‘immerging’).
He, verily, indeed, erects (minoti) this whole world,4 and he becomes its immerging—he who knows this.
12. The fourth is without an element, with which there can be no dealing, the cessation of development, benign, without a second.
Thus Om is the Self (Ātman) indeed.
He who knows this, with his self enters the Self5 —yea, he who knows this!
[1 ]Inasmuch as akṣaraṁ means also ‘imperishable,’ the word may in this connection be used with a double significance, namely, ‘This imperishable syllable . . .’
[2 ]A similar phrase occurs at Śvet. 6. 5 b.
[3 ]Śaṅkara refers to the enumeration of the several parts of the universal (vaiśvānara) Self at Chānd. 5. 18. 2; there, however, the list is longer than seven. The exact significance of the number here is uncertain.
[4 ]Śaṅkara explains this to mean: the five organs of sense (buddhīndriya), namely those of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell, the five organs of action (karmendriya), namely those of speech, handling, locomotion, generation, and excretion, the five vital breaths (prāṇa), the sensorium (manas), the intellect (buddhi), egoism (ahaṁkāra), and thinking (citta).
[1 ]The part of the sentence up to this point has occurred already in Bṛih. 4. 3. 19.
[2 ]A detailed description of the condition of being ‘unified’ occurs at Bṛih. 4. 4. 2.
[3 ]This compound has already occurred in Bṛih. 4. 5. 13.
[4 ]A description of the self ‘consisting of bliss’ occurs in Tait. 2. 5. It is declared to be the acme of attainment over every other form of self at Tait. 2. 8. 1 and 3. 10. 5.
[5 ]A phrase in Bṛih. 4. 4. 22.
[6 ]A phrase in Muṇḍ. 1. 1. 9; 2. 2. 7.
[7 ]The subject of discourse in Bṛih. 3. 7.
[8 ]Literally, ‘womb.’
[9 ]A phrase in Kaṭha 6. 11.
[10 ]Or, according to the reading ekātma-, ‘the oneness of the Self’ or ‘one’s own self.’
[11 ]The designation here used for the ‘fourth,’ or super-conscious, state is caturtha the usual and regular form of the ordinal numeral adjective. In Bṛih. (at 5. 14. 3, 4, 6, 7) it is named turīya, and in Maitri (at 6. 19; 7. 11. 7) turya—variant forms of the same ordinal. All later philosophical treatises have the form turīya, which came to be the accepted technical term.
[1 ]In Sanskrit the vowel o is constitutionally a diphthong, contracted from a + u. Om therefore may be analyzed into the elements a + u + m.
[2 ]Either (1) in the sense of ‘equable,’ i. e. unaffected in the midst of the pairs of opposites (dvandva); or (2) in the sense of ‘equitable,’ i. e. impartial, alike, indifferent to both friend and foe; or (3) in the sense of ‘equalized,’ i. e. with the universe, which a knower understands exists only as his Self’s consciousness; or even (4) in the very common sense of ‘same,’ i. e. the same as that which he knows.
[3 ]Possibly as a synonym for another meaning of miti (derived from √mi, mināti), ‘destroying’ or ‘perishing.’
[4 ]That is, out of his own consciousness—according to the philosophic theory of subjective idealism expounded in the Upanishads.
[5 ]This is a phrase which has previously occurred at VS. 32. 11.